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1.  Effective Use of Bronchial Blockers in Lung Isolation Surgery: An Analysis of 130 Cases 
The Ochsner Journal  2013;13(3):389-393.
One-lung ventilation (OLV) is necessary for selected surgical settings and medical conditions. Different methods have been described and used to isolate 1 lung, including the double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) and a variety of bronchial blockers (BBs). This selection is often based on the preferences and experiences of the anesthesiologist and surgeon. Complications associated with OLV isolation tubes have been previously described, but complications specifically associated with the Cohen BB (CBB) (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) have not been investigated. The purpose of this retrospective review was to determine the incidence of vocal cord injury, tracheobronchial injury, and hoarseness in adult patients who underwent OLV with the CBB.
We reviewed electronic anesthesia records, operative dictation, and inpatient progress notes to collect information about vocal cord injury, bronchial injury, hoarseness, and sore throat for adults who underwent surgical and diagnostic procedures requiring OLV. Secondary endpoints were types of surgical procedures, degree of difficulty with orotracheal intubation, ability of the patient to tolerate extubation in the operating room, and whether the thoracic surgeon deemed the lung separation adequate. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Of 130 patients, 113 underwent OLV with a CBB, and 17 patients underwent OLV with a DLT. The thoracic surgeon deemed the lung isolation adequate in all cases. Airway injury occurred in 2 patients with a CBB and none with a DLT (P=0.86). Both airway injuries were attributed to surgical technique. Two cases of postoperative hoarseness occurred in the CBB group (P=0.86). One injury was attributed to vagus nerve transection, and the other injury was diagnosed as vocal cord paralysis of unknown etiology. In 1 case, orotracheal intubation with a DLT was unsuccessful because of intubation difficulty and required conversion to a regular endotracheal tube and CBB for successful lung isolation.
This study demonstrates that the use of CBB can be successful in a wide variety of thoracic operations, has minimal complications, eliminates the need for tracheal tube exchange when postoperative mechanical ventilation is required, and effectively isolates the lungs of critically ill patients.
PMCID: PMC3776516  PMID: 24052770
Bronchi; intubation–intratracheal; one-lung ventilation; thoracic surgical procedures
2.  The use of VivaSight™ single lumen endotracheal tube in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14:31.
The population of obese patients is progressively growing and bariatric operations are becoming increasingly common. Morbidly obese patients require special anesthetic care and are often considered to be difficult to ventilate and intubate. The VivaSight™ Single Lumen tube is an endotracheal tube with a camera embedded in its tip. The view from the tip appears continuously on a monitor in the anesthesiologist's vicinity. The aim of this study was to assess the VivaSight™ in comparison with conventional endotracheal tube as an aid in the intubation and surveillance of tube position during surgery of obese patients.
This is a prospective study of 72 adult obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The patients were randomly assigned to be intubated by either the VivaSight™ (40 patients, test group) or a conventional endotracheal tube (32 patients, control group). Data on the patients, the pre-operative airway evaluation, the endotracheal intubation and the post-operative outcome were collected and compared.
The Mallampati scores were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group. Endotracheal intubation took 29 ± 10 and 24 ± 8 seconds using the VivaSight™ and a conventional tube respectively (p = 0.02). Three of the patients in the control group, while none of those in the test group, had soft tissue injury (p < 0.05).
We found the VivaSight™ SL to be helpful in the endotracheal intubation and continuous surveillance of tube position in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
PMCID: PMC4016667  PMID: 24817827
Equipment; Airway; Anesthetic techniques; Fiber-optic; Ventilation; Mechanical; Morbid obesity; Surgery; Bariatric complications
3.  ProSeal laryngeal mask airway improves oxygenation when used as a conduit prior to laryngoscope guided intubation in bariatric patients 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(1):25-30.
The primary objective of this study was to compare the effect of ventilation using the ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) with facemask and oropharyngeal airway (FM), prior to laryngoscopy, on arterial oxygenation in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
Forty morbidly obese patients were randomly recruited to either PLMA or FM. After pre-oxygenation (FiO2 1.0) in the ramp position with continuous positive airway pressure of 10 cm H2O for 5 min, anaesthesia was induced. Following loss of jaw thrust oropharyngeal airway, the FM and PLMA were inserted. On achieving paralysis, volume control ventilation with PEEP (5 cm H2O) was initiated. The difficulty in mask ventilation (DMV) in FM, number of attempts at PLMA and laryngoscopy were graded (Cormack and Lehane) in all patients. Time from onset of laryngoscopy to endotracheal tube confirmation was recorded. Hypoxia was defined as mild (SpO2 ≤95%), moderate (SpO2 ≤90%) and severe (SpO2 ≤85%).
