Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived compounds with signal functions in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. Jasmonic acid and its various metabolites are members of the oxylipin family. Many of them alter gene expression positively or negatively in a regulatory network with synergistic and antagonistic effects in relation to other plant hormones such as salicylate, auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid.
This review summarizes biosynthesis and signal transduction of jasmonates with emphasis on new findings in relation to enzymes, their crystal structure, new compounds detected in the oxylipin and jasmonate families, and newly found functions.
Crystal structure of enzymes in jasmonate biosynthesis, increasing number of jasmonate metabolites and newly identified components of the jasmonate signal-transduction pathway, including specifically acting transcription factors, have led to new insights into jasmonate action, but its receptor(s) is/are still missing, in contrast to all other plant hormones.
Oxylipins; jasmonic acid; jasmonate metabolites; enzymes in biosynthesis and metabolism; signal function
Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception, and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates, and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO–phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic, and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO–phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed.
nitric oxide; plant hormones; auxin; cytokinin; gibberellin; abscisic acid; ethylene; S-nitrosylation
Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene was directly quantified under normoxia, hypoxia (0.1–1.0% O2), or full anoxia. The production of both gases was increased with reduced expression of either of the Hb genes GLB1 or GLB2, whereas NO emission decreased in plants overexpressing these genes. NO emission in plants with reduced Hb gene expression represented a major loss of nitrogen equivalent to 0.2mM nitrate per 24h under hypoxic conditions. Hb gene expression was greatly enhanced in flooded roots, suggesting induction by reduced oxygen diffusion. The function could be to limit loss of nitrogen under NO emission. NO reacts with thiols to form S-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content of S-nitrosylated compounds. A parallel up-regulation of Hb gene expression in the normoxic shoots of the flooded plants may reflect signal transmission from root to shoot via ethylene and a role for Hb in the shoots. Hb gene expression was correlated with ethylene-induced upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) but not with hypocotyl growth, which was Hb independent. Taken together the data suggest that Hb can influence flood-induced hyponasty via ethylene-dependent and, possibly, ethylene-independent pathways.
Ethylene; flooding; haemoglobin; hyponastic growth; hypoxia; nitric oxide (NO)
Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids, that have been thoroughly described to regulate plant development and growth, have recently emerged as key regulators of plant immunity. Plant hormones interact in complex networks to balance the response to developmental and environmental cues and thus limiting defense-associated fitness costs. The molecular mechanisms that govern these hormonal networks are largely unknown. Moreover, hormone signaling pathways are targeted by pathogens to disturb and evade plant defense responses. In this review, we address novel insights on the regulatory roles of the ABA, SA, and auxin in plant resistance to pathogens and we describe the complex interactions among their signal transduction pathways. The strategies developed by pathogens to evade hormone-mediated defensive responses are also described. Based on these data we discuss how hormone signaling could be manipulated to improve the resistance of crops to pathogens.
abscisic acid; auxin; hormone crosstalk; pathogens; salicylic acid; trade-off; virulence factor
Seed metabolism is dynamically adjusted to oxygen availability. Processes underlying this auto-regulatory mechanism control the metabolic efficiency under changing environmental conditions/stress and thus, are of relevance for biotechnology. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins have been shown to be involved in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) molecules, which play a key role in oxygen sensing/balancing in plants and animals. Steady state levels of NO are suggested to act as an integrator of energy and carbon metabolism and subsequently, influence energy-demanding growth processes in plants.
We aimed to manipulate oxygen stress perception in Arabidopsis seeds by overexpression of the non-symbiotic hemoglobin AtHb1 under the control of the seed-specific LeB4 promoter. Seeds of transgenic AtHb1 plants did not accumulate NO under transient hypoxic stress treatment, showed higher respiratory activity and energy status compared to the wild type. Global transcript profiling of seeds/siliques from wild type and transgenic plants under transient hypoxic and standard conditions using Affymetrix ATH1 chips revealed a rearrangement of transcriptional networks by AtHb1 overexpression under non-stress conditions, which included the induction of transcripts related to ABA synthesis and signaling, receptor-like kinase- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling pathways, WRKY transcription factors and ROS metabolism. Overexpression of AtHb1 shifted seed metabolism to an energy-saving mode with the most prominent alterations occurring in cell wall metabolism. In combination with metabolite and physiological measurements, these data demonstrate that AtHb1 overexpression improves oxidative stress tolerance compared to the wild type where a strong transcriptional and metabolic reconfiguration was observed in the hypoxic response.
