Assessment of asthma via spirometry in children is challenging due to often normal FEV1 values.
We used Mead’s slope ratio ( (dV•∕dV)∕(V•∕V) ) to analyze the shape of the flow volume loop.
We analyzed the effects of time, albuterol, and budesonide on FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%, and Mead’s slope ratio, early (between 75% and 50% of FVC, SR61) and late (between 75% and 50% of FVC, SR35) in exhalation, in the Childhood Asthma Management Program cohort at baseline, 4 months, and end of study in participants who received either inhaled placebo or budesonide BID.
In the placebo group, both SR61 and SR35 improved over time. Bronchodilator consistently improved both SR61 and SR35, without change in degree of improvement over time. Similarly, in the budesonide group, time and bronchodilator each independently improved both SR61 and SR35. At 4 months and end of study, budesonide patients had significant improvements in SR61 relative to placebo patients, independent of bronchodilator effect. Budesonide and placebo were not different with respect to pre or post-bronchodilator SR35.
Budesonide-treated patients have less concave flow-volume loops when compared to placebo-treated patients. Time and bronchodilator also make the flow-volume loop less concave. Furthermore, it appears that there are discrete bronchodilator responsive and corticosteroid responsive components of airflow obstruction in pediatric asthma.
Changes in flow-volume loop shape in children with asthma may reflect changes in airflow for which slope ratio may be more sensitive than conventional measures.
Spirometry; Slope Ratio; Asthma; Pediatric; Children
Among asthmatics, bronchodilator response (BDR) to inhaled ß2- adrenergic agonists is variable, and the significance of a consistent response over time is unknown.
We assessed baseline clinical variables and determined the clinical outcomes associated with a consistently positive BDR over 4 years in children with mild-moderate persistent asthma.
In the 1,041 participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP), subjects with a change in FEV1 of 12% or greater (and 200mLs) after inhaled ß2 agonist at each of their yearly follow-up visits (consistent BDR) were compared with those who did not have a consistent BDR.
We identified 52 children with consistent BDR over the 4-year trial. Multivariable logistic regression modeling demonstrated that baseline pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (OR=0.71, p<0.0001), log 10 IgE level (OR=1.97, p=0.002), and lack of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (OR=0.31, p=0.009) were associated with a consistent BDR. Individuals who had a consistent BDR had more hospital visits (p=0.007), required more prednisone bursts (p=0.0007), had increased nocturnal awakenings due to asthma (p<0.0001), and missed more days of school (p=0.03) than non-responders during the 4-year follow-up.
We have identified predictors of consistent BDR and determined that this phenotype is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
asthma; consistent bronchodilator response; outcomes
There are no published studies that have compared bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol combination with budesonide/salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler with a spacer in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. We, therefore, compared the bronchodilatory effects of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (dose: 200 μg and 12 μg respectively) combination with budesonide (200 μg)/salbutamol (200 μg) administered by metered dose inhaler and spacer in children of 5-15 years with mild acute exacerbation of asthma [Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS) between 6-8] in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was FEV1 (% predicted) in the two groups at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60 min after administration of the study drug.
We did not observe any significant differences in the % predicted FEV1 and MPIS between formoterol and salbutamol at various time points from 1 min to 60 min post drug administration. There was significant improvement in FEV1 (% predicted) from baseline in both the groups as early as 1 min after drug administration.
Salbutamol or formoterol delivered along with inhaled corticosteroid by metered dose inhaler with spacer in children between 5-15 years of age with mild acute exacerbation of asthma had similar bronchodilatory effects.
Acute asthma; Bronchodilatation; Formoterol; Salbutamol
While obesity has been hypothesized to worsen asthma, data from studies of well-characterized asthmatics are lacking.
Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), asthma impairment and response to therapy.
BMI (kg/m2) and asthma phenotypic and treatment response data were extracted from Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) studies. The cross-sectional relationship between BMI and asthma impairment was analyzed, as was the longitudinal relationship between BMI and response to asthma controller therapies.