Significant rise in pO2 was observed within both groups (P=0.001), and this was significantly higher in the PLMA (P=0.0001) when compared between the groups. SpO2 ≥ 90% (P=0.018) was seen in 19/20 (95%) patients in PLMA and 13/20 (65%) in FM at confirmation of tracheal tube. A strong association was found between DMV and Cormack Lehane in the FM group and with number of attempts in the PLMA group. No adverse events were observed.
ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway as conduit prior to laryngoscopy in morbidly obese patients seems effective in increasing oxygen reserves, and can be suggested as a routine airway management technique when managing the airway in the morbidly obese.
PMCID: PMC3658330  PMID: 23716762
Bariatric; morbidly obese; oxygenation; ProSeal™
4.  One lung ventilation in a patient with an upper and lower airway abnormality 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;56(6):567-569.
One-lung ventilation for a thoracotomy procedure was achieved with the help of a endobronchial blocker in a young girl with limited mouth opening, minimal neck extension, and a distorted tracheo-bronchial anatomy. As the patient would not cooperate for an awake nasotracheal intubation despite adequate preperation, an inhalational anesthetic was used to make the patient unconscious, taking care that spontaneous breathing was maintained. Nasotracheal intubation was done with the help of a fiberoptic bronchoscope. A wire-guided Arndt endobronchial blocker was placed coaxially through the endotracheal tube using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. This case report highlights that in a scenario of both upper and lower airway distortion, a bronchial blocker positioned through a nasotracheal tube under fiberoptic guidance might be the best option when one-lung ventilation is required.
PMCID: PMC3546245  PMID: 23325943
Bronchoscopy; fiberoptic; Intratracheal intubation; nasotracheal; thoracic surgical procedures
5.  Bronchial obstruction by tumor embolus of contralateral lung during pneumonectomy: report of a case 
Bronchial obstruction due to a tumor embolus of the contralateral lung during pneumonectomy is an uncommon and fatal complication. According to previous cases, a bronchial balloon of double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) could prevent a dislodged tumor from traveling to the contralateral lung. We experienced a tumor embolism from the bronchus with cancer to the other bronchus despite applying DLT. A 59-year-old male with endobronchial lung cancer underwent a left pneumonectomy. One-lung ventilation was established by the right-sided DLT. After a left bronchial division, a sudden increase of peak airway pressure and reduction of the expired tidal volume to 50 ml was observed. Intraoperative fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed a near total obstruction of the right main bronchus due to tumor emboli. It was not possible to remove the tumor embolus through bronchoscopic suction and forceps. Therefore, we reopened the left bronchial stump and successfully extracted tumor embolus under bronchoscopic guidance.
PMCID: PMC3598947  PMID: 23421935
Airway obstruction; Bronchial neoplasm; Pneumonectomy; Double-lumen endotracheal tube
6.  Real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: a feasibility study 
Critical Care  2011;15(1):R67.
Ultrasound (US) performed prior to percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) may be useful in avoiding injury to pretracheal vascular structures and in avoiding high placement of the tube. Bedside real-time US guidance with visualization of needle path is routinely utilized for other procedures such as central venous catheterization, and may enhance the safety and accuracy of PT without causing airway occlusion or hypercarbia. Our objective was to demonstrate that PT performed under real-time US guidance with visualization of needle path during tracheal puncture is feasible, including in patients with features that increase the technical difficulty of PT.
Mechanically ventilated patients with acute brain injury requiring tracheostomy underwent US guided PT. The orotracheal tube was withdrawn using direct laryngoscopy. The trachea was punctured under real-time US guidance (with visualization of the needle path) while using the acoustic shadows of the cricoid and the tracheal rings to identify the level of puncture. After guidewire passage the site and level of entry was verified using the bronchoscope, which was then withdrawn. Following dilatation and tube placement, placement in the airway was confirmed using auscultation and the "lung sliding" sign on US. Bronchoscopy and chest X-ray were then performed to identify any complications.
Thirteen patients successfully underwent US guided PT. Three patients were morbidly obese, two were in cervical spine precautions and one had a previous tracheostomy. In all 13 patients bronchoscopy confirmed that guidewire entry was through the anterior wall and between the first and fifth tracheal rings. There was no case of tube misplacement, pneumothorax, posterior wall injury, significant bleeding or other complication during the procedure.
Percutaneous tracheostomy performed under real-time ultrasound guidance is feasible and appears accurate and safe, including in patients with morbid obesity and cervical spine precautions. Larger studies are required to further define the safety and relative benefits of this technique.
Trial registration
UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000005023.
