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1.  The Creating an Optimal Warfarin Nomogram (CROWN) Study 
Thrombosis and haemostasis  2011;107(1):59-68.
A significant proportion of warfarin dose variability is explained by variation in the genotypes of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 and the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, VKORC1, enzymes that influence warfarin metabolism and sensitivity, respectively. We sought to develop an optimal pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithm that incorporated clinical and genetic information. We enroled patients initiating warfarin therapy. Genotyping was performed of the VKORC1, –1639G>A, the CYP2C9*2, 430C>T, and the CYP2C9*3, 1075C>A genotypes. The initial warfarin dosing algorithm (Algorithm A) was based upon established clinical practice and published warfarin pharmacogenetic information. Subsequent dosing algorithms (Algorithms B and Algorithm C) were derived from pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling of warfarin dose, international normalised ratio (INR), clinical and genetic factors from patients treated by the preceding algorithm(s). The primary outcome was the time in the therapeutic range, considered an INR of 1.8 to 3.2. A total of 344 subjects are included in the study analyses. The mean percentage time within the therapeutic range for each subject increased progressively from Algorithm A to Algorithm C from 58.9 (22.0), to 59.7 (23.0), to 65.8 (16.9) percent (p = 0.04). Improvement also occurred in most secondary endpoints, which included the per-patient percentage of INRs outside of the therapeutic range (p = 0.004), the time to the first therapeutic INR (p = 0.07), and the time to achieve stable therapeutic anticoagulation (p < 0.001). In conclusion, warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing can be optimised in real time utilising observed PK/PD information in an adaptive fashion.
Clinical Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00401414)
doi:10.1160/TH11-08-0568
PMCID: PMC4133142  PMID: 22116191
Pharmacogenetics; warfarin; clinical trial
2.  Integration of genetic, clinical, and INR data to refine warfarin dosing 
Background
Well characterized genes affecting warfarin metabolism (CYP2C9) and sensitivity (VKORC1) explain one-third of the variability in therapeutic dose before the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is measured.
Methods
To determine genotypic relevance after INR becomes available, we derived clinical and pharmacogenetic refinement algorithms using INR values on day 4 or 5 of therapy, clinical factors, and genotype.
Results
After adjusting for INR, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes remained significant predictors (P < 0.001) of warfarin dose. The clinical algorithm had an R2 of 48% (median absolute error [MAE]: 7.0 mg/week); the pharmacogenetic algorithm had an R2 of 63% (MAE: 5.5 mg/week) in the derivation set (N=969). In independent validation, the R2 was 26%-43% with the clinical algorithm, and 42%-58% adding genotype (P = 0.002).
Conclusion
After several days of therapy, a pharmacogenetic algorithm estimates the therapeutic warfarin dose more accurately than one using clinical factors and INR response, alone.
doi:10.1038/clpt.2010.13
PMCID: PMC2858245  PMID: 20375999
pharmacogenetics; warfarin; dose-refinement
3.  Laboratory and Clinical Outcomes of Pharmacogenetic vs. Clinical Protocols for Warfarin Initiation in Orthopedic Patients 
Background
Warfarin is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery. During warfarin initiation, out-of-range International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and adverse events are common.
Methods
In orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy, we developed and prospectively validated pharmacogenetic and clinical dose refinement algorithms to revise the estimated therapeutic dose after 4 days of therapy.
Results
The pharmacogenetic algorithm used the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 genotype, smoking status, perioperative blood loss, liver disease, INR values, and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose. The R2 was 82% in a derivation cohort (N = 86), and 70% when used prospectively (N = 146). The R2 of the clinical algorithm that used INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose was 57% in a derivation cohort (N = 178), and 48% in a prospective validation cohort (N = 146). In one month of prospective follow-up, the percent time spent in the therapeutic range was 7% higher (95% CI: 2.7%–11.7%) in the pharmacogenetic cohort. The risk of laboratory or clinical adverse event was also significantly reduced in the pharmacogenetic cohort (Hazard Ratio 0.54; 95% CI: 0.29–0.97).
Conclusions
Warfarin dose adjustments that incorporate genotype and clinical variables available after four warfarin doses are accurate. In this non-randomized, prospective study, pharmacogenetic dose refinements were associated with more time spent in the therapeutic range and fewer laboratory or clinical adverse events. To facilitate gene-guided warfarin dosing we created a non-profit website, www.WarfarinDosing.org.
doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2008.03095.x
PMCID: PMC2920450  PMID: 18662264
Warfarin; Pharmacogenetics; Dosing Algorithm; Anticoagulants; Orthopedic Surgery
4.  Genetics-Based Pediatric Warfarin Dosage Regimen Derived Using Pharmacometric Bridging 
BACKGROUND
Warfarin dosage regimens using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms have been extensively studied in adults and is included in US Food and Drug Administration-approved warfarin labeling. However, no dosage algorithm is available for pediatric patients.
OBJECTIVE
To derive a genetics-based pediatric dosge regimen for warfarin, including starting dose and titration scheme.
METHODS
A model-based approach was developed based on a previously validated warfarin dosage model in adults, with subsequent comparison to pediatric data from pediatric warfarin dose, genotyping, and international normalized ratio (INR) results. The adult model was based on a previously established model from the CROWN (CReating an Optimal Warfarin dosing Nomogram) trial. Pediatric warfarin data were obtained from a study conducted at the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles with 26 subjects. Variant alleles of CYP2C9 (rs1799853 or *2, and rs1057910 or *3) and the VKORC1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9923231 (−1639 G>A) were assessed, where the rs numbers are reference SNP identification tags assigned by the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
RESULTS
A pediatric warfarin model was derived using the previously validated model and clinical pharmacology considerations. The model was validated, and clinical trial simulation and stochastic modeling were used to optimize pediatric dosage and titration. The final dosage regimen was optimized based on simulations targeting a high (≥60%) proportion of INRs within the therapeutic range by week 2 of warfarin therapy while minimizing INRs >3.5 or <2.