1,265 subjects with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma were evaluated. Analyses of lean vs. overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated small differences in FEV1 (3.05 vs. 2.91 L, p=0.001), FEV1/FVC (mean 83.5% vs. 82.4%, p=0.01), rescue albuterol use (1.1 vs. 1.2 puffs/day, p=0.03) and asthma-related quality of life (5.77 vs. 5.59, p=0.0004). Overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated a smaller improvement in exhaled nitric oxide with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment than did lean asthmatics (3.6 vs. 6.5ppb, p=0.04). With ICS/long-acting beta agonist treatment, overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated smaller improvements in lung function than lean asthmatics, with an 80mL (p=0.04) and 1.7% (p=0.02) lesser improvement in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, respectively. Significant differences in therapeutic response to leukotriene modifiers between BMI categories were not observed.
Elevated BMI is not associated with clinically-significant worsening of impairment in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. There is a modest association between elevated BMI and reduced therapeutic effect of ICS-containing regimens in this patient population. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of overweight and obesity on treatment response in asthma are warranted.
In individuals with mild to moderate persistent asthma, being overweight or obese does not appear to modify indices of asthma-related impairment. Elevated body mass index may reduce response to inhaled corticosteroid-containing treatment regimens.
Asthma; obesity; treatment; severity
This study investigated the rapid onset of bronchodilation effect and compared lung function changes following budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort Turbuhaler®) inhalation in Chinese patients with moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma.
In this open-label, parallel-group clinical study, patients eligible for study were divided into COPD group (n=62, mean age 68.16±8.75 years) and asthma group (n=30, mean age 45.80±12.35 years). Lung function tests (include FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, and IC) were performed at baseline (t=0 min time point, value before inhalation of budesonide/formoterol), and then eligible patients received two inhalations of budesonide/formoterol (160/4.5 μg). Lung function tests were reassessed at t=3, 10 and 30 min time point. The primary end-point was lung function change 3 min after drug inhalation, and the secondary end-points were comparison of the gas flow rate (ΔFEV1) and volume responses (ΔFVC, ΔIC) between COPD and asthma patients after inhalation of budesonide/formoterol.
Compared with the baseline, all patients significantly improved their lung function (included FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, and IC) at 3 min (P<0.05). Greater bronchodilation efficacy was found in the asthma group compared with the COPD group (P<0.05). In the asthmatic patients, the curves of FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, IC, showed improvement with an ascending trend at all time points from 3 to 30 min. Whereas in the COPD patients, only the curves of FEV1, FVC, IC showed similar pattern. We found that ΔFVC was significantly higher than ΔFEV1 in both groups (P<0.05), but no significant difference between ΔIC and ΔFEV1 (P>0.05). Compared with COPD group, asthma group had higher level of ΔFEV1 and ΔIC (P<0.05), but no significant difference for ΔFVC can be found.
Budesonide/formoterol has a fast onset of bronchodilation effect in patients with moderate-severe COPD and asthma. Greater efficacy was found in the asthma group compared with the COPD group. The gas flow rate and volume responses in patients with COPD differ from those with asthma after inhalation of Budesonide/formoterol.
Budesonide/formoterol; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bronchial asthma; lung function test
In 19 asthmatic children, aged 2-6 years, the effect of six weeks' treatment with inhaled budesonide or placebo on functional residual capacity (FRC--helium dilution) and bronchodilator responsiveness was assessed in a double blind, randomised crossover trial. FRC was increased in most children at the start of treatment. Treatment with budesonide was associated with a reduction in FRC by comparison with placebo (median change 9% v 0%; p less than 0.05). There was a trend towards a greater response to a bronchodilator after budesonide. The results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids reduce hyperinflation in young asthmatic children.