PMCID: PMC3222000  PMID: 21342494
7.  Thoracic ultrasound confirmation of correct lung exclusion before one-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery 
Journal of Ultrasound  2013;16(4):195-199.
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is the standard method for verifying the correct position of a double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLET) prior to one-lung ventilation. However, it must be performed by a specially trained anesthesiologist and is often resource consuming. The aim of this study was to compare this approach with thoracic ultrasound done by a nurse anesthetist in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness.
We conducted a prospective cross-over case–control study involving 51 adult patients consecutively undergoing thoracic surgery with one-lung ventilation. After orotracheal intubation with a DLET, correct exclusion of the lung being operated on exclusion was assessed first by a certified anesthesiologist using standard fiberoptic bronchoscopy and then by a trained nurse anesthetist using thoracic ultrasound. The nurse was blinded as to the findings of the anesthesiologist’s examination.
The two approaches proved to be equally sensitive and specific, but the ultrasound examination was more rapid. This factor, together with the fact that ultrasound was performed by a nurse instead of a physician, and the costs of materials and sterilization, had a significant economic impact amounting to a net saving of €37.20 ± 5.40 per case.
Although fiberoptic bronchoscopy is still the gold standard for checking the position of a DLET, thoracic ultrasound is a specific, sensitive, cost-effective alternative, which can be used to rapidly verify the proper function of the tube based on the demonstration of correct lung exclusion.
PMCID: PMC3846950  PMID: 24432174
Thoracic ultrasound; Anesthesia; Thoracic surgery
8.  Anæsthesia in Chest Surgery, with Special Reference to Controlled Respiration and Cyclopropane 
Problems in chest surgery: Cases with prolonged toxæmia or amyloid disease require an anæsthetic agent of low toxicity. When sputum or blood are present in the tracheobronchial tree the anæsthesia should abolish reflex distrubances and excessive sputum be removed by suction. The technique should permit the use of a high oxygen atmosphere; controlled respiration with cyclopropane or ether fulfil these requirements. Open pneumothorax is present when a wound of the chest wall allows air to pass in and out of the pleural cavity. The lung on the affected side collapses and the mediastinum moves over and partly compresses the other lung.
The dangers of an open pneumothorax: (1) Paradoxical respiration—the lung on the affected side partially inflates on expiration and collapses on inspiration. Part of the air entering the good lung has been shuttled back from the lung on the affected side and is therefore vitiated. Full expansion of the sound lung is handicapped by the initial displacement of the mediastinum which increases on inspiration. The circulation becomes embarrassed.
(2) Vicious circle coughing. During a paroxysm of coughing dyspnœa will occur. This accentuates paradoxical respiration and starts a vicious circle. Death from asphyxia may result.
Special duties of the anæsthetist: (1) To carry out or supervise continuous circulatory resuscitation. During a thoracotomy a drip blood transfusion maintains normal blood-pressure and pulse-rate.
(2) To maintain effcient respiration.
Positive pressure anæsthesia: Risk of impacting secretions in smaller bronchi with subsequent atelectasis; eventual risk of CO2 poisoning without premonitory signs.
Controlled respiration: (1) How it is produced. (2) Its uses in chest surgery.
Controlled respiration means that the anæsthetist, having abolished the active respiratory efforts of the patient, maintains an efficient tidal exchange by rhythmic squeezing of the breathing bag. This may be done mechanically by Crafoord's modification of Frenkner's spiropulsator or by hand.
Active respiration will cease (i) if the patient's CO2 is lowered sufficiently by hyperventilation, (ii) if the patient's respiratory centre is depressed sufficiently by sedative and anæsthetic drugs, and (iii) by a combination of (i) and (ii) of less degree.
The author uses the second method, depressing the respiratory centre with omnoponscopolamine, pentothal sodium, and then cycloprȯpane. The CO2 absorption method is essential for this technique, and this and controlled respiration should be mastered by the anæsthetist with a familiar agent and used at first only in uncomplicated cases.
The significance of cardiac arrhythmias occuring with cyclopropane is discussed.
The place of the other available anæsthetic agents is discussed particularly on the advisability of using local anæsthesia for the drainage of empyema or lung abscess.
Pharyngeal airway or endotracheal tube? Anæsthesia may be maintained with a pharyngeal airway in many cases but intubation must be used when tracheobronchial suction may be necessary and when there may be difficulty in maintaining an unobstructed airway.
A one-lung anæsthesia is ideal for pneumonectomy. This may be obtained by endotracheal anæsthesia after bronchial tamponage of the affected side (Crafoord, v. fig. 6b) or by an endobronchial intubation of the sound side (v. figs. 9b and 9c). Endobronchial placing of the breathing tube may be performed “blind”. Before deciding on blind bronchial intubation, the anæsthetist must examine X-ray films for any abnormality deviating the trachea or bronchi. Though the right bronchus may be easily intubated blindly as a rule, there is the risk of occluding the orifice of the upper lobe bronchus (fig. 9d) when the patient will become cyanosed. If the tube bevel is facing its orifice the risk of occlusion will be decreased (fig. 9c).