CONCLUSIONS
The proposed pediatric warfarin dosage scheme based on individual CYP2C9 (alleles *1,*2,*3) and VKORC1 rs9923231 (-1639 G>A) genotypes may offer improved dosage compared to current treatment strategies, especially in patients with variant CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles. This pilot study provides the foundation for a larger prospective evaluation of genetics-based warfarin dosage in pediatric patients.
doi:10.5863/1551-6776-18.3.209
PMCID: PMC3775555  PMID: 24052784
CYP2C9; pediatrics; pharmacogenetics; VKORC1; warfarin
5.  Use of Pharmacogenetic and Clinical Factors to Predict the Therapeutic Dose of Warfarin 
Initiation of warfarin therapy using trial-and-error dosing is problematic. our goal was to develop and validate a pharmacogenetic algorithm. in the derivation cohort of 1,015 participants, the independent predictors of therapeutic dose were: VKORC1 polymorphism −1639/3673 g>a (−28% per allele), body surface area (Bsa) (+11% per 0.25 m2), CYP2C9*3 (−33% per allele), CYP2C9*2 (−19% per allele), age (−7% per decade), target international normalized ratio (inr) (+11% per 0.5 unit increase), amiodarone use (−22%), smoker status (+10%), race (−9%), and current thrombosis (+7%). This pharmacogenetic equation explained 53−54% of the variability in the warfarin dose in the derivation and validation (N = 292) cohorts. For comparison, a clinical equation explained only 17−22% of the dose variability (P < 0.001). in the validation cohort, we prospectively used the pharmacogenetic-dosing algorithm in patients initiating warfarin therapy, two of whom had a major hemorrhage. To facilitate use of these pharmacogenetic and clinical algorithms, we developed a nonprofit website, http://www.WarfarinDosing.org.
doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.10
PMCID: PMC2683977  PMID: 18305455
6.  Clinical Application of Pharmacogenetic-Based Warfarin-Dosing Algorithm in Patients of Han Nationality after Rheumatic Valve Replacement: A Randomized and Controlled Trial 
Background The polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 play increasingly important roles in the inter-individual variability in warfarin dose. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of clinical application of pharmacogenetic-based warfarin-dosing algorithm in patients of Han nationality with rheumatic heart disease after valve replacement in a randomized and controlled trial. Methods One hundred and one consecutive patients of Han nationality with rheumatic heart disease undergoing valve surgery were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=50, based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes, pharmacogenetic-based “predicted warfarin dose” for 3 days and then was adjusted to INR until stable warfarin maintenance dose) or a control group (n=51, 2.5mg/d for 3 days and then was adjusted to INR until stable warfarin maintenance dose). All included patients were followed for 50 days after initiation of warfarin therapy. The primary end-point was the time to reach a stable warfarin maintenance dose. Results During the follow-up, 84.0% patients in the experimental group and 58.8% patients in the control group received warfarin maintenance dose. Compared with control group, patients in the experimental group had shorter mean time elapse from initiation of warfarin therapy until warfarin maintenance dose (27.5±1.8 d versus 34.7±1.8 d, p<0.001). Cox regression revealed that group (HR for experimental versus control group: 1.568, 95%CI 1.103-3.284) and age were two significant variables related to the time elapse from initiation of warfarin therapy until warfarin maintenance dose. The predicted warfarin maintenance dose was prominently correlated with the actual warfarin maintenance dose (r=0.684, p<0.001). Conclusion: Based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes, the pharmacogenetic-based warfarin-dosing algorithm may shorten the time elapse from initiation of warfarin therapy until warfarin maintenance dose. It is feasible for the clinical application of the pharmacogenetic-based warfarin-dosing algorithm in patients of Han nationality with rheumatic heart disease after valve replacement.
doi:10.7150/ijms.4637
PMCID: PMC3427951  PMID: 22927772
Pharmacogenetics; Individualized warfarin therapy; Rheumatic valve surgery; Trial.
7.  Efficiency and effectiveness of the use of an acenocoumarol pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm versus usual care in patients with venous thromboembolic disease initiating oral anticoagulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:239.
Background
Hemorrhagic events are frequent in patients on treatment with antivitamin-K oral anticoagulants due to their narrow therapeutic margin. Studies performed with acenocoumarol have shown the relationship between demographic, clinical and genotypic variants and the response to these drugs. Once the influence of these genetic and clinical factors on the dose of acenocoumarol needed to maintain a stable international normalized ratio (INR) has been demonstrated, new strategies need to be developed to predict the appropriate doses of this drug. Several pharmacogenetic algorithms have been developed for warfarin, but only three have been developed for acenocoumarol. After the development of a pharmacogenetic algorithm, the obvious next step is to demonstrate its effectiveness and utility by means of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an acenocoumarol dosing algorithm developed by our group which includes demographic, clinical and pharmacogenetic variables (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and ApoE) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE).
Methods and design
This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. The protocol has been approved by La Paz University Hospital Research Ethics Committee and by the Spanish Drug Agency. Two hundred and forty patients with VTE in which oral anticoagulant therapy is indicated will be included. Randomization (case/control 1:1) will be stratified by center. Acenocoumarol dose in the control group will be scheduled and adjusted following common clinical practice; in the experimental arm dosing will be following an individualized algorithm developed and validated by our group. Patients will be followed for three months. The main endpoints are: 1) Percentage of patients with INR within the therapeutic range on day seven after initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy; 2) Time from the start of oral anticoagulant treatment to achievement of a stable INR within the therapeutic range; 3) Number of INR determinations within the therapeutic range in the first six weeks of treatment.
Discussion
To date, there are no clinical trials comparing pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm versus routine clinical practice in VTE. Implementation of this pharmacogenetic algorithm in the clinical practice routine could reduce side effects and improve patient safety.
Trial registration
Eudra CT. Identifier: 2009-016643-18.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-239
PMCID: PMC3543328  PMID: 23237631
Pharmacogenetic; Acenocoumarol; Hematology
8.  Warfarin Sensitivity Genotyping: A Review of the Literature and Summary of Patient Experience 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2009;84(12):1079-1094.
