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1.  Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety 
Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine.
In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm.
Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation’s teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release, discussion of the Institute of Medicine report has been largely confined to the medical education community, led by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).
To begin gathering these perspectives and developing a plan to implement safer work hours for resident physicians, a conference entitled “Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety: What will it take to implement the Institute of Medicine recommendations?” was held at Harvard Medical School on June 17–18, 2010. This White Paper is a product of a diverse group of 26 representative stakeholders bringing relevant new information and innovative practices to bear on a critical patient safety problem. Given that our conference included experts from across disciplines with diverse perspectives and interests, not every recommendation was endorsed by each invited conference participant. However, every recommendation made here was endorsed by the majority of the group, and many were endorsed unanimously. Conference members participated in the process, reviewed the final product, and provided input before publication. Participants provided their individual perspectives, which do not necessarily represent the formal views of any organization.
In September 2010 the ACGME issued new rules to go into effect on July 1, 2011. Unfortunately, they stop considerably short of the Institute of Medicine’s recommendations and those endorsed by this conference. In particular, the ACGME only applied the limitation of 16 hours to first-year resident physicans. Thus, it is clear that policymakers, hospital administrators, and residency program directors who wish to implement safer health care systems must go far beyond what the ACGME will require. We hope this White Paper will serve as a guide and provide encouragement for that effort.
Resident physician workload and supervision
By the end of training, a resident physician should be able to practice independently. Yet much of resident physicians’ time is dominated by tasks with little educational value. The caseload can be so great that inadequate reflective time is left for learning based on clinical experiences. In addition, supervision is often vaguely defined and discontinuous. Medical malpractice data indicate that resident physicians are frequently named in lawsuits, most often for lack of supervision. The recommendations are: The ACGME should adjust resident physicians workload requirements to optimize educational value. Resident physicians as well as faculty should be involved in work redesign that eliminates nonessential and noneducational activity from resident physician dutiesMechanisms should be developed for identifying in real time when a resident physician’s workload is excessive, and processes developed to activate additional providersTeamwork should be actively encouraged in delivery of patient care. Historically, much of medical training has focused on individual knowledge, skills, and responsibility. As health care delivery has become more complex, it will be essential to train resident and attending physicians in effective teamwork that emphasizes collective responsibility for patient care and recognizes the signs, both individual and systemic, of a schedule and working conditions that are too demanding to be safeHospitals should embrace the opportunities that resident physician training redesign offers. Hospitals should recognize and act on the potential benefits of work redesign, eg, increased efficiency, reduced costs, improved quality of care, and resident physician and attending job satisfactionAttending physicians should supervise all hospital admissions. Resident physicians should directly discuss all admissions with attending physicians. Attending physicians should be both cognizant of and have input into the care patients are to receive upon admission to the hospitalInhouse supervision should be required for all critical care services, including emergency rooms, intensive care units, and trauma services. Resident physicians should not be left unsupervised to care for critically ill patients. In settings in which the acuity is high, physicians who have completed residency should provide direct supervision for resident physicians. Supervising physicians should always be physically in the hospital for supervision of resident physicians who care for critically ill patientsThe ACGME should explicitly define “good” supervision by specialty and by year of training. Explicit requirements for intensity and level of training for supervision of specific clinical scenarios should be providedCenters for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) should use graduate medical education funding to provide incentives to programs with proven, effective levels of supervision. Although this action would require federal legislation, reimbursement rules would help to ensure that hospitals pay attention to the importance of good supervision and require it from their training programs
Resident physician work hours
Although the IOM “Sleep, supervision and safety” report provides a comprehensive review and discussion of all aspects of graduate medical education training, the report’s focal point is its recommendations regarding the hours that resident physicians are currently required to work. A considerable body of scientific evidence, much of it cited by the Institute of Medicine report, describes deteriorating performance in fatigued humans, as well as specific studies on resident physician fatigue and preventable medical errors.
The question before this conference was what work redesign and cultural changes are needed to reform work hours as recommended by the Institute of Medicine’s evidence-based report? Extensive scientific data demonstrate that shifts exceeding 12–16 hours without sleep are unsafe. Several principles should be followed in efforts to reduce consecutive hours below this level and achieve safer work schedules. The recommendations are: Limit resident physician work hours to 12–16 hour maximum shiftsA minimum of 10 hours off duty should be scheduled between shiftsResident physician input into work redesign should be actively solicitedSchedules should be designed that adhere to principles of sleep and circadian science; this includes careful consideration of the effects of multiple consecutive night shifts, and provision of adequate time off after night work, as specified in the IOM reportResident physicians should not be scheduled up to the maximum permissible limits; emergencies frequently occur that require resident physicians to stay longer than their scheduled shifts, and this should be anticipated in scheduling resident physicians’ work shiftsHospitals should anticipate the need for iterative improvement as new schedules are initiated; be prepared to learn from the initial phase-in, and change the plan as neededAs resident physician work hours are redesigned, attending physicians should also be considered; a potential consequence of resident physician work hour reduction and increased supervisory requirements may be an increase in work for attending physicians; this should be carefully monitored, and adjustments to attending physician work schedules made as needed to prevent unsafe work hours or working conditions for this group“Home call” should be brought under the overall limits of working hours; work load and hours should be monitored in each residency program to ensure that resident physicians and fellows on home call are getting sufficient sleepMedicare funding for graduate medical education in each hospital should be linked with adherence to the Institute of Medicine limits on resident physician work hours
Moonlighting by resident physicians
The Institute of Medicine report recommended including external as well as internal moonlighting in working hour limits. The recommendation is: All moonlighting work hours should be included in the ACGME working hour limits and actively monitored. Hospitals should formalize a moonlighting policy and establish systems for actively monitoring resident physician moonlighting
Safety of resident physicians
The “Sleep, supervision and safety” report also addresses fatigue-related harm done to resident physicians themselves. The report focuses on two main sources of physical injury to resident physicians impaired by fatigue, ie, needle-stick exposure to blood-borne pathogens and motor vehicle crashes. Providing safe transportation home for resident physicians is a logistical and financial challenge for hospitals. Educating physicians at all levels on the dangers of fatigue is clearly required to change driving behavior so that safe hospital-funded transport home is used effectively. Fatigue-related injury prevention (including not driving while drowsy) should be taught in medical school and during residency, and reinforced with attending physicians; hospitals and residency programs must be informed that resident physicians’ ability to judge their own level of impairment is impaired when they are sleep deprived; hence, leaving decisions about the capacity to drive to impaired resident physicians is not recommendedHospitals should provide transportation to all resident physicians who report feeling too tired to drive safely; in addition, although consecutive work should not exceed 16 hours, hospitals should provide transportation for all resident physicians who, because of unforeseen reasons or emergencies, work for longer than consecutive 24 hours; transportation under these circumstances should be automatically provided to house staff, and should not rely on self-identification or request