Glucocorticoid function is dependent on efficient translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of cells. Importin-13 (IPO13) is a nuclear transport receptor that mediates nuclear entry of GR. In airway epithelial cells, inhibition of IPO13 expression prevents nuclear entry of GR and abrogates anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Impaired nuclear entry of GR has been documented in steroid-non-responsive asthmatics. We hypothesize that common IPO13 genetic variation influences the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of asthma, as measured by change in methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR-PC20).
10 polymorphisms were evaluated in 654 children with mild-to-moderate asthma participating in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP), a clinical trial of inhaled anti-inflammatory medications (budesonide and nedocromil). Population-based association tests with repeated measures of PC20 were performed using mixed models and confirmed using family-based tests of association.
Among participants randomized to placebo or nedocromil, IPO13 polymorphisms were associated with improved PC20 (i.e. less AHR), with subjects harboring minor alleles demonstrating an average 1.51–2.17 fold increase in mean PC20 at 8-months post-randomization that persisted over four years of observation (p = 0.01–0.005). This improvement was similar to that among children treated with long-term inhaled corticosteroids. There was no additional improvement in PC20 by IPO13 variants among children treated with inhaled corticosteroids.
IPO13 variation is associated with improved AHR in asthmatic children. The degree of this improvement is similar to that observed with long-term inhaled corticosteroid treatment, suggesting that IPO13 variation may improve nuclear bioavailability of endogenous glucocorticoids.
The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), felt to be an objective measure of airway obstruction, is often normal in asthmatic children. The forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) reflects small airway patency and has been found to be reduced in children with asthma. The aim of this study was to determine if FEF25-75 is associated with increased childhood asthma severity and morbidity in the setting of a normal FEV1, and to determine if bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) as defined by FEF25-75 identifies more childhood asthmatics than does BDR defined by FEV1.
The Children’s Hospital Boston Pulmonary Function Test database was queried and the most recent spirometry result was retrieved for 744 children diagnosed with asthma between 10–18 years of age between October 2000 and October 2010. Electronic medical records in the 1 year prior and the 1 year following the date of spirometry were examined for asthma severity (mild, moderate or severe) and morbidity outcomes for three age, race and gender-matched subgroups: group A (n= 35) had a normal FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75; Group B (n= 36) had solely a diminished FEV1/FVC; and Group C (n=37) had a normal FEV1, low FEV1/FVC and low FEF25-75. Morbidity outcomes analyzed included the presence of hospitalization, emergency department visit, intensive care unit admission, asthma exacerbation, and systemic steroid use.
Subjects with a low FEF25-75 (Group C) had nearly 3 times the odds (OR 2.8, p<0.01) of systemic corticosteroid use and 6 times the odds of asthma exacerbations (OR 6.3, p>0.01) compared with those who had normal spirometry (Group A). Using FEF25-75 to define bronchodilator responsiveness identified 53% more subjects with asthma than did using a definition based on FEV1.
A low FEF25-75 in the setting of a normal FEV1 is associated with increased asthma severity, systemic steroid use and asthma exacerbations in children. In addition, using the percent change in FEF25-75 from baseline may be helpful in identifying bronchodilator responsiveness in asthmatic children with a normal FEV1.
spirometry; childhood asthma; FEF25-75; bronchodilator responsiveness
The budesonide/formoterol combination is successfully used for fast relief of asthma symptoms in addition to its use as maintenance therapy. The temporarily increased corticosteroid dose during increasing inhaler use for symptom relief is likely to suppress any temporary increase in airway inflammation and may mitigate or prevent asthma exacerbations. The relative contribution of the budesonide and formoterol components to the improved asthma control is unclear.
The acute protective effect of inhaled budesonide was tested in a model of temporarily increased airway inflammation with repeated indirect airway challenges, mimicking an acute asthma exacerbation. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study design was used. Asthmatic patients (n = 17, mean FEV1 95% of predicted) who previously demonstrated a ≥30% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after inhaling adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), were challenged on four consecutive test days, with the same dose of AMP (at 09:00, 12:00 and 16:00 hours). Within 1 minute of the maximal AMP-induced bronchoconstriction at 09:00 hours, the patients inhaled one dose of either budesonide/formoterol (160/4.5 μg), formoterol (4.5 μg), salbutamol (2 × 100 μg) or placebo. The protective effects of the randomised treatments were assessed by serial lung function measurements over the test day.
