As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required.
To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII). The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10 min with 80 W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30 min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100 μM acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that overexpression of DAT increased the yield of vindoline in transgenic plants.
In the present study, we report an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for C. roseus plants with 11% of transformation frequency. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the establishment of A. tumefaciens mediated transformation and regeneration of C. roseus. More importantly, the C. roseus transformation system developed in this work was confirmed in the successful transformation of C. roseus using a key gene DAT involved in TIAs biosynthetic pathway resulting in the higher accumulation of vindoline in transgenic plants.
Catharanthus roseus; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase; Regeneration; Vindoline
The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin), hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine), malaria (quinine), and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine). Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource for understanding plant specialized metabolism, and promotes realization of innovative production systems for plant-derived pharmaceuticals.
Background and Aims
Catharanthus roseus is a plant of great medicinal importance, yet inadequate knowledge of its genome structure and the unavailability of genomic resources have been major impediments in the development of improved varieties. The aims of this study were to develop co-dominant sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) and gene-targeted markers (GTMs) and utilize them for the construction of a framework intraspecific linkage map of C. roseus.
For simple sequence repeat (SSR) isolation, a genomic library enriched for (GA)n repeats was constructed from C. roseus ‘Nirmal’ (CrN1). In addition, GTMs were also designed from 12 genes of the TIA (terpenoid indole alkaloid) pathway – the medicinally most significant pathway in C. roseus. An F2 mapping population was also generated by crossing two diverse accessions of C. roseus CrN1 (Nirmal)×CrN82 (Kew).
A new set of 314 STMS markers and 64 GTMs were developed in this study. A segregating F2 mapping population consisting of 111 F2 individuals was generated. For generating the linkage map, a set of 423 co-dominant markers (378 newly developed and 45 published earlier) were screened for polymorphism between the parental genotypes, of which 134 were identified to be polymorphic. A total of 114 markers were mapped on eight linkage groups that spanned a 632·7 cM region of the genome with an average marker distance of 5·55 cM. Further, the mechanism of hypervariability at the gene-targeted loci was investigated at the sequence level.
For the first time, a large array of STMS markers and GTMs was generated in the model medicinal plant C. roseus. Moreover, the first microsatellite marker-based linkage map was described in this study. Together, these will serve as a foundation for future genomics studies related to quantitative trait loci analysis and molecular breeding in C. roseus.
Catharanthus roseus; sequence-tagged microsatellite sites; STMS; microsatellites; linkage map; gene-targeted markers; GTM
The anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants. Industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from C. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003–0.01% yields. Metabolic engineering efforts to improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the bisindole alkaloids ultimately rely on the isolation and characterization of the genes involved. Several vindoline biosynthetic genes have been isolated, and the cellular and subcellular organization of the corresponding enzymes has been well studied. However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. We have developed a VIGS method to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. The utility of this approach in understanding gene function in C. roseus leaves is demonstrated by silencing known vindoline biosynthetic genes previously characterized in vitro.
Catharanthus roseus; Apocynaceae; Madagascar periwinkle; virus-induced gene silencing; alkaloid; vindoline; N-methyltransferase
The tetraploid plants of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don was obtained by colchicine induction from seeds explants, and the ploidy of the plants was identified by flow cytometry. The optimal treatment is 0.2% colchicine solution treated for 24 hours, and the induction rate reaches up to 30%. Comparing with morphological characteristics and growth habits between tetraploids and the control, we found that tetraploids of C. roseus had larger stoma and more branches and leaves. HPLC analysis showed tetraploidization could increase the contents of terpenoid indole alkaloids in C. roseus. Thus, tetraploidization could be used to produce higher alkaloids lines for commercial use. QRT-PCR results showed that the expression of enzymes involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids biosynthesis pathway had increased in the tetraploid plants. To our knowledge, this was the first paper to explore the secondary metabolism in autotetraploid C. roseus induced by colchicine.
The enzyme 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 184.108.40.206) catalyzes the first committed step in the shikimate pathway of tryptophan synthesis, an important precursor for the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). A full-length cDNA encoding nuclear coded chloroplast-specific DAHP synthase transcript was isolated from a Catharanthus roseus cDNA library. This had high sequence similarity with other members of plant DAHP synthase family. This transcript accumulated in suspension cultured C. roseus cells on ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation. Pretreatment of C.roseus cells with variety of agents such as suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, and inhibitors of calcium fluxes and protein kinases and MAP kinase prevented this effect of UV-B irriadiation. These data further show that the essential components of the signaling pathway involved in accumulation DAHP synthase transcript in C. roseus cells include suramin-sensitive cell surface receptor, staurosporine-sensitive protein kinase and MAP kinase.