Training in effective handovers and quality improvement
Handover practice for resident physicians, attendings, and other health care providers has long been identified as a weak link in patient safety throughout health care settings. Policies to improve handovers of care must be tailored to fit the appropriate clinical scenario, recognizing that information overload can also be a problem. At the heart of improving handovers is the organizational effort to improve quality, an effort in which resident physicians have typically been insufficiently engaged. The recommendations are: Hospitals should train attending and resident physicians in effective handovers of careHospitals should create uniform processes for handovers that are tailored to meet each clinical setting; all handovers should be done verbally and face-to-face, but should also utilize written toolsWhen possible, hospitals should integrate hand-over tools into their electronic medical records (EMR) systems; these systems should be standardized to the extent possible across residency programs in a hospital, but may be tailored to the needs of specific programs and services; federal government should help subsidize adoption of electronic medical records by hospitals to improve signoutWhen feasible, handovers should be a team effort including nurses, patients, and familiesHospitals should include residents in their quality improvement and patient safety efforts; the ACGME should specify in their core competency requirements that resident physicians work on quality improvement projects; likewise, the Joint Commission should require that resident physicians be included in quality improvement and patient safety programs at teaching hospitals; hospital administrators and residency program directors should create opportunities for resident physicians to become involved in ongoing quality improvement projects and root cause analysis teams; feedback on successful quality improvement interventions should be shared with resident physicians and broadly disseminatedQuality improvement/patient safety concepts should be integral to the medical school curriculum; medical school deans should elevate the topics of patient safety, quality improvement, and teamwork; these concepts should be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum and reinforced throughout residency; mastery of these concepts by medical students should be tested on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) stepsFederal government should support involvement of resident physicians in quality improvement efforts; initiatives to improve quality by including resident physicians in quality improvement projects should be financially supported by the Department of Health and Human Services
Monitoring and oversight of the ACGME
While the ACGME is a key stakeholder in residency training, external voices are essential to ensure that public interests are heard in the development and monitoring of standards. Consequently, the Institute of Medicine report recommended external oversight and monitoring through the Joint Commission and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The recommendations are: Make comprehensive fatigue management a Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal; fatigue is a safety concern not only for resident physicians, but also for nurses, attending physicians, and other health care workers; the Joint Commission should seek to ensure that all health care workers, not just resident physicians, are working as safely as possibleFederal government, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, should encourage development of comprehensive fatigue management programs which all health systems would eventually be required to implementMake ACGME compliance with working hours a “ condition of participation” for reimbursement of direct and indirect graduate medical education costs; financial incentives will greatly increase the adoption of and compliance with ACGME standards
Future financial support for implementation
The Institute of Medicine’s report estimates that $1.7 billion (in 2008 dollars) would be needed to implement its recommendations. Twenty-five percent of that amount ($376 million) will be required just to bring hospitals into compliance with the existing 2003 ACGME rules. Downstream savings to the health care system could potentially result from safer care, but these benefits typically do not accrue to hospitals and residency programs, who have been asked historically to bear the burden of residency reform costs. The recommendations are: The Institute of Medicine should convene a panel of stakeholders, including private and public funders of health care and graduate medical education, to lay down the concrete steps necessary to identify and allocate the resources needed to implement the recommendations contained in the IOM “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety” report. Conference participants suggested several approaches to engage public and private support for this initiativeEfforts to find additional funding to implement the Institute of Medicine recommendations should focus more broadly on patient safety and health care delivery reform; policy efforts focused narrowly upon resident physician work hours are less likely to succeed than broad patient safety initiatives that include residency redesign as a key componentHospitals should view the Institute of Medicine recommendations as an opportunity to begin resident physician work redesign projects as the core of a business model that embraces safety and ultimately saves resourcesBoth the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Director of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should take the Institute of Medicine recommendations into consideration when promulgating rules for innovation grantsThe National Health Care Workforce Commission should consider the Institute of Medicine recommendations when analyzing the nation’s physician workforce needs
Recommendations for future research
Conference participants concurred that convening the stakeholders and agreeing on a research agenda was key. Some observed that some sectors within the medical education community have been reluctant to act on the data. Several logical funders for future research were identified. But above all agencies, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services is the only stakeholder that funds graduate medical education upstream and will reap savings downstream if preventable medical errors are reduced as a result of reform of resident physician work hours.
PMCID: PMC3630963  PMID: 23616719
resident; hospital; working hours; safety
2.  ACGME case logs: Surgery resident experience in operative trauma for two decades 
Surgery resident education is based on experiential training, which is influenced by changes in clinical management strategies, technical and technologic advances, and administrative regulations. Trauma care has been exposed to each of these factors, prompting concerns about resident experience in operative trauma. The current study analyzed the reported volume of operative trauma for the last two decades; to our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of nationwide trends during such an extended time line.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) database of operative logs was queried from academic year (AY) 1989–1990 to 2009–2010 to identify shifts in trauma operative experience. Annual case log data for each cohort of graduating surgery residents were combined into approximately 5-year blocks, designated Period I (AY1989–1990 to AY1993–1994), Period II (AY1994–1995 to AY1998–1999), Period III (AY1999–2000 to AY2002–2003), and Period IV (AY2003–2004 to AY2009–2010). The latter two periods were delineated by the year in which duty hour restrictions were implemented.
Overall general surgery caseload increased from Period I to Period II (p < 0.001), remained stable from Period II to Period III, and decreased from Period III to Period IV (p < 0.001). However, for ACGME-designated trauma cases, there were significant declines from Period I to Period II (75.5 vs. 54.5 cases, p < 0.001) and Period II to Period III (54.5 vs. 39.3 cases, p < 0.001) but no difference between Period III and Period IV (39.3 vs. 39.4 cases). Graduating residents in Period I performed, on average, 31 intra-abdominal trauma operations, including approximately five spleen and four liver operations. Residents in Period IV performed 17 intra-abdominal trauma operations, including three spleen and approximately two liver operations.
