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1.  Transcriptome sequencing of field pea and faba bean for discovery and validation of SSR genetic markers 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:104.
Background
Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) are cool-season grain legume species that provide rich sources of food for humans and fodder for livestock. To date, both species have been relative 'genomic orphans' due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. A significant enrichment of genomic resources is consequently required in order to understand the genetic architecture of important agronomic traits, and to support germplasm enhancement, genetic diversity, population structure and demographic studies.
Results
cDNA samples obtained from various tissue types of specific field pea and faba bean genotypes were sequenced using 454 Roche GS FLX Titanium technology. A total of 720,324 and 304,680 reads for field pea and faba bean, respectively, were de novo assembled to generate sets of 70,682 and 60,440 unigenes. Consensus sequences were compared against the genome of the model legume species Medicago truncatula Gaertn., as well as that of the more distantly related, but better-characterised genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L.. In comparison to M. truncatula coding sequences, 11,737 and 10,179 unique hits were obtained from field pea and faba bean. Totals of 22,057 field pea and 18,052 faba bean unigenes were subsequently annotated from GenBank. Comparison to the genome of soybean (Glycine max L.) resulted in 19,451 unique hits for field pea and 16,497 unique hits for faba bean, corresponding to c. 35% and 30% of the known gene space, respectively. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from consensus sequences, and totals of 2,397 and 802 primer pairs were designed for field pea and faba bean. Subsets of 96 EST-SSR markers were screened for validation across modest panels of field pea and faba bean cultivars, as well as related non-domesticated species. For field pea, 86 primer pairs successfully obtained amplification products from one or more template genotypes, of which 59% revealed polymorphism between 6 genotypes. In the case of faba bean, 81 primer pairs displayed successful amplification, of which 48% detected polymorphism.
Conclusions
The generation of EST datasets for field pea and faba bean has permitted effective unigene identification and functional sequence annotation. EST-SSR loci were detected at incidences of 14-17%, permitting design of comprehensive sets of primer pairs. The subsets from these primer pairs proved highly useful for polymorphism detection within Pisum and Vicia germplasm.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-104
PMCID: PMC3352077  PMID: 22433453
2.  Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:668.
Background
White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L.), however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb) and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome.
Results
10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs) from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs) and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs) categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings) and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia). Among those ESTs specifically expressed, 277 (9.8%) pea ESTs were predicted to be involved in plant defense and response to biotic or abiotic stress, and 93 (9.3%) S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be involved in pathogenicity/virulence. Additionally, 142 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were identified as secretory/signal peptides of which only 21 were previously reported.
Conclusions
We present and characterize an EST resource specific to the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction. Additionally, the tBLASTx method used to parse S. sclerotiorum and pea ESTs was demonstrated to be a reliable and accurate method to distinguish ESTs without a reference genome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-668
PMCID: PMC3534286  PMID: 23181755
Pisum sativum; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; Transcriptome; Parsing of host-pathogen sequences; Non-model organism
3.  Gene-based SNP discovery and genetic mapping in pea 
Key message
Gene-based SNPs were identified and mapped in pea using five recombinant inbred line populations segregating for traits of agronomic importance.
Abstract
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the world’s oldest domesticated crops and has been a model system in plant biology and genetics since the work of Gregor Mendel. Pea is the second most widely grown pulse crop in the world following common bean. The importance of pea as a food crop is growing due to its combination of moderate protein concentration, slowly digestible starch, high dietary fiber concentration, and its richness in micronutrients; however, pea has lagged behind other major crops in harnessing recent advances in molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics, partly due to its large genome size with a large proportion of repetitive sequence, and to the relatively limited investment in research in this crop globally. The objective of this research was the development of a genome-wide transcriptome-based pea single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker platform using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 1,536 polymorphic SNP loci selected from over 20,000 non-redundant SNPs identified using deep transcriptome sequencing of eight diverse Pisum accessions were used for genotyping in five RIL populations using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The first high-density pea SNP map defining all seven linkage groups was generated by integrating with previously published anchor markers. Syntenic relationships of this map with the model legume Medicago truncatula and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) maps were established. The genic SNP map establishes a foundation for future molecular breeding efforts by enabling both the identification and tracking of introgression of genomic regions harbouring QTLs related to agronomic and seed quality traits.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-014-2375-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00122-014-2375-y
PMCID: PMC4180032  PMID: 25119872
4.  Transcriptome sequencing for high throughput SNP development and genetic mapping in Pea 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:126.