In the AMP provocations at 3 and 7 hours after inhalation, the budesonide/formoterol combination provided a greater protective effect against AMP-induced bronchoconstriction compared with formoterol alone, salbutamol and placebo. In addition all three active treatments significantly increased FEV1 within 3 minutes of administration, at a time when inhaled AMP had induced the 30% fall in FEV1.
A single dose of budesonide/formoterol provided a greater protective effect against inhaled AMP-induced bronchoconstriction than formoterol alone, both at 3 and at 7 hours after inhalation. The acute protection against subsequent bronchoconstrictor stimuli such as inhaled AMP and the rapid reversal of airway obstruction supports the use of budesonide/formoterol for both relief and prevention in the treatment of asthma.
ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00272753
The assumption that the assessment of FEF25-75 does not provide additional information in asthmatic children with normal FEV1 % predicted has not been adequately tested.
To determine whether the measurement of the FEF25-75 % predicted offers advantages over the FEV1 % predicted and the FEV1/FVC % predicted for the evaluation of childhood asthma.
Methods and Measurements
This is a secondary analysis of data from the “Pediatric Asthma Controller Trial” and the “Characterizing the Response to a Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist and Inhaled Corticosteroid” trials. Pearson correlation coefficients, Pearson partial correlation coefficients, canonical correlations, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed.
Among 437 children with normal FEV1 % predicted, FEF25-75 % predicted and FEV1/FVC % predicted were (1) positively correlated with log2 methacholine PC20, (2) positively correlated with morning and evening peak expiratory flow % predicted, and (3) negatively correlated with log10 FeNO and bronchodilator responsiveness. Pearson partial correlations and canonical correlations indicated that FEF25-75 % predicted was better correlated with bronchodilator responsiveness and log2 methacholine PC20 than were the FEV1 % predicted or FEV1/FVC % predicted. In the ROC curve analysis, FEF25-75 at 65% predicted had a 90% sensitivity and a 67% specificity for detecting a 20% increase in FEV1 following albuterol inhalation.
FEF25-75 % predicted was well correlated with bronchodilator responsiveness in asthmatic children with normal FEV1. FEF25-75 % predicted should be evaluated in clinical studies of asthma in children, and may be of use in predicting the presence of clinically relevant reversible airflow obstruction.
FEF25-75; bronchodilator responsiveness; asthma; FEV1/FVC; canonical correlations and ROC curves
Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this.
To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20).
The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group.
The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates.
The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma.
asthma; drug response; heritability; bronchodilator; pharmacogenetics
Screening-CT identifies small peripheral lung nodules, some of which may be pre- or early invasive neoplasia. Secondary endpoint analysis of a previous chemoprevention trial in individuals with bronchial dysplasia showed reduction in size of peripheral nodules by inhaled budesonide.
We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb trial of inhaled budesonide in current and former smokers with CT-detected lung nodules that were persistent for at least one year. A total of 202 individuals received inhaled budesonide 800 µg twice daily or placebo for one year. The primary endpoint was the effect of treatment on target nodule size in a per-person analysis after one year.
The per-person analysis showed no significant difference between the budesonide and placebo arms (response rate 2% and 1%, respectively). Although the per-lesion analysis revealed a significant effect of budesonide on regression of existing target nodules (p=0.02), the appearance of new lesions was similar in both groups and thus the significance was lost in the analysis of all lesions. The evaluation by nodule type revealed a non-significant trend toward regression of non-solid and partially solid lesions after budesonide treatment. Budesonide was well tolerated with no unexpected side effects identified.