AtHb1 overexpression mediates a pre-adaptation to hypoxic stress. Under transient stress conditions transgenic seeds were able to keep low levels of endogenous NO and to maintain a high energy status, in contrast to wild type. Higher weight of mature transgenic seeds demonstrated the beneficial effects of seed-specific overexpression of AtHb1.
Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. This review begins with a brief summary of the current findings on plant hormones. Based on this knowledge, a conceptual model about interactions among plant hormones is built so as to link and develop an understanding of the diverse functions of different plant hormones as a whole in plants.
abscisic acid; auxin; brassinosteroids; cytokinins; ethylene; gibberellins; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid; plant peptide hormones
The cyclic nucleotide cGMP has been shown to play important roles in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. Yet much controversy remains regarding the exact role of this second messenger. Progress in unravelling cGMP function in plants was hampered by laborious and time-consuming methodology to measure changes in cellular [cGMP] but the development of fluorescence-based reporters has removed this disadvantage. This study used the FlincG cGMP reporter to investigate potential interactions between phytohormone and cGMP signalling and found a rapid and significant effect of the hormones abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), and jasmonic acid (JA) on cytoplasmic cGMP levels. In contrast, brassinosteroids and cytokinin did not evoke a cGMP signal. The effects of ABA, IAA, and JA were apparent at external concentrations in the nanomolar range with EC50 values of around 1000, 300, and 0.03 nmoles for ABA, IAA, and JA respectively. To examine potential mechanisms for how hormone-induced cGMP signals are propagated, the role of protein phosphorylation was tested. A phosphoproteomics analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana root microsomal proteins in the absence and presence of membrane-permeable cGMP showed 15 proteins that rapidly (within minutes) changed in phosphorylation status. Out of these, nine were previously shown to also alter phosphorylation status in response to plant hormones, pointing to protein phosphorylation as a target for hormone-induced cGMP signalling.
abscisic acid; Arabidopsis; auxin; cGMP; jasmonic acid; phosphoproteomics; phosphorylation; protein; root; stress
Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed.
Hormones exert pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development throughout the life cycle. Many of these effects are mediated at molecular level via altering gene expression. In this study, we investigated the exogenous effect of plant hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, on the transcription of rice genes at whole genome level using microarray. Our analysis identified a total of 4171 genes involved in several biological processes, whose expression was altered significantly in the presence of different hormones. Further, 28% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses in the presence of any two hormones, indicating crosstalk among plant hormones. In addition, we identified genes showing only a particular hormone-specific response, which can be used as hormone-specific markers. The results of this study will facilitate further studies in hormone biology in rice.
gene expression; hormones; microarray; rice (Oryza sativa); transcriptional response
Haemoglobins are found ubiquitously in eukaryotes and many bacteria. In plants, haemoglobins were first identified in species,
which can fix nitrogen via symbiosis with bacteria. Recent findings suggest that another class of haemoglobins termed as nonsymbiotic
haemoglobins are present through out the plant kingdom and are expressed differentially during plant development.
Limited data available suggests that non-symbiotic haemoglobins are involved in hypoxic stress and oversupply of nutrients. Due to
lack of information on structurally conserved, functionally important residues in non-symbiotic haemoglobins, further studies to
elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological role are hampered. To determine functionally important residues in
non-symbiotic haemoglobins, I have analyzed a number of sequences from plant haemoglobin family, in the context of the known
crystal structures of plant by evolutionary trace method. Results indicate that the, evolutionary trace method like conventional
phylogentic analysis, could resolve phylogentic relationships between plant haemoglobin family. Evolutionary trace analysis has
identified candidate functional (trace) residues that uniquely characterize the heme-binding pocket, dimer interface and possible
novel functional surfaces. Such residues from specific three-dimensional clusters might be of functional importance in nonsymbiotic
haemoglobins. These data, together with our improved knowledge of possible functional residues, can be used in future
structure-function analysis experiments.