Recent general surgery trainees perform fewer trauma operations than previous trainees. The majority of this decline occurred before implementation of work-hour restrictions. Although these changes reflect concurrent changes in management of trauma, surgical educators must meet the challenge of training residents in procedures less frequently performed.
Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.
PMCID: PMC4237587  PMID: 23188243
Surgical residents; trauma; ACGME; resident work-hour restrictions; education
3.  Duty Hour Recommendations and Implications for Meeting the ACGME Core Competencies: Views of Residency Directors 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2011;86(3):185-191.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the views of residency program directors regarding the effect of the 2010 duty hour recommendations on the 6 core competencies of graduate medical education.
METHODS: US residency program directors in internal medicine, pediatrics, and general surgery were e-mailed a survey from July 8 through July 20, 2010, after the 2010 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour recommendations were published. Directors were asked to rate the implications of the new recommendations for the 6 ACGME core competencies as well as for continuity of inpatient care and resident fatigue.
RESULTS: Of 719 eligible program directors, 464 (65%) responded. Most program directors believe that the new ACGME recommendations will decrease residents' continuity with hospitalized patients (404/464 [87%]) and will not change (303/464 [65%]) or will increase (26/464 [6%]) resident fatigue. Additionally, most program directors (249-363/464 [53%-78%]) believe that the new duty hour restrictions will decrease residents' ability to develop competency in 5 of the 6 core areas. Surgery directors were more likely than internal medicine directors to believe that the ACGME recommendations will decrease residents' competency in patient care (odds ratio [OR], 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-6.3), medical knowledge (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.2), practice-based learning and improvement (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4), interpersonal and communication skills (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0), and professionalism (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0).
CONCLUSION: Residency program directors' reactions to ACGME duty hour recommendations demonstrate a marked degree of concern about educating a competent generation of future physicians in the face of increasing duty hour standards and regulation.
The reactions of residency program directors to the ACGME duty hour recommendations demonstrate a marked degree of concern about educating a competent generation of future physicians in the face of increasing duty hour standards and regulation.
PMCID: PMC3046937  PMID: 21307391
4.  Effects of the 2011 Duty Hour Reforms on Interns and Their Patients: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study 
JAMA internal medicine  2013;173(8):657-663.
In 2003, the first phase of duty hour requirements for U.S. residency programs recommended by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) was implemented. Evidence suggests that this first phase of duty hour requirements resulted in a modest improvement in resident wellbeing and patient safety. To build on these initial changes, the ACGME recommended a new set of duty hour requirements that took effect in July 2011. We sought to determine the effects of the 2011 duty hour reforms on first year residents (interns) and their patients.
We conducted alongitudinal cohort study of 2323 interns entering one of 51 residency programs at 14 university and community-based GME institutions or graduating from one of four medical schools participating in the study. We compared self-reported duty hours, hours of sleep, depressive symptoms, well-being and medical errors at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of the internship year between interns serving before (2009 and 2010) and interns serving after (2011) the implementation of the new duty-hour requirements.
58% of invited interns chose to participate in the study. Reported duty hours decreased from an average of 67.0 hours/week before the new rules to 64.3 hours/week after the new rules were instituted (p<0.001). Despite the decrease in duty hours, there were no significant changes in hours slept (7.0→6.8; p=0.17), depressive symptoms (5.8→5.7; p=NS) or well-being (48.5→48.4; p=0.86) reported by interns. With the new duty hour rules, the percentage of interns who reported committing a serious medical error increased from 19.9% to 23.3% (p=0.007).
Although interns report working fewer hours under the new duty hour restrictions, this decrease has not been accompanied by an increase in hours of sleep or an improvement in depressive symptoms or wellbeing but has been accompanied by an unanticipated increase in self-reported medical errors under the new duty hour restrictions.
PMCID: PMC4016974  PMID: 23529201
Graduate; Medical; Education; Residency; Work; Hours; Sleep
5.  A Systematic Review of the Effects of Resident Duty Hour Restrictions in Surgery 
Annals of Surgery  2014;259(6):1041-1053.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) on clinical and educational outcomes in surgery. A total of 135 articles met inclusion criteria. In surgery, recent RDH changes are not consistently associated with improved resident well-being and may have negative impacts on patient outcomes and education.
In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandated 80-hour resident duty limits. In 2011 the ACGME mandated 16-hour duty maximums for PGY1 (post graduate year) residents. The stated goals were to improve patient safety, resident well-being, and education. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) on clinical and educational outcomes in surgery.
A systematic review (1980–2013) was executed on CINAHL, Cochrane Database, Embase, Medline, and Scopus. Quality of articles was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Sixteen-hour shifts and night float systems were analyzed separately. Articles that examined mortality data were combined in a random-effects meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of RDH on patient mortality.
A total of 135 articles met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 42% (N = 57) were considered moderate-high quality. There was no overall improvement in patient outcomes as a result of RDH; however, some studies suggest increased complication rates in high-acuity patients. There was no improvement in education related to RDH restrictions, and performance on certification examinations has declined in some specialties. Survey studies revealed a perception of worsened education and patient safety. There were improvements in resident wellness after the 80-hour workweek, but there was little improvement or negative effects on wellness after 16-hour duty maximums were implemented.
Recent RDH changes are not consistently associated with improvements in resident well-being, and have negative impacts on patient outcomes and performance on certification examinations. Greater flexibility to accommodate resident training needs is required. Further erosion of training time should be considered with great caution.
PMCID: PMC4047317  PMID: 24662409
burnout; patient outcomes; patient safety; postgraduate surgical training; residents; resident duty hours; resident wellness; surgical education
6.  Time-motion studies of internal medicine residents’ duty hours: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Since the mid-1980s, medical residents’ long duty hours have been under scrutiny as a factor affecting patient safety and the work environment for the residents. After several mandated changes in duty hours, it is important to understand how residents spend their time before proposing and implementing future changes. Time-motion methodology may provide reliable information on what residents do while on duty.
The purpose of this study is to review all available literature pertaining to time-motion studies of internal medicine residents while on a medicine service and to understand how much of their time is apportioned to various categories of tasks, and also to determine the effects of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-mandated duty hour changes on resident workflow in North America.
Electronic bibliographic databases were searched for articles in English between 1941 and April 2013 reporting time-motion studies of internal medicine residents rotating through a general medicine service.