Background
Pea has a complex genome of 4.3 Gb for which only limited genomic resources are available to date. Although SNP markers are now highly valuable for research and modern breeding, only a few are described and used in pea for genetic diversity and linkage analysis.
Results
We developed a large resource by cDNA sequencing of 8 genotypes representative of modern breeding material using the Roche 454 technology, combining both long reads (400 bp) and high coverage (3.8 million reads, reaching a total of 1,369 megabases). Sequencing data were assembled and generated a 68 K unigene set, from which 41 K were annotated from their best blast hit against the model species Medicago truncatula. Annotated contigs showed an even distribution along M. truncatula pseudochromosomes, suggesting a good representation of the pea genome. 10 K pea contigs were found to be polymorphic among the genetic material surveyed, corresponding to 35 K SNPs.
We validated a subset of 1538 SNPs through the GoldenGate assay, proving their ability to structure a diversity panel of breeding germplasm. Among them, 1340 were genetically mapped and used to build a new consensus map comprising a total of 2070 markers. Based on blast analysis, we could establish 1252 bridges between our pea consensus map and the pseudochromosomes of M. truncatula, which provides new insight on synteny between the two species.
Conclusions
Our approach created significant new resources in pea, i.e. the most comprehensive genetic map to date tightly linked to the model species M. truncatula and a large SNP resource for both academic research and breeding.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-126
PMCID: PMC3925251  PMID: 24521263
Pisum sativum; Medicago truncatula; Next generation sequencing; Genetic diversity; Composite genetic map; Synteny; Marker assisted selection
5.  QTL meta-analysis provides a comprehensive view of loci controlling partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in four sources of resistance in pea 
BMC Plant Biology  2013;13:45.
Background
Development of durable plant genetic resistance to pathogens through strategies of QTL pyramiding and diversification requires in depth knowledge of polygenic resistance within the available germplasm. Polygenic partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, one of the most damaging pathogens of pea worldwide, was previously dissected in individual mapping populations. However, there are no data available regarding the diversity of the resistance QTL across a broader collection of pea germplasm. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of Aphanomyces root rot resistance QTL in the four main sources of resistance in pea and compared their genomic localization with genes/QTL controlling morphological or phenological traits and with putative candidate genes.
Results
Meta-analysis, conducted using 244 individual QTL reported previously in three mapping populations (Puget x 90–2079, Baccara x PI180693 and Baccara x 552) and in a fourth mapping population in this study (DSP x 90–2131), resulted in the identification of 27 meta-QTL for resistance to A. euteiches. Confidence intervals of meta-QTL were, on average, reduced four-fold compared to mean confidence intervals of individual QTL. Eleven consistent meta-QTL, which highlight seven highly consistent genomic regions, were identified. Few meta-QTL specificities were observed among mapping populations, suggesting that sources of resistance are not independent. Seven resistance meta-QTL, including six of the highly consistent genomic regions, co-localized with six of the meta-QTL identified in this study for earliness and plant height and with three morphological genes (Af, A, R). Alleles contributing to the resistance were often associated with undesirable alleles for dry pea breeding. Candidate genes underlying six main meta-QTL regions were identified using colinearity between the pea and Medicago truncatula genomes.
Conclusions
QTL meta-analysis provided an overview of the moderately low diversity of loci controlling partial resistance to A. euteiches in four main sources of resistance in pea. Seven highly consistent genomic regions with potential use in marker-assisted-selection were identified. Confidence intervals at several main QTL regions were reduced and co-segregation among resistance and morphological/phenological alleles was identified. Further work will be required to identify the best combinations of QTL for durably increasing partial resistance to A. euteiches.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-13-45
PMCID: PMC3680057  PMID: 23497245
Aphanomyces root rot; Pisum sativum; Meta-QTL; QTL diversity; Consistent genomic regions; Resistance alleles; Undesirable alleles
6.  SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) 
BMC Plant Biology  2013;13:161.
Background
Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs.
Results
In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for selection of resistant cultivars. Comparison of sequences underpinning these SNP markers to the M. truncatula genome defined genomic regions containing candidate genes associated with saline stress tolerance.