Greater accuracy in placing the tube can be effected by inserting it under direct vision. Instruments for performing this manœuvre are described.
In lobectomy for bronchiectasis the anæsthetist must try to prevent the spread of infection to other parts. Ideally, the bronchus of the affected lobe should be plugged with ribbon gauze (Crafoord, v. fig. 6c) or a suction catheter with a baby balloon on it placed in the affected bronchus. In the presence of a large bronchopleural fistula controlled respiration cannot be established during operation. As the surgeon is rarely able to plug the fistula, if pneumonectomy is to be performed intubation for a one-lung anæsthesia is the best method. During other procedures it is essential to maintain quiet respiration.
In war casualties it is almost always possible, with the technique described, to leave the lung on the affected side fully expanded and thus frequently to restore normal respiratory physiology. Co-operation between surgeon and anæsthetist is essential.
PMCID: PMC1998132  PMID: 19992357
9.  Anaesthesia for serial whole-lung lavage in a patient with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case report 
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare condition that requires treatment by whole-lung lavage. We report a case of severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and discuss a safe and effective strategy for the anaesthetic management of patients undergoing this complex procedure.
Case presentation
A 34-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. He developed severe respiratory failure and subsequently underwent serial whole-lung lavage. Our anaesthetic technique included the use of pre-oxygenation, complete lung separation with a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube, one-lung ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure, appropriate ventilatory monitoring, cautious use of positional manoeuvres and single-lumen endotracheal tube exchange for short-term postoperative ventilation.
Patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may present with severe respiratory failure and require urgent whole-lung lavage. We have described a safe and effective strategy for anaesthesia for whole-lung lavage. We recommend our anaesthetic technique for patients undergoing this complex and uncommon procedure.
PMCID: PMC2607303  PMID: 19038019
10.  Severe lingual tonsillar hypertrophy and the rationale supporting early use of wire-guided retrograde intubation 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;4(2):102-104.
An expanding body of literature exists which describes the airway challenges and management options for lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (LTH). The use of retrograde intubation to secure a patient‘s airway in the setting of LTH has been previously unreported and should be considered early in the event of a cannot intubate, cannot ventilate scenario. A 55-year-old man, who had previously been described as an easy intubation, presented an unexpected cannot intubate, cannot ventilate scenario secondary to LTH. Various noninvasive airway maneuvers were attempted to restore ventilation without success. We describe the advantages of early use of wire-guided retrograde intubation as an alternative to a surgical airway for obtaining a secure airway in a patient with LTH, in whom noninvasive airway management maneuvers have failed. Multiple different noninvasive approaches to management of LTH have been previously described including the laryngeal tube, laryngeal mask airway, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, none of these noninvasive airway maneuvers successfully ventilated this patient and an invasive airway became necessary. Retrograde intubation is a less invasive alternative to the surgical airway with potentially less risk for complications. Retrograde intubation may be particularly effective in the setting of LTH as it may stent open an otherwise occluded airway and allow passage of an endotracheal tube. Skillful use of this technique should be considered early as a viable option in any case of unexpected difficult intubation due to LTH.
PMCID: PMC2945505  PMID: 20927270
Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy; retrograde intubation; difficult intubation
11.  Endobronchial hemorrhage after intubation with double-lumen endotracheal tube in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura for minimally invasive cardiac surgery: a case report 
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) requires lung isolation. Lung isolation is usually achieved with double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT). Patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) have an increased risk of bleeding events. We suspected endobronchial hemorrhage after exchange of DLT during induction of anesthesia for replacement of mitral valve in a 62-year-old man with a known ITP. The MICS was stopped and bronchial artery embolization was performed in the angiographic room. In the present case, in order to reduce the risk of bronchial arterial injury in ITP patient we intubated with single lumen endotracheal tube. Lung isolation led to achievement of intermittent total lung deflation. Based on the results, we recommend a high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and platelet transfusion prior to cardiac surgery in patients with ITP to increase platelet count. Moreover, it is proposed that in order to clear the vision during the operation, ventilation can be held or made intermittent both prior to cardiopulmonary bypass or at its conclusion to permit exposure.
PMCID: PMC3927003  PMID: 24567815
Cardiac surgery; Double-lumen endotracheal tube; Endobronchial hemorrhage; Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Minimally invasive surgical procedures
12.  A novel technique of differential lung ventilation in the critical care setting 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:134.