Eight articles were included. Residents spent 41.8% of time in patient care activities, 18.1% communicating, 13.8% in educational activities, 19.7% in personal/other, and 6.6% in transit. North American data showed the following changes after the implementation of the ACGME 2003 duty hours standard: patient care activities from 41.8% to 40.8%, communication activities from 19.0% to 22.3%, educational activities from 17.7% to 11.6%, and personal/other activities from 21.5% to 17.1%.
There was a paucity of time-motion data. There was great variability in the operational definitions of task categories reported in the studies. Implementation of the ACGME duty hour standards did not have a significant effect on the percentage of time spent in particular tasks. There are conflicting reports on how duty hour changes have affected patient safety. A low proportion of time spent in educational activities deserves further study and may point to a review of the educational models used.
Video abstract
PMCID: PMC4655905  PMID: 26604853
time-motion studies; residents’ duty hours; workflow; systematic review
7.  An ACGME Duty Hour Compliant 3-Person Night Float System for Neurological Surgery Residency Programs 
In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) instituted the 24+6-hour work schedule and 80-hour workweek, and in 2011, it enhanced work hour and supervision standards.
In response, Oregon Health & Science University's (OHSU) neurological surgery residency instituted a 3-person night float system.
We analyzed work hour records and operative experience for 1 year before and after night float implementation in a model that shortened a combined introductory research and basic clinical neurosciences rotation from 12 to 6 months. We analyzed residents' perception of the system using a confidential survey. The ACGME 2011 work hour standards were applied to both time periods.
After night float implementation, the number of duty hour violations was reduced: 28-hour shift (11 versus 235), 8 hours off between shifts (2 versus 20), 80 hours per week (0 versus 17), and total violations (23 versus 275). Violations increased only for the less than 4 days off per 4-week interval rule (10 versus 3). No meaningful difference was seen in the number of operative cases performed per year at any postgraduate year (PGY) training level: PGY-2 (336 versus 351), PGY-3 (394 versus 354), PGY-4 (803 versus 802), PGY-5 (1075 versus 1040), PGY-7 (947 versus 913), and total (3555 versus 3460). Residents rated the new system favorably.
To meet 2011 ACGME duty hour standards, the OHSU neurological surgery residency instituted a 3-person night float system. A nearly complete elimination of work hour violations did not affect overall resident operative experience.
PMCID: PMC4054734  PMID: 24949139
8.  Worse outcomes for patients undergoing brain tumor and cerebrovascular procedures following the ACGME resident duty-hour restrictions 
Journal of neurosurgery  2014;121(2):262-276.
On July 1, 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented duty-hour restrictions for resident physicians due to concerns for patient and resident safety. Though duty-hour restrictions have increased resident quality of life, studies have shown mixed results with respect to patient outcomes. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of duty-hour restrictions on morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and charges in patients who underwent brain tumor and cerebrovascular procedures.
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to evaluate the effect of duty-hour restrictions on complications, mortality, length of stay, and charges by comparing the pre-reform (2000–2002) and post-reform (2005–2008) periods. Outcomes were compared between nonteaching and teaching hospitals using a difference-in-differences (DID) method.
A total of 90,648 patients were included in the analysis. The overall complication rate was 11.7%, with the rates not significantly differing between the pre –and post–duty hour eras (p = 0.26). Examination of hospital teaching status revealed that complication rates decreased in nonteaching hospitals (12.1% vs 10.4%, p = 0.0004) and remained stable in teaching institutions (11.8% vs 11.9%, p = 0.73) in the post-reform era. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significantly higher complication risk in teaching institutions (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11–1.59], p = 0.0022), with no significant change in nonteaching hospitals (OR 1.11 [95% CI 0.91–1.37], p = 0.31). A DID analysis to compare the magnitude in change between teaching and nonteaching institutions revealed that teaching hospitals had a significantly greater increase in complications during the post-reform era than nonteaching hospitals (p = 0.040). The overall mortality rate was 3.0%, with a significant decrease occurring in the post-reform era in both nonteaching (5.0% vs 3.2%, p < 0.0001) and teaching (3.2% vs 2.3%, p < 0.0001) hospitals. DID analysis to compare the changes in mortality between groups did not reveal a significant difference (p = 0.40). The mean length of stay for all patients was 8.7 days, with hospital stay decreasing from 9.2 days to 8.3 days in the post-reform era (p < 0.0001). The DID analysis revealed a greater length of stay decrease in nonteaching hospitals than teaching institutions, which approached significance (p = 0.055). Patient charges significantly increased in the post-reform era for all patients, increasing from $70,900 to $96,100 (p < 0.0001). The DID analysis did not reveal a significant difference between the changes in charges between teaching and nonteaching hospitals (p = 0.17).
The implementation of duty-hour restrictions correlated with an increased risk of postoperative complications for patients undergoing brain tumor and cerebrovascular neurosurgical procedures. Duty-hour reform may therefore be associated with worse patient outcomes, contrary to its intended purpose. Due to the critical condition of many neurosurgical patients, this patient population is most sensitive and likely to be negatively affected by proposed future increased restrictions.
PMCID: PMC4527330  PMID: 24926647
brain tumor; cerebrovascular; complication; duty-hour restriction; outcome; resident
9.  Resident Duty Hours: A Survey of Internal Medicine Program Directors 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2014;29(10):1349-1354.
In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented new Common Program Requirements to regulate duty hours of resident physicians, with three goals: improved patient safety, quality of resident education and quality of life for trainees. We sought to assess Internal Medicine program director (IMPD) perceptions of the 2011 Common Program Requirements in July 2012, one year following implementation of the new standards.
A cross-sectional study of all IMPDs at ACGME-accredited programs in the United States (N = 381) was performed using a 32-question, self-administered survey. Contact information was identified for 323 IMPDs. Three individualized emails were sent to each director over a 6-week period, requesting participation in the survey. Outcomes measured included approval of duty hours regulations, as well as perceptions of changes in graduate medical education and patient care resulting from the revised ACGME standards.
A total of 237 surveys were returned (73 % response rate). More than half of the IMPDs (52 %) reported “overall” approval of the 2011 duty hour regulations, with greater than 70 % approval of all individual regulations except senior resident daily duty periods (49 % approval) and 16-hour intern shifts (17 % approval). Although a majority feel resident quality of life has improved (55 %), most IMPDs believe that resident education (60 %) is worse. A minority report that quality (8 %) or safety (11 %) of patient care has improved.
