Magnesium alloys as biodegradable metal implants in orthopaedic research received a lot of interest in recent years. They have attractive biological properties including being essential to human metabolism, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. However, magnesium can corrode too rapidly in the high-chloride environment of the physiological system, loosing mechanical integrity before the tissue has sufficiently healed. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating was proposed to decrease the corrosion rate and improve the bioactivity of magnesium alloy. Apatite has been cathodically deposited on the surface of Mg alloy from solution that composed of 3 mM Ca(H2PO4)2 and 7 mM CaCl2 at various applied potentials. The growing of HAp was confirmed on the surface of the coatings after immersion in SBF solution for 7 days. The coating obtained at −1.4 V showed higher corrosion resistance with bioactive behaviors.
Coatings of orthopedic implants are investigated to improve the osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the implant surfaces and thus to enhance periimplant bone formation. By applying coatings that mimic the extracellular matrix a favorable environment for osteoblasts, osteoclasts and their progenitor cells is provided to promote early and strong fixation of implants. It is known that the early bone ongrowth increases primary implant fixation and reduces the risk of implant failure. This review presents an overview of coating titanium and hydroxyapatite implants with components of the extracellular matrix like collagen type I, chondroitin sulfate and RGD peptide in different small and large animal models. The influence of these components on cells, the inflammation process, new bone formation and bone/implant contact is summarized.
RGD peptide; bone healing; chondroitin sulfate; collagen type I; hyaluronic acid; hydroxyapatite; implants; titanium
In this paper, hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube/titania (HA-CNT/TiO2) double layer coatings were successfully developed on titanium (Ti) substrates intended for biomedical applications. A TiO2 coating was firstly developed by anodization to improve bonding between HA and Ti, and then the layer of HA and CNTs was coated on the surface by the sol-gel process to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of Ti. The surfaces of double layer coatings were uniform and crack-free with a thickness of about 7 μm. The bonding strength of the HA-CNT/TiO2 coating was higher than that of the pure HA and HA-CNT coatings. Additionally, in vitro cell experiments showed that CNTs promoted the adhesion of preosteoblasts on the HA-CNT/TiO2 double layer coatings. These unique surfaces combined with the osteoconductive properties of HA exhibited the excellent mechanical properties of CNTs. Therefore, the developed HA-CNT/TiO2 coatings on Ti substrates might be a promising material for bone replacement.
hydroxyapatite; carbon nanotubes; titania; anodization; sol-gel process
Titanium plates treated in vitro with a mouthwash containing amine fluoride (100 ppm F−) and another containing zinc-substituted carbonate–hydroxyapatite have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to evaluate the modification of the surface roughness induced by treatment with these two different mouthwashes. The treatment with F−-based mouthwash produces a roughness characterized by higher peaks and deeper valleys in the streaks on the titanium bracket surface compared with those observed in the reference polished titanium plates. This effect causes a mechanical weakness in the metallic dental implant causing bacterial growth and therefore promotes infection and prosthesis contamination. However, the in vitro treatment with a mouthwash containing zinc-substituted carbonate–hydroxyapatite reduced the surface roughness by filling the streaks with an apatitic phase. This treatment counteracts the surface oxidative process that can affect the mechanical behavior of the titanium dental implant, which inhibits the bacterial growth contaminating prostheses.