The antithrombotic benefits of warfarin are countered by a narrow therapeutic index that contributes to excessive bleeding or cerebrovascular clotting and stroke in some patients. This article reviews the current literature describing warfarin sensitivity genotyping and compares the results of that review to the findings of our study in 189 patients at Mayo Clinic conducted between June 2001 and April 2003. For the review of the literature, we identified relevant peer-reviewed articles by searching the Web of Knowledge using key word warfarin-related adverse event. For the 189 Mayo Clinic patients initiating warfarin therapy to achieve a target international normalized ratio (INR) in the range of 2.0 to 3.5, we analyzed the CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450 2C9) and VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) genetic loci to study the relationship among the initial warfarin dose, steady-state dose, time to achieve steady-state dose, variations in INR, and allelic variance. Results were compared with those previously reported in the literature for 637 patients. The relationships between allelic variants and warfarin sensitivity found in our study of Mayo Clinic patients are fundamentally the same as in those reported by others. The Mayo Clinic population is predominantly white and shows considerable allelic variability in CYP2C9 and VKORC1. Certain of these alleles are associated with increased sensitivity to warfarin. Polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have a considerable effect on warfarin dose in white people. A correlation between steady-state warfarin dose and allelic variants of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 has been demonstrated by many previous reports and is reconfirmed in this report. The allelic variants found to most affect warfarin sensitivity are CYP2C9*1*1-VKORC1BB (less warfarin sensitivity than typical); CYP2C9*1*1-VKORC1AA (considerable variance in INR throughout initiation); CYP2C9*1*2-VKORC1AB (more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*3-VKORC1AB (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*2-VKORC1AB (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*3-VKORC1AA (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); and CYP2C9*2*2-VKORC1AB (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical). Although we were unable to show an association between allelic variants and initial warfarin dose or dose escalation, an association was seen between allelic variant and steady-state warfarin dose. White people show considerable variance in CYP2C9 allele types, whereas people of Asian or African descent infrequently carry CYP2C9 allelic variants. The VKORC1AA allele associated with high warfarin sensitivity predominates in those of Asian descent, whereas white people and those of African descent show diversity, carrying either the VKORC1BB, an allele associated with low warfarin sensitivity, or VKORC1AB or VKORC1AA, alleles associated with moderate and high warfarin sensitivity, respectively.
doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0278
PMCID: PMC2787394  PMID: 19955245
9.  Ability of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 to Predict Therapeutic Warfarin Dose During the Initial Weeks of Therapy 
BACKGROUND
CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict therapeutic warfarin dose at initiation of therapy; however, the predictive ability of genetic information after a week or longer is unknown. Experts have hypothesized that genotype becomes irrelevant once International Normalized Ratio (INR) values are available because INR response reflects warfarin sensitivity.
METHODS
We genotyped the participants in the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (PREVENT) trial, who had idiopathic venous thromboemboli and began low-intensity warfarin (therapeutic INR 1.5-2.0) using a standard dosing protocol. To develop pharmacogenetic models, we quantified the effect of genotypes, clinical factors, previous doses, and INR on therapeutic warfarin dose in the 223 PREVENT participants who were randomized to warfarin and achieved stable therapeutic INRs.
RESULTS
A pharmacogenetic model using data from day 0 (before therapy initiation) explained 54% of the variability in therapeutic dose (R2). The R2 increased to 68% at day 7, 75% at day 14, and 77% at day 21, because of increasing contributions from prior doses and INR response. Although CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes were significant independent predictors of therapeutic dose at each weekly interval, the magnitude of their predictive ability diminished over time: partial R2 of genotype was 43% at day 0, 12% at day 7, 4% at day 14, and 1% at day 21.
CONCLUSION
Over the first weeks of warfarin therapy, INR and prior dose become increasingly predictive of therapeutic dose, and genotype becomes less relevant. However, at day 7, genotype remains clinically relevant, accounting for 12% of therapeutic dose variability.
doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03677.x
PMCID: PMC3718044  PMID: 19874474
10.  Prediction of Warfarin Dose Reductions in Puerto Rican Patients, Based on Combinatorial CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes 
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy  2012;46(2):208-218.
BACKGROUND
The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin dose has been investigated in white, Asian, and African American populations but not in Puerto Rican Hispanic patients.
OBJECTIVE
To test the associations between genotypes, international normalized ratio (INR) measurements, and warfarin dosing and gauge the impact of these polymorphisms on warfarin dose, using a published algorithm.
METHODS
A retrospective warfarin pharmacogenetic association study in 106 Puerto Rican patients was performed. DNA samples from patients were assayed for 12 variants in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 loci by HILOmet PhyzioType assay. Demographic and clinical nongenetic data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested.
RESULTS
Sixty-nine percent of patients were carriers of at least one polymorphism in either the CYP2C9 or the VKORC1 gene. Double, triple, and quadruple carriers accounted for 22%, 5%, and 1%, respectively. No significant departure from HWE was found. Among patients with a given CYP2C9 genotype, warfarin dose requirements declined from GG to AA haplotypes; whereas, within each VKORC1 haplotype, the dose decreased as the number of CYP2C9 variants increased. The presence of these loss-of-function alleles was associated with more out-of-range INR measurements (OR = 1.38) but not with significant INR >4 during the initiation phase. Analyses based on a published pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted dose reductions of up to 4.9 mg/day in carriers and provided better dose prediction in an extreme subgroup of highly sensitive patients, but also suggested the need to improve predictability by developing a customized model for use in Puerto Rican patients.
CONCLUSIONS
This study laid important groundwork for supporting a prospective pharmacogenetic trial in Puerto Ricans to detect the benefits of incorporating relevant genomic information into a customized DNA-guided warfarin dosing algorithm.
doi:10.1345/aph.1Q190
PMCID: PMC3378722  PMID: 22274142
CYP2C9; genotyping; pharmacogenomics; VKORC1; warfarin
11.  Warfarin Dosing in a Patient with CYP2C9∗3∗3 and VKORC1-1639 AA Genotypes 
Case Reports in Genetics  2014;2014:413743.