Treatment with inhaled budesonide for one year did not significantly affect peripheral lung nodule size. There was a trend toward regression of non-solid and partially solid nodules after budesonide treatment. Since a subset of these nodules is more likely to represent precursors of adenocarcinoma, additional follow-up is needed. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00321893)
chemoprevention; lung cancer; helical CT; budesonide
Bronchodilator response (BDR) is an important asthma phenotype that measures reversibility of airway obstruction by comparing lung function (i.e. FEV1) before and after the administration of a short-acting β2-agonist, the most common rescue medications used for the treatment of asthma. BDR also serves as a test of β2-agonist efficacy. BDR is a complex trait that is partly under genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR, quantified as percent change in baseline FEV1 after administration of a β2-agonist, was performed with 1,644 non-Hispanic white asthmatic subjects from six drug clinical trials: CAMP, LOCCS, LODO, a medication trial conducted by Sepracor, CARE, and ACRN. Data for 469,884 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to measure the association of SNPs with BDR using a linear regression model, while adjusting for age, sex, and height. Replication of primary P-values was attempted in 501 white subjects from SARP and 550 white subjects from DAG. Experimental evidence supporting the top gene was obtained via siRNA knockdown and Western blotting analyses. The lowest overall combined P-value was 9.7E-07 for SNP rs295137, near the SPATS2L gene. Among subjects in the primary analysis, those with rs295137 TT genotype had a median BDR of 16.0 (IQR = [6.2, 32.4]), while those with CC or TC genotypes had a median BDR of 10.9 (IQR = [5.0, 22.2]). SPATS2L mRNA knockdown resulted in increased β2-adrenergic receptor levels. Our results suggest that SPATS2L may be an important regulator of β2-adrenergic receptor down-regulation and that there is promise in gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of differential response to β2-agonists through GWAS.
Bronchodilator response (BDR) is an important asthma phenotype that measures reversibility of airway obstruction by comparing lung function before and after the administration of short-acting β2-agonists, common medications used for asthma treatment. We performed a genome-wide association study of BDR with 1,644 white asthmatic subjects from six drug clinical trials and attempted to replicate these findings in 1,051 white subjects from two independent cohorts. The most significant associated variant was near the SPATS2L gene. We knocked down SPATS2L mRNA in human airway smooth muscle cells and found that β2-adrenergic receptor levels increased, suggesting that SPATS2L may be a regulator of BDR. Our results highlight the promise of pursuing GWAS results that do not necessarily reach genome-wide significance and are an example of how results from pharmacogenetic GWAS can be studied functionally.
BACKGROUND--Childhood asthma generally responds well to inhaled corticosteroids within the dosage range recommended by the manufacturers, but it is sometimes necessary to use higher doses--that is, above 400 micrograms/day--a practice which has become more widespread recently. Whereas the lack of adrenal suppression in children given inhaled corticosteroids in normal doses is well documented, little is known about the effects of higher doses. METHODS--The effects on adrenal function of high dose (above 400 micrograms/day) inhaled corticosteroids were evaluated by measuring cortisol concentration in the morning and performing a short tetracosactrin test in 49 children taking budesonide (mean age 9.2 years (range 4 to 16 years) and 28 children taking beclomethasone dipropionate (10.2 years (5 to 13 years)). Twenty three non-asthmatic children (8.9 years (4.9 to 13 years)) who were under investigation for short stature served as controls for the study. RESULTS--Compared with controls mean basal cortisol concentration was lower in children taking budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate (control 401 (26.8) nmol/l, budesonide 284 (22) nmol/l, beclomethasone dipropionate 279 (23.2) nmol/l). Sixteen of the 49 children taking budesonide had subnormal basal cortisol concentrations compared with seven of the 28 taking beclomethasone dipropionate. Mean stimulated cortisol concentrations were lower in children taking inhaled corticosteroids than in controls, with no difference between those taking budesonide or beclomethasone dipropionate. CONCLUSIONS--Adrenal suppression occurs in some children who are given inhaled corticosteroids in doses greater than 400 micrograms/day. It may therefore be advisable to try alternative treatments before such doses are used.