mouthwash; titanium brackets; corrosion; hydroxyapatite; aminic fluoride
The development of new osteoconductive bone substitute materials is expected in medicine. In this study, we attempted to produce new hydroxylapatite (HAP)/collagen (Col) composites using two HAP particles of different sizes and porcine type I collagen. The two HAP particles were either nano-sized (40 nm in average diameter; n-HAP) or had macro-pore sizes of 0.5–1.0 mm in length with fully interconnected pores (m-HAP). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apatite particle size in two HAP/Col composites on the osteogenic differentiation profile in osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2). We created a collagen control sponge (Col) and two HAP/Col composite sponges (n-HAP/Col and m-HAP/Col) using freeze-drying and dehydrothermal cross-linking techniques, and then punched out samples of 6 mm in diameter and 1 mm in height. The SaOS-2 cells were cultured on three test materials for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Total RNA was extracted from the cultured cells and the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes was evaluated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primer sets of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COL1), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin precursor [bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (BGLAP)] genes, as well as the β-actin gene. The cells were also cultured on Col, n-HAP/Col and m-HAP/Col specimens for 1 and 4 weeks, and were then observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results were as follows: RT-PCR indicated that osteogenic differentiation, particularly the gene expression of BSP, was most accelerated when the cells were cultured on n-HAP/Col specimens, followed by m-HAP/Col, whilst the weakest accelaeration was observed when the cells were cultured on Col specimens. As shown by the SEM images, the SaOS-2 cells were fibroblastic when cultured on Col specimens for up to 4 weeks; they were fibroblastic when cultured on n-HAP/Col specimens for 1 week, but appeared as spheroids, while actively phagocytizing n-HAP particles at 4 weeks; however, they appeared as deformed fibroblasts when cultured on m-HAP/Col specimens, detached from the particles. Despite limited experimental results, our study suggests that n-HAP/Col may be employed as a new osteoconductive bone substitute material.
SaOS-2 osteoblastic cells; apatite size; collagen composite; osteogenic differentiation; gene expression
The use of different bioactive materials as coating on dental implant to restore tooth function is a growing trend in modern Dentistry. In the present study, hydroxyapatite and the bioactive glass-coated implants were evaluated for their behavior in osseous tissue following implantation in 14 patients.
Materials and Methods:
Bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite formulated and prepared for coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Hydroxyapatite coating was applied on the implant surface by air plasma spray technique and bioactive glass coating was applied by vitreous enameling technique. Their outcome was assessed after 6 months in vivo study in human.
Hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass coating materials were nontoxic and biocompatible. Uneventful healing was observed with both types of implants.
The results showed bioactive glass is a good alternative coating material for dental implant.
Bioactive glass; bioactive materials; biocompatible; hydroxyapatite; osseous tissue
High strength porous titanium implants are widely used for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects because of their similar mechanical properties to those of bone. The recent introduction of electron beam melting (EBM) technique allows a direct digitally enabled fabrication of patient specific porous titanium implants, whereas both their in vitro and in vivo biological performance need further investigation.
In the present study, we fabricated porous Ti6Al4V implants with controlled porous structure by EBM process, analyzed their mechanical properties, and conducted the surface modification with biomimetic approach. The bioactivities of EBM porous titanium in vitro and in vivo were evaluated between implants with and without biomimetic apatite coating.
The physical property of the porous implants, containing the compressive strength being 163 - 286 MPa and the Young’s modulus being 14.5–38.5 GPa, is similar to cortical bone. The in vitro culture of osteoblasts on the porous Ti6Al4V implants has shown a favorable circumstance for cell attachment and proliferation as well as cell morphology and spreading, which were comparable with the implants coating with bone-like apatite. In vivo, histological analysis has obtained a rapid ingrowth of bone tissue from calvarial margins toward the center of bone defect in 12 weeks. We observed similar increasing rate of bone ingrowth and percentage of bone formation within coated and uncoated implants, all of which achieved a successful bridging of the defect in 12 weeks after the implantation.
This study demonstrated that the EBM porous Ti6Al4V implant not only reduced the stress-shielding but also exerted appropriate osteoconductive properties, as well as the apatite coated group. The results opened up the possibility of using purely porous titanium alloy scaffolds to reconstruct specific bone defects in the maxillofacial and orthopedic fields.
