Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived compounds with signal functions in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. Jasmonic acid and its various metabolites are members of the oxylipin family. Many of them alter gene expression positively or negatively in a regulatory network with synergistic and antagonistic effects in relation to other plant hormones such as salicylate, auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid.
This review summarizes biosynthesis and signal transduction of jasmonates with emphasis on new findings in relation to enzymes, their crystal structure, new compounds detected in the oxylipin and jasmonate families, and newly found functions.
Crystal structure of enzymes in jasmonate biosynthesis, increasing number of jasmonate metabolites and newly identified components of the jasmonate signal-transduction pathway, including specifically acting transcription factors, have led to new insights into jasmonate action, but its receptor(s) is/are still missing, in contrast to all other plant hormones.
Oxylipins; jasmonic acid; jasmonate metabolites; enzymes in biosynthesis and metabolism; signal function
Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene was directly quantified under normoxia, hypoxia (0.1–1.0% O2), or full anoxia. The production of both gases was increased with reduced expression of either of the Hb genes GLB1 or GLB2, whereas NO emission decreased in plants overexpressing these genes. NO emission in plants with reduced Hb gene expression represented a major loss of nitrogen equivalent to 0.2mM nitrate per 24h under hypoxic conditions. Hb gene expression was greatly enhanced in flooded roots, suggesting induction by reduced oxygen diffusion. The function could be to limit loss of nitrogen under NO emission. NO reacts with thiols to form S-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content of S-nitrosylated compounds. A parallel up-regulation of Hb gene expression in the normoxic shoots of the flooded plants may reflect signal transmission from root to shoot via ethylene and a role for Hb in the shoots. Hb gene expression was correlated with ethylene-induced upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) but not with hypocotyl growth, which was Hb independent. Taken together the data suggest that Hb can influence flood-induced hyponasty via ethylene-dependent and, possibly, ethylene-independent pathways.
Ethylene; flooding; haemoglobin; hyponastic growth; hypoxia; nitric oxide (NO)
Seed metabolism is dynamically adjusted to oxygen availability. Processes underlying this auto-regulatory mechanism control the metabolic efficiency under changing environmental conditions/stress and thus, are of relevance for biotechnology. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins have been shown to be involved in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) molecules, which play a key role in oxygen sensing/balancing in plants and animals. Steady state levels of NO are suggested to act as an integrator of energy and carbon metabolism and subsequently, influence energy-demanding growth processes in plants.
We aimed to manipulate oxygen stress perception in Arabidopsis seeds by overexpression of the non-symbiotic hemoglobin AtHb1 under the control of the seed-specific LeB4 promoter. Seeds of transgenic AtHb1 plants did not accumulate NO under transient hypoxic stress treatment, showed higher respiratory activity and energy status compared to the wild type. Global transcript profiling of seeds/siliques from wild type and transgenic plants under transient hypoxic and standard conditions using Affymetrix ATH1 chips revealed a rearrangement of transcriptional networks by AtHb1 overexpression under non-stress conditions, which included the induction of transcripts related to ABA synthesis and signaling, receptor-like kinase- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling pathways, WRKY transcription factors and ROS metabolism. Overexpression of AtHb1 shifted seed metabolism to an energy-saving mode with the most prominent alterations occurring in cell wall metabolism. In combination with metabolite and physiological measurements, these data demonstrate that AtHb1 overexpression improves oxidative stress tolerance compared to the wild type where a strong transcriptional and metabolic reconfiguration was observed in the hypoxic response.
AtHb1 overexpression mediates a pre-adaptation to hypoxic stress. Under transient stress conditions transgenic seeds were able to keep low levels of endogenous NO and to maintain a high energy status, in contrast to wild type. Higher weight of mature transgenic seeds demonstrated the beneficial effects of seed-specific overexpression of AtHb1.
Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. This review begins with a brief summary of the current findings on plant hormones. Based on this knowledge, a conceptual model about interactions among plant hormones is built so as to link and develop an understanding of the diverse functions of different plant hormones as a whole in plants.
abscisic acid; auxin; brassinosteroids; cytokinins; ethylene; gibberellins; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid; plant peptide hormones
The cyclic nucleotide cGMP has been shown to play important roles in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. Yet much controversy remains regarding the exact role of this second messenger. Progress in unravelling cGMP function in plants was hampered by laborious and time-consuming methodology to measure changes in cellular [cGMP] but the development of fluorescence-based reporters has removed this disadvantage. This study used the FlincG cGMP reporter to investigate potential interactions between phytohormone and cGMP signalling and found a rapid and significant effect of the hormones abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), and jasmonic acid (JA) on cytoplasmic cGMP levels. In contrast, brassinosteroids and cytokinin did not evoke a cGMP signal. The effects of ABA, IAA, and JA were apparent at external concentrations in the nanomolar range with EC50 values of around 1000, 300, and 0.03 nmoles for ABA, IAA, and JA respectively. To examine potential mechanisms for how hormone-induced cGMP signals are propagated, the role of protein phosphorylation was tested. A phosphoproteomics analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana root microsomal proteins in the absence and presence of membrane-permeable cGMP showed 15 proteins that rapidly (within minutes) changed in phosphorylation status. Out of these, nine were previously shown to also alter phosphorylation status in response to plant hormones, pointing to protein phosphorylation as a target for hormone-induced cGMP signalling.
abscisic acid; Arabidopsis; auxin; cGMP; jasmonic acid; phosphoproteomics; phosphorylation; protein; root; stress
Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed.
Hormones exert pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development throughout the life cycle. Many of these effects are mediated at molecular level via altering gene expression. In this study, we investigated the exogenous effect of plant hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, on the transcription of rice genes at whole genome level using microarray. Our analysis identified a total of 4171 genes involved in several biological processes, whose expression was altered significantly in the presence of different hormones. Further, 28% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses in the presence of any two hormones, indicating crosstalk among plant hormones. In addition, we identified genes showing only a particular hormone-specific response, which can be used as hormone-specific markers. The results of this study will facilitate further studies in hormone biology in rice.
gene expression; hormones; microarray; rice (Oryza sativa); transcriptional response
Haemoglobins are found ubiquitously in eukaryotes and many bacteria. In plants, haemoglobins were first identified in species,
which can fix nitrogen via symbiosis with bacteria. Recent findings suggest that another class of haemoglobins termed as nonsymbiotic
haemoglobins are present through out the plant kingdom and are expressed differentially during plant development.
Limited data available suggests that non-symbiotic haemoglobins are involved in hypoxic stress and oversupply of nutrients. Due to
lack of information on structurally conserved, functionally important residues in non-symbiotic haemoglobins, further studies to
elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological role are hampered. To determine functionally important residues in
non-symbiotic haemoglobins, I have analyzed a number of sequences from plant haemoglobin family, in the context of the known
crystal structures of plant by evolutionary trace method. Results indicate that the, evolutionary trace method like conventional
phylogentic analysis, could resolve phylogentic relationships between plant haemoglobin family. Evolutionary trace analysis has
identified candidate functional (trace) residues that uniquely characterize the heme-binding pocket, dimer interface and possible
novel functional surfaces. Such residues from specific three-dimensional clusters might be of functional importance in nonsymbiotic
haemoglobins. These data, together with our improved knowledge of possible functional residues, can be used in future
structure-function analysis experiments.
evolution; haemoglobin; site directed mutagenesis; phylogeny
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in plant development and also promote tolerance to a range of abiotic stresses. Although much has been learned about their roles in plant development, the mechanisms by which BRs control plant stress responses and regulate stress-responsive gene expression are not fully known. Since BR interacts with other plant hormones, it is likely that the stress tolerance conferring ability of BR lies in part in its interactions with other stress hormones.
Using a collection of Arabidopsis mutants that are either deficient in or insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), we studied the effects of 24-epibrassinloide (EBR) on basic thermotolerance and salt tolerance of these mutants. The positive impact of EBR on thermotolerance in proportion to wild type was evident in all mutants studied, with the exception of the SA-insensitive npr1-1 mutant. EBR could rescue the ET-insensitive ein2 mutant from its hypersensitivity to salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination, but remained ineffective in increasing the survival of eto1-1 (ET-overproducer) and npr1-1 seedlings on salt. The positive effect of EBR was significantly greater in the ABA-deficient aba1-1 mutant as compared to wild type, indicating that ABA masks BR effects in plant stress responses. Treatment with EBR increased expression of various hormone marker genes in both wild type and mutant seedlings, although to different levels.