One year after implementation of new ACGME duty hour requirements, IMPDs report overall approval of the standards, but strong disapproval of 16-hour shift limits for interns. Few program directors perceive that the duty hour restrictions have resulted in better care for patients or education of residents. Although resident quality of life seems improved, most IMPDs report that their own workload has increased. Based on these results, the intended benefits of duty hour regulations may not yet have been realized.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-014-2912-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4175662  PMID: 24913004
graduate medical education; resident duty hours; compliance; patient safety
10.  The ACGME case log: General surgery resident experience in pediatric surgery 
Journal of pediatric surgery  2013;48(8):1643-1649.
General surgery (GS) residents in ACGME programs log cases performed during their residency. We reviewed designated pediatric surgery (PS) cases to assess for changes in performed cases over time.
The ACGME case logs for graduating GS residents were reviewed from academic year (AY) 1989–1990 to 2010–2011 for designated pediatric cases. Overall and designated PS cases were analyzed. Data were combined into five blocks: Period I (AY1989–90 to AY1993–94), Period II (AY1994–95 to AY1998–99), Period III (AY1999–00 to AY2002–03), Period IV (AY2003–04 to AY2006–07), and Period V (AY2007–08 to AY2010–11). Periods IV and V were delineated by implementation of duty hour restrictions. Student t-tests compared averages among the time periods with significance at P < .05.
Overall GS case load remained relatively stable. Of total cases, PS cases accounted for 5.4% in Period I and 3.7% in Period V. Designated pediatric cases declined for each period from an average of 47.7 in Period I to 33.8 in Period V. These changes are due to a decline in hernia repairs, which account for half of cases. All other cases contributed only minimally to the pediatric cases. The only laparoscopic cases in the database were anti-reflux procedures, which increased over time.
GS residents perform a diminishing number of designated PS cases. This decline occurred before the onset of work-hour restrictions. These changes have implications on the capabilities of the current graduating workforce. However, the case log does not reflect all cases trainees may be exposed to, so revision of this list is recommended.
PMCID: PMC4235999  PMID: 23932601
General surgery; Resident; Education; Pediatric surgery; Case log
11.  The ACGME Duty Hour Standards and Board Certification Examination Performance Trends in Surgical Specialties 
Duty hour limitations initiated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in 2003 could improve resident education in surgical specialties.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate national surgical board examination performance and its relationship to the ACGME duty hour standards.
In this retrospective cohort study, electronically published website content was evaluated for examination statistics for the 10 surgical boards in the American Board of Medical Specialties. To evaluate examination trends over time, we performed simple linear regression. We also performed interrupted time series analyses, using segmented logistic regression. The secondary analyses consisted of a χ2 test of passing and failing examinees before and after 2003. All statistics used α  =  .05.
There were 8 of 10 (80%) surgical boards with examinations that met inclusion criteria and a total of 72 482 unique examination results. Of the 16 examinations evaluated (50% written, 50% oral), 13 (81%) had either significant pass rate trends on regression analyses and/or a significant pre-post pass rate surrounding the initiation of the ACGME duty hour standards in 2003 in the secondary analysis (P < .05).
There are both increasing examination pass rates and some downward trends in examination performance on surgical board examinations since the initiation of the ACGME duty hour standards in 2003. The etiology of these trends is unclear, but trends are important to know for individual examinees, residency training programs, and surgical boards.
PMCID: PMC3771175  PMID: 24404309
12.  Survey of Internal Medicine Physicians Trained in Three Different Eras: Reflections on Duty-Hour Reform 
Southern medical journal  2014;107(6):396-401.
To survey internal medicine physicians and residents who have completed residency in three different eras of medical training regarding their experiences during their intern year and their perceptions of duty-hour reform.
An online survey was administered to 268 residents, fellows, and staff physicians who had completed or were completing residency during one of three eras of training: before the 80-hour work week, after the 80-hour work week (instituted in 2003), and after the 16-hour limit on continuous shifts for interns (instituted in 2011). The survey assessed experiences during their intern year of residency and perceptions regarding resident duty-hour reform.
The majority of respondents (n = 32; 54%) indicated that duty-hour restrictions would result in residents being less prepared for their future careers. In addition, 36% (n = 21) of respondents anticipated a decrease in the quality of patient care under the restricted duty hours. A total of 41% (n = 24) were undecided regarding the impact of duty-hour reform on patient care. Respondents reported time spent on independent study, research, and conference attendance did not increase following the institution of duty-hour restrictions.
Survey responses indicated that after 18 months of experience with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour restrictions, physician opinions were mixed and a substantial number remain undecided regarding the impact of duty-hour restrictions on resident career preparedness and the quality of patient care.
PMCID: PMC4188427  PMID: 24945179
duty-hour reform; duty-hour restrictions; medical education; internal medicine residency; career preparedness
13.  A mid year comparison study of career satisfaction and emotional states between residents and faculty at one academic medical center 
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) new requirements raise multiple challenges for academic medical centers. We sought to evaluate career satisfaction, emotional states, positive and negative experiences, work hours and sleep among residents and faculty simultaneously in one academic medical center after implementation of the ACGME duty hour requirements.
Residents and faculty (1330) in the academic health center were asked to participate in a confidential survey; 72% of the residents and 66% of the faculty completed the survey.
Compared to residents, faculty had higher levels of satisfaction with career choice, competence, importance and usefulness; lower levels of anxiousness and depression. The most positive experiences for both groups corresponded to strong interpersonal relationships and educational value; most negative experiences to poor interpersonal relationships and issues perceived outside of the physician's control.
Approximately 13% of the residents and 14% of the faculty were out of compliance with duty hour requirements. Nearly 5% of faculty reported working more than 100 hours per week. For faculty who worked 24 hour shifts, nearly 60% were out of compliance with the duty-hour requirements.
Reasons for increased satisfaction with career choice, positive emotional states and experiences for faculty compared to residents are unexplained. Earlier studies from this institution identified similar positive findings among advanced residents compared to more junior residents. Faculty are more frequently at risk for duty-hour violations. If patient safety is of prime importance, faculty, in particular, should be compliant with the duty hour requirements. Perhaps the ACGME should contain faculty work hours as part of its regulatory function.