Inverse opal scaffolds made of poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) were fabricated using cubic-closed packed (ccp) lattices of uniform gelatin microspheres as templates and evaluated for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds exhibited a uniform pore size (213 ± 4.4 μm), a porosity of ∼75%, and an excellent connectivity in three dimensions. Three different formulations were examined: pure PLGA, HAp-impregnated PLGA (PLGA/HAp), and apatite (Ap)-coated PLGA/HAp. After seeding with preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), the samples were cultured for different periods of time and then characterized by X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate osteoinductivity in terms of the amount and spatial distribution of mineral secreted from the differentiated preosteoblasts. Our results indicate that preosteoblasts cultured in the Ap-coated PLGA/HAp scaffolds secreted the largest amount of mineral, which was also homogeneously distributed throughout the scaffolds. In contrast, the cells in the pure PLGA scaffolds secreted very little mineral, which was mainly deposited around the perimeter of the scaffolds. These results suggest that the uniform pore structure and favorable surface properties could facilitate the uniform secretion of extracellular matrix from cells throughout the scaffold. The Ap-coated PLGA/HAp scaffold with uniform pore structure could be a promising material for bone tissue engineering.
hydroxyapatite; preosteoblasts; osteoinductivity; X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT)
This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HAP, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface.
Safe and efficient gene transfer systems are needed for tissue engineering. We have developed an apatite composite layer including the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene and fibronectin (FB), and we evaluated its ability to induce bone formation.
An apatite composite layer was evaluated to determine the efficiency of gene transfer to cells cultured on it. Cells were cultured on a composite layer including the BMP-2 gene and FB, and BMP-2 gene expression, BMP-2 protein concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteocalcin (OC) concentrations were measured. A bone defect on the cranium of rats was treated with hydroxyapatite (HAP)-coated ceramic buttons with the apatite composite layer including the BMP-2 gene and FB (HAP-BMP-FB). The tissue concentration of BMP-2, bone formation, and the expression levels of the BMP-2, ALP, and OC genes were all quantified.
The apatite composite layer provided more efficient gene transfer for the cultured cells than an apatite composite layer without FB. The BMP-2 concentration was approximately 100~600 pg/mL in the cell-culture medium. Culturing the cells on the apatite composite layer for 27 days increased ALP activity and OC concentrations. In animal experiments, the tissue concentrations of BMP-2 were over 100 pg/mg in the HAP-BMP-FB group and approximately 50 pg/mg in the control groups. Eight weeks later, bone formation was more enhanced in the HAP-BMP-FB group than in the control groups. In the tissues surrounding the HAP button, the gene expression levels of ALP and OC increased.
The BMP-2 gene-FB-apatite composite layer might be useful for bone engineering.
bone engineering; BMP-2 gene-fibronectin-apatite composite layer; BMP-2 gene therapy; non-viral gene transfer.
Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants. Since the material composition and the surface topography of a biomaterial play a fundamental role in osseointegration, various chemical and physical surface modifications have been developed to improve osseous healing. Zirconia-based implants were introduced into dental implantology as an altenative to titanium implants. Zirconia seems to be a suitable implant material because of its tooth-like colour, its mechanical properties and its biocompatibility. As the osseointegration of zirconia implants has not been extensively investigated, the aim of this study was to compare the osseous healing of zirconia implants with titanium implants which have a roughened surface but otherwise similar implant geometries.
Forty-eight zirconia and titanium implants were introduced into the tibia of 12 minipigs. After 1, 4 or 12 weeks, animals were sacrificed and specimens containing the implants were examined in terms of histological and ultrastructural techniques.
Histological results showed direct bone contact on the zirconia and titanium surfaces. Bone implant contact as measured by histomorphometry was slightly better on titanium than on zirconia surfaces. However, a statistically significant difference between the two groups was not observed.
The results demonstrated that zirconia implants with modified surfaces result in an osseointegration which is comparable with that of titanium implants.