Conclusion
The SNP assays and associated genetic linkage maps developed in this study permitted identification of salinity tolerance QTLs and candidate genes. This constitutes an important set of tools for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs aimed at performance enhancement of field pea cultivars.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-13-161
PMCID: PMC4015884  PMID: 24134188
Grain legume; Genetic marker; Trait dissection; Comparative genomics; Abiotic stress; Breeding
7.  Identification of genes differentially expressed in a resistant reaction to Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea using microarray technology 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:28.
Background
Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes is one of the most important pea pathogens. However, little is known about the genes and mechanisms of resistance acting against M. pinodes in pea. Resistance identified so far to this pathogen is incomplete, polygenic and scarce in pea, being most common in Pisum relatives. The identification of the genes underlying resistance would increase our knowledge about M. pinodes-pea interaction and would facilitate the introgression of resistance into pea varieties. In the present study differentially expressed genes in the resistant P. sativum ssp. syriacum accession P665 comparing to the susceptible pea cv. Messire after inoculation with M. pinodes have been identified using a M. truncatula microarray.
Results
Of the 16,470 sequences analysed, 346 were differentially regulated. Differentially regulated genes belonged to almost all functional categories and included genes involved in defense such as genes involved in cell wall reinforcement, phenylpropanoid and phytoalexins metabolism, pathogenesis- related (PR) proteins and detoxification processes. Genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene signal transduction pathways were induced suggesting that the response to M. pinodes in pea is regulated via JA and ET pathways. Expression levels of ten differentially regulated genes were validated in inoculated and control plants using qRT-PCR showing that the P665 accession shows constitutively an increased expression of the defense related genes as peroxidases, disease resistance response protein 39 (DRR230-b), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and 6a-hydroxymaackiain methyltransferase.
Conclusions
Through this study a global view of genes expressed during resistance to M. pinodes has been obtained, giving relevant information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease. In addition, the M. truncatula microarray represents an efficient tool to identify candidate genes controlling resistance to M. pinodes in pea.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-28
PMCID: PMC3027157  PMID: 21226971
8.  Comparative transcriptomic analyses revealed divergences of two agriculturally important aphid species 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):1023.
Background
Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are two agriculturally important pest species, which cause significant yield losses to crop plants each year by inflicting damage both through the direct effects of feeding and by vectoring debilitating plant viruses. Although a close phylogenetic relationship between grain aphid and pea aphid was proposed, the biological variations between these two aphid species are obvious. While the host ranges of grain aphid is restricted to cereal crops and in particular wheat, that of pea aphid is wider, mainly colonizing leguminous plant species. Until now, the genetic factors underlying the divergence between grain aphid and pea aphid still remain unclear due to the limited genomic data of grain aphid available in public databases.
Results
Based on a set of transcriptome data of grain aphid generated by using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing, comparative analysis between this set of transcriptome data of grain aphid and mRNA sequences of pea aphid available in the public databases was performed. Compared with mRNA sequences of pea aphid, 4,857 unigenes were found to be specifically presented in the transcriptome of grain aphid under the rearing conditions described in this study. Furthermore, 3,368 orthologous pairs which could be calculated with both nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitutions were used to infer their sequence divergences. The average differences in the coding, 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of these orthologs were 10.53%, 21.29% and 18.96%, respectively. Moreover, of 340 orthologs which were identified to have evolved in response to positive selection based on the rates of Ka and Ks substitutions, 186 were predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism and xenobiotic metabolisms which might contribute to the divergence of these two aphid species.
Conclusions
The comprehensive transcriptome divergent sequence analysis between grain aphid and pea aphid provides an invaluable resource for the investigation of genes involved in host plant adaptation and evolution. Moreover, the demonstration of divergent transcriptome sequences between grain aphid and pea aphid pave the way for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the biological variations of these two agriculturally important aphid species.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1023) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1023
PMCID: PMC4301665  PMID: 25424897
Grain aphid; Pea aphid; Transcriptome; Comparative transcriptomic analysis; Divergence
9.  The Rose-comb Mutation in Chickens Constitutes a Structural Rearrangement Causing Both Altered Comb Morphology and Defective Sperm Motility 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(6):e1002775.