To compare the efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort®) with formoterol (Oxis®) in the treatment of patients with acute asthma who showed evidence of refractoriness to short-acting β2-agonist therapy.
In a 3 hour, randomized, double-blind study, a total of 115 patients with acute asthma (mean FEV1 40% of predicted normal) and a refractory response to salbutamol (mean reversibility 2% of predicted normal after inhalation of 400 μg), were randomized to receive either budesonide/formoterol (320/9 μg, 2 inhalations at t = -5 minutes and 2 inhalations at 0 minutes [total dose 1280/36 μg]) or formoterol (9 μg, 2 inhalations at t = -5 minutes and 2 inhalations at 0 minutes [total dose 36 μg]). The primary efficacy variable was the average FEV1 from the first intake of study medication to the measurement at 90 minutes. Secondary endpoints included changes in FEV1 at other timepoints and change in respiratory rate at 180 minutes. Treatment success, treatment failure and patient assessment of the effectiveness of the study medication were also measured.
FEV1 increased after administration of the study medication in both treatment groups. No statistically significant difference between the treatment groups was apparent for the primary outcome variable, or for any of the other efficacy endpoints. There were no statistically significant between-group differences for treatment success, treatment failure or patient assessment of medication effectiveness. Both treatments were well tolerated.
Budesonide/formoterol and formoterol provided similarly rapid relief of acute bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma who showed evidence of refractoriness to a short-acting β2-agonist.
A pro-asthmatic culture milieu and β2-agonist (isoproterenol) were previously shown to regulate the expression of select transcription factors (TFs) within human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. This study tests 1116 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 98 of these TF genes for association with bronchodilator response (BDR) in asthma patients. Genotyping was conducted using the Illumina HumanHap550v3 Beadchip in 403 non-Hispanic White asthmatic children and their parents. SNPs were evaluated for association with BDR using family and population-based analyses. Forty-two SNPs providing p values < 0.1 in both analyses were then genotyped in three adult asthma trials. One SNP 5’ of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene was associated with BDR in the childhood population and two adult populations (p value = 0.0012). This investigation identified a novel locus for inter-individual variability in BDR and represents a translation of a cellular drug-response study to potential personalization of clinical asthma management.
Bronchodilator response; transcription factor; association; thyroid hormone receptor β; asthma; pharmacogenetics
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.
childhood obesity; pediatric asthma; food allergy; parental perception
The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) is recommended by treatment guidelines for the treatment of persistent asthma. Two such combination products, salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC, Seretide™ GSK, UK) and formoterol/budesonide (FBC, Symbicort™, AstraZeneca, UK) are commercially available.
The purpose of these studies was to evaluate and compare the duration of bronchodilation of both combination products up to 24 hours after a single dose.
Two randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed. Study A was conducted in 33 asthmatic adults receiving 400–1200 mcg of budesonide or equivalent. Serial forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured over 24 hours to determine the duration of effect of both SFC (50/100 mcg) and FBC (4.5/160 mcg). Study B was conducted in 75 asthmatic adults receiving 800–1200 mcg of budesonide or equivalent and comprised a 4 week run-in of 400 mcg bd Becotide™ followed by 4 weeks treatment with either SFC 50/100 mcg bd or FBC 4.5/160 mcg bd taken in a cross-over manner. Serial 24-hour FEV1 was measured after the first dose and the last dose after each 4-weeks treatment period to determine the offset of action of each treatment.