Genetic factors most correlated with warfarin dose requirements are variations in the genes encoding the enzymes cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Patients receiving warfarin who possess one or more genetic variations in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are at increased risk of adverse drug events and require significant dose reductions to achieve a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). A 74-year-old white female with atrial fibrillation was initiated on a warfarin dose of 2 mg PO daily, which resulted in multiple elevated INR measurements and three clinically significant hemorrhagic events and four vitamin K antidote treatments over a period of less than two weeks. Genetic analysis later revealed that she had the homozygous variant genotypes of CYP2C9∗3∗3 and VKORC1-1639 AA. Warfarin dosing was subsequently restarted and stabilized at 0.5 mg PO daily with therapeutic INRs. This is the first case report of a white female with these genotypes stabilized on warfarin, and it highlights the value of pharmacogenetic testing prior to the initiation of warfarin therapy to maximize efficacy and minimize the risk of adverse drug events.
doi:10.1155/2014/413743
PMCID: PMC3918734  PMID: 24627811
12.  Exposure to Non-Therapeutic INR in a High Risk Cardiovascular Patient: Potential Hazard Reduction with Genotype-guided Warfarin (Coumadin®) Dosing 
A case to illustrate the utility of genetic screening in warfarin (Coumadin®) management is reported. A 45 year-old woman of Puerto Rican ancestry was admitted to the emergency room twice within one month with chest pain. She was diagnosed with congestive heart failure, which was stabilized both times. At her second release, warfarin therapy was initiated at 5 mg/day to prevent thrombus formation and was lowered to 3.75 mg/day at day 7 by her primary physician. International Normalized Ratio (INR) test results in the follow-up period at days 1, 7, and 10 of warfarin therapy were 4.5, 6.5, and 7.3, respectively—far in excess of the therapeutic range, despite the lower dosage in effect from day 7 onward. the patient achieved target INR over the next 43 days after downward adjustment of the dose to a dose of 1.5 mg/day by trial and error. DNA-typing specific for the CYP2C9*2, *3, *4, *5, *6 alleles and seven variants in the VKORC1 gene, including the VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, revealed the presence of combinatorial CYP2C9*2/*3 and VKORC1-1639 G/A genotypes in this patient. Entering the patient's demographic and genotype status data into independent algorithms available in the public domain to predict effective warfarin dose yielded predicted doses which ranged from 1.5 to 1.8 mg/day. Notably, the prediction of 1.5 mg/day, which was generated by the online resource www.warfarindosing.org, coincided with the patient's actual effective warfarin dose. We conclude that the rapid rise in INR observed upon the initiation of warfarin therapy and the final effective warfarin dose of 1.5 mg/day, are attributable in some part to the presence of two minor alleles in CYP2C9, which together significantly reduce warfarin metabolism. Warfarin genotyping can therefore inform the clinician of the predicted effective warfarin dose. the results highlight the potential for warfarin genetic testing to improve patient care.
PMCID: PMC3679530  PMID: 21261182
Warfarin (Coumadin®); Pharmacogenetics; Genotyping; INR; Minor alleles; CYP2C9; VKORC1; Dosing algorithm; Personalized Medicine
13.  Genetic Determinants of Response to Warfarin during Initial Anticoagulation 
The New England journal of medicine  2008;358(10):999-1008.
BACKGROUND
Genetic variants of the enzyme that metabolizes warfarin, cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9), and of a key pharmacologic target of warfarin, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), contribute to differences in patients’ responses to various warfarin doses, but the role of these variants during initial anticoagulation is not clear.
METHODS
In 297 patients starting warfarin therapy, we assessed CYP2C9 genotypes (CYP2C9 *1, *2, and *3), VKORC1 haplotypes (designated A and non-A), clinical characteristics, response to therapy (as determined by the international normalized ratio [INR]), and bleeding events. The study outcomes were the time to the first INR within the therapeutic range, the time to the first INR of more than 4, the time above the therapeutic INR range, the INR response over time, and the warfarin dose requirement.
RESULTS
As compared with patients with the non-A/non-A haplotype, patients with the A/A haplotype of VKORC1 had a decreased time to the first INR within the therapeutic range (P = 0.02) and to the first INR of more than 4 (P = 0.003). In contrast, the CYP2C9 genotype was not a significant predictor of the time to the first INR within the therapeutic range (P = 0.57) but was a significant predictor of the time to the first INR of more than 4 (P = 0.03). Both the CYP2C9 genotype and VKORC1 haplotype had a significant influence on the required warfarin dose after the first 2 weeks of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS
Initial variability in the INR response to warfarin was more strongly associated with genetic variability in the pharmacologic target of warfarin, VKORC1, than with CYP2C9.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708078
PMCID: PMC3894627  PMID: 18322281
14.  A Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Maintenance Dosing Algorithm from Northern Chinese Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105250.
Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n = 551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n = 236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r = 0.609, P<0.001). Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105250
PMCID: PMC4134280  PMID: 25126975
15.  Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study 
Lancet  2013;382(9894):790-796.
Summary
Background
VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.
Methods
We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 −1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10−8 in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.
Findings
The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10−8). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10−5); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10−12. Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).
Interpretation
A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.
Funding
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60681-9
PMCID: PMC3759580  PMID: 23755828
16.  Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study 
Lancet  2013;382(9894):790-796.
Summary
Background
VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.
Methods
We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 −1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10−8 in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.
Findings
The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10−8). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10−5); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10−12. Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).
Interpretation
A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.
Funding
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60681-9
PMCID: PMC3759580  PMID: 23755828
17.  Estimation of the Warfarin Dose with Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Data 
The New England journal of medicine  2009;360(8):753-764.
BACKGROUND
Genetic variability among patients plays an important role in determining the dose of warfarin that should be used when oral anticoagulation is initiated, but practical methods of using genetic information have not been evaluated in a diverse and large population. We developed and used an algorithm for estimating the appropriate warfarin dose that is based on both clinical and genetic data from a broad population base.
METHODS
Clinical and genetic data from 4043 patients were used to create a dose algorithm that was based on clinical variables only and an algorithm in which genetic information was added to the clinical variables. In a validation cohort of 1009 subjects, we evaluated the potential clinical value of each algorithm by calculating the percentage of patients whose predicted dose of warfarin was within 20% of the actual stable therapeutic dose; we also evaluated other clinically relevant indicators.