Differential lung ventilation (DLV) is used to salvage ventilatory support in severe unilateral lung disease in the critical care setting. However, DLV with a double-lumen tube is associated with serious complications such as tube displacement during ventilatory management. Thus, long-term ventilatory management with this method may be associated with high risk of respiratory incidents in the critical care setting.
We devised a novel DLV technique using two single-lumen tubes and applied it to five patients, two with severe unilateral pneumonia and three with thoracic trauma, in a critical care setting. In this novel technique, we perform the usual tracheotomy and insert two single-lumen tubes under bronchoscopic guidance into the main bronchus of each lung. We tie the two single-lumen tubes together and suture them directly to the skin. The described technique was successfully performed in all five patients. Pulmonary oxygenation improved rapidly after DLV induction in all cases, and the three patients with thoracic trauma were managed by DLV without undergoing surgery. Tube displacement was not observed during DLV management. No airway complications occured in either the acute or late phase regardless of the length of DLV management (range 2-23 days).
This novel DLV technique appears to be efficacious and safe in the critical care setting.
PMCID: PMC3101656  PMID: 21545715
13.  An awake double lumen endotracheal tube intubation using the Clarus Video System in a patient with an epiglottic cyst: a case report 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(2):157-159.
A 54-year-old male patient was scheduled for an elective pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with video-assisted thoracic surgery at our hospital. This patient had a history of intubation failure in other institutions due to an epiglottic cyst. An airway assessment of the patient was normal. A preoperative laryngoscopy revealed a bulging epiglottic mass covering most of the epiglottis and occupying most of the pharyngeal space. The patient was administered intravenous midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 50 µg, and glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg. A bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block was then performed with 2% lidocaine 2 ml on each side. A 10% lidocaine spray was applied on to the oropharynx. After preoxygenation with 100% oxygen over 10 minutes, a rigid fiberscope with an optical stylet loaded with a 37 Fr double lumen endotracheal tube was inserted orally and passed into the glottic aperture. The patient was fully awakened after surgical procedure and was transferred to the recovery room after extubation.
PMCID: PMC3948444  PMID: 24624275
Airway obstruction; Difficult intubation; Laryngeal mass
14.  Iatrogenic Left Main Bronchus Injury following Atraumatic Double Lumen Endotracheal Tube Placement 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2013;2013:524348.
Tracheobronchial disruption is an uncommon but severe complication of double lumen endotracheal tube placement. The physical properties of a double lumen tube (large external diameter and length) make tracheobronchial injury more common than that associated with smaller single lumen endotracheal tubes. Here we present the case of an iatrogenic left main bronchus injury caused by placement of a double lumen tube in an otherwise unremarkable airway.
PMCID: PMC3833405  PMID: 24288629
15.  Maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 mm Hg to prevent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery; protocol of a double-blind randomised controlled trial 
In anterior cervical spine surgery a retractor is obligatory to approach the spine. Previous studies showed an increase of endotracheal tube cuff pressure after placement of a retractor. It is known that high endotracheal tube cuff pressure increases the incidence of postoperative dysphagia, hoarseness, and sore throat. However, until now no evidence supports the fact whether adjusting the endotracheal tube cuff pressure during anterior cervical spine surgery will prevent this comorbidity. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial to determine whether adjusting endotracheal tube cuff pressure after placement of a retractor during anterior cervical spine surgery will prevent postoperative dysphagia.
177 patients (aged 18–90 years) scheduled for anterior cervical spine surgery on 1 or more levels will be included. After intubation, endotracheal tube cuff pressure is manually inflated to 20 mm Hg in all patients. Patients will be randomized into two groups. In the control group endotracheal tube cuff pressure is not adjusted after retractor placement. In the intervention group endotracheal tube cuff pressure after retractor placement is maintained at 20 mm Hg and air is withdrawn when cuff pressure exceeds 20 mm Hg. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure is measured after intubation, before and after placement and removal of the retractor. Again air is inflated if cuff pressure sets below 20 mmHg after removal of the retractor. The primary outcome measure is postoperative dysphagia. Other outcome measures are postoperative hoarseness, postoperative sore throat, degree of dysphagia, length of hospital stay, and pneumonia. The study is a single centre double blind randomized trial in which patients and research nurses will be kept blinded for the allocated treatment during the follow-up period of 2 months.
Postoperative dysphagia occurs frequently after anterior cervical spine surgery. This may be related to high endotracheal tube cuff pressure. Whether adaptation and maintaining the pressure after placement of the retractor will decrease the incidence of dysphagia, has to be determined by this trial.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) 3542:
PMCID: PMC3848991  PMID: 24067111
Anterior cervical spine surgery; Surgical retractor; Endotracheal tube cuff pressure; Sore throat; Hoarseness; Dysphagia
16.  Assessment of airway length of Korean adults and children for otolaryngology and ophthalmic surgery using a fiberoptic bronchoscope 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(4):249-255.