evolution; haemoglobin; site directed mutagenesis; phylogeny
Auxin plays important roles in hormone crosstalk and the plant’s stress response. The auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) gene family maintains hormonal homeostasis by conjugating excess indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acids (JAs) to amino acids during hormone- and stress-related signaling pathways. With the sequencing of the apple (Malus × domestica) genome completed, it is possible to carry out genomic studies on GH3 genes to indentify candidates with roles in abiotic/biotic stress responses.
Malus sieversii Roem., an apple rootstock with strong drought tolerance and the ancestral species of cultivated apple species, was used as the experimental material. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of MdGH3 genes, we showed that MdGH3s were differentially expressed in the leaves and roots of M. sieversii and that some of these genes were significantly induced after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. Given the role of GH3 in the negative feedback regulation of free IAA concentration, we examined whether phytohormones and abiotic stresses could alter the endogenous auxin level. By analyzing the GUS activity of DR5::GUS-transformed Arabidopsis seedlings, we showed that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments suppressed the auxin response. These findings suggest that other phytohormones and abiotic stress factors might alter endogenous auxin levels.
Previous studies showed that GH3 genes regulate hormonal homeostasis. Our study indicated that some GH3 genes were significantly induced in M. sieversii after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments, and that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments reduce the endogenous level of axuin. Taken together, this study provides evidence that GH3 genes play important roles in the crosstalk between auxin, other phytohormones, and the abiotic stress response by maintaining auxin homeostasis.
Malus sieversii Roem; Phytohormone; Biotic stress; GH3; DR5; GUS
The capacity to perceive and respond is integral to biological immune systems, but to what extent can plants specifically recognize and respond to insects? Recent findings suggest that plants possess surveillance systems that are able to detect general patterns of cellular damage as well as highly specific herbivore-associated cues. The jasmonate (JA) pathway has emerged as the major signaling cassette that integrates information perceived at the plant–insect interface into broad-spectrum defense responses. Specificity can be achieved via JA-independent processes and spatio-temporal changes of JA-modulating hormones, including ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, brassinosteroids and gibberellins. The identification of receptors and ligands and an integrative view of hormone-mediated response systems are crucial to understand specificity in plant immunity to herbivores.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in plant development and also promote tolerance to a range of abiotic stresses. Although much has been learned about their roles in plant development, the mechanisms by which BRs control plant stress responses and regulate stress-responsive gene expression are not fully known. Since BR interacts with other plant hormones, it is likely that the stress tolerance conferring ability of BR lies in part in its interactions with other stress hormones.
Using a collection of Arabidopsis mutants that are either deficient in or insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), we studied the effects of 24-epibrassinloide (EBR) on basic thermotolerance and salt tolerance of these mutants. The positive impact of EBR on thermotolerance in proportion to wild type was evident in all mutants studied, with the exception of the SA-insensitive npr1-1 mutant. EBR could rescue the ET-insensitive ein2 mutant from its hypersensitivity to salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination, but remained ineffective in increasing the survival of eto1-1 (ET-overproducer) and npr1-1 seedlings on salt. The positive effect of EBR was significantly greater in the ABA-deficient aba1-1 mutant as compared to wild type, indicating that ABA masks BR effects in plant stress responses. Treatment with EBR increased expression of various hormone marker genes in both wild type and mutant seedlings, although to different levels.
These results together indicate that the redox-sensitive protein NPR1 (NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1), a master regulator of SA-mediated defense genes, is likely a critical component of EBR-mediated increase in thermotolerance and salt tolerance, but it is not required for EBR-mediated induction of PR-1 (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1) gene expression; that BR exerts anti-stress effects independently as well as through interactions with other hormones; that ABA inhibits BR effects during stress; and that BR shares transcriptional targets with other hormones.