PMCID: PMC1550711  PMID: 16827939
14.  Incoming Interns' Perspectives on the Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Residents' Duty Hours 
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has announced revisions to the resident duty hour standards in light of a 2008 Institute of Medicine report that recommended further limits. Soliciting resident input regarding the future of duty hours is critical to ensure trainee buy-in.
To assess incoming intern perceptions of duty hour restrictions at 3 teaching hospitals.
We administered an anonymous survey to incoming interns during orientation at 3 teaching hospitals affiliated with 2 Midwestern medical schools in 2009. Survey questions assessed interns' perceptions of maximum shift length, days off, ACGME oversight, and preferences for a “fatigued post-call intern who admitted patient” versus “well-rested covering intern who just picked up patient” for various clinical scenarios.
Eighty-six percent (299/346) of interns responded. Although 59% agreed that residents should not work over 16 hours without a break, 50% of interns favored the current limits. The majority (78%) of interns desired ability to exceed shift limit for rare cases or clinical opportunities. Most interns (90%) favored oversight by the ACGME, and 97% preferred a well-rested intern for performing a procedure. Meanwhile, only 48% of interns preferred a well-rested intern for discharging a patient or having an end of life discussion. Interns who favored 16-hour limits were less concerned with negative consequences of duty hour restrictions (handoffs, reduced clinical experience) and more likely to choose the well-rested intern for certain scenarios (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.42–3.85, P  =  .001).
Incoming intern perceptions on limiting duty hours vary. Many interns desire flexibility to exceed limits for interesting clinical opportunities and favor ACGME oversight. Clinical context matters when interns consider the tradeoffs between fatigue and discontinuity.
PMCID: PMC3010936  PMID: 22132274
15.  Teaching Hospital Five-Year Mortality Trends in the Wake of Duty Hour Reforms 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2013;28(8):1048-1055.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented duty hour regulations for residents in 2003 and again in 2011. While previous studies showed no systematic impacts in the first 2 years post-reform, the impact on mortality in subsequent years has not been examined.
To determine whether duty hour regulations were associated with changes in mortality among Medicare patients in hospitals of different teaching intensity after the first 2 years post-reform.
Observational study using interrupted time series analysis with data from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2008. Logistic regression was used to examine the change in mortality for patients in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals before (2000–2003) and after (2003–2008) duty hour reform, adjusting for patient comorbidities, time trends, and hospital site.
Medicare patients (n = 13,678,956) admitted to short-term acute care non-federal hospitals with principal diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), gastrointestinal bleeding, or congestive heart failure (CHF); or a diagnosis-related group (DRG) classification of general, orthopedic, or vascular surgery.
All-location mortality within 30 days of hospital admission.
In medical and surgical patients, there were no consistent changes in the odds of mortality at more vs. less teaching intensive hospitals in post-reform years 1–3. However, there were significant relative improvements in mortality for medical patients in the fourth and fifth years post-reform: Post4 (OR 0.88, 95 % CI [0.93–0.94]); Post5 (OR 0.87, [0.82–0.92]) and for surgical patients in the fifth year post-reform: Post5 (OR 0.91, [0.85–0.96]).
Duty hour reform was associated with no significant change in mortality in the early years after implementation, and with a trend toward improved mortality among medical patients in the fourth and fifth years. It is unclear whether improvements in outcomes long after implementation can be attributed to the reform, but concerns about worsening outcomes seem unfounded.
PMCID: PMC3710388  PMID: 23592241
patient outcomes; mortality; duty hour reform; ACGME; administrative data
16.  Impact of 2011 Resident Duty Hour Requirements on Neurology Residency Programs and Departments 
The Neurohospitalist  2014;4(3):119-126.
In 2011, the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) redefined resident duty hour requirements by reducing in-hospital duty hour requirements for residents in an effort to improve patient care, resident well-being, and resident education. We sought to determine the cost of adoption based on changes made by neurology residency programs and departments due to these requirements.
We surveyed department chairs or residency program directors at 123 ACGME-accredited US adult neurology training programs on programmatic changes and resident expansion, hiring practices, and development of new computer-based resources in direct response to the 2011 ACGME duty hour requirements. Using data from publicly available resources, we estimated respondents’ financial cost of adoption.
In all, 63 responded (51% response rate); 76% were program directors. The most common changes implemented by programs were adding night float systems (n = 31; 49%) and increasing faculty responsibility (n = 26; 41%). In direct response to the requirements, 21 programs applied to ACGME for 40 additional residents, 29 of which were fully covered by institutional funds. In direct response to the requirements, nearly half of the departments (n = 26) hired individuals for a total of 80 hires (or 64 full-time equivalents), most commonly mid-level practitioners. The total estimated cost to responding departments was US $12.7 million or US $201,000 per department annually. When projecting expenses of planned changes for the following year, costs increased to US $360,000 per department, with 5-year costs exceeding US $1 million.
The most recent restriction on resident duty hours comes at substantial cost to neurology departments and residency programs.
PMCID: PMC4056414  PMID: 24982715
education; training; academic; quality; safety; costs
17.  The Impact of Resident Duty Hour Reform on Hospital Readmission Rates Among Medicare Beneficiaries 
A key goal of resident duty hour reform by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in 2003 was to improve patient outcomes.
To assess whether the reform led to a change in readmission rates.
Observational study using multiple time series analysis with hospital discharge data from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to examine the change in the odds of readmission in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals before and after duty hour reform.
All unique Medicare patients (n = 8,282,802) admitted to acute-care nonfederal hospitals with principal diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, or stroke (combined medical group), or a DRG classification of general, orthopedic, or vascular surgery (combined surgical group).
Main measures
Primary outcome was 30-day all-cause readmission. Secondary outcomes were (1) readmission or death within 30 days of discharge, and (2) readmission, death during the index admission, or death within 30 days of discharge.
Key Results
For the combined medical group, there was no evidence of a change in readmission rates in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals [OR = 0.99 (95% CI 0.94, 1.03) in post-reform year 1 and OR = 0.99 (95% CI 0.95, 1.04) in post-reform year 2]. There was also no evidence of relative changes in readmission rates for the combined surgical group: OR = 1.03 (95% CI 0.98, 1.08) for post-reform year 1 and OR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.98, 1.07) for post-reform year 2. Findings for the secondary outcomes combining readmission and death were similar.
Among Medicare beneficiaries, there were no changes in hospital readmission rates associated with resident duty hour reform.