Knowledge regarding normal upper airway anatomy is essential for airway management and is required to prevent malpositioning of endotracheal tubes. We evaluated the length of the upper airway in Korean children and adults who had no abnormality of the upper airway using a fiberoptic bronchoscope.
Eighty seven patients aged 5 to 81 years undergoing noninvasive elective surgery were included in this study. After induction of anesthesia was complete, we measured the distance from the upper incisor to various components of the upper airway by fiberoptic bronchoscopy.
In adults, the mean length between the upper incisor and midtrachea was found to be 21.8 ± 1.8 cm in males and 19.9 ± 1.3 cm in females, while the mean length of the trachea was 10.1 ± 1.3 cm in males and 10.3 ± 1.6 cm in females. The length between the upper incisor and midtrachea (IT) were correlated with height both in children (IT [cm] = 2.531 + 0.109 × height [cm]) and adults (IT [cm] = 0.167 + 0.127 × height [cm]), which shows that they differ from the western standard (length of tube [cm] = 5 + 0.1 × height [cm]).
In adults and children, the length from the incisor to the midtrachea was significantly different when compared with western standards. Therefore, re-evaluation of the proper and precise depth of endotracheal tube in Koreans should be considered.
PMCID: PMC2966705  PMID: 21057614
Bronchoscopy; Intratracheal; Intubation
17.  Tracheal laceration during intubation of a double-lumen tube and intraoperative fiberoptic bronchoscopic evaluation through an LMA in the lateral position -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;60(4):285-289.
A 76-year-old, 148-cm woman was scheduled for right upper lobectomy. A 32 Fr left-sided double lumen tube was placed using a conventional technique. Despite several attempts under fiberoptic bronchoscope-guidance, we could not locate the double lumen tube properly. We thus decided to proceed with the bronchial tube in the right mainstem bronchus. During surgery, 8-cm-long laceration was noted on the posterolateral side of the trachea. To check the possibility of laceration of the proximal trachea, the double lumen tube was changed to an LMA for use as a conduit for fiberoptic bronchoscopic evaluation in the lateral position. A plain endotracheal tube with the cuff modified and collapsed was re-intubated after evaluation. And then she was transferred to SICU.
PMCID: PMC3092965  PMID: 21602980
Fiberoptic bronchoscope; Intubation; Laceration; LMA; Trachea
18.  Esophageal misplacement of a single-lumen tube after its exchange for a double-lumen tube despite the use of an airway-exchange catheter 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;7(2):194-196.
An airway-exchange catheter (AEC) can increase the safety of exchanges of endotracheal tubes (ETTs); however, the procedure is associated with potential risks. We describe a case of esophageal misplacement of a single-lumen ETT after switching from a double-lumen tube, despite the use of an AEC as a guidewire. To avoid this, physicians should consider the insertion depth and maintenance depth of the AEC and should verify its position before changing ETTs and should perform, if possible, with simultaneous visualization of the glottis with direct or video laryngoscopy during the exchange. Additionally, the new ETT position should be confirmed by auscultation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and portable chest X-ray.
PMCID: PMC3737699  PMID: 23956723
Airway extubation; esophagus; intratracheal; intubation
19.  Investigation of the Effect of a Disposal Endotracheal Catheter and Metal Catheter Combination Application in Inhalation Injury Patients 
Objective. The aim of this paper was to make an objective evaluation of the scientific nature and effectiveness of a combination application of two catheters by investigating and comparing the effects and the occurrence of complications using a single metal catheter application, a single disposal endotracheal catheter application, and a combination application of these two catheters separately in tracheotomy patients. Method. A study was carried out on 85 patients with a metal catheter from 1990 to 1997, 62 patients with a disposal endotracheal catheter from 1998 to 2002, and 56 patients with an on-vent disposal endotracheal catheter and an off-vent metal catheter from 2003 to November 2008, defined respectively as groups A, B, and C, in order to observe catheter balloon rupture and catheter olisthe during intubation, as also sputum adhesion to the endotracheal catheter wall after application, and to assess the number of cases of patients with airway bleeding, the number of patients with endotracheal catheter blockage, and the time lapse between ventilator withdrawal and extubation. Results. Patients in groups B and C were observed to have balloon rupture; the number of patients with catheter olisthe and airway bleeding was in both cases less than in group A (p < 0.05); and in groups A and C the number of patients with catheter blockage was in both cases less than in group B (p < 0.05) - extubation time was also shorter than in group B, but without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Macroscopic observation found that there was a large amount of sputum adhering to the lumen of the open disposal endotracheal catheter and that the lumen became significantly narrow, while the metal catheter became non-significantly narrow. Conclusion. In inhalation injury patients we found that the effect of the combination application of the disposal endotracheal catheter and the metal catheter was better than that of the single application.