RESULTS
In the validation cohort, the pharmacogenetic algorithm accurately identified larger proportions of patients who required 21 mg of warfarin or less per week and of those who required 49 mg or more per week to achieve the target international normalized ratio than did the clinical algorithm (49.4% vs. 33.3%, P<0.001, among patients requiring ≤21 mg per week; and 24.8% vs. 7.2%, P<0.001, among those requiring ≥49 mg per week).
CONCLUSIONS
The use of a pharmacogenetic algorithm for estimating the appropriate initial dose of warfarin produces recommendations that are significantly closer to the required stable therapeutic dose than those derived from a clinical algorithm or a fixed-dose approach. The greatest benefits were observed in the 46.2% of the population that required 21 mg or less of warfarin per week or 49 mg or more per week for therapeutic anticoagulation.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0809329
PMCID: PMC2722908  PMID: 19228618
18.  Genetic Testing Before Anticoagulation? A Systematic Review of Pharmacogenetic Dosing of Warfarin 
Background
Genotype-guided initial warfarin dosing may reduce over-anticoagulation and serious bleeding compared to a one-dose-fits-all dosing method.
Objective
The objective of this review was to investigate the safety and efficacy of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin in reducing the occurrence of serious bleeding events and over-anticoagulation.
Data Sources
The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts through January 23, 2009, without language restrictions. Selected articles were randomized trials comparing pharmacogenetic dosing of warfarin versus a “standard” dose control algorithm in adult patients taking warfarin for the first time.
Review Methods
Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using a validated instrument. The primary outcomes were major bleeding and time spent within the therapeutic range International Normalized Ratio (INR). Secondary outcomes included minor bleeding, thrombotic events and other measures of anticoagulation quality.
Results
Three of 2,014 studies (423 patients) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Differences in study quality, dosing algorithms, length of follow-up and outcome measures limited meta-analysis. Summary estimates revealed no statistically significant difference in bleeding rates or time within the therapeutic range INR. The highest quality study found no significant difference in primary or secondary outcomes, although there was a trend towards more rapid achievement of a stable dose (14.1 vs. 19.6 days, p = 0.07) in the pharmocogenetic arm.
Conclusions
We did not find sufficient evidence to support the use of pharmacogenetics to guide warfarin therapy. Additional clinical trials are needed to define the optimal approach to use warfarin pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-009-0949-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11606-009-0949-1
PMCID: PMC2669873  PMID: 19306050
warfarin; pharmacogenetics; CYP2C9; VKORC1; systematic review
19.  Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy 
Executive Summary
Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis
The purpose of this evidence based analysis report is to examine the safety and effectiveness of point-of-care (POC) international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices for patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT).
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Long-term OAT is typically required by patients with mechanical heart valves, chronic atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or peripheral arterial occlusion. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the population receives anticoagulation treatment and, by applying this value to Ontario, there are an estimated 132,000 patients on OAT in the province, a figure that is expected to increase with the aging population.
Patients on OAT are regularly monitored and their medications adjusted to ensure that their INR scores remain in the therapeutic range. This can be challenging due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and variation in individual responses. Optimal INR scores depend on the underlying indication for treatment and patient level characteristics, but for most patients the therapeutic range is an INR score of between 2.0 and 3.0.
The current standard of care in Ontario for patients on long-term OAT is laboratory-based INR determination with management carried out by primary care physicians or anticoagulation clinics (ACCs). Patients also regularly visit a hospital or community-based facility to provide a venous blood samples (venipuncture) that are then sent to a laboratory for INR analysis.
Experts, however, have commented that there may be under-utilization of OAT due to patient factors, physician factors, or regional practice variations and that sub-optimal patient management may also occur. There is currently no population-based Ontario data to permit the assessment of patient care, but recent systematic reviews have estimated that less that 50% of patients receive OAT on a routine basis and that patients are in the therapeutic range only 64% of the time.
Overview of POC INR Devices
POC INR devices offer an alternative to laboratory-based testing and venipuncture, enabling INR determination from a fingerstick sample of whole blood. Independent evaluations have shown POC devices to have an acceptable level of precision. They permit INR results to be determined immediately, allowing for more rapid medication adjustments.
POC devices can be used in a variety of settings including physician offices, ACCs, long-term care facilities, pharmacies, or by the patients themselves through self-testing (PST) or self-management (PSM) techniques. With PST, patients measure their INR values and then contact their physician for instructions on dose adjustment, whereas with PSM, patients adjust the medication themselves based on pre-set algorithms. These models are not suitable for all patients and require the identification and education of suitable candidates.
Potential advantages of POC devices include improved convenience to patients, better treatment compliance and satisfaction, more frequent monitoring and fewer thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. Potential disadvantages of the device include the tendency to underestimate high INR values and overestimate low INR values, low thromboplastin sensitivity, inability to calculate a mean normal PT, and errors in INR determination in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies with certain instruments. Although treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QoL) may improve with POC INR monitoring, some patients may experience increased anxiety or preoccupation with their disease with these strategies.
Evidence-Based Analysis Methods
Research Questions
1. Effectiveness
Does POC INR monitoring improve clinical outcomes in various settings compared to standard laboratory-based testing?
Does POC INR monitoring impact patient satisfaction, QoL, compliance, acceptability, convenience compared to standard laboratory-based INR determination?
Settings include primary care settings with use of POC INR devices by general practitioners or nurses, ACCs, pharmacies, long-term care homes, and use by the patient either for PST or PSM.
2. Cost-effectiveness
What is the cost-effectiveness of POC INR monitoring devices in various settings compared to standard laboratory-based INR determination?