These results together indicate that the redox-sensitive protein NPR1 (NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1), a master regulator of SA-mediated defense genes, is likely a critical component of EBR-mediated increase in thermotolerance and salt tolerance, but it is not required for EBR-mediated induction of PR-1 (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1) gene expression; that BR exerts anti-stress effects independently as well as through interactions with other hormones; that ABA inhibits BR effects during stress; and that BR shares transcriptional targets with other hormones.
The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is an invasive insect pest that causes serious yield losses in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., durum wheat, T. turgidum L and barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Successful management of D. noxia has been achieved through resistant varieties via plant antixenosis (aphid non-preference), antibiosis (reduced aphid growth or fecundity), tolerance (plant compensatory growth after aphid feeding), or a combination of each. Previous phenotyping experiments revealed that plants of the variety Stoneham resist D. noxia damage via tolerance. In the present study, genes involved in upstream regulation of jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), auxin (AUX) and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic pathways were monitored using qRT-PCR in Stoneham and susceptible Otis barley plants after D. noxia biotype 2 feeding. Results indicate that D. noxia tolerance in Stoneham plants is related to greater constitutive expression of JA-, ET- and AUX-biosynthetic pathway genes than in susceptible Otis plants, suggesting the possibility of immediate plant adjustments due to the stress of D. noxia feeding. There was limited induction of genes in the ET-(ACCS) and IAA (TDC) pathways in Stoneham tissues after D. noxia feeding. JA pathway genes upregulated in Otis tissues after D. noxia infestation failed to successfully defend Otis plants. AUX and ABA transcripts in Otis may be associated with developmental collapses resulting from source and sink adjustment failures.
Diuraphis noxia; barley; biotypes; qRT-PCR; resistance; tolerance
Auxin plays a wide range of regulatory roles in diverse aspects of plant growth and developmental processes through a complex network of signaling interactions. In the May issue of Journal of Biological Chemistry, we have demonstrated that auxin homeostasis directly links growth regulation with stress adaptation responses through interactions with salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signals. In this signaling network, the endogenous auxin content is coordinately regulated through negative feedback by a group of auxin-inducible GH3 genes that encode auxin-conjugating enzymes. The Arabidopsis mutant wes1-D overexpressing a GH3 gene WES1 exhibits typical auxin-deficient traits, such as reduced growth and leaf curling, but is resistant to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition, various stress-regulated genes, including pathogenesis- related protein genes (PRs) and C-repeat/dehydration responsive element binding factor genes (CBFs), are up-regulated in the mutant. Consistent with these observations, WES1 is activated by pathogenic infections and abiotic stresses as well as by exogenous SA and ABA. We therefore propose that the WES1-mediated growth suppression would underlie the commonly observed symptoms of infected or stressed plants and provide a mechanism for auxin action in the fitness costs of induced resistance in plants.
Arabidopsis; abscisic acid; auxin homeostasis; GH3; light; salicylic acid; stress adaptation
Leguminous plants form root nodules, in which symbiotic rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and supply the fixation products to their host plants as a nitrogen source. On the process of establishing the symbiosis, rhizobia induce genes involved in the defense system of their host plants. However, the host defense responses will be cancelled by unknown mechanism. We focused on nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule of plant defense system and class 1 plant hemoglobin (Hb) as a scavenger of NO. The inoculation of a symbiotic rhizobium, Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, induced transiently NO production and expression of a class 1 Hb gene LjHb1 in the roots of a model legume Lotus japonicus. In this addendum, we show that the lipopolysaccharide of M. loti induces NO production and expression of LjHb1 in L. japonicus, and we propose the role of NO and Hb at the early stage of symbiosis.
nitric oxide; hemoglobin; rhizobium; symbiosis; defense; Lotus japonicus; Mesorhizobium loti; lipopolysaccharide
Various environmental and internal cues play essential roles in regulating diverse aspects of plant growth and development. Phytohormones usually coordinate multiple stimuli to directly regulate multiple developmental programs. Recent studies have provided progresses into the complexity of their cross talk. Particularly, the signaling pathways of various phytohormones have been revealed, leading to the discovery of the mechanisms of the interplay among different hormone signaling pathways. This review focuses on the recent advances of the signaling cross-talk between brassinosteroids and other hormones, including abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellins, ethylene and jasmonate.
brassinosteroids; plant hormone; abscisic acid; auxin; cross talk; signaling
Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy.
