Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in approximately 15% of human breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Previous genomic analysis has led us to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lipid raft-associated 2 (ERLIN2) gene as one of the candidate oncogenes within the 8p11-12 amplicon in human breast cancer, particularly in the luminal subtype. ERLIN2, an ER membrane protein, has recently been identified as a novel mediator of ER-associated degradation. Yet, the biological roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast carcinogenesis remain unclear.
We established the MCF10A-ERLIN2 cell line, which stably over expresses ERLIN2 in human nontransformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) using the pLenti6/V5-ERLIN2 construct. ERLIN2 over expressing cells and their respective parental cell lines were assayed for in vitro transforming phenotypes. Next, we knocked down the ERLIN2 as well as the ER stress sensor IRE1α activity in the breast cancer cell lines to characterize the biological roles and molecular basis of the ERLIN2 in carcinogenesis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect ERLIN2 expression in normal and cancerous human breast tissues
We found that amplification of the ERLIN2 gene and over expression of the ERLIN2 protein occurs in both luminal and Her2 subtypes of breast cancer. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that ERLIN2 is a novel oncogenic factor associated with the ER stress response pathway. The IRE1α/XBP1 axis in the ER stress pathway modulated expression of ERLIN2 protein levels in breast cancer cells. We also showed that over expression of ERLIN2 facilitated the adaptation of breast epithelial cells to ER stress by supporting cell growth and protecting the cells from ER stress-induced cell death.
ERLIN2 may confer a selective growth advantage for breast cancer cells by facilitating a cytoprotective response to various cellular stresses associated with oncogenesis. The information provided here sheds new light on the mechanism of breast cancer malignancy
Gene amplification; Breast cancer; Endoplasmic reticulum; ERLIN2
Erlin1 and erlin2 are highly homologous, ~ 40kDa, endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins that assemble into a ring-shaped complex with a mass of ~2MDa. How this complex is formed is not understood, but appears to involve multiple interactions, including a coiled-coil region that mediates lower-order erlin assembly, and a short hydrophobic region, termed the “assembly domain”, that mediates higher-order assembly into ~2MDa complexes. Here we have used molecular modeling, mutagenesis and cross-linking to examine the role of the assembly domain in higher-order assembly. We find (i) that the assembly domains of erlin1 and erlin2 are amphipathic helices, (ii) that erlin1 alone and erlin2 alone can assemble into ~2MDa complexes, (iii) that higher-order assembly is strongly inhibited by point mutations to the assembly domain, (iv) that three interacting hydrophobic residues in the assembly domain and aromaticity are essential for higher-order assembly, and (iv) that while erlins1 and 2 are equally capable of forming lower-order homo- and hetero-oligomers, hetero-oligomers are the most prevalent form when erlin1 and erlin2 are co-expressed. Overall, we conclude that the ~2MDa erlin1/2 complex is composed of an assemblage of lower-order hetero-oligomers, probably heterotrimers, linked together by assembly domain hydrophobic residues.
erlin1; erlin2; amphipathic helix; assembly; crosslinking
While cell signaling devotees tend to think of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a Ca2+ store, those who study protein synthesis tend see it more as site for protein maturation, or even degradation when proteins do not fold properly. These two worldviews collide when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors are activated, since in addition to acting as release channels for stored ER Ca2+, IP3 receptors are rapidly destroyed via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, a ubiquitination- and proteasome-dependent mechanism that clears the ER of aberrant proteins. Here we review recent studies showing that activated IP3 receptors are ubiquitinated in an unexpectedly complex manner, and that a novel complex composed of the ER membrane proteins SPFH1 and SPFH2 (erlin 1 and 2) binds to IP3 receptors immediately after they are activated and mediates their ERAD. Remarkably, it seems that the conformational changes that underpin channel opening make IP3 receptors resemble aberrant proteins, which triggers their binding to the SPFH1/2 complex, their ubiquitination and extraction from the ER membrane and finally, their degradation by the proteasome. This degradation of activated IP3 receptors by the ERAD pathway serves to reduce the sensitivity of ER Ca2+ stores to IP3 and may protect cells against deleterious effects of over-activation of Ca2+ signaling pathways.
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurological disorders that are characterized by progressive spasticity of the lower extremities. We describe an extended consanguineous Saudi family in which HSP is linked to SPG18, a previously reported autosomal recessive locus, and show that it is associated with a nullimorphic deletion of ERLIN2, a component of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation. This finding adds to the growing diversity of cellular functions that are now known to be involved in the maintenance of the corticospinal tract neurons.