Inclusion Criteria
English-language RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses
Publication dates: 1996 to November 25, 2008
Population: patients on OAT
Intervention: anticoagulation monitoring by POC INR device in any setting including anticoagulation clinic, primary care (general practitioner or nurse), pharmacy, long-term care facility, PST, PSM or any other POC INR strategy
Minimum sample size: 50 patients Minimum follow-up period: 3 months
Comparator: usual care defined as venipuncture blood draw for an INR laboratory test and management provided by an ACC or individual practitioner
Outcomes: Hemorrhagic events, thromboembolic events, all-cause mortality, anticoagulation control as assessed by proportion of time or values in the therapeutic range, patient reported outcomes including satisfaction, QoL, compliance, acceptability, convenience
Exclusion criteria
Non-RCTs, before-after studies, quasi-experimental studies, observational studies, case reports, case series, editorials, letters, non-systematic reviews, conference proceedings, abstracts, non-English articles, duplicate publications
Studies where POC INR devices were compared to laboratory testing to assess test accuracy
Studies where the POC INR results were not used to guide patient management
Method of Review
A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database) was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 1998 to November 25, 2008. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected from the search results. Reference lists of selected articles were also checked for relevant studies.
Summary of Findings
Five existing reviews and 22 articles describing 17 unique RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Three RCTs examined POC INR monitoring devices with PST strategies, 11 RCTs examined PSM strategies, one RCT included both PST and PSM strategies and two RCTs examined the use of POC INR monitoring devices by health care professionals.
Anticoagulation Control
Anticoagulation control is measured by the percentage of time INR is within the therapeutic range or by the percentage of INR values in the therapeutic range. Due to the differing methodologies and reporting structures used, it was deemed inappropriate to combine the data and estimate whether the difference between groups would be significant. Instead, the results of individual studies were weighted by the number of person-years of observation and then pooled to calculate a summary measure.
Across most studies, patients in the intervention groups tended to have a higher percentage of time and values in the therapeutic target range in comparison to control patients. When the percentage of time in the therapeutic range was pooled across studies and weighted by the number of person-years of observation, the difference between the intervention and control groups was 4.2% for PSM, 7.2% for PST and 6.1% for POC use by health care practitioners. Overall, intervention patients were in the target range 69% of the time and control patients were in the therapeutic target range 64% of the time leading to an overall difference between groups of roughly 5%.
Major Complications and Deaths
There was no statistically significant difference in the number of major hemorrhagic events between patients managed with POC INR monitoring devices and patients managed with standard laboratory testing (OR =0.74; 95% CI: 0.52- 1.04). This difference was non-significant for all POC strategies (PSM, PST, health care practitioner).
Patients managed with POC INR monitoring devices had significantly fewer thromboembolic events than usual care patients (OR =0.52; 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.74). When divided by POC strategy, PSM resulted in significantly fewer thromboembolic events than usual care (OR =0.46.; 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.72). The observed difference in thromboembolic events for PSM remained significant when the analysis was limited to major thromboembolic events (OR =0.40; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.93), but was non-significant when the analysis was limited to minor thromboembolic events (OR =0.73; 95% CI: 0.08 - 7.01). PST and GP/Nurse strategies did not result in significant differences in thromboembolic events, however there were only a limited number of studies examining these interventions.
No statistically significant difference was observed in the number of deaths between POC intervention and usual care control groups (OR =0.67; 95% CI: 0.41 - 1.10). This difference was non-significant for all POC strategies. Only one study reported on survival with 10-year survival rate of 76.1% in the usual care control group compared to 84.5% in the PSM group (P=0.05).
Summary Results of Meta-Analyses of Major Complications and Deaths in POC INR Monitoring Studies
Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Life
Quality of life measures were reported in eight studies comparing POC INR monitoring to standard laboratory testing using a variety of measurement tools. It was thus not possible to calculate a quantitative summary measure. The majority of studies reported favourable impacts of POC INR monitoring on QoL and found better treatment satisfaction with POC monitoring. Results from a pre-analysis patient and caregiver focus group conducted in Ontario also indicated improved patient QoL with POC monitoring.
Quality of the Evidence
Studies varied with regard to patient eligibility, baseline patient characteristics, follow-up duration, and withdrawal rates. Differential drop-out rates were observed such that the POC intervention groups tended to have a larger number of patients who withdrew. There was a lack of consistency in the definitions and reporting for OAT control and definitions of adverse events. In most studies, the intervention group received more education on the use of warfarin and performed more frequent INR testing, which may have overestimated the effect of the POC intervention. Patient selection and eligibility criteria were not always fully described and it is likely that the majority of the PST/PSM trials included a highly motivated patient population. Lastly, a large number of trials were also sponsored by industry.
Despite the observed heterogeneity among studies, there was a general consensus in findings that POC INR monitoring devices have beneficial impacts on the risk of thromboembolic events, anticoagulation control and patient satisfaction and QoL (ES Table 2).
GRADE Quality of the Evidence on POC INR Monitoring Studies
CI refers to confidence interval; Interv, intervention; OR, odds ratio; RCT, randomized controlled trial.
Economic Analysis
Using a 5-year Markov model, the health and economic outcomes associated with four different anticoagulation management approaches were evaluated:
Standard care: consisting of a laboratory test with a venipuncture blood draw for an INR;
Healthcare staff testing: consisting of a test with a POC INR device in a medical clinic comprised of healthcare staff such as pharmacists, nurses, and physicians following protocol to manage OAT;
PST: patient self-testing using a POC INR device and phoning in results to an ACC or family physician; and
PSM: patient self-managing using a POC INR device and self-adjustment of OAT according to a standardized protocol. Patients may also phone in to a medical office for guidance.
The primary analytic perspective was that of the MOHLTC. Only direct medical costs were considered and the time horizon of the model was five years - the serviceable life of a POC device.
From the results of the economic analysis, it was found that POC strategies are cost-effective compared to traditional INR laboratory testing. In particular, the healthcare staff testing strategy can derive potential cost savings from the use of one device for multiple patients. The PSM strategy, however, seems to be the most cost-effective method i.e. patients are more inclined to adjust their INRs more readily (as opposed to allowing INRs to fall out of range).
Considerations for Ontario Health System
Although the use of POC devices continues to diffuse throughout Ontario, not all OAT patients are suitable or have the ability to practice PST/PSM. The use of POC is currently concentrated at the institutional setting, including hospitals, ACCs, long-term care facilities, physician offices and pharmacies, and is much less commonly used at the patient level. It is, however, estimated that 24% of OAT patients (representing approximately 32,000 patients in Ontario), would be suitable candidates for PST/PSM strategies and willing to use a POC device.