Rose-comb, a classical monogenic trait of chickens, is characterized by a drastically altered comb morphology compared to the single-combed wild-type. Here we show that Rose-comb is caused by a 7.4 Mb inversion on chromosome 7 and that a second Rose-comb allele arose by unequal crossing over between a Rose-comb and wild-type chromosome. The comb phenotype is caused by the relocalization of the MNR2 homeodomain protein gene leading to transient ectopic expression of MNR2 during comb development. We also provide a molecular explanation for the first example of epistatic interaction reported by Bateson and Punnett 104 years ago, namely that walnut-comb is caused by the combined effects of the Rose-comb and Pea-comb alleles. Transient ectopic expression of MNR2 and SOX5 (causing the Pea-comb phenotype) occurs in the same population of mesenchymal cells and with at least partially overlapping expression in individual cells in the comb primordium. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects, as homozygosity in males has been associated with poor sperm motility. We postulate that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at one of the inversion breakpoints. CCDC108 is a poorly characterized protein, but it contains a MSP (major sperm protein) domain and is expressed in testis. The study illustrates several characteristic features of the genetic diversity present in domestic animals, including the evolution of alleles by two or more consecutive mutations and the fact that structural changes have contributed to fast phenotypic evolution.
Author Summary
Comb morphology is a trait that shows considerable variability among domestic chickens. The Rose-comb mutation causes a drastically altered shape of the comb, whereas the Pea-comb mutation leads to a considerable reduction in the size of the comb. The combined effect of Rose-comb and Pea-comb is a comb shaped like a walnut, and the phenotype is consequently named walnut-comb. Both Pea-comb and Rose-comb are caused by structural changes in the genome leading to altered expression of important transcription factors. In a previous study we showed that Pea-comb is caused by misexpression of SOX5 during the development of the comb. In this study we report that Rose-comb is caused by a large inversion on chicken chromosome 7. The inversion moves the MNR2 gene to a new genomic location. This leads to misexpression of MNR2 during comb development, similar to the defect causing Pea-comb. Roosters that are homozygous for the Rose-comb inversion show poor sperm motility, and our results suggest that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene that is located at one of the inversion breakpoints. CCDC108 is well conserved between chickens and humans, and this study establishes CCDC108 as a candidate gene for sperm motility disorders in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002775
PMCID: PMC3386170  PMID: 22761584
10.  Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris 
BMC Genomics  2008;9:380.
Background
The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba), using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type) and Vf27 (paucijuga type).
Results
Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP) markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs), one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of small-scale duplication events in faba bean. This study also provides a preliminary indication for finer scale macrosynteny between M. truncatula, lentil and faba bean. Markers originally designed from genes on the same M. truncatula BACs were found to be grouped together in corresponding syntenic areas in lentil and faba bean.
Conclusion
Despite the large size of the faba bean genome, comparative mapping did not reveal evidence for polyploidisation, segmental duplication, or significant rearrangements compared to M. truncatula, although a bias in the use of single locus markers may have limited the detection of duplications. Non-coding repetitive DNA or transposable element content provides a possible explanation for the difference in genome sizes. Similar patterns of rearrangements in faba bean and lentil compared to M. truncatula support phylogenetic studies dividing these species into the tribes Viceae and Trifoliae. However, substantial macrosynteny was apparent between faba bean and M. truncatula, with the exception of chromosome 6 where no orthologous markers were found, confirming previous investigations suggesting chromosome 6 is atypical. The composite map, anchored with orthologous markers mapped in M. truncatula, provides a central reference map for future use of genomic and genetic information in faba bean genetic analysis and breeding.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-380
PMCID: PMC2533332  PMID: 18691425
11.  Identification of Mendel's White Flower Character 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13230.
Background
The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates.
Conclusions/Significance
We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013230
PMCID: PMC2952588  PMID: 20949001
12.  Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea 
BMC Genomics  2008;9:103.
Background
Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing.
Results
We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF) technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs) with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa), and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO) with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) and transcription associated factors (TAFs) representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62) of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF) gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers.
Conclusion
The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-103
PMCID: PMC2279124  PMID: 18304330
13.  Expression of a 91-kilodalton PEA3-binding protein is down-regulated during differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(5):2213-2221.