In the present study we focused on the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of two types of carbon fibres (CFs): hydroxyapatite modified carbon fibres and porous carbon fibres. Porous CFs used as scaffold for tissues regeneration could simultaneously serve as a support for drug delivery or biologically active agents which would stimulate the tissue growth; while addition of nanohydroxyapatite to CFs precursor can modify their biological properties (such as bioactivity) without subsequent surface modifications, making the process cost and time effective. Presented results indicated that fibre modification with HAp promoted formation of apatite on the fibre surface during incubation in simulated body fluid. The materials biocompatibility was determined by culturing human osteoblast-like cells of the line MG 63 in contact with both types of CFs. Both tested materials gave good support to adhesion and growth of bone-derived cells. Materials were implanted into the skeletal rat muscle and a comparative analysis of tissue reaction to the presence of the two types of CFs was done. Activities of marker metabolic enzymes: cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) and acid phosphatase were examined to estimate the effect of implants on the metabolic state of surrounding tissues. Presented results evidence the biocompatibility of porous CFs and activity that stimulates the growth of connective tissues. In case of CFs modified with hydroxyapatite the time of inflammatory reaction was shorter than in case of traditional CFs.
This study aims to evaluate in detail the biological osteoconductive properties of the low-temperature synthetic porous calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite and to compare it with the biological apatite. Bone reactions to granules of similar sizes of the low-temperature hydroxyapatite and commercially available non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone were compared. Two different temperatures were used to fabricate two batches of newly developed porous hydroxyapatite with different carbonate groups content and specific surface area. The histological analysis of specimens with histomorphometry was performed at different time after in vivo implantation. Based on histological analysis, the level of bone formation in the spaces between the implanted granules and through the interconnected pores of all implanted materials within a cortical region (bone area ingrowth 72–85 %) was several-fold higher than within a cancellous bone site (bone area ingrowth 16–28 %) at three and six months after implantation. Within the cancellous bone site, bone coverage of the implanted material at six months was significantly higher in hydroxyapatite material fabricated using low-temperature synthesis and subsequent processing at 150°C than in hydroxyapatite scaffold developed using low-temperature synthesis with subsequent processing at 700°C or deproteinized bovine bone. According to our study, the bioactive properties of the low-temperature calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite are comparable with the biological apatite. The favourable influence of a high specific surface area of a low-temperature calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite on in vivo bone formation was emphasized.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating could induce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament graft osseointegration in the bone tunnel. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits underwent artificial ligament graft transplantation in bilateral proximal tibia tunnels. One limb was implanted with HAp-coated PET graft, and the contralateral limb was implanted with non-HAp-coated PET graft as control. The rabbits were randomly sacrificed at four and eight weeks after surgery. The loads to failure of the experimental group at eight weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group (p = 0.0057). Histologically, application of HAp coating induced new bone formation between graft and bone at eight weeks compared with the controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction examination revealed significantly elevated messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of osteopontin and collagen I in the grafts of the HAp group compared with the controls at four weeks (p < 0.05). The study has shown that HAp coating on the PET artificial ligament surface has a positive effect in the induction of artificial ligament osseointegration within the bone tunnel.
Skeletal bone consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and collagen type I, both of which are osseoconductive. The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable long-lasting fixation between bone and an implant surface. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical fixation and tissue distribution surrounding implants coated with three surfaces: plasma-sprayed HA coating, thinner coating of electrochemical-assisted deposition of HA, and an identical thin coating with a top layer of mineralized collagen. Uncoated plasma-sprayed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) served as negative control. The electrochemical-assisted deposition was performed near physiological conditions. We used a canine experimental joint replacement model with four cylindrical implants (one of each treatment group) inserted in the humeri cancellous metaphyseal bone in a 1 mm gap. Observation time was 4 weeks. The mechanical fixation was quantified by push-out test to failure, and the peri-implant tissue formation by histomorphometric evaluation. HA coatings deposited by plasma spray technique or electrochemically, increased the mechanical fixation and bone ongrowth, but there was no statistical difference between the individual HA applications. Addition of collagen to the mineralized phase of the coating to create a more bone natural surface did not improve the osseoconductive effect of HA.
hydroxyapatite; electrochemistry; implants; osseointegration; materials testing
This study evaluated the surface characteristics and bond strength produced using a novel technique for coating hydroxyapatite (HA) onto titanium implants.