There are several barriers to the use and implementation of POC INR monitoring devices, including factors such as lack of physician familiarity with the devices, resistance to changing established laboratory-based methods, lack of an approach for identifying suitable patients and inadequate resources for effective patient education and training. Issues of cost and insufficient reimbursement strategies may also hinder implementation and effective quality assurance programs would need to be developed to ensure that INR measurements are accurate and precise.
Conclusions
For a select group of patients who are highly motivated and trained, PSM resulted in significantly fewer thromboembolic events compared to conventional laboratory-based INR testing. No significant differences were observed for major hemorrhages or all-cause mortality. PST and GP/Nurse use of POC strategies are just as effective as conventional laboratory-based INR testing for thromboembolic events, major hemorrhages, and all-cause mortality. POC strategies may also result in better OAT control as measured by the proportion of time INR is in the therapeutic range and there appears to be beneficial impacts on patient satisfaction and QoL. The use of POC devices should factor in patient suitability, patient education and training, health system constraints, and affordability.
Keywords
anticoagulants, International Normalized Ratio, point-of-care, self-monitoring, warfarin.
PMCID: PMC3377545  PMID: 23074516
20.  A Proposal for an Individualized Pharmacogenetic-Guided Warfarin Dosage Regimen for Puerto Rican Patients Commencing Anticoagulation Therapy 
Warfarin is the current standard of care in oral anticoagulation therapy. It is commonly prescribed to treat venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and to decrease the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Warfarin therapy is challenging because of marked and often unpredictable inter-individual dosing variations that effectively reach and maintain adequate anticoagulation. Several researchers have developed pharmacogenetic-guided maintenance dose algorithms that incorporate genetics and individual patient characteristics. However, there is limited information available concerning dosing during warfarin initiation. This is considered the most clinically challenging therapeutic phase. In such, the risk of recurrent thromboembolism and hemorrhage are elevated. The objective of this retrospective study is to predict the individual initial doses for Puerto Rican patients (n=175) commencing anticoagulation therapy at Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) using pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic-driven model. A pharmacogenetic driven model (R2=0.4809) was developed in Puerto Rican patients and combined with pharmacokinetic formulas that enabled us to predict the individual initial doses for patients (n=121) commencing anticoagulation therapy. WinNonlin® pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulations were carried out to determine the predictability of this model. This model demonstrated promising results with few (n=10) simulations outside of their respective therapy range. A customized pharmacogenetic-based warfarin maintenance dose algorithm (R2=0.7659) was developed in a derivation cohort of 131 patients. The predictability of this developed pharmacogenetic algorithm was compared with the International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm and it demonstrated superior predictability within our study population.
doi:10.4172/2153-0645.T-001
PMCID: PMC4181534  PMID: 25285240
21.  Genetics of Warfarin Sensitivity in an Emergency Department Population with Thromboembolic 
Background:
Emergency department (ED) patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) are eventually treated with a standard dose of warfarin despite the fact that a number of patients are known to be sensitive to warfarin and may experience supra-therapeutic INRs and adverse bleeding events. Pharmacogenetics is an emerging field of medical practice that seeks to improve drug safety and efficacy in an individual patient by tailoring treatment to the patient’s known genetic makeup.
Objective:
To identify patients with risk for warfarin sensitivity among an ED population with VTE and to assess if the warfarin sensitivity mutations were of significant enough prevalence to be of clinical significance in customizing treatment of VTE. We sought in a pilot study to identify if testing for common CYP2C9 and VKORC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients who were likely to begin warfarin treatment was feasible in an ED setting.
Methods:
A prospective study that identified and enrolled patients presenting to our ED with high clinical suspicion of VTE. Those with high clinical suspicion of VTE were defined as those who had a Doppler ultrasound or computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) ordered by the primary emergency physician. Blood was taken and processed to ascertain the following SNPs: CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and VKORC1 3673.
Results:
Of the 194 patients enrolled, 132 (68.0%) had at least one known warfarin sensitivity mutation and 114 (58.8%) had the most clinically significant VKORC1 3673 mutation.
Conclusion:
A majority of our patients had at least one mutation associated with the atypical metabolism of warfarin. Over half of our population had the most clinically significant VKORC1 3673 mutation. They would likely benefit from individualized warfarin dosing if ever needing anticoagulation. Our initial pilot study shows that allele frequencies of target warfarin sensitivity SNPs in our patient population are frequent enough to make initiation of personalized warfarin dosing feasible.
PMCID: PMC3088368  PMID: 21691466
22.  A team-based approach to warfarin management in long term care: A feasibility study of the MEDeINR electronic decision support system 
BMC Geriatrics  2010;10:38.
Background
Previous studies in long-term care (LTC) have demonstrated that warfarin management is suboptimal with preventable adverse events often occurring as a result of poor International Normalized Ratio (INR) control. To assist LTC teams with the challenge of maintaining residents on warfarin in the therapeutic range (INR of 2.0 to 3.0), we developed an electronic decision support system that was based on a validated algorithm for warfarin dosing. We evaluated the MEDeINR system in a pre-post implementation design by examining the impact on INR control, testing frequency, and experiences of staff in using the system.
Methods
For this feasibility study, we piloted the MEDeINR system in six LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. All128 residents (without a prosthetic valve) who were taking warfarin were included. Three-months of INR data prior to MEDeINR was collected via a retrospective chart audit, and three-months of INR data after implementation of MEDeINR was captured in the central computer database. The primary outcomes compared in a pre-post design were time in therapeutic range (TTR) and time in sub/supratherapeutic ranges based on all INR measures for every resident on warfarin. Secondary measures included the number of monthly INR tests/resident and survey/focus-group feedback from the LTC teams.
Results
LTC homes in our study had TTR's that were higher than past reports prior to the intervention. Overall, the TTR increased during the MEDeINR phase (65 to 69%), but was only significantly increased for one home (62% to 71%, p < 0.05). The percentage of time in supratherapeutic decreased from 14% to 11%, p = 0.08); there was little change for the subtherapeutic range (21% to 20%, p = 0.66). Overall, the average number of INR tests/30 days decreased from 4.2 to 3.1 (p < 0.0001) per resident after implementation of MEDeINR. Feedback received from LTC clinicians and staff was that the program decreased the work-load, improved confidence in management and decisions, and was generally easy to use.