salt stress; plant-microbe interactions; drought stress; Medicago truncatula; mapman mapping
Present knowledge on plant non-symbiotic class-1 (Hb1) and truncated (TrHb) haemoglobin genes is almost entirely based on herbaceous species while the corresponding tree haemoglobin genes are not well known. The function of these genes has recently been linked with endosymbioses between plants and microbes. In this work, the coding sequences of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×tremuloides) PttHb1 and PttTrHb were characterized, indicating that the key residues of haem and ligand binding of both genes were conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences. The expression of PttHb1 and PttTrHb was examined in parallel with that of the heterologous Vitreoscilla haemoglobin gene (vhb) during ectomycorrhiza/ectomycorrhizal (ECM) interaction. Both ECM fungi studied, Leccinum populinum and Xerocomus subtomentosus, enhanced root formation and subsequent growth of roots of all hybrid aspen lines, but only L. populinum was able to form mycorrhizas. Real-time PCR results show that the dual culture with the ECM fungus, with or without emergence of symbiotic structures, increased the expression of both PttHb1 and PttTrHb in the roots of non-transgenic hybrid aspens. PttHb1 and PttTrHb had expression peaks 5 h and 2 d after inoculation, respectively, pointing to different functions for these genes during interaction with root growth-improving fungi. In contrast, ECM fungi were not able to enhance the expression of hybrid aspen endogenous haemoglobin genes in the VHb lines, which may be a consequence of the compensating action of heterologous haemoglobin.
Ectomycorrhizas; non-symbiotic haemoglobin; Populus tremula×tremuloides; real-time PCR; truncated haemoglobin; Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb)
Understanding the global abiotic stress response is an important stepping stone for the development of universal stress tolerance in plants in the era of climate change. Although co-occurrence of several stress factors (abiotic and biotic) in nature is found to be frequent, current attempts are poor to understand the complex physiological processes impacting plant growth under combinatory factors. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances of reverse engineering approaches that led to seminal discoveries of key candidate regulatory genes involved in cross-talk of abiotic stress responses and summarized the available tools of reverse engineering and its relevant application. Among the universally induced regulators involved in various abiotic stress responses, we highlight the importance of (i) abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormonal cross-talks and (ii) the central role of WRKY transcription factors (TF), potentially mediating both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Such interactome networks help not only to derive hypotheses but also play a vital role in identifying key regulatory targets and interconnected hormonal responses. To explore the full potential of gene network inference in the area of abiotic stress tolerance, we need to validate hypotheses by implementing time-dependent gene expression data from genetically engineered plants with modulated expression of target genes. We further propose to combine information on gene-by-gene interactions with data from physical interaction platforms such as protein–protein or TF-gene networks.
abiotic stress; Arabidopsis; reverse engineering; systems biology; stress tolerance; yield
The transcription factor family intimately regulates gene expression in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic factors, symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation, and stress signalling pathways in plants. In this study, 170 AP2/ERF family genes are identified by phylogenetic analysis of the rice genome (Oryza sativa l. japonica) and they are divided into a total of 11 groups, including four major groups (AP2, ERF, DREB, and RAV), 10 subgroups, and two soloists. Gene structure analysis revealed that, at position-6, the amino acid threonine (Thr-6) is conserved in the double domain AP2 proteins compared to the amino acid arginine (Arg-6), which is preserved in the single domain of ERF proteins. In addition, the histidine (His) amino acid is found in both domains of the double domain AP2 protein, which is missing in single domain ERF proteins. Motif analysis indicates that most of the conserved motifs, apart from the AP2/ERF domain, are exclusively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree and regulate plausible functions. Expression analysis reveals a widespread distribution of the rice AP2/ERF family genes within plant tissues. In the vegetative organs, the transcripts of these genes are found most abundant in the roots followed by the leaf and stem; whereas, in reproductive tissues, the gene expression of this family is observed high in the embryo and lemma. From chromosomal localization, it appears that repetition and tandem-duplication may contribute to the evolution of new genes in the rice genome. In this study, interspecies comparisons between rice and wheat reveal 34 rice loci and unveil the extent of collinearity between the two genomes. It was subsequently ascertained that chromosome-9 has more orthologous loci for CRT/DRE genes whereas chromosome-2 exhibits orthologs for ERF subfamily members. Maximum conserved synteny is found in chromosome-3 for AP2 double domain subfamily genes. Macrosynteny between rice and Arabidopsis, a distant, related genome, uncovered 11 homologs/orthologs loci in both genomes. The distribution of AP2/ERF family gene paralogs in Arabidopsis was most frequent in chromosome-1 followed by chromosome-5. In Arabidopsis, ERF subfamily gene orthologs are found on chromosome-1, chromosome-3, and chromosome-5, whereas DRE subfamily genes are found on chromosome-2 and chromosome-5. Orthologs for RAV and AP2 with double domains in Arabidopsis are located on chromosome-1 and chromosome-3, respectively. In conclusion, the data generated in this survey will be useful for conducting genomic research to determine the precise role of the AP2/ERF gene during stress responses with the ultimate goal of improving crops.