PMCID: PMC3188207  PMID: 21991145
20.  Transient bilateral vocal cord paralysis after endotracheal intubation with double-lumen tube -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(Suppl):S9-S12.
Vocal cord paralysis is one of the most serious anesthetic complications related to endotracheal intubation. The practitioner should take extreme care, as bilateral vocal cord paralysis can obstruct the airway and lead to disastrous respiratory problems. There have been many papers on bilateral vocal cord paralysis after neck surgery, but reports on such a condition after lung surgery are very rare. We report a case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis detected after removal of a double-lumen endotracheal tube in a 67-year-old patient who underwent wedge resection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. We also note that he recovered spontaneously without complications within a day.
PMCID: PMC3030066  PMID: 21286470
Bilateral vocal cord paralysis; Double-lumen endotracheal tube; Postoperative stridor
21.  Anesthetic management of descending thoracic aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease: Our experience 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2014;8(1):97-103.
Complete obstruction of the abdominal aorta at the renal artery level is a difficult surgical problem. Aortic clamping and declamping can lead to profound haemodynamic changes, myocardial infarction, ventricular failure or even death may result. These complications are important challenges in anesthetic management of these patients.
Between August, 2010 and April, 2012, descending thoracic aorta to femoral artery bypass grafting was used to revascularize lower limbs in 11 patients in our institute. The anesthetic management of these patients is described here. Epidural catheter placement was done in T 5-6 or T 6-7 space for post operative pain relief. Induction was done by, Inj. Glycopyrolate 0.2 mg, Inj. Fentanyl 5 μg/kg., Inj. Pentothal sodium 5 mg/kg, Inj. Rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg, IPPV done. Left sided double lumen tube was inserted, Maintenance of Anesthesia was done by O2 + N2 O (30:70). Increments of Vecuronium and Fentanyl were given Monitoring of Heart rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure were continuously displayed. The available pharmacological agents were used when there is deviation of more than 15% from base line.
In our study, inspite of measures taken to control rise in blood pressure during aortic cross clamping, a rise of 90 mm of Hg in one patient and 60-80 mm of Hg in four patients was observed, which was managed by sodium nitropruside infusion. At the end of surgery seven patients were extubated on the operation table. In remaining four patients DLT was replaced by single lumen endotracheal tube and were shifted to ICU on IPPV. They weaned off gradually in 3-5 hours. In our series blood loss was 400 ml to 1000 ml. There was no mortality in the first 24 hours. Postoperative bleeding was reported in one case which was re-explored and stood well.
The anesthetic technique during aortic surgery is directed at minimizing the hemodynamic effects of cross clamping in order to maintain the myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio.
PMCID: PMC3950463  PMID: 24665249
Aortobifemoral bypass; aortoiliac occlusive disease; descending thoracic aorta; juxtarenal occlusion
22.  A comparison of Bonfils intubation fiberscopy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in difficult airways assisted with direct laryngoscopy 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;58(3):249-255.
To evaluate the usefulness of Bonfils intubation fiberscope assisted by direct laryngoscopy (BIF-DL) and flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope assisted by direct laryngoscopy (FOB-DL) using video recording in cases of unanticipated difficult intubation with respect to the time required to visualize the vocal cords and place the endotracheal tube. We compared two fiberscopes in patients with authentic difficult airways.
In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, 40 patients (grade 3 according to grades of difficulty in laryngoscopy), scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to BIF-DL group or FOB-DL group. Number of attempts, time required for visualization of the vocal cord (T1) and placement of the endotracheal tube (T2) from insertion of instrument during the last successful attempt, and duration of scope manipulation during all attempts (Ttotal) were recorded. If intubation failed with one method, the other method was tried; these cases were then excluded. The incidence of sore throat and hoarseness was assessed.
T1, T2, and Ttotal were significantly shorter in BIF-DL group (T1: 21.9 ± 8.2 sec vs. 80.4 ± 29.9 sec, P < 0.001, Ttotal: 77.9 ± 41.2 sec vs. 145.5 ± 83.9 sec, P = 0.003). In two cases, it was impossible to intubate with BIF-DL, but the procedure was subsequently successful using fibreoptic bronchoscope.
Intubation of difficult airways can be performed more rapidly with BIF-DL, but sometimes it may not be possible to intubate with the scope.