ERAD; Aphasia; Intellectual disability; ERLIN2
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane calcium channels that, upon activation, become substrates for the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. While it is clear that IP3 receptors are polyubiquitinated and are transferred to the proteasome by a p97-based complex, currently very little is known about the proteins that initially select activated IP3 receptors for ERAD. Here, we have transfected HeLa cells to stably express m3 muscarinic receptors to allow for the study of IP3 receptor ERAD in this cell type, and show that IP3 receptors are polyubiquitinated and then degraded by the proteasome in response to carbachol, a muscarinic agonist. In seeking to identify proteins that mediate IP3 receptor ERAD we found that both SPFH1 and SPFH2 (also known as erlin 1 and erlin 2), which exist as a hetero-oligomeric complex, rapidly associate with IP3 receptors in a manner that precedes polyubiquitination and the association of p97. Suppression of SPFH1 and SPFH2 expression by RNA interference markedly inhibited carbachol-induced IP3 receptor polyubiquitination and degradation, but did not affect carbachol-induced calcium mobilization or IκBα processing, indicating that the SPFH1/2 complex is a key player in IP3 receptor ERAD, acting at a step after IP3 receptor activation, but prior to IP3 receptor polyubiquitination. Suppression of SPFH1 and SPFH2 expression had only slight effects on the turnover of some exogenous model ERAD substrates, and had no effect on sterol-induced ERAD of endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Overall, these studies show that m3 receptor-expressing HeLa cells are a valuable system for studying IP3 receptor ERAD, and suggest that the SPFH1/2 complex is a factor that selectively mediates the ERAD of activated IP3 receptors.
inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; SPFH1; SPFH2; endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation; ubiquitin; proteasome
Loss of ubiquilin or erasin activates ER stress, increases accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, and shortens lifespan in worms.
Unwanted proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exported into the cytoplasm and degraded by the proteasome through the ER-associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD). Disturbances in ERAD are linked to ER stress, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. However, the composition and organization of ERAD complexes in human cells is still poorly understood. In this paper, we describe a trimeric complex that we propose functions in ERAD. Knockdown of erasin, a platform for p97/VCP and ubiquilin binding, or knockdown of ubiquilin in human cells slowed degradation of two classical ERAD substrates. In Caenorhabditis elegans, ubiquilin and erasin are ER stress-response genes that are regulated by the ire-1 branch of the unfolded protein response pathway. Loss of ubiquilin or erasin resulted in activation of ER stress, increased accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, and shortened lifespan in worms. Our results strongly support a role for this complex in ERAD and in the regulation of ER stress.
RNF-121 is an E3 ligase RING finger protein that is localized to the ER in Caenorhabditis elegans and functions in the UPR and ERAD pathways. The β subunit of the heterodimeric integrin receptor was identified as a substrate for RNF-121, suggesting a link between ERAD and cell adhesion through the regulation of β-integrin.
We report on the characterization of RNF-121, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase RING finger protein that is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of various cells and tissues in Caenorhabditis elegans. Inactivation of RNF-121 induced an elevation in BiP expression and increased the sensitivity of worms to ER stress. Genetic analysis placed RNF-121 downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). We identify PAT-3::GFP, the β subunit of the heterodimeric integrin receptors, as an RNF-121 substrate; whereas induction of RNF-121 expression reduced the level of PAT-3::GFP in the gonad distal tip cells, inhibition of RNF-121 led to the accumulation of stably bound PAT-3::GFP inclusions. Correspondingly, overexpression of RNF-121 during early stages of gonad development led to aberrations in germline development and gonad migration that overlap with those observed after PAT-3 inactivation. The formation of these gonad abnormalities required functional ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery. Our findings identify RNF-121 as an ER-anchored ubiquitin ligase that plays a specific role in the ERAD pathway by linking it to the regulation of the cell adhesion integrin receptors.
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt) protein, but the exact mechanism of HD pathogenesis remains uncertain. Recent evidence suggests that htt proteins with expanded polyglutamine tracts induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, probably by interfering with ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report that mutant htt interacts and interferes with the function of gp78, an ER membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase (E3) involved in ERAD. Mapping studies showed that the HEAT repeats 2&3 of htt interact with the cue domain of gp78. The interaction competitively reduces polyubiquitinated protein binding to gp78 and also sterically blocks gp78 interaction of p97/VCP, a molecular chaperone that is essential for ERAD. These effects of htt negatively regulate the function of gp78 in ERAD and are aggravated by polyglutamine expansion. Paradoxically, gp78 is still able to ubiquitinate and facilitate degradation of htt proteins with expanded polyglutamine. The impairment of ERAD by mutant htt proteins is associated with induction of ER stress. Our studies provide a novel molecular mechanism that supports the involvement of ER stress in HD pathogenesis.