Proteins binding to the PEA3 enhancer motif (AGGAAG) activate the polyomavirus early promoter and help comprise the viral late mRNA initiator element (W. Yoo, M. E. Martin, and W. R. Folk, J. Virol. 65:5391-5400, 1991). Because many developmentally regulated cellular genes have PEA3 motifs near their promoter sequences, and because Ets family gene products activate the PEA3 motif, we have studied the expression of PEA3-binding proteins and Ets-related proteins during differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. An approximately 91-kDa protein (PEA3-91) was identified in F9 cell nuclear extracts by UV cross-linking to a radiolabeled PEA3 oligonucleotide probe, and expression of PEA3-91 was down-regulated after differentiation of F9 cells to parietal endoderm. The c-ets-1 gene product binds to a sequence in the murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat that is similar to the PEA3 motif (cGGAAG), but PEA3-91 was not cross-linked to this Ets-1-binding motif, nor did antiserum which recognizes murine c-ets-1 and c-ets-2 proteins have any effect on PEA3-binding activity in mobility shift assays. Furthermore, c-ets-1 mRNA was not detected in undifferentiated or differentiated F9 cells, and c-ets-2 mRNA levels remained high after differentiation. Antiserum against the Drosophila Ets-related E74A protein, however, recognized an approximately 92-kDa protein in F9 cells whose expression during differentiation varied in a manner identical to that of PEA3-91. These data suggest that PEA3-91 is not the product of the ets-1 or ets-2 genes but is likely to be the product of a murine homolog of the Drosophila E74 gene.
Images
PMCID: PMC364393  PMID: 1569949
14.  Localization of replication origins in pea chloroplast DNA. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1988;8(3):1216-1223.
The locations of the two replication origins in pea chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) have been mapped by electron microscopic analysis of restriction digests of supercoiled ctDNA cross-linked with trioxalen. Both origins of replication, identified as displacement loops (D-loops), were present in the 44-kilobase-pair (kbp) SalI A fragment. The first D-loop was located at 9.0 kbp from the closest SalI restriction site. The average size of this D-loop was about 0.7 kbp. The second D-loop started 14.2 kbp in from the same restriction site and ended at about 15.5 kbp, giving it a size of about 1.3 kbp. The orientation of these two D-loops on the restriction map of pea ctDNA was determined by analyzing SmaI, PstI, and SalI-SmaI restriction digests of pea ctDNA. One D-loop has been mapped in the spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The second D-loop was located downstream of the 23S rRNA gene. Denaturation mapping of recombinants pCP 12-7 and pCB 1-12, which contain both D-loops, confirmed the location of the D-loops in the restriction map of pea ctDNA. Denaturation-mapping studies also showed that the two D-loops had different base compositions; the one closest to a SalI restriction site denatured readily compared with the other D-loop. The recombinants pCP 12-7 and pCB 1-12 were found to be highly active in DNA synthesis when used as templates in a partially purified replication system from pea chloroplasts. Analysis of in vitro-synthesized DNA with either of these recombinants showed that full-length template DNA was synthesized. Recombinants from other regions of the pea chloroplast genome showed no significant DNA synthesis activity in vitro.
Images
PMCID: PMC363266  PMID: 2835665
15.  Ancient orphan crop joins modern era: gene-based SNP discovery and mapping in lentil 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:192.
Background
The genus Lens comprises a range of closely related species within the galegoid clade of the Papilionoideae family. The clade includes other important crops (e.g. chickpea and pea) as well as a sequenced model legume (Medicago truncatula). Lentil is a global food crop increasing in importance in the Indian sub-continent and elsewhere due to its nutritional value and quick cooking time. Despite this importance there has been a dearth of genetic and genomic resources for the crop and this has limited the application of marker-assisted selection strategies in breeding.
Results
We describe here the development of a deep and diverse transcriptome resource for lentil using next generation sequencing technology. The generation of data in multiple cultivated (L. culinaris) and wild (L. ervoides) genotypes together with the utilization of a bioinformatics workflow enabled the identification of a large collection of SNPs and the subsequent development of a genotyping platform that was used to establish the first comprehensive genetic map of the L. culinaris genome. Extensive collinearity with M. truncatula was evident on the basis of sequence homology between mapped markers and the model genome and large translocations and inversions relative to M. truncatula were identified. An estimate for the time divergence of L. culinaris from L. ervoides and of both from M. truncatula was also calculated.
Conclusions
The availability of the genomic and derived molecular marker resources presented here will help change lentil breeding strategies and lead to increased genetic gain in the future.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-192
PMCID: PMC3635939  PMID: 23506258
16.  Geographical Gradient of the eIF4E Alleles Conferring Resistance to Potyviruses in Pea (Pisum) Germplasm 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90394.