Monoterpene indole alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), such as the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine, have important pharmacological activities. Metabolic engineering of alkaloid biosynthesis can provide an efficient and environmentally friendly route to analogs of these synthetically challenging and pharmaceutically valuable natural products. However, the narrow substrate scope of strictosidine synthase, the enzyme at the entry point of the pathway, limits a pathway engineering approach. We demonstrate that with a new expression system and screening method it is possible to rapidly identify strictosidine synthase variants that accept tryptamine analogs not turned over by the wild-type enzyme. The variants are used in stereoselective synthesis of β-carboline analogs and assessed for biosynthetic competence within the terpene indole alkaloid pathway. These results present an opportunity to explore metabolic engineering of “unnatural” product production in the plant periwinkle.
The present study on efficacy of different Glomus species, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (G. aggregatum, G. fasciculatum, G. mosseae, G. intraradices) on various growth parameters such as biomass, macro and micronutrients, chlorophyll, protein, cytokinin and alkaloid content and phosphatase activity of pink flowered Catharanthus roseus plants showed that all Glomus species except G. intraradices enhanced the chlorophyll, protein, crude alkaloid, phosphorus, sulphur, manganese and copper contents of C. roseus plants along with phosphatase activity significantly over uninoculated plants. However only G. mosseae and G. fasciculatum exhibited superior symbiotic relationship with the plant. G. mosseae was found to be the best for increasing the crude alkaloid content (8.19%) in leaf and also in increasing the quantity of important alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine.
Catharanthus roseus; Glomus species; Cytokinin; Alkaloids; Phosphatase activity
In order to improve the production of the anticancer dimeric indole alkaloids in Catharanthuse roseus, much research has been dedicated to culturing cell lines, hairy roots, and efforts to elucidate the regulation of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthesis. In this study, the ORCA3 (Octadecanoid-derivative Responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain) gene alone or integrated with the G10H (geraniol 10-hydroxylase) gene were first introduced into C. roseus plants. Transgenic C. roseus plants overexpressing ORCA3 alone (OR lines), or co-overexpressing G10H and ORCA3 (GO lines) were obtained by genetic modification. ORCA3 overexpression induced an increase of AS, TDC, STR and D4H transcripts but did not affect CRMYC2 and G10H transcription. G10H transcripts showed a significant increase under G10H and ORCA3 co-overexpression. ORCA3 and G10H overexpression significantly increased the accumulation of strictosidine, vindoline, catharanthine and ajmalicine but had limited effects on anhydrovinblastine and vinblastine levels. NMR-based metabolomics confirmed the higher accumulation of monomeric indole alkaloids in OR and GO lines. Multivariate data analysis of 1H NMR spectra showed change of amino acid, organic acid, sugar and phenylpropanoid levels in both OR and GO lines compared to the controls. The result indicated that enhancement of MIA biosynthesis by ORCA3 and G10H overexpression might affect other metabolic pathways in the plant metabolism of C. roseus.
Vinblastine and vincristine (the antileukemic agents) were isolated, in a pure form, from Catharanthus roseus L. Don., cultivated in Egypt, by several chromatographic techniques. Five modified methods for the preparation of total alkaloids were carried out. All the isolated mixtures were evaluated by HPLC and HPTLC analyses. The antineoplastic alkaloids; vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated by the use of vacuum liquid chromatographic column on silica gel : aluminium oxide (1:1) mixed bed vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), Charcoal column, and finally purified by centrifugally accelerated radial chromatography (Chromatotrone).
Catharanthus roseus L.; Apocyanaceae; Vinblastine; Vincrisitine; Antileuckemic alkaloids; VLC; HPLC; HPTLC
The first two enzymatic steps of monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthetic pathway are catalysed by strictosidine synthase (STR) that condensates tryptamine and secologanin to form strictosidine and by strictosidine β-D-glucosidase (SGD) that subsequently hydrolyses the glucose moiety of strictosidine. The resulting unstable aglycon is rapidly converted into a highly reactive dialdehyde, from which more than 2,000 MIAs are derived. Many studies were conducted to elucidate the biosynthesis and regulation of pharmacologically valuable MIAs such as vinblastine and vincristine in Catharanthus roseus or ajmaline in Rauvolfia serpentina. However, very few reports focused on the MIA physiological functions.