In study A, a single inhalation of SFC and FBC produced a sustained bronchodilation at 16 hours with an adjusted mean increase in FEV1 from pre-dose of 0.22 L (95% CI 0.19, 0.35 L) for SFC and 0.25 L (95% CI 0.21, 0.37 L) for FBC, which was significantly greater than placebo for both treatments (-0.05 L; p < 0.001). In study B, the slope of decline in FEV1 from 2–24 hours post dose was -16.0 ml/hr for SFC and -14.2 ml/hr for FBC. The weighted mean AUC over 24 hours was 0.21 Lxmin and 0.22 Lxmin and mean change from pre-dose FEV1 at 12 hours was 0.21 L for SFC and 0.20 L for FBC respectively
Both SFC and FBC produced a similar sustained bronchodilator effect which was prolonged beyond 12 hours post dose and was clearly measurable at 24 h.
for asthma management focus on treatment with inhaled corticosteroids
and on home recording of peak expiratory flow (PEF). The effect of
maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on PEF variation and
its relation to other parameters of disease activity were examined in
102 asthmatic children aged 7-14 years.
METHODS—During 20 months of treatment with inhaled salbutamol, with or without inhaled
budesonide (600 µg daily), forced expiratory volume in one second
(FEV1), the dose of histamine required to provoke a fall in
FEV1 of more than 20% (PD20), the percentage of symptom free days, and PEF variation were assessed bimonthly. PEF
variation was computed as the lowest PEF as a percentage of the highest
PEF occurring over 14 days, the usual way of expressing PEF variation
in asthma self-management plans. For each patient using inhaled
corticosteroids within subject correlation coefficients (ρ) were
computed of PEF variation to the percentage of symptom free days,
FEV1, and PD20.
decreased significantly during the first two months of treatment with
inhaled corticosteroids and then remained stable. The same pattern was
observed for symptoms and FEV1. In contrast,
PD20 histamine continued to improve throughout the whole follow up period. In individual patients predominantly positive associations of PEF variation with symptoms, FEV1, and
PD20 were found, but the ranges of these associations were wide.
treatment with inhaled corticosteroids the changes in PEF variation
over time show poor concordance with changes in other parameters of
asthma severity. When only PEF is monitored, clinically relevant
deteriorations in symptoms, FEV1, or PD20 may
be missed. This suggests that home recording of PEF alone may not be
sufficient to monitor asthma severity reliably in children.
BACKGROUND: In a previous single dosing comparison between fluticasone propionate and budesonide differences in cortisol levels measured at 08.00 hours were observed at doses in excess of 1000 micrograms. The aim of this study was to compare the adrenal suppression caused by chronic twice daily dosing with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) and budesonide (B) given on a microgram equivalent basis by metered dose inhaler to asthmatic patients. METHODS: Twelve stable asthmatic patients of mean age 29.7 years with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 89.0% predicted and mid forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) 58.9% predicted, on 400 micrograms/day or less of inhaled corticosteroid, were studied in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design comparing inhaled budesonide and fluticasone propionate in doses of 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1000 micrograms twice daily. Each dose was given at 08.00 hours and 22.00 hours for four days by metered dose inhaler with mouth rinsing. Measurements were made of overnight urinary cortisol excretion and plasma cortisol levels at 08.00 hours, 10 hours after the eighth dose. RESULTS: The plasma cortisol levels (nmol/ l) at 08.00 hours showed that fluticasone propionate produced lower cortisol levels than budesonide at all three dose levels: F500 333.8, B500 415.2 (95% CI 28.9 to 134.0); F1000 308.3, B1000 380.3 (95% CI 10.5 to 133.5); F2000 207.3, B2000 318.5 (95% CI 5.8 to 216.7); placebo 399.9. Fluticasone produced greater effects than budesonide on the overnight urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio (nmol/mmol) at all three dose levels: F500 3.12, B500 5.55 (95% CI 0.16 to 3.79); F1000 2.54, B1000 6.12 (95% CI 1.25 to 5.91); F2000 2.07, B2000 6.09 (95% CI 0.88 to 7.18); placebo 5.23. CONCLUSIONS: With repeated dosing across a dose range of 250-1000 micrograms twice daily, fluticasone propionate produced significantly greater adrenal suppression than budesonide for both plasma and urinary cortisol. It was therefore possible to demonstrate differences between fluticasone and budesonide at lower doses with chronic dosing from those previously found with single dosing when given on a microgram equivalent basis in asthmatic patients. Factors contributing to the systemic adverse activity profile of fluticasone comprise enhanced receptor potency, prolonged receptor residency time, greater tissue retention, and a longer elimination half life.