Background
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E was shown to be involved in resistance against several potyviruses in plants, including pea. We combined our knowledge of pea germplasm diversity with that of the eIF4E gene to identify novel genetic diversity.
Methodology/Principal findings
Germplasm of 2803 pea accessions was screened for eIF4E intron 3 length polymorphism, resulting in the detection of four eIF4EA-B-C-S variants, whose distribution was geographically structured. The eIF4EA variant conferring resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype was found in 53 accessions (1.9%), of which 15 were landraces from India, Afghanistan, Nepal, and 7 were from Ethiopia. A newly discovered variant, eIF4EB, was present in 328 accessions (11.7%) from Ethiopia (29%), Afghanistan (23%), India (20%), Israel (25%) and China (39%). The eIF4EC variant was detected in 91 accessions (3.2% of total) from India (20%), Afghanistan (33%), the Iberian Peninsula (22%) and the Balkans (9.3%). The eIF4ES variant for susceptibility predominated as the wild type. Sequencing of 73 samples, identified 34 alleles at the whole gene, 26 at cDNA and 19 protein variants, respectively. Fifteen alleles were virologically tested and 9 alleles (eIF4EA-1-2-3-4-5-6-7, eIF4EB-1, eIF4EC-2) conferred resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype.
Conclusions/Significance
This work identified novel eIF4E alleles within geographically structured pea germplasm and indicated their independent evolution from the susceptible eIF4ES1 allele. Despite high variation present in wild Pisum accessions, none of them possessed resistance alleles, supporting a hypothesis of distinct mode of evolution of resistance in wild as opposed to crop species. The Highlands of Central Asia, the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and China were identified as important centers of pea diversity that correspond with the diversity of the pathogen. The series of alleles identified in this study provides the basis to study the co-evolution of potyviruses and the pea host.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090394
PMCID: PMC3946452  PMID: 24609094
17.  NOTCH-1 and NOTCH-4 are novel gene targets of PEA3 in breast cancer: novel therapeutic implications 
Introduction
Women with triple-negative breast cancer have the worst prognosis, frequently present with metastatic tumors and have few targeted therapy options. Notch-1 and Notch-4 are potent breast oncogenes that are overexpressed in triple-negative and other subtypes of breast cancer. PEA3, an ETS transcription factor, is also overexpressed in triple-negative and other breast cancer subtypes. We investigated whether PEA3 could be the critical transcriptional activator of Notch receptors in MDA-MB-231 and other breast cancer cells.
Methods
Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect Notch-1, Notch-2, Notch-3 and Notch-4 receptor expression in breast cancer cells when PEA3 was knocked down by siRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to identify promoter regions for Notch genes that recruited PEA3. TAM-67 and c-Jun siRNA were used to identify that c-Jun was necessary for PEA3 enrichment on the Notch-4 promoter. A Notch-4 luciferase reporter was used to confirm that endogenous PEA3 or AP-1 activated the Notch-4 promoter region. Cell cycle analysis, trypan blue exclusion, annexin V flow cytometry, colony formation assay and an in vivo xenograft study were performed to determine the biological significance of targeting PEA3 via siRNA, Notch signaling via a γ-secretase inhibitor, or both.
Results
Herein we provide new evidence for transcriptional regulation of Notch by PEA3 in breast cancer. PEA3 activates Notch-1 transcription in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 breast cancer cells. PEA3 activates Notch-4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 cells where PEA3 levels are endogenously high. In SKBr3 and BT474 breast cancer cells where PEA3 levels are low, overexpression of PEA3 increases Notch-4 transcripts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the enrichment of PEA3 on Notch-1 and Notch-4 promoters in MDA-MB-231 cells. PEA3 recruitment to Notch-1 was AP-1-independent, whereas PEA3 recruitment to Notch-4 was c-JUN-dependent. Importantly, the combined inhibition of Notch signaling via a γ-secretase inhibitor (MRK-003 GSI) and knockdown of PEA3 arrested growth in the G1 phase, decreased both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and significantly increased apoptotic cells in vitro. Moreover, either PEA3 knockdown or MRK-003 GSI treatment significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo.