HA was coated on the titanium implant surface using a super-high-speed (SHS) blasting method with highly purified HA. The coating was performed at a low temperature, unlike conventional HA coating methods. Coating thickness was measured. The novel HA-coated disc was fabricated. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed directly on the disc to evaluate crystallinity. Four novel HA-coated discs and four resorbable blast medium (RBM) discs were prepared. Their surface roughnesses and areas were measured. Five puretitanium, RBM-treated, and novel HA-coated discs were prepared. Contact angle was measured. Two-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Scheffe's test were used to analyze differences between the groups, with those with a probability of P<0.05 considered to be statistically significant. To evaluate exfoliation of the coating layer, 7 sites on the mandibles from 7 mongrel dogs were used. Other sites were used for another research project. In total, seven novel HA-coated implants were placed 2 months after extraction of premolars according to the manufacturer's instructions. The dogs were sacrificed 8 weeks after implant surgery. Implants were removed using a ratchet driver. The surface of the retrieved implants was evaluated microscopically.
A uniform HA coating layer was formed on the titanium implants with no deformation of the RBM titanium surface microtexture when an SHS blasting method was used.
These HA-coated implants exhibited increased roughness, crystallinity, and wettability when compared with RBM implants.
Biocompatible coated materials; Dental implants; Hydroxyapatites; Titanium
Titanium alloys (Ti) are the preferred material for orthopaedic applications. However, very often, these metallic implants loosen over a long period and mandate revision surgery. For implant success, osteoblasts must adhere to the implant surface and deposit a mineralized extracellular matrix. Here, we utilized UV-killed Staphylococcus aureus as a novel osteoconductive coating for Ti surfaces. S. aureus expresses surface adhesins capable of binding to bone and biomaterials directly. Furthermore, interaction of S. aureus with osteoblasts activates growth factor-related pathways that potentiate osteogenesis. While UV-killed S. aureus cells retain their bone-adhesive ability, they do not stimulate significant immune modulator expression. All of the above properties were utilized for a novel implant coating so as to promote osteoblast recruitment and subsequent cell functions on the bone-implant interface. In the present study, osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and mineralized extracellular matrix synthesis were measured on Ti surfaces coated with fibronectin with and without UV-killed bacteria. Osteoblast adhesion was enhanced on Ti alloy surfaces coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces while cell proliferation was sustained comparably on both surfaces. Osteoblast markers such as collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation were increased on Ti alloy coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces.
Titanium implant surfaces; Osseointegration; Staphylococcus aureus; Calvarial osteoblasts; Osteoblast differentiation
Our study was designed to evaluate osseointegration among implants with three surface treatments: plasma-sprayed titanium (P), plasma-sprayed titanium with hydroxyapatite (PHA), and chemical-textured titanium with hydroxyapatite (CHA). Average surface roughness (Ra) was 27 microns for the P group, 17 microns for the PHA group, and 26 microns for the CHA group. Bilateral distal intramedullary implants were placed in the femora of thirty rabbits. Histomorphometry of scanning electron microscopy images was used to analyze the amount of bone around the implants at 6 and 12 weeks after implantation. Greater amounts of osseointegration were observed in the hydroxyapatite-coated groups than in the noncoated group. For all implant surfaces, osseointegration was greater at the diaphyseal level compared to the metaphyseal level. No significant differences were seen in osseointegration between the 6 and 12 week time points. Although the average surface roughness of the P and the CHA groups was similar, osseointegration of the CHA implants was significantly greater. The results of this in vivo lapine study suggest that the presence of an hydroxyapatite coating enhances osseointegration despite similarities in average surface roughness.