Conclusion
Although LTC homes in our sample had TTR's that were relatively high prior to the intervention, the MEDeINR program represented a useful tool to promote optimal TTR, decrease INR venipunctures, streamline processes, and increase nurse and physician confidence around warfarin management. We have demonstrated that MEDeINR was a practical, usable clinical information system that can be incorporated into the LTC environment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-38
PMCID: PMC2902482  PMID: 20537178
23.  Effect of the VKORC1 D36Y variant on warfarin dose requirement and pharmacogenetic dose prediction 
Thrombosis and haemostasis  2012;108(4):781-788.
Summary
Pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms help predict warfarin maintenance doses, but their predictive performance differs in different populations, possibly due to unsuspected population-specific genetic variants. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of the VKORC1 D36Y variant (a marker of warfarin resistance previously described in 4% of Ashkenazi Jews) on warfarin maintenance doses and to examine how this variant affects the performance of the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium (IWPC) dose prediction model. In 210 Israeli patients on chronic warfarin therapy recruited at a tertiary care center, we applied the IWPC model and then added D36Y genotype as covariate to the model (IWPC+D36Y) and compared predicted with actual doses. Median weekly warfarin dose was 35 mg (interquartile range [IQR], 24.5 to 52.5 mg). Among 16 heterozygous D36Y carriers (minor allele frequency = 3.8%), warfarin weekly dose was increased by a median of 43.7 mg (IQR, 40.5 to 47.2 mg) compared to non-carriers after adjustment for all IWPC parameters, a greater than 2-fold dose increase. The IWPC model performed suboptimally (coefficient of determination R2=27.0%; mean absolute error (MAE), 14.4 ± 16.2 mg/week). Accounting for D36Y genotype using the IWPC+D36Y model resulted in a significantly better model performance (R2=47.2%, MAE=12.6±12.4 mg/week). In conclusion, even at low frequencies, variants with a strong impact on warfarin dose may greatly decrease the performance of a commonly used dose prediction model. Unexpected discrepancies of the performance of universal prediction models in subpopulations should prompt searching for unsuspected confounders, including rare genetic variants.
doi:10.1160/TH12-03-0151
PMCID: PMC3461592  PMID: 22871975
Warfarin; pharmacogenetics; VKORC1; dose prediction; ethnicity
24.  An Acenocoumarol Dosing Algorithm Using Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Data in Spanish Patients with Thromboembolic Disease 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41360.
Appropriate dosing of coumarins is difficult to establish, due to significant inter-individual variability in the dose required to obtain stable anticoagulation. Several genetic and other clinical factors have been associated with the coumarins dose, and some pharmacogenetic-guided dosing algorithms for warfarin and acenocoumarol have been developed for mixed populations. We recruited 147 patients with thromboembolic disease who were on stable doses and with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 2 and 3. We ascertained the influence of clinical and genetic variables on the stable acenocoumarol dose by multiple linear regression analysis in a derivation cohort (DC; n = 117) and developed an algorithm for dosing that included clinical factors (age, body mass index and concomitant drugs) and genetic variations of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and APOE. For purposes of comparison, a model including only clinical data was created. The clinical factors explained 22% of the dose variability, which increased to 60.6% when pharmacogenetic information was included (p<0.001); CYP4F2 and APOE variants explained 4.9% of this variability. The mean absolute error of the predicted acenocoumarol dose (mg/week) obtained with the pharmacogenetic algorithm was 3.63 vs. 5.08 mg/week with the clinical algorithm (95% CI: 0.88 to 2.04). In the testing cohort (n = 30), clinical factors explained a mere 7% of the dose variability, compared to 39% explained by the pharmacogenetic algorithm. Considering a more clinically relevant parameter, the pharmacogenetic algorithm correctly predicted the real stable dose in 59.8% of the cases (DC) vs. only 37.6% predicted by the clinical algorithm (95% CI: 10 to 35). Therefore the number of patients needed to genotype to avoid one over- or under-dosing was estimated to be 5.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041360
PMCID: PMC3401172  PMID: 22911785
25.  Facilitating pharmacogenetic studies using electronic health records and natural-language processing: a case study of warfarin 
Objective
DNA biobanks linked to comprehensive electronic health records systems are potentially powerful resources for pharmacogenetic studies. This study sought to develop natural-language-processing algorithms to extract drug-dose information from clinical text, and to assess the capabilities of such tools to automate the data-extraction process for pharmacogenetic studies.
Materials and methods
A manually validated warfarin pharmacogenetic study identified a cohort of 1125 patients with a stable warfarin dose, in which 776 patients were managed by Coumadin Clinic physicians, and the remaining 349 patients were managed by their providers. The authors developed two algorithms to extract weekly warfarin doses from both data sets: a regular expression-based program for semistructured Coumadin Clinic notes; and an advanced weekly dose calculator based on an existing medication information extraction system (MedEx) for narrative providers' notes. The authors then conducted an association analysis between an automatically extracted stable weekly dose of warfarin and four genetic variants of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes. The performance of the weekly dose-extraction program was evaluated by comparing it with a gold standard containing manually curated weekly doses. Precision, recall, F-measure, and overall accuracy were reported. Associations between known variants in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 and warfarin stable weekly dose were performed with linear regression adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index.
Results
The authors' evaluation showed that the MedEx-based system could determine patients' warfarin weekly doses with 99.7% recall, 90.8% precision, and 93.8% accuracy. Using the automatically extracted weekly doses of warfarin, the authors successfully replicated the previous known associations between warfarin stable dose and genetic variants in VKORC1 and CYP2C9.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000208
PMCID: PMC3128409  PMID: 21672908
Automated learning; knowledge representations; discovery; text and data-mining methods; other methods of information extraction; natural-language processing; NLP; warfarin; old epass; Genetics; translational research—application of biological knowledge to clinical care; improving the education and skills training of health professionals; linking the genotype and phenotype

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