Conclusions
Taken together, the results from this study demonstrate for the first time that Notch-1 and Notch-4 are novel transcriptional targets of PEA3 in breast cancer cells. Targeting of PEA3 and/or Notch pathways might provide a new therapeutic strategy for triple-negative and possibly other breast cancer subtypes.
doi:10.1186/bcr2900
PMCID: PMC3218952  PMID: 21679465
18.  Isolation and characterization of novel EST-derived genic markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae)1 
Applications in Plant Sciences  2013;1(11):apps.1300026.
• Premise of the study: Novel markers were developed for pea (Pisum sativum) from pea expressed sequence tags (ESTs) having significant homology to Medicago truncatula gene sequences to investigate genetic diversity, linkage mapping, and cross-species transferability.
• Methods and Results: Seventy-seven EST-derived genic markers were developed through comparative mapping between M. truncatula and P. sativum in which 75 markers produced PCR products and 33 were polymorphic among 16 pea genotypes.
• Conclusions: The novel markers described here will be useful for future genetic studies of P. sativum; their amplification in lentil (Lens culinaris) demonstrates their potential for use in closely related species.
doi:10.3732/apps.1300026
PMCID: PMC4103456  PMID: 25202494
comparative mapping; expressed sequence tags; lentil; marker-assisted selection; pea; synteny
19.  Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:234.
Background
Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa.
Results
Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54 cM to 67.54 cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96 cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25.
Conclusions
This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-234
PMCID: PMC3431217  PMID: 22691139
QTL analysis; Leaf morphology; Genomics; Genetics; Physical map; Synteny; Candidate genes; Cowpea; Legumes; EZA1/SWINGER
20.  Biochemical Analysis of Lpt3, a Protein Responsible for Phosphoethanolamine Addition to Lipooligosaccharide of Pathogenic Neisseria 
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;188(3):1039-1048.
The inner core of neisserial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contains heptose residues that can be decorated by phosphoethanolamine (PEA). PEA modification of heptose II (HepII) can occur at the 3, 6, or 7 position(s). We used a genomic DNA sequence of lpt3, derived from Neisseria meningitidis MC58, to search the genomic sequence of N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 and identified a homolog of lpt3 in N. gonorrhoeae. A PCR amplicon containing lpt3 was amplified from F62ΔLgtA, cloned, mutagenized, and inserted into the chromosome of N. gonorrhoeae strain F62ΔLgtA, producing strain F62ΔLgtAlpt3::Tn5. LOS isolated from this strain lost the ability to bind monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2-1-L8. Complementation of this mutation by genetic removal of the transposon insertion restored MAb 2-1-L8 binding. Mass spectrometry analysis of LOS isolated from the F62ΔLgtA indicated that this strain contained two PEA modifications on its LOS. F62ΔLgtAlpt3::Tn5 lacked a PEA modification on its LOS, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that lpt3 encodes a protein mediating PEA addition onto gonococcal LOS. The DNA encoding lpt3 was cloned into an expression vector and Lpt3 was purified. Purified Lpt3 was able to mediate the addition of PEA to LOS isolated from F62ΔLgtAlpt3::Tn5.
doi:10.1128/JB.188.3.1039-1048.2006
PMCID: PMC1347319  PMID: 16428408
21.  Genetic mapping of legume orthologs reveals high conservation of synteny between lentil species and the sequenced genomes of Medicago and chickpea 
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a global food crop with increasing importance for food security in south Asia and other regions. Lens ervoides, a wild relative of cultivated lentil, is an important source of agronomic trait variation. Lens is a member of the galegoid clade of the Papilionoideae family, which includes other important dietary legumes such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and the sequenced model legume Medicago truncatula. Understanding the genetic structure of Lens spp. in relation to more fully sequenced legumes would allow leveraging of genomic resources. A set of 1107 TOG-based amplicons were identified in L. ervoides and a subset thereof used to design SNP markers for mapping. A map of L. ervoides consisting of 377 SNP markers spread across seven linkage groups was developed using a GoldenGate genotyping array and single SNP marker assays. Comparison with maps of M. truncatula and L. culinaris documented considerable shared synteny and led to the identification of a few major translocations and a major inversion that distinguish Lens from M. truncatula, as well as a translocation that distinguishes L. culinaris from L. ervoides. The identification of chromosome-level differences among Lens spp. will aid in the understanding of introgression of genes from L. ervoides into cultivated L. culinaris, furthering genetic research and breeding applications in lentil.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00676
PMCID: PMC4256995  PMID: 25538716
wild lentil; legume tentative orthologs; mapping; translocation; synteny; Medicago
22.  Pea cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene has no intron and generates two mRNA transcripts with different 5'-termini. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1985;13(9):3195-3212.