Titanium and its alloys are currently the mainly used materials to manufacture orthopaedic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Although these materials are bioinert, the improvement of biological properties (e.g., bone implant contact) can be obtained by the application of a material that mimics the bone extracellular matrix. To this aim, this work describes a new method to produce nanostructured collagen-apatite composites on titanium alloy substrate, by combining electrospinning and biomimetic mineralization. The characterization results showed that the obtained mineralized scaffolds have morphological, structural, and chemical compositional features similar to natural bone extracellular matrix. Finally, the topographic distribution of the chemical composition in the mineralized matrix evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy demonstrated that the apatite nanocrystals cover the collagen fibers assembled by the electrospinning.
Functionally graded coatings (FGCs) of bioactive glass on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were fabricated by the enameling technique. These innovative coatings may be an alternative to plasma-sprayed, hydroxyapatite-coated implants. Previously we determined that a preconditioning treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) helped to stabilize FGCs (Foppiano, S., et al., Acta Biomater, 2006; 2(2):133-42). The primary goal of this work was to assess the in vitro cytocompatibility of preconditioned FGCs with MC3T3-E1.4 mouse pre-osteoblastic cells. We evaluated cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization on FGCs in comparison to uncoated Ti6Al4V and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). No difference in cell adhesion was identified, whereas proliferation was significantly different on all materials, being highest on FGCs followed by TCPS and Ti6Al4V. Qualitative and quantitative mineralization assays indicated that mineralization occurred on all materials. The amount of inorganic phosphate released by the mineralizing layers was significantly different, being highest on TCPS, followed by FGC and uncoated Ti6Al4V. The secondary objective of this work was to assess the ability of the FGCs to affect gene expression, indirectly, by means of their dissolution products, which was assessed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The FGC dissolution products induced a 2-fold increase in the expression of Runx-2, and a 20% decrease in the expression of collagen type 1 with respect to TCPS extract. These genes are regulators of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that preconditioned FGCs are cytocompatible and suggest that future work may allow composition changes to induce preferred gene expression.
Cell adhesion; cell proliferation; cell differentiation; cytocompatibility
The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties and in vitro bioactivity to osteoblasts of magnesium and magnesium-hydroxyapatite coated titanium.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Themagnesium (Mg) and magnesium-hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA) coatings on titanium (Ti) substrates were prepared by radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering.The samples were divided into non-coated smooth Ti (Ti-S group), Mg coatinggroup (Ti-Mg group), and Mg-HA coating group (Ti-MgHA group).The surface properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface roughness was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed.
Cross-sectional SEM images showed that Mg and Mg-HA depositionson titanium substrates were performed successfully. The surface roughness appeared to be similaramong the three groups. Ti-MgHA and Ti-Mg group had improved cellular responses with regard to the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bone-associated markers, such as bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA compared to those of Ti-S group. However, the differences between Ti-Mg group and Ti-MgHA group were not significant, in spite of the tendency of higher proliferation, ALP activity and BSP expression in Ti-MgHA group.
Mg and Mg-HAcoatings could stimulate the differentiation into osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, potentially contributing to rapid osseointegration.
Biocompatible materials; Surface-Coated materials; Surface properties; Alkaline phosphatase; Bone sialoprotein; Osteocalcin
Hydroxyapatite is commonly used as a filler to replace amputated bone or as a coating to promote bone ingrowth into prosthetic implants. Many modern implants, such as hip replacements and dental implants, are coated with hydroxyapatite. We report a patient with occupational asthma due to hydroxyapatite, proven by a specific inhalation challenge, who experienced an early asthmatic reaction after exposure to hydroxyapatite, without increased airway responsiveness to methacholine despite an increased eosinophil count in the peripheral blood. A 38-year-old male dental implant worker visited our allergy department for the evaluation of occupational asthma. He had treated dental implant titanium surfaces with hydroxyapatite for 1.5 years. One year after starting his employment, he noticed symptoms of rhinorrhea, paroxysmal cough, and chest tightness. His symptoms were aggravated during and shortly after work and subsided several hours after work. When he stopped working for 2 months because of his chest symptoms, he became asymptomatic. After restarting his work, his symptoms reappeared and were aggravated. A methacholine bronchial challenge test had a negative response. The following day, a specific bronchial provocation test with wheat powder was negative. On the third day, a specific bronchial provocation test with hydroxyapatite powder produced an early asthmatic response. On the fourth day, a methacholine bronchial challenge test was negative. Further studies are needed to evaluate the exact pathogenetic mechanism of hydroxyapatite-induced occupational asthma.