PMCID: PMC3055962  PMID: 21057883
education, medical, graduate; hospital; readmission
18.  To Leave or to Lie? Are Concerns about a Shift-Work Mentality and Eroding Professionalism as a result of Duty Hour Rules Justified? 
The Milbank Quarterly  2010;88(3):350-381.
Among medical educators, there are concerns that the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour rules (DHR) has encouraged the development of a “shift work” mentality among residents while eroding professionalism by forcing residents to either abandon patients when they hit 80 hours or lie about hours worked. In this qualitative study, we explore how medical and surgical residents perceive and respond to DHR by examining the ‘local’ organizational culture in which their work is embedded.
In 2008, we conducted three months of ethnographic observation of internal medicine and general surgery residents as they went about their everyday work in two hospitals affiliated with the same training program. We also conducted in-depth interviews with seventeen residents. Field notes and interview transcripts were analyzed for perceptions and behaviors surrounding coming and leaving work, reporting of duty hours, and resident opinion about DHR.
Our respondents did not exhibit a “shift work” mentality in relation to their work. We found that residents: 1) occasionally stay in the hospital in order to complete patient care tasks even when, according to the clock, they were required to leave because the organizational culture stressed performing work thoroughly, 2) do not blindly embrace noncompliance with DHR but are thoughtful about the tradeoffs inherent in the regulations, and 3) express nuanced and complex reasons for erroneously reporting duty hours that suggest that reporting hours worked is not a simple issue of lying or truth telling.
Concerns about DHR and the erosion of resident professionalism via the development of a “shift work” mentality are likely to have been over-stated. At the institution we examined, residents did not behave as automatons punching in and out at prescribed times. Rather, they are mindful of the consequences and meaning surrounding the decisions they make to stay or leave work. When work hour rules are broken, residents do not perceive this behavior to be deviant but rather as a reflection of the higher priority that they place on providing patient care than on complying strictly with DHR. The influence of DHR on professionalism is more complex than conventional wisdom suggests and requires additional assessment.
PMCID: PMC3000931  PMID: 20860575
internship and residency; duty hour regulations; professionalism
19.  Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Case Log: General Surgery Resident Thoracic Surgery Experience 
The Annals of thoracic surgery  2014;98(2):459-465.
General surgery resident training has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, with likely impact on specialty exposure. We sought to assess trends in general surgery resident exposure to thoracic surgery using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs over time.
The ACGME case logs for graduating general surgery residents were reviewed from academic year (AY) 1989–1990 to 2011–2012 for defined thoracic surgery cases. Data were divided into 5 eras of training for comparison: I, AY89 to 93; II, AY93 to 98; III, AY98 to 03; IV, AY03 to 08; V, AY08 to 12. We analyzed quantity and types of cases per time period. Student t tests compared averages among the time periods with significance at a p values less than 0.05.
A total of 21,803,843 general surgery cases were reviewed over the 23-year period. Residents averaged 33.6 thoracic cases each in period I and 39.7 in period V. Thoracic cases accounted for nearly 4% of total cases performed annually (period I 3.7% [134,550 of 3,598,574]; period V 4.1% [167,957 of 4,077,939]). For the 3 most frequently performed procedures there was a statistically significant increase in thoracoscopic approach from period II to period V.
General surgery trainees today have the same volume of thoracic surgery exposure as their counterparts over the last 2 decades. This maintenance in caseload has occurred in spite of work-hour restrictions. However, general surgery graduates have a different thoracic surgery skill set at the end of their training, due to the predominance of minimally invasive techniques. Thoracic surgery educators should take into account these differences when training future cardiothoracic surgeons.
PMCID: PMC4237588  PMID: 24968766
20.  Tracking Residents Through Multiple Residency Programs: A Different Approach for Measuring Residents' Rates of Continuing Graduate Medical Education in ACGME-Accredited Programs 
Increased focus on the number and type of physicians delivering health care in the United States necessitates a better understanding of changes in graduate medical education (GME). Data collected by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) allow longitudinal tracking of residents, revealing the number and type of residents who continue GME following completion of an initial residency. We examined trends in the percent of graduates pursuing additional clinical education following graduation from ACGME-accredited pipeline specialty programs (specialties leading to initial board certification).
Using data collected annually by the ACGME, we tracked residents graduating from ACGME-accredited pipeline specialty programs between academic year (AY) 2002–2003 and AY 2006–2007 and those pursuing additional ACGME-accredited training within 2 years. We examined changes in the number of graduates and the percent of graduates continuing GME by specialty, by type of medical school, and overall.
The number of pipeline specialty graduates increased by 1171 (5.3%) between AY 2002–2003 and AY 2006–2007. During the same period, the number of graduates pursuing additional GME increased by 1059 (16.7%). The overall rate of continuing GME increased each year, from 28.5% (6331/22229) in AY 2002–2003 to 31.6% (7390/23400) in AY 2006–2007. Rates differed by specialty and for US medical school graduates (26.4% [3896/14752] in AY 2002–2003 to 31.6% [4718/14941] in AY 2006–2007) versus international medical graduates (35.2% [2118/6023] to 33.8% [2246/6647]).
The number of graduates and the rate of continuing GME increased from AY 2002–2003 to AY 2006–2007. Our findings show a recent increase in the rate of continued training for US medical school graduates compared to international medical graduates. Our results differ from previously reported rates of subspecialization in the literature. Tracking individual residents through residency and fellowship programs provides a better understanding of residents' pathways to practice.
PMCID: PMC3010950  PMID: 22132288
21.  Institute of Medicine Committee Report on Resident Duty Hours: A View From a Trench 
In late 2008, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a report recommending more restrictive limits on resident work hours to promote patient safety. Reaction from the graduate medical education community has focused on concerns about a lack of evidence supporting the IOM’s recommendations. We highlight 3 concerns with the report: 1) a disproportionate attention to resident fatigue when changes in other areas may have a larger impact on patient safety. Data supporting a causal link between resident fatigue and medical errors that harm patients are not robust. Two areas where data support a stronger impact on patient safety include resident supervision and transitions of care; 2) a “one size fits all” model when specialty-specific recommendations may be more appropriate. For example, 16 hours on task is not at all similar for residents in different specialties (ie, surgery and primary care); and 3) the absence of a process to evaluate the impact of current or potential duty hour requirements on outcomes. Because these potential impacts have not been sufficiently researched, it is premature to support additional changes at this time.