AP2/ERF; CBF/DREB; RAV; phylogenetic analysis; rice; wheat; Arabidopsis
Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.
CBF1-3 (C-repeat binding factors) are transcriptional activators governing plant responses to low temperatures. Overexpression of CBF1-3 genes enhances plant frost tolerance, but also causes various pleiotropic effects regarding plant growth and development, mainly growth retardation, and delay of flowering and senescence. In a recent study, we reported that overexpression of CBF2 suppressed leaf senescence induced by the stress hormone ethylene. Here we show that overexpression of CBF2 also suppressed chlorophyll breakdown and leaf senescence induced by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which indicates its broader role in suppressing hormone-induced leaf senescence. As previously reported for ethylene, the observed decrease in responsiveness to ABA in CBF2-overexpressing plants was specific to leaf senescence, since other responses to ABA were similar to those of wild-type plants. Transcript profiling analysis of hormone metabolism and responsive genes revealed that overexpression of CBF2 induced expression of ABA-biosynthesis and ABA-responsive genes and suppressed SA- and JA-related genes. Overall, in light of the adverse effects of CBF2 on ABA metabolism and responsiveness, on the one hand, and SA and JA metabolism and responsiveness, on the other hand, we conclude that overexpression of CBF2 suppresses hormone-induced leaf senescence by directly counteracting the hormone effects on leaf senescence and not by general suppression of their synthesis or signal transduction pathways.
abscisic acid; arabidopsis; CBF2; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid; senescence
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and most vascular plants. The symbiosis significantly affects the host physiology in terms of nutrition and stress resistance. Despite the lack of host range specificity of the interaction, functional diversity between AM fungal species exists. The interaction is finely regulated according to plant and fungal characters, and plant hormones are believed to orchestrate the modifications in the host plant. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the host response to different mycorrhizal fungi was performed combining multiple hormone determination and transcriptional profiling. Analysis of ethylene-, abscisic acid-, salicylic acid-, and jasmonate-related compounds evidenced common and divergent responses of tomato roots to Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, two fungi differing in their colonization abilities and impact on the host. Both hormonal and transcriptional analyses revealed, among others, regulation of the oxylipin pathway during the AM symbiosis and point to a key regulatory role for jasmonates. In addition, the results suggest that specific responses to particular fungi underlie the differential impact of individual AM fungi on plant physiology, and particularly on its ability to cope with biotic stresses.
Arbuscular mycorrhiza; hormones; jasmonates; LC-MS/MS analysis; microarrays; oxylipins
The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein changes its fate. Notably, proteins typically tagged with a lysine48-linked polyubiquitin chain become substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. In recent years many experiments have been performed to characterize the proteins involved in the ubiquitylation process and to identify their substrates, in order to understand better the mechanisms that link specific protein degradation events to regulation of plant growth and development.
This review focuses on the role that ubiquitin plays in hormone synthesis, hormonal signalling cascades and plant defence mechanisms. Several examples are given of how targeted degradation of proteins affects downstream transcriptional regulation of hormone-responsive genes in the auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways. Additional experiments suggest that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may also act upstream of the hormonal signalling cascades by regulating hormone biosynthesis, transport and perception. Moreover, several experiments demonstrate that hormonal cross-talk can occur at the level of proteolysis. The more recently established role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in defence against biotic threats is also reviewed.
The UPS has been implicated in the regulation of almost every developmental process in plants, from embryogenesis to floral organ production probably through its central role in many hormone pathways. More recent evidence provides molecular mechanisms for hormonal cross-talk and links the UPS system to biotic defence responses.