The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a highly conserved mechanism to remove misfolded membrane/secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While many of the individual components of the ERAD machinery are well characterized in yeast and mammals, our knowledge of a plant ERAD process is rather limited. Here, we report a functional study of an Arabidopsis homolog (AtOS9) of an ER luminal lectin Yos9 (OS-9 in mammals) that recognizes a unique asparagine-linked glycan on misfolded proteins. We discovered that AtOS9 is an ER-localized glycoprotein that is co-expressed with many known/predicted ER chaperones. A T-DNA insertional atos9-t mutation blocks the degradation of a structurally imperfect yet biochemically competent brassinosteroid (BR) receptor bri1-9, causing its increased accumulation in the ER and its consequent leakage to the cell surface responsible for restoring the BR sensitivity and suppressing the dwarfism of the bri1-9 mutant. In addition, we identified a missense mutation in AtOS9 in a recently discovered ERAD mutant ems-mutagenized bri1 suppressor 6 (ebs6-1). Moreover, we showed that atos9-t also inhibits the ERAD of bri1-5, another ER-retained BR receptor, and a misfolded EFR, a BRI1-like receptor for the bacterial translation elongation factor EF-Tu. Furthermore, we found that AtOS9 interacted biochemically and genetically with EBS5, an Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast Hrd3/mammalian Sel1L known to collaborate with Yos9/OS-9 to select ERAD clients. Taken together, our results demonstrated a functional role of AtOS9 in a plant ERAD process that degrades misfolded receptor-like kinases.
brassinosteroid receptor; ER quality control; EMS-mutagenized bri1-9 suppressor; lectin; N-glycan; MRH domain
The accumulation of aberrantly folded proteins can lead to cell dysfunction
and death. Currently, the mechanisms of toxicity and cellular defenses against
their effects remain incompletely understood. In the endoplasmic reticulum
(ER), stress caused by misfolded proteins activates the unfolded protein
response (UPR). The UPR is an ER-to-nucleus signal transduction pathway that
regulates a wide variety of target genes to maintain cellular homeostasis. We
studied the effects of ER stress in budding yeast through expression of the
well-characterized misfolded protein, CPY*. By challenging cells within their
physiological limits to resist stress, we show that the UPR is required to
maintain essential functions including protein translocation, glycosylation,
degradation, and transport. Under stress, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD)
pathway for misfolded proteins is saturable. To maintain homeostasis, an
“overflow” pathway dependent on the UPR transports excess
substrate to the vacuole for turnover. The importance of this pathway was
revealed through mutant strains compromised in the vesicular trafficking of
excess CPY*. Expression of CPY* at levels tolerated by wild-type cells was
toxic to these strains despite retaining the ability to activate the UPR.
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) disposes of aberrant proteins in the secretory pathway. Protein substrates of ERAD are dislocated via the Sec61p translocon from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. Since the Sec61p channel is also responsible for import of nascent proteins, this bidirectional passage should be coordinated, probably by molecular chaperones. Here we implicate the cytosolic chaperone AAA-ATPase p97/Cdc48p in ERAD. We show the association of mammalian p97 and its yeast homologue Cdc48p in complexes with two respective ERAD substrates, secretory immunoglobulin M in B lymphocytes and 6myc-Hmg2p in yeast. The membrane 6myc-Hmg2p as well as soluble lumenal CPY*, two short-lived ERAD substrates, are markedly stabilized in conditional cdc48 yeast mutants. The involvement of Cdc48p in dislocation is underscored by the accumulation of ERAD substrates in the endoplasmic reticulum when Cdc48p fails to function, as monitored by activation of the unfolded protein response. We propose that the role of p97/Cdc48p in ERAD, provided by its potential unfoldase activity and multiubiquitin binding capacity, is to act at the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum and to chaperone dislocation of ERAD substrates and present them to the proteasome.