In this study we showed that a strictosidine pool existed in planta and that the strictosidine deglucosylation product(s) was (were) specifically responsible for in vitro protein cross-linking and precipitation suggesting a potential role for strictosidine activation in plant defence. The spatial feasibility of such an activation process was evaluated in planta. On the one hand, in situ hybridisation studies showed that CrSTR and CrSGD were coexpressed in the epidermal first barrier of C. roseus aerial organs. However, a combination of GFP-imaging, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and electromobility shift-zymogram experiments revealed that STR from both C. roseus and R. serpentina were localised to the vacuole whereas SGD from both species were shown to accumulate as highly stable supramolecular aggregates within the nucleus. Deletion and fusion studies allowed us to identify and to demonstrate the functionality of CrSTR and CrSGD targeting sequences.
A spatial model was drawn to explain the role of the subcellular sequestration of STR and SGD to control the MIA metabolic flux under normal physiological conditions. The model also illustrates the possible mechanism of massive activation of the strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae.
Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group– a halide– is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore appear to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts.
Transcription factors of the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) family play a central role in cell proliferation, determination, and differentiation. In plants, the regulatory functions of bHLHs in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis have been well established with regard to other interacting-proteins; i.e., MYB and WD40 repeat proteins. On the other hand, those in alkaloid biosynthesis are greatly limited due to the limited distribution of alkaloids in plant species. Recently, several groups have reported the regulatory functions of bHLH in alkaloid biosynthesis: novel CjbHLH1 in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in Coptis japonica, and Jasmonate-inducible MYC2-type bHLHs in nicotine-alkaloid biosynthesis in Nicotiana plants and indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus. We report here the JA-inducibility of CjbHLH1 and discuss the similarity and differences of non-MYC2-resemblant CjbHLH1 and MYC2-type bHLHs in nicotine and indole alkaloid biosynthesis.
alkaloid biosynthesis; bHLH; indole alkaloid; isoquinoline alkaloid; jasmonate signaling; MYC2; nicotine alkaloid
Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important signaling cascade that operates in stress signal transduction in plants. The biologically active monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) produced in Catharanthus roseus are known to be induced under several abiotic stress conditions such as wounding, UV-B etc. However involvement of any signaling component in the accumulation of MIAs remains poorly investigated so far. Here we report isolation of a novel abiotic stress inducible Catharanthus roseus MAPK, CrMPK3 that may have role in accumulation of MIAs in response to abiotic stress.
CrMPK3 expressed in bacterial system is an active kinase as it showed auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Myelin Basic Protein. CrMPK3 though localized in cytoplasm, moves to nucleus upon wounding. Wounding, UV treatment and MeJA application on C. roseus leaves resulted in the transcript accumulation of CrMPK3 as well as activation of MAPK in C. roseus leaves. Immuno-precipitation followed by immunoblot analysis revealed that wounding, UV treatment and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) activate CrMPK3. Transient over-expression of CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaf tissue showed enhanced expression of key MIA biosynthesis pathway genes and also accumulation of specific MIAs.
Results from our study suggest a possible involvement of CrMPK3 in abiotic stress signal transduction towards regulation of transcripts of key MIA biosynthetic pathway genes, regulators and accumulation of major MIAs.
Catharanthus roseus; Methyl jasmonate; Mitogen activated protein kinase; Monoterpenoid indole alkaloid; Secondary metabolism
Plants possess a unique metabolic diversity commonly designated as secondary metabolism, of which the anticancer alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus are among the most studied. Recently, in a classical function-to-protein-to-gene approach, we have characterized the main class III peroxidase (Prx) expressed in C. roseus leaves, CrPrx1, implicated in a key biosynthetic step of the anticancer alkaloids. We have shown the vacuolar sorting determination of CrPrx1 using GFP fusions and we have obtained further evidence supporting the role of this enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, indicating the potential of CrPrx1 as a molecular tool for the manipulation of alkaloid metabolism. Here, we discuss how plant cells may regulate Prx reactions. In fact, Prxs form a large multigenic family whose members accept a broad range of substrates and, in their two subcellular localizations, the cell wall and the vacuole, Prxs co-locate with a large variety of secondary metabolites which can be accepted as substrates. How then, are Prx reactions regulated? Localization data obtained in our lab suggest that arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and Prxs may be associated in membrane microdomains, evocative of lipid rafts. Whether plasma membrane and/or tonoplast microcompartmentation involve AGPs and Prxs and whether this enables metabolic channeling determining Prx substrate selection are challenging questions ahead.
class III peroxidases; CrPrx1; indole alkaloids; vacuole; secondary metabolites; arabinogalactan proteins; lipid rafts
Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and 1H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis.
Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tolerance to abiotic stresses. Yeast cells transformed with CrMPK3 was found to show enhanced tolerance to UV and heat stress. Comparison of CrMPK3 and SLT2, a MAPK from yeast shows high-sequence identity particularly at conserved domains. Additionally, heat stress is also shown to activate a 43 kDa MAP kinase, possibly CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaves. These findings indicate the role of CrMPK3 in stress-induced MIA accumulation as well as in stress tolerance.
Catharanthus roseus; CrMPK3; abiotic stress; UV; heat; cold; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum).
Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction.
SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0.
It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.
Silver nanoparticles; Catharanthus roseus; Plasmodium falciparum; Antiplasmodial activity
Biosynthetic pathways can be hijacked to yield novel compounds by introduction of novel starting materials. Here we have altered tryptamine, which serves as the starting substrate for a variety of alkaloid biosynthetic pathways, by replacing the indole with one of four aza-indole isomers. We show that two aza-tryptamine substrates can be successfully incorporated into the products of the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus. Use of unnatural heterocycles in precursor directed biosynthesis, in both microbial and plant natural product pathways, has not been widely demonstrated, and successful incorporation of starting substrate analogs containing the aza-indole functionality has not been previously reported. This work serves as a starting point to explore fermentation of aza-alkaloids from other tryptophan and tryptamine derived natural product pathways.
Strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) from Catharanthus roseus catalyzes the deglycosylation of strictosidine, an intermediate from which thousands of monoterpene indole alkaloids are derived. The steady state kinetics of SGD with a variety of strictosidine analogs revealed the substrate preferences of this enzyme at two key positions of the strictosidine substrate. Additionally, SGD from C. roseus turns over both strictosidine and its stereoisomer vincoside, indicating that although this enzyme prefers the naturally occurring diastereomer, the enzyme is not completely diastereoselective. The implications of the substrate specificity of SGD in metabolic engineering efforts of C. roseus are highlighted.
Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) (Family: Apocyanaceae) is a ornamental plants with great medicinal properties. Although it is represented by seven
species, little work has been carried out on its genetic characterization due to non-availability of reliable molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats
(SSRs) have been widely applied as molecular markers in genetic studies. With the rapid increase in the deposition of nucleotide sequences in the public
databases and advent of bioinformatics tools, it has become a cost effective and fast approach to scan for microsatellite repeats and exploit the possibility
of converting it into potential genetic markers. Expressed sequence tags (EST's) from Catharanthus roseus were used for the screening of Class I (hyper
variable) simple sequence repeats (SSR's). A total of 502 microsatellite repeats were detected from 21730 EST sequences of turmeric after redundancy
elimination. The average density of Class I SSRs account to 1 SSR per 10.21 kb of EST. Mononucleotides was the most abundant class of microsatellite
motifs. It accounted for 44.02% of the total, followed by the trinucleotide (26.09%) and dinucleotide repeats (14.34%). Among all the repeat motifs,
(A/T)n accounted for the highest Proportion (36.25%) followed by (AAG)n. These detected SSRs can be used to design primers that have functional
importance and should also facilitate the analysis of genetic diversity, variability, linkage mapping and evolutionary relationships in plants especially
Catharanthus roseus; Expresses sequence tags; short sequence repeats; SSR Locator
Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.
An experiment to study the effect of inter and intra row spacing on the yielding performance of periwinkle species was conducted at Nagarjun Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Scheme, P. K. V., Akola (M. S.) during 1980 – 81 to 82 – 83. Three species viz., Catharanthus roseus, Catharanthus alba and Catharanthus oscillatus did not differ significantly in respect of dried foliage and root yields. Inter and intra row spacing of 30 and 20 cm. respectively produced the highest foliage and root yields.
The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin–Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively.
Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells.
Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation.
Antiproliferative; Apocynaceae; radical scavenging; total alkaloid content; total phenolic content
Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents.
Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry).
Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 μgml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 μgml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 μgml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS.
This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.