PMCID: PMC2872830  PMID: 20498773
Bronchoscopes; Fiberoptics; Intubation; Laryngoscopy; Video recording
23.  A Rare Complication of Tracheal Intubation: Tongue Perforation 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2012;2012:281791.
Aim. To describe the subsequent treatment of airway trauma sustained during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods. A rare injury occurring during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation that resulted in perforation of the tongue by an endotracheal tube and the subsequent management of this unusual complication are discussed. A 65-year-old female with intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage with rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration had the airway secured prior to arrival at the referral institution. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was noted to have pierced through the base of the tongue and entered the trachea, and the patient underwent operative laryngoscopy to inspect the injury and the ETT was replaced by tracheostomy. Results. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the ETT to perforate the base of the tongue. The airway was secured with tracheostomy and the ETT was removed. Conclusions. A wide variety of complications resulting from direct and video-assisted laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been reported. Direct perforation of the tongue with an ETT and ability to ventilate and oxygenate subsequently is a rare injury.
PMCID: PMC3465871  PMID: 23056962
24.  Relationship between airway inflammation and remodeling in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
European Journal of Medical Research  2009;14(Suppl 4):90-96.
Despite a number of important differences in the pathogenesis, course and prognosis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), these two entities also have common features with airway inflammation being one of them. Airway remodeling is a characteristic feature of asthma, but data on the bronchial wall thickening in COPD patients are still scarce.
To assess the relation between the inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and thickness of bronchial walls assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in asthma and COPD patients.
Material and methods
The study was conducted in 9 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (M/F 4/5, mean age 35 ± 10 years) and 11 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (M/F 7/4, mean age 57 ± 9 years). In all subjects lung function tests and HRCT scanning of the chest were performed. External (D) and internal (L) diameters of the airways were assessed at five selected lung levels. The lumen area (AL), wall area (WA), wall thickness (WT) and bronchial wall thickness (WT/D ratio) were calculated. Eight patients with asthma and 8 patients with COPD underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Total and differential cell counts were assessed in the BAL fluid.
Mean FEV1% pred was 80 ± 19%, and 73 ± 20% in asthma and COPD patients, respectively (NS). No significant differences in the total and differential cell counts in BALF were found in patients with asthma and COPD. There were no significant differences in the airway diameter or airway wall thickness. The mean inner airway diameter was 1.4 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm and the mean lumen area was 1.8 ± 0.7 and 1.6 ± 0.7 mm2 in asthma and COPD, respectively (NS). Negative correlations between the eosinophil count in BALF and inner airway diameter (r = -0.7, P < 0.05) and lumen area (r = -0.7, P < 0.05) were found in asthmatics. There was no significant relationship between the BALF cell count and airway wall thickness in COPD patients.
In mild-to-moderate asthma and COPD the airway diameter and thickness are similar. In asthmatics, the airway diameter might be associated with eosinophil count in BAL fluid.
PMCID: PMC3521369  PMID: 20156734
asthma; COPD; BALF; airway remodeling; HRCT
25.  Comparison of oral fiberoptic intubation via a modified guedel airway or a laryngeal mask airway in infants and children 
Though fiberoptic intubation (FOI) is considered the gold standard for securing a difficult airway in a child, it may be technically difficult in an anesthetized child. The hypothesis for this study was that it would be easier to perform FOI via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) than a modified oropharyngeal airway with the advantage of maintaining anesthesia and oxygenation during the process.
Materials and Methods:
30 children aged 6 months to 5 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to two groups to have fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) guided intubation either via a modified Guedel airway (FOB-ORAL) or a classic LMA (FOB-LMA). In the FOB-LMA group, the LMA was removed when a second smaller endotracheal tube was anchored to the proximal end of the tracheal tube in place.
Oral fiberoptic intubation was successful in all children. The first attempt success rate was 11/15 (73.33%) in the FOB-LMA group and 3/15 (20%) in the FOB-ORAL group (P = 0.012). Subsequent attempts at intubation were successful after 90° anticlockwise rotation of the endotracheal tube over the FOB. The time taken for fiberoptic bronchoscopy was significantly less in FOB-LMA group (59.20 ± 42.85 sec vs 108.66 ± 52.43 sec). The incidence of desaturation was higher in the FOB-ORAL group (6/15 vs 0/15).
In children, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and intubation via an LMA has the advantage of being easier, with shorter intubation time and continuous oxygenation and ventilation throughout the procedure. Removal of the LMA following intubation requires particular care.
PMCID: PMC3590542  PMID: 23493291
Difficult; equipment; fiberoptic bronchoscope; intubation; laryngeal mask airway; modified oropharyngeal Guedel airway; tracheal

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