The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is an invasive insect pest that causes serious yield losses in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., durum wheat, T. turgidum L and barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Successful management of D. noxia has been achieved through resistant varieties via plant antixenosis (aphid non-preference), antibiosis (reduced aphid growth or fecundity), tolerance (plant compensatory growth after aphid feeding), or a combination of each. Previous phenotyping experiments revealed that plants of the variety Stoneham resist D. noxia damage via tolerance. In the present study, genes involved in upstream regulation of jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), auxin (AUX) and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic pathways were monitored using qRT-PCR in Stoneham and susceptible Otis barley plants after D. noxia biotype 2 feeding. Results indicate that D. noxia tolerance in Stoneham plants is related to greater constitutive expression of JA-, ET- and AUX-biosynthetic pathway genes than in susceptible Otis plants, suggesting the possibility of immediate plant adjustments due to the stress of D. noxia feeding. There was limited induction of genes in the ET-(ACCS) and IAA (TDC) pathways in Stoneham tissues after D. noxia feeding. JA pathway genes upregulated in Otis tissues after D. noxia infestation failed to successfully defend Otis plants. AUX and ABA transcripts in Otis may be associated with developmental collapses resulting from source and sink adjustment failures.
Diuraphis noxia; barley; biotypes; qRT-PCR; resistance; tolerance
Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit–B. cinerea interaction.
plant-pathogen; ripening; resistance; susceptibility; ethylene; salicylic acid; jasmonic acid; microarray
Auxin plays a wide range of regulatory roles in diverse aspects of plant growth and developmental processes through a complex network of signaling interactions. In the May issue of Journal of Biological Chemistry, we have demonstrated that auxin homeostasis directly links growth regulation with stress adaptation responses through interactions with salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signals. In this signaling network, the endogenous auxin content is coordinately regulated through negative feedback by a group of auxin-inducible GH3 genes that encode auxin-conjugating enzymes. The Arabidopsis mutant wes1-D overexpressing a GH3 gene WES1 exhibits typical auxin-deficient traits, such as reduced growth and leaf curling, but is resistant to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition, various stress-regulated genes, including pathogenesis- related protein genes (PRs) and C-repeat/dehydration responsive element binding factor genes (CBFs), are up-regulated in the mutant. Consistent with these observations, WES1 is activated by pathogenic infections and abiotic stresses as well as by exogenous SA and ABA. We therefore propose that the WES1-mediated growth suppression would underlie the commonly observed symptoms of infected or stressed plants and provide a mechanism for auxin action in the fitness costs of induced resistance in plants.
Arabidopsis; abscisic acid; auxin homeostasis; GH3; light; salicylic acid; stress adaptation
Leguminous plants form root nodules, in which symbiotic rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and supply the fixation products to their host plants as a nitrogen source. On the process of establishing the symbiosis, rhizobia induce genes involved in the defense system of their host plants. However, the host defense responses will be cancelled by unknown mechanism. We focused on nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule of plant defense system and class 1 plant hemoglobin (Hb) as a scavenger of NO. The inoculation of a symbiotic rhizobium, Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, induced transiently NO production and expression of a class 1 Hb gene LjHb1 in the roots of a model legume Lotus japonicus. In this addendum, we show that the lipopolysaccharide of M. loti induces NO production and expression of LjHb1 in L. japonicus, and we propose the role of NO and Hb at the early stage of symbiosis.
nitric oxide; hemoglobin; rhizobium; symbiosis; defense; Lotus japonicus; Mesorhizobium loti; lipopolysaccharide
The establishment of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal symbiotic interaction (MA) is a successful strategy to substantially promote plant growth, development and fitness. Numerous studies have supported the hypothesis that plant hormones play an important role in the recognition and establishment of symbiosis. Particular attention has been devoted to jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivates, the jasmonates, which are believed to play a major role in AM symbiosis. Jasmonates belong to a diverse class of lipid metabolites known as oxylipins that include other biologically active molecules. Recent transcriptional analyses revealed upregulation of the oxylipin pathway during AM symbiosis in mycorrhizal tomato roots and point a key regulatory feature for oxylipins during AM symbiosis in tomato, particularly these derived from the action of 9-lipoxygenases (9-LOX). In this mini-review we highlight recent progress understanding the function of oxylipins in the establishment of the AM symbiosis and hypothesize that the activation of the 9-LOX pathway might be part of the activation of host defense responses which will then contribute to both, the control of AM fungal spread and the increased resistance to fungal pathogens in mycorrhizal plants.