TorsinA is an AAA+ ATPase located within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope, with a mutant form causing early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). Here we report a new function for torsinA in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Retro-translocation and proteosomal degradation of a mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTRΔF508) was inhibited by downregulation of torsinA or overexpression of mutant torsinA, and facilitated by increased torsinA. Retro-translocation of cholera toxin was also decreased by downregulation of torsinA. TorsinA associates with proteins implicated in ERAD, including Derlin-1, VIMP, and p97. Further, torsinA reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress in nematodes overexpressing CFTRΔF508, and fibroblasts from DYT1 dystonia patients are more sensitive than controls to endoplasmic reticulum stress and less able to degrade mutant CFTR. Therefore, compromised ERAD function in the cells of DYT1 patients may increase sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum stress with consequent alterations in neuronal function contributing to the disease state.
dystonia; movement disorder; secretory pathway; retro-translocation; protein degradation; proteosome; cystic fibrosis; cholera toxin
The Bcl-2 protein, best known for its ability to inhibit apoptosis, interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) Ca2+ channel to regulate IP3-mediated Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the interaction of Bcl-2, and also its homologue Bcl-xl, with the IP3R and how these interactions regulate Ca2+ signaling. The dual role of these interactions in promoting prosurvival Ca2+ signals, while at the same time inhibiting proapoptotic Ca2+ signals, is discussed. Moreover, this review will elucidate the recently recognized importance of the Bcl-2-IP3R interaction in human disease.
Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exported to the
cytosol for degradation by the proteasome in a process known as ER-associated
degradation (ERAD). CPY* is a well characterized ERAD substrate whose
degradation is dependent upon the Hrd1 complex. However, although the
functions of some of the components of this complex are known, the nature of
the protein dislocation channel remains obscure. Sec61p has been suggested as
an obvious candidate because of its role as a protein-conducting channel
through which polypeptides are initially translocated into the ER. However, it
has not yet been possible to functionally dissect any role for Sec61p in
dislocation from its essential function in translocation. By changing the
translocation properties of a series of novel ERAD substrates, we are able to
separate these two events and find that functional Sec61p is essential for the
Protein secretion from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires the enzymatic activity of chaperones and oxidoreductases that fold polypeptides and form disulfide bonds within newly synthesized proteins. The best-characterized ER redox relay depends on the transfer of oxidizing equivalents from molecular oxygen through ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) and protein disulfide isomerase to nascent polypeptides. The formation of disulfide bonds is, however, not the sole function of ER oxidoreductases, which are also important regulators of ER calcium homeostasis. Given the role of human Ero1α in the regulation of the calcium release by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors during the onset of apoptosis, we hypothesized that Ero1α may have a redox-sensitive localization to specific domains of the ER. Our results show that within the ER, Ero1α is almost exclusively found on the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM). The localization of Ero1α on the MAM is dependent on oxidizing conditions within the ER. Chemical reduction of the ER environment, but not ER stress in general leads to release of Ero1α from the MAM. In addition, the correct localization of Ero1α to the MAM also requires normoxic conditions, but not ongoing oxidative phosphorylation.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER); Mitochondria; Mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM); Oxidative protein folding; Ero1α
Up to 70% of yeast proteins are N-terminally acetylated, but in few cases is the function known. The NatB Nα-acetyltransferase is essential for ER-associated degradation of luminal proteins (ERAD-L). Der1, an ERAD-L cofactor of the Hrd1 ubiquitin ligase, is acetylated by NatB and is the only N-acetylation substrate crucial to ERAD-L.
Two conserved ubiquitin ligases, Hrd1 and Doa10, mediate most endoplasmic reticulum–associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. Degradation signals (degrons) recognized by these ubiquitin ligases remain poorly characterized. Doa10 recognizes the Deg1 degron from the MATα2 transcription factor. We previously found that deletion of the gene (NAT3) encoding the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase weakly stabilized a Deg1-fusion protein. By contrast, a recent analysis of several MATα2 derivatives suggested that N-terminal acetylation of these proteins by NatB was crucial for recognition by Doa10. We now analyze endogenous MATα2 degradation in cells lacking NatB and observe minimal perturbation relative to wild-type cells. However, NatB mutation strongly impairs degradation of ER-luminal Hrd1 substrates. This unexpected defect derives from a failure of Der1, a Hrd1 complex subunit, to be N-terminally acetylated in NatB mutant yeast. We retargeted Der1 to another acetyltransferase to show that it is the only ERAD factor requiring N-terminal acetylation. Preventing Der1 acetylation stimulates its proteolysis via the Hrd1 pathway, at least partially accounting for the ERAD defect observed in the absence of NatB. These results reveal an important role for N-terminal acetylation in controlling Hrd1 ligase activity toward a specific class of ERAD substrates.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive ataxia. SCA2 results from a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the cytosolic protein ataxin-2 (Atx2). Cerebellar Purkine cells (PC) are primarily affected in SCA2, but the cause of PC dysfunction and death in SCA2 is poorly understood. In previous studies, we reported that mutant but not wild type Atx2 specifically binds the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) and increases its sensitivity to activation by InsP3. We further proposed that the resulting supranormal calcium (Ca2+) release from the PC endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in the development of SCA2 pathology. To test this hypothesis, we achieved a chronic suppression of InsP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of the inositol 1,4,5-phosphatase (Inpp5a) enzyme (5PP) in PCs of a SCA2 transgenic mouse model. We determined that recombinant 5PP overexpression alleviated age-dependent dysfunction in the firing pattern of SCA2 PCs. We further discovered that chronic 5PP overexpression also rescued age-dependent motor incoordination and PC death in SCA2 mice. Our findings further support the important role of supranormal Ca2+ signaling in SCA2 pathogenesis and suggest that partial inhibition of InsP3-mediated Ca2+ signaling could provide therapeutic benefit for the patients afflicted with SCA2 and possibly other SCAs.