Asthma; bronchial hyper-reactivity; calcium hydroxyapatite; occupations
Although remarkable progress has been made on biomaterial research, the ideal biomaterial that satisfies all the technical requirements and biological functions is not available up to now. Surface modification seems to be a more economic and efficient way to adjust existing conventional biomaterials to meet the current and ever-evolving clinical needs. From an industrial perspective, plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an attractive method for biomaterials owing to its capability of treating objects with irregular shapes, as well as the control of coating composition. It is well acknowledged that the physico-chemical characteristics of biomaterials are the decisive factors greatly affecting the biological responses of biomaterials including bioactivity, haemocompatibility and antibacterial activity. Here, we mainly review the recent advances in surface modification of biomaterials via PIII&D technology, especially titanium alloys and polymers used for orthopaedic, dental and cardiovascular implants. Moreover, the variations of biological performances depending on the physico-chemical properties of modified biomaterials will be discussed.
plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition; surface modification; physico-chemical characteristics; bioactivity; haemocompatibility; antibacterial activity
An implantable model system was developed to investigate the effects of nanoscale surface properties on the osseointegration of titanium implants in rat tibia. Topographical nanostructures with a well-defined shape (semispherical protrusions) and variable size (60 nm, 120 nm and 220 nm) were produced by colloidal lithography on the machined implants. Furthermore, the implants were sputter-coated with titanium to ensure a uniform surface chemical composition. The histological evaluation of bone around the implants at 7 days and 28 days after implantation was performed on the ground sections using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Differences between groups were found mainly in the new bone formation process in the endosteal and marrow bone compartments after 28 days of implantation. Implant surfaces with 60 nm features demonstrated significantly higher bone-implant contact (BIC, 76%) compared with the 120 nm (45%) and control (57%) surfaces. This effect was correlated to the higher density and curvature of the 60 nm protrusions. Within the developed model system, nanoscale protrusions could be applied and systematically varied in size in the presence of microscale background roughness on complex screw-shaped implants. Moreover, the model can be adapted for the systematic variation of surface nanofeature density and chemistry, which opens up new possibilities for in vivo studies of various nanoscale surface-bone interactions.
in vivo; nanotopography; osseointegration; titanium implant; colloidal lithography
The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the glyoxylic acid (GA) modification of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofibers on their dispersion in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites and also investigate the mechanical properties, water absorption, and water solubility of the resulting dental resins and composites. Scanning/Transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images showed that microsized HAP nanofiber bundles could be effectively broken down to individual HAP nanofibers with an average length of ~15 μm after the surface modification process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) characterization confirmed glyoxylic acid was chemically grafted on the HAP nanofiber surface, hypothetically by reacting with the amine group on HAP nanofiber surface. The enhanced dispersion of HAP nanofibers in dental matrix led to increased biaxial flexural strength (BFS) compared with the corresponding dental resins and composites filled with untreated HAP nanofibers. In addition, impregnation of small mass fractions of the glyoxylic acid modified HAP nanofibers into the BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resins (5wt%, 10wt%) or composites (2wt%, 3wt%) could also substantially improve the BFS in comparison with the controls(pure resins or dental composites filled with silica particles alone). Larger mass fractions could not further increase the mechanical property or even degrade the BFS values. Water behavior testing results indicated that the addition of glyoxylic acid modified HAP nanofibers resulted in higher water absorption and water solubility values which is not preferred for clinical application. In summary, well dispersed HAP nanofibers and their dental composites with enhanced mechanical property have been successfully fabricated but the water absorption and water solubility of such dental composites need to be further improved.