arbuscular mycorrhiza; oxylipins
Various environmental and internal cues play essential roles in regulating diverse aspects of plant growth and development. Phytohormones usually coordinate multiple stimuli to directly regulate multiple developmental programs. Recent studies have provided progresses into the complexity of their cross talk. Particularly, the signaling pathways of various phytohormones have been revealed, leading to the discovery of the mechanisms of the interplay among different hormone signaling pathways. This review focuses on the recent advances of the signaling cross-talk between brassinosteroids and other hormones, including abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellins, ethylene and jasmonate.
brassinosteroids; plant hormone; abscisic acid; auxin; cross talk; signaling
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is widely cultivated due to the important economic value of its fiber. However, extreme environmental degradation impedes cotton growth and production. Receptor-like kinase (RLK) proteins play important roles in signal transduction and participate in a diverse range of processes in response to plant hormones and environmental cues. Here, we introduced an RLK gene (GbRLK) from cotton into Arabidopsis and investigated its role in imparting abiotic stress tolerance.
GbRLK transcription was induced by exogenously supplied abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, mock drought conditions and high salinity. We cloned the promoter sequence of this gene via self-formed adaptor PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the promoter region contains many cis-acting stress-responsive elements such as ABRE, W-Box, MYB-core, W-Box core, TCA-element and others. We constructed a vector containing a 1,890-bp sequence in the 5′ region upstream of the initiation codon of this promoter and transformed it into Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS histochemical staining analysis showed that GbRLK was expressed mainly in leaf veins, petioles and roots of transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the cotyledons or root hairs. GbRLK promoter activity was induced by ABA, PEG, NaCl and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic Arabidopsis with constitutive overexpression of GbRLK exhibited a reduced rate of water loss in leaves in vitro, along with improved salinity and drought tolerance and increased sensitivity to ABA compared with non-transgenic Col-0 Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of stress-responsive genes in GbRLK Arabidopsis revealed that there was increased expression of genes involved in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway (AtRD20, AtRD22 and AtRD26) and antioxidant genes (AtCAT1, AtCCS, AtCSD2 and AtCSD1) but not ion transporter genes (AtNHX1, AtSOS1).
GbRLK is involved in the drought and high salinity stresses pathway by activating or participating in the ABA signaling pathway. Overexpression of GbRLK may improve stress tolerance by regulating stress-responsive genes to reduce water loss. GbRLK may be employed in the genetic engineering of novel cotton cultivars in the future. Further studying of GbRLK will help elucidate abiotic stress signaling pathways.
Gossypium barbadense; Receptor-like protein kinase; Abscisic acid; Arabidopsis thaliana; Abiotic stress tolerance; Transgene
Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy.
salt stress; plant-microbe interactions; drought stress; Medicago truncatula; mapman mapping
Present knowledge on plant non-symbiotic class-1 (Hb1) and truncated (TrHb) haemoglobin genes is almost entirely based on herbaceous species while the corresponding tree haemoglobin genes are not well known. The function of these genes has recently been linked with endosymbioses between plants and microbes. In this work, the coding sequences of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×tremuloides) PttHb1 and PttTrHb were characterized, indicating that the key residues of haem and ligand binding of both genes were conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences. The expression of PttHb1 and PttTrHb was examined in parallel with that of the heterologous Vitreoscilla haemoglobin gene (vhb) during ectomycorrhiza/ectomycorrhizal (ECM) interaction. Both ECM fungi studied, Leccinum populinum and Xerocomus subtomentosus, enhanced root formation and subsequent growth of roots of all hybrid aspen lines, but only L. populinum was able to form mycorrhizas. Real-time PCR results show that the dual culture with the ECM fungus, with or without emergence of symbiotic structures, increased the expression of both PttHb1 and PttTrHb in the roots of non-transgenic hybrid aspens. PttHb1 and PttTrHb had expression peaks 5 h and 2 d after inoculation, respectively, pointing to different functions for these genes during interaction with root growth-improving fungi. In contrast, ECM fungi were not able to enhance the expression of hybrid aspen endogenous haemoglobin genes in the VHb lines, which may be a consequence of the compensating action of heterologous haemoglobin.