Endoplasmic-reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) is a major cellular misfolded protein disposal pathway that is well conserved from yeast to mammals. In yeast, a mutant of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) was found to be a luminal ER substrate and has served as a useful marker to help identify modifiers of the ERAD pathway. Due to its ease of genetic manipulation and the ability to conduct a genome wide screen for modifiers of molecular pathways, C. elegans has become one of the preferred metazoans for studying cell biological processes, such as ERAD. However, a marker of ERAD activity comparable to CPY* has not been developed for this model system. We describe a mutant of pro-cathepsin L fused to YFP that no longer targets to the lysosome, but is efficiently eliminated by the ERAD pathway. Using this mutant pro-cathepsin L, we found that components of the mammalian ERAD system that participate in the degradation of ER luminal substrates were conserved in C. elegans. This transgenic line will facilitate high-throughput genetic or pharmacological screens for ERAD modifiers using widefield epifluorescence microscopy.
Certain transmembrane ERAD substrates are segregated into specialized ER subdomains, termed ER-associated compartments (ERACs), before degradation. COPII components and Hsp40s act in the same pathway to sequester ERAD substrates into ERACs. The findings point to an as-yet-undefined role of COPII proteins in the formation of ERACs.
Proteins that fail to fold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Certain transmembrane ERAD substrates are segregated into specialized ER subdomains, termed ER-associated compartments (ERACs), before targeting to ubiquitin–proteasome degradation. The traffic-independent function of several proteins involved in COPII-mediated ER-to-Golgi transport have been implicated in the segregation of exogenously expressed human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) into ERACs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we focus on the properties of COPII components in the sequestration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)–CFTR into ERACs. It has been demonstrated that the temperature-sensitive growth defects in many COPII mutants can be suppressed by overexpressing other genes involved in COPII vesicle formation. However, we show that these suppression abilities are not always correlated with the ability to rescue the ERAC formation defect, suggesting that COPII-mediated EGFP-CFTR entry into ERACs is independent of its ER-to-Golgi trafficking function. In addition to COPII machinery, we find that ER-associated Hsp40s are also involved in the sequestration process by directly interacting with EGFP-CFTR. COPII components and ER-associated Hsp40, Hlj1p, act in the same pathway to sequester EGFP-CFTR into ERACs. Our findings point to an as-yet-undefined role of COPII proteins in the formation of ERACs.
Although mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress have long been observed in cancer cells, their role in promoting malignant cell behavior remains unclear. Here, we show that perturbation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in breast cancer cells leads to a generation of subclones of cells with increased ROS, active proliferation, high cellular motility, and invasive behaviors in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed that all subclones overexpressed CXCL14, a novel chemokine with undefined function. We further show that CXCL14 expression is up-regulated by ROS through the activator protein-1 signaling pathway and promotes cell motility through elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ by binding to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum. Abrogation of CXCL14 expression using a decoy approach suppressed cell motility and invasion. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS stress promote cancer cell motility through a novel pathway mediated by CXCL14.