Ubiquitin; E3 ligase; RING; U-Box; SCF; CRL; ubiquitylation; regulated proteolysis; plant defence; hormonal signalling; biotic stress; pathogen response
Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontrol-associated hormones directly affect disease development.
A previous study distinguished bacterium-responsive genes from bacterium-primed genes, distinguished by the fact that the latter are only up-regulated when both P. fluorescens and the pathogen Fusarium culmorum are present. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences available for a subset of the bacterium-primed genes identified several hormones, including IAA and ABA as potential regulators of transcription. Treatment with the bacterium or pathogen resulted in increased IAA and ABA levels in head tissue; both microbes had additive effects on the accumulation of IAA but not of ABA. The microbe-induced accumulation of ABA preceded that of IAA. Gene expression analysis showed that both hormones up-regulated the accumulation of bacterium-primed genes. But IAA, more than ABA up-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED or the signalling gene Pi2, both of which were previously shown to be bacterium-responsive rather than primed. Application of IAA, but not of ABA reduced both disease severity and yield loss caused by F. culmorum, but neither hormone affect in vitro fungal growth.
Both IAA and ABA are involved in the P. fluorescens-mediated control of FHB disease of barley. Gene expression studies also support the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in the primed response to F. culmorum. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that pre-application of IAA reduced both symptoms and yield loss asssociated with the disease. This is the first evidence that IAA plays a role in the control of FHB disease and in the bacterial priming of host defences.
Hormone; IAA; ABA; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Biocontrol; Fusarium head blight
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in plant development and in plant adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stressors. In recent years, knowledge of ABA metabolism and signal transduction has advanced rapidly to provide detailed glimpses of the hormone's activities at the molecular level. Despite this progress, many gaps in understanding have remained, particularly at the early stages of ABA perception by the plant cell. The search for an ABA receptor protein has produced multiple candidates, including GCR2, GTG1, and GTG2, and CHLH. In addition to these candidates, in 2009 several research groups converged on a novel family of Arabidopsis proteins that bind ABA, and thereby interact directly with a class of protein phosphatases that are well known as critical players in ABA signal transduction. The PYR/PYL/RCAR receptor family is homologous to the Bet v 1-fold and START domain proteins. It consists of 14 members, nearly all of which appear capable of participating in an ABA receptor–signal complex that responds to the hormone by activating the transcription of ABA-responsive genes. Evidence is provided here that PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors can also drive the phosphorylation of the slow anion channel SLAC1 to provide a fast and timely response to the ABA signal. Crystallographic studies have vividly shown the mechanics of ABA binding to PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, presenting a model that bears some resemblance to the binding of gibberellins to GID1 receptors. Since this ABA receptor family is highly conserved in crop species, its discovery is likely to usher a new wave of progress in the elucidation and manipulation of plant stress responses in agricultural settings.
Abiotic stress; abscisic acid; Bet v 1-fold; drought; PP2C; PYR/PYL/RCAR; salinity; SnRK; signal–receptor; START domain
Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) synthesized by the plant upon biotic infestation repress low light-induced hyponastic growth. The hyponastic growth response induced by high temperature (heat) treatment and upon application of the gaseous hormone ethylene is highly similar to the response induced by low light. To test if these environmental signals induce hyponastic growth via parallel pathways or converge downstream, we studied here the roles of Methyl-JA (MeJA) and SA on ethylene- and heat-induced hyponastic growth. For this, we used a time-lapse camera setup. Our study includes pharmacological application of MeJA and SA and biological infestation using the JA-inducing caterpillar Pieris rapae as well as mutants lacking JA or SA signalling components. The data demonstrate that MeJA is a positive, and SA, a negative regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and that both hormones repress the response to heat. Taking previous studies into account, we conclude that SA is the first among many tested components which is repressing hyponastic growth under all tested inductive environmental stimuli. However, since MeJA is a positive regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and is inhibiting low light- and heat-induced leaf movement, we conclude that defence hormones control hyponastic growth by affecting stimulus-specific signalling pathways.
Arabidopsis; Ethylene; Heat; Hyponastic growth; Jasmonate; Leaf movement; Salicylate
Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding). These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing.
Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight) tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified.
The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive) tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation.
Phytohormones; Jasmonates; LC-MS/MS; Solid phase extraction (SPE); Quantification; Electrospray ionization; Plant stress response; Wounding