Ectomycorrhizas; non-symbiotic haemoglobin; Populus tremula×tremuloides; real-time PCR; truncated haemoglobin; Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb)
Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and adverse temperatures are major limiting factors for plant growth and reproduction. Plant responses to these stresses are coordinated by arrays of regulatory networks including the induction of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), a well documented phytohormone for stress responses. However, whether or how these abiotic stresses affect the endogenous biosynthesis or metabolism of other phytohormones remains largely unknown. Here, we report the changes of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) levels and expression of genes related to the biosynthesis or signaling of these hormones in rice under various abiotic stress conditions. The IAA content was decreased after drought stress, but it was significantly increased under cold and heat stresses. And the auxin-regulated gravitropism of root tip was inhibited by cold stress. Many genes involved in the IAA biosynthesis and signaling were changed in transcript level under these stresses, and the changes were essentially in agreement with the change of endogenous IAA level. Interestingly, the endogenous JA content was increased markedly under drought and cold stresses, but it was reduced by heat stress. Accordingly, many genes involved in JA biosynthesis and signaling were induced by drought and cold treatment but these genes were significantly suppressed by heat stress. We concluded that endogenous levels of IAA and JA were differentially regulated by abiotic stresses in rice, implying diverse roles of these hormones in stress responses.
Oryza sativa; abiotic stress; auxin; jasmonic acid
Understanding the global abiotic stress response is an important stepping stone for the development of universal stress tolerance in plants in the era of climate change. Although co-occurrence of several stress factors (abiotic and biotic) in nature is found to be frequent, current attempts are poor to understand the complex physiological processes impacting plant growth under combinatory factors. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances of reverse engineering approaches that led to seminal discoveries of key candidate regulatory genes involved in cross-talk of abiotic stress responses and summarized the available tools of reverse engineering and its relevant application. Among the universally induced regulators involved in various abiotic stress responses, we highlight the importance of (i) abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormonal cross-talks and (ii) the central role of WRKY transcription factors (TF), potentially mediating both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Such interactome networks help not only to derive hypotheses but also play a vital role in identifying key regulatory targets and interconnected hormonal responses. To explore the full potential of gene network inference in the area of abiotic stress tolerance, we need to validate hypotheses by implementing time-dependent gene expression data from genetically engineered plants with modulated expression of target genes. We further propose to combine information on gene-by-gene interactions with data from physical interaction platforms such as protein–protein or TF-gene networks.
abiotic stress; Arabidopsis; reverse engineering; systems biology; stress tolerance; yield
CBF1-3 (C-repeat binding factors) are transcriptional activators governing plant responses to low temperatures. Overexpression of CBF1-3 genes enhances plant frost tolerance, but also causes various pleiotropic effects regarding plant growth and development, mainly growth retardation, and delay of flowering and senescence. In a recent study, we reported that overexpression of CBF2 suppressed leaf senescence induced by the stress hormone ethylene. Here we show that overexpression of CBF2 also suppressed chlorophyll breakdown and leaf senescence induced by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which indicates its broader role in suppressing hormone-induced leaf senescence. As previously reported for ethylene, the observed decrease in responsiveness to ABA in CBF2-overexpressing plants was specific to leaf senescence, since other responses to ABA were similar to those of wild-type plants. Transcript profiling analysis of hormone metabolism and responsive genes revealed that overexpression of CBF2 induced expression of ABA-biosynthesis and ABA-responsive genes and suppressed SA- and JA-related genes. Overall, in light of the adverse effects of CBF2 on ABA metabolism and responsiveness, on the one hand, and SA and JA metabolism and responsiveness, on the other hand, we conclude that overexpression of CBF2 suppresses hormone-induced leaf senescence by directly counteracting the hormone effects on leaf senescence and not by general suppression of their synthesis or signal transduction pathways.
abscisic acid; arabidopsis; CBF2; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid; senescence