To move forward in a comprehensive manner, we recommend the following: 1) support more research to evaluate the effects of duty hours in conjunction with other interrelated factors on patient safety, 2) encourage individual Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Review committees to develop specialty specific duty hour limitations, and 3) develop partnerships between the IOM, ACGME, and the institutions directly involved with medical education to study how to maximize patient safety while maintaining quality educational outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2931259  PMID: 21975974
22.  Development, Testing, and Implementation of the ACGME Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) Program 
Since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report on resident hours and patient safety, there have been calls for enhanced institutional oversight of duty hour limits and of efforts to enhance the quality and safety of care in teaching hospitals. The ACGME has established the Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program as a key component of the Next Accreditation System with the aim to promote safety and quality of care by focusing on 6 areas important to the safety and quality of care in teaching hospitals and the care residents will provide in a lifetime of practice after completion of training. The 6 areas encompass engagement of residents in patient safety, quality improvement and care transitions, promoting appropriate resident supervision, duty hour oversight and fatigue management, and enhancing professionalism.
Over the coming 18 months the ACGME will develop, test, and fully implement this new program by conducting visits to the nearly 400 clinical sites of sponsoring institutions with two or more specialty or subspecialty programs. These site visits will provide an understanding of how the learning environment for the 116 000 current residents and fellows addresses the 6 areas important to safety and quality of care, and will generate baseline data on the status of these activities in accredited institutions. We expect that over time the CLER program will serve as a new source of formative feedback for teaching institutions, and generate national data that will guide performance improvement for United States graduate medical education.
PMCID: PMC3444205  PMID: 23997895
23.  Global health opportunities within pediatric subspecialty fellowship training programs: surveying the virtual landscape 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:88.
There is growing interest in global health among medical trainees. Medical schools and residencies are responding to this trend by offering global health opportunities within their programs. Among United States (US) graduating pediatric residents, 40% choose to subspecialize after residency training. There is limited data, however, regarding global health opportunities within traditional post-residency, subspecialty fellowship training programs. The objectives of this study were to explore the availability and type of global health opportunities within Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited pediatric subspecialty fellowship training programs, as noted by their online report, and to document change in these opportunities over time.
The authors performed a systematic online review of ACGME-accredited fellowship training programs within a convenience sample of six US pediatric subspecialties. Utilizing two data sources, the American Medical Association-Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database Access (AMA-FREIDA) and individual program websites, all programs were coded for global health opportunities and opportunity types were stratified into predefined categories. Comparisons were made between 2008 and 2011 using Fisher exact test. All analyses were conducted using SAS Software v. 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
Of the 355 and 360 programs reviewed in 2008 and 2011 respectively, there was an increase in total number of programs listing global health opportunities on AMA-FREIDA (16% to 23%, p=0.02) and on individual program websites (8% to 16%, p=0.004). Nearly all subspecialties had an increased percentage of programs offering global health opportunities on both data sources; although only critical care experienced a significant increase (p=0.04, AMA-FREIDA). The types of opportunities differed across all subspecialties.
Global health opportunities among ACGME-accredited pediatric subspecialty fellowship programs are limited, but increasing as noted by their online report. The availability and types of these opportunities differ by pediatric subspecialty.
PMCID: PMC3691626  PMID: 23787005
Global health; Pediatrics; Graduate medical education; Subspecialty; Fellowship training
24.  A Thematic Review of Resident Commentary on Duty Hours and Supervision Regulations 
The implementation on July 1, 2011, of new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) standards for resident supervision and duty hours has prompted considerable debate about the potential positive and negative effects of these changes on patient care and resident education. A recent large-sample study analyzed resident responses to these changes, using a Likert scale response. In this same study, 874 residents also provided free-text comments, which provide added insight into resident perspectives on duty hours and supervision.
A mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative survey of residents was conducted in August 2010 to assess resident perceptions of the proposed ACGME regulations. Common concerns in the residents' free responses were synthesized and quantified using content analysis, a common method for qualitative research.
A total of 11 617 residents received the survey. Completed surveys were received from 2561 residents (22.0%), with 874 residents (34.1%) providing free-text responses. Most residents (83.0%) expressed unfavorable opinions about the new standards. The most frequently cited concerns included coverage issues, and a negative impact on patient care and education, as well as lack of preparation for senior roles. A smaller portion of residents commented they thought the standards would contribute to improvements in quality of life (36.1%) and patient care (4.9%).
ACGME standards are important for graduate medical education, and their aim is to promote high-quality education and better care to patients in teaching institutions. Yet, many residents are concerned about the day-to-day impact of the 2011 regulations, in particular the 16-hour duty period for interns. Most residents who provided free-text responses had a negative impression of the new ACGME regulations. Residents' resistance to duty hour changes may represent a realization that residents are losing a central role in patient care. The concerns identified in this study demonstrate important issues for administrators and policymakers. Resident ideas and opinions should be considered in future revisions of ACGME requirements.
PMCID: PMC3546574  PMID: 24294421
25.  A qualitative assessment of internal medicine resident perceptions of graduate medical education following implementation of the 2011 ACGME duty hour standards 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:84.
In 2011, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education implemented updated guidelines for medical resident duty hours, further limiting continuous work hours for first-year residents. We sought to investigate the impact of these restrictions on graduate medical education among internal medicine residents.
We conducted eight focus groups with internal medicine residents at the University of Alabama at Birmingham in 06/2012-07/2012. Discussion questions included, “How do you feel the 2011 ACGME work hour restrictions have impacted your graduate medical education?” Transcripts of the focus groups were reviewed and themes identified using a deductive/inductive approach. Participants completed a survey to collect demographic information and future practice plans.
Thirty-four residents participated in our focus groups. Five themes emerged: decreased teaching, decreased experiential learning, shift-work mentality, tension between residency classes, and benefits and opportunities. Residents reported that since implementation of the guidelines, teaching was often deferred to complete patient-care tasks. Residents voiced concern that PGY-1 s were not receiving adequate clinical experience and that procedural and clinical reasoning skills are being negatively impacted. PGY-1 s reported being well-rested and having increased time for independent study.
Residents noted a decline in teaching and are concerned with the decrease in “hands-on” clinical education that is inevitably impacted by fewer hours in the hospital, though some benefits were also reported. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the impact of decreased resident work hours on graduate medical education.
PMCID: PMC4012765  PMID: 24755276
Medical education; Medical education-graduate; Qualitative research

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