Eukaryotic organisms have quality-control mechanisms that allow misfolded or unassembled proteins to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The ERAD pathway is well studied in yeast and mammals; however, the biological functions of plant ERAD have not been reported. Through molecular and cellular biological approaches, we found that ERAD is necessary for plants to overcome salt stress. Upon salt treatment ubiquitinated proteins increased in plant cells, especially unfolded proteins that quickly accumulated in the ER and subsequently induced ER stress responses. Defect in HRD3A of the HRD1/HRD3 complex of the ERAD pathway resulted in alteration of the unfolded protein response (UPR), increased plant sensitivity to salt, and retention of ERAD substrates in plant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Ca2+ release from the ER is involved in the elevation of UPR and reactive oxygen species (ROS) participates the ERAD-related plant salt response pathway.
salt stress; ERAD; UPR; Ca2+; ROS
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a process that clears the early secretory pathway of misfolded proteins. Though ERAD is of basic biological importance, the clinical importance of this pathway is emphasized by the fact that mutations that render a protein subject to the ERAD quality control pathway underlie the cause of several diseases. The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a valuable and frequently used model system to study biological processes, such as ERAD, as it is a relatively simple model system for which numerous biochemical and genetic tools are available. In addition, the ERAD system is highly conserved between yeast and man. In this chapter, we describe two methods for the analysis of model substrates that undergo catabolism via the ERAD pathway using S. cerevisiae. In particular, we will describe non-radioactive degradation assays and the analysis of substrate ubiquitylation in vivo with or without the use of ubiquitin overexpression systems. We also describe technical hurdles, which we have encountered in our research, and highlight remedies to overcome them.
Yeast; ER-associated degradation; Ubiquitin; Proteasome; Cycloheximide chase
Calreticulin (CRT) and calnexin (CLNX) are lectin chaperones that participate in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). CRT is a soluble ER lumenal protein, whereas CLNX is a transmembrane protein with a cytosolic domain that contains two consensus motifs for protein kinase (PK) C/proline- directed kinase (PDK) phosphorylation. Using confocal Ca2+ imaging in Xenopus oocytes, we report here that coexpression of CLNX with sarco endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) 2b results in inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, suggesting a functional inhibition of the pump. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that this interaction is regulated by a COOH-terminal serine residue (S562) in CLNX. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate– mediated Ca2+ release results in a dephosphorylation of this residue. We also demonstrate by coimmunoprecipitation that CLNX physically interacts with the COOH terminus of SERCA2b and that after dephosphorylation treatment, this interaction is significantly reduced. Together, our results suggest that CRT is uniquely regulated by ER lumenal conditions, whereas CLNX is, in addition, regulated by the phosphorylation status of its cytosolic domain. The S562 residue in CLNX acts as a molecular switch that regulates the interaction of the chaperone with SERCA2b, thereby affecting Ca2+ signaling and controlling Ca2+-sensitive chaperone functions in the ER.
phosphorylation; calnexin; ER lectin chaperones; Ca2+ ATPases; Ca2+ signaling
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family of enveloped DNA viruses. It was previously shown that HBV can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the IRE1-XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR), through the expression of the viral regulatory protein X (HBx). However, it remained obscure whether or not this activation had any functional consequences on the target genes of the UPR pathway. Of these targets, the ER degradation-enhancing, mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) are thought to play an important role in relieving the ER stress during UPR, by recognizing terminally misfolded glycoproteins and delivering them to the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In this study, we investigated the role of EDEMs in the HBV life-cycle. We found that synthesis of EDEMs (EDEM1 and its homologues, EDEM2 and EDEM3) is significantly up-regulated in cells with persistent or transient HBV replication. Co-expression of the wild-type HBV envelope proteins with EDEM1 resulted in their massive degradation, a process reversed by EDEM1 silencing. Surprisingly, the autophagy/lysosomes, rather than the proteasome were involved in disposal of the HBV envelope proteins. Importantly, inhibition of the endogenous EDEM1 expression in HBV replicating cells significantly increased secretion of both, enveloped virus and subviral particles. This is the first report showing that HBV activates the ERAD pathway, which, in turn, reduces the amount of envelope proteins, possibly as a mechanism to control the level of virus particles in infected cells and facilitate the establishment of chronic infections.
The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane mediates metabolic flow, Ca2+, and cell death signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial networks. We demonstrate that VDAC1 is physically linked to the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) through the molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 75 (grp75). Functional interaction between the channels was shown by the recombinant expression of the ligand-binding domain of the IP3R on the ER or mitochondrial surface, which directly enhanced Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria. Knockdown of grp75 abolished the stimulatory effect, highlighting chaperone-mediated conformational coupling between the IP3R and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake machinery. Because organelle Ca2+ homeostasis influences fundamentally cellular functions and death signaling, the central location of grp75 may represent an important control point of cell fate and pathogenesis.