We have isolated and sequenced the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene from pea mitochondria. The coding sequence (777 bp) shows over 90% homology to the COII genes from three monocotyledonous plants (rice, maize and wheat) and one dicotyledonous plant (Oenothera berteriana). Several codons are deleted, however, in the pea COII gene. Of interest is the deletion in pea of the last three codons, including the stop codon, found at the 3' end of the other four COII genes. Instead, a new stop codon has been created due to a single-base substitution at the 13th bp downstream from the position of the original stop codon. This pea gene does not contain an intron which is found in all three monocots. Two distinct 5' termini of the pea COII transcripts have been identified by S1 nuclease mapping, one at 285 bp (site I) and the other at 302 bp (site II) upstream from the ATG codon. They are located at two identical sites within nearly perfect direct repeats. Transcripts with the 5' end corresponding to site I occur five time more frequently than those with the 5' end corresponding to site II. Both transcripts have the same 3' terminus which has been mapped to be at 193 to 195 bp downstream from the stop codon.
Images
PMCID: PMC341229  PMID: 2987876
23.  Mining functional microsatellites in legume unigenes 
Bioinformation  2011;7(5):264-270.
Highly polymorphic and transferable microsatellites (SSRs) are important for comparative genomics, genome analysis and phylogenetic studies. Development of novel species-specific microsatellite markers remains a costly and labor-intensive project. Therefore, interest has been shifted from genomic to genic markers owing to their high inter-species transferability as they are developed from conserved coding regions of the genome. This study concentrates on comparative analysis of genic microsatellites in nine important legume (Arachis hypogaea, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata) and two model plant species (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana). Screening of a total of 228090 putative unique sequences spanning 219610522 bp using a microsatellite search tool, MISA, identified 12.18% of the unigenes containing 36248 microsatellite motifs excluding mononucleotide repeats. Frequency of legume unigene-derived SSRs was one SSR in every 6.0 kb of analyzed sequences. The trinucleotide repeats were predominant in all the unigenes with the exception of C. cajan, which showed prevalence of dinucleotide repeats over trinucleotide repeats. Dinucleotide repeats along with trinucleotides counted for more than 90% of the total microsatellites. Among dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, AG and AAG motifs, respectively, were the most frequent. Microsatellite positive chickpea unigenes were assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms to identify the possible role of unigenes in various molecular and biological functions. These unigene based microsatellite markers will prove valuable for recording allelic variance across germplasm collections, gene tagging and searching for putative candidate genes.
PMCID: PMC3218422  PMID: 22125396
Microsatellites; SSRs; Unigenes; Legumes; Functional annotation
24.  Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:427.
Background
Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum).
Results
Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula.
Conclusion
We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data provide a starting point for further investigations of legume plant genomes based on their global comparative analysis and for the development of more sophisticated approaches for data mining.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-427
PMCID: PMC2206039  PMID: 18031571
25.  Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant 
Heredity  2011;107(5):421-432.
Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Larval survivorship on the novel host plant pea and a typical crucifer host (kale) was measured in reciprocal F1, F2 and backcrosses between the P-strain and a strain reared only on crucifers (C-strain). Reciprocal F1 hybrids differed: offspring from P-strain mothers survived better on pea, indicating a maternal effect. However, no evidence for sex-linkage was found. Backcrosses to the P-strain produced higher survivorship on pea than C-strain backcrosses, suggesting recessive inheritance. In a linkage analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers using P-strain backcrosses, two, four and five linkage groups contributing to survival on pea were identified in three different families respectively, indicating oligogenic inheritance. Thus, the newly evolved ability to survive on pea has a complex genetic basis, and the P-strain is still genetically heterogeneous and not yet fixed for all the alleles enabling it to survive on pea. Survivorship on kale was variable, but not related to survivorship on pea. This pattern may characterize the genetic inheritance of early host plant adaptation in oligophagous insect species.
doi:10.1038/hdy.2011.27
PMCID: PMC3199923  PMID: 21673741
host range expansion; diamondback moth; AFLP analysis; linkage mapping; inheritance

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