BACKGROUND—Inhaled corticosteroids are known to be
beneficial for patients with asthma, but their role in treating
patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
remains controversial. A study was undertaken to determine whether
inhaled corticosteroids are of functional benefit in patients who did
not show improvement with a trial of oral corticosteroids.
METHODS—In phase I patients with stable COPD were
given a two week course of oral placebo followed by two weeks of
prednisone 40 mg per day in a single blind manner to distinguish
between responders and non-responders to oral corticosteroids. In phase
II a double blind, randomised, parallel group trial of inhaled
budesonide 1600 µg per day versus placebo was carried out in 79 non-responders to oral corticosteroids. The primary outcome measure was
forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and
secondary outcome measures were exercise capacity, dyspnoea with
exertion, quality of life, peak expiration flow rate, and respiratory symptoms.
RESULTS—Randomisation allocated 39 subjects to
inhaled corticosteroids and 40 to placebo. There was no difference in
the change in FEV1 from baseline between the treatment and
placebo groups; mean difference -12 ml (95% CI -88 to 63) at three
months and -4 ml (95% CI -95 to 87) at six months. The proportion
of patients with a 15% or greater improvement was no higher among
those receiving inhaled corticosteroids than in the placebo group at
any of the follow up visits. Changes in secondary outcomes were also no different.
even at high doses, were of no physiological or functional benefit in
these patients with advanced COPD.
To compare the effect of inhaled budesonide given daily or as-needed on mild persistent childhood asthma.
Patients, design and interventions:
176 children aged 5–10 years with newly detected asthma were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: (1) continuous budesonide (400 μg twice daily for 1 month, 200 μg twice daily for months 2–6, 100 μg twice daily for months 7–18); (2) budesonide, identical treatment to group 1 during months 1–6, then budesonide for exacerbations as needed for months 7–18; and (3) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) 10 mg three times daily for months 1–18. Exacerbations were treated with budesonide 400 μg twice daily for 2 weeks.
Main outcome measures:
Lung function, the number of exacerbations and growth.
Compared with DSCG the initial regular budesonide treatment resulted in a significantly improved lung function, fewer exacerbations and a small but significant decline in growth velocity. After 18 months, however, the lung function improvements did not differ between the groups. During months 7–18, patients receiving continuous budesonide treatment had significantly fewer exacerbations (mean 0.97), compared with 1.69 in group 2 and 1.58 in group 3. The number of asthma-free days did not differ between regular and intermittent budesonide treatment. Growth velocity was normalised during continuous low-dose budesonide and budesonide therapy given as needed. The latter was associated with catch-up growth.
Regular use of budesonide afforded better asthma control but had a more systemic effect than did use of budesonide as needed. The dose of ICS could be reduced as soon as asthma is controlled. Some children do not seem to need continuous ICS treatment.
Inhaled corticosteroids are known to reduce respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in allergic patients with asthma. The aim of the present randomised, double blind study was to assess the effect of eight weeks' treatment with inhaled budesonide in non-allergic smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease. Twenty four subjects (23 male) entered the study. Their ages ranged from 40 to 70 (mean 57) years, with a mean of 35 (range 9-80) pack years of smoking; the mean FEV1 was 53% (range 32-74%) predicted and geometric mean PC20 (histamine concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1) 0.96 (range 0.07-7.82) mg/ml. After a two week washout, single blind, placebo period, 12 patients were allocated to treatment with budesonide 1600 microgram/day and 12 to placebo for eight weeks. The only additional drug to be taken was ipratropium bromide "if needed." Twenty one patients completed the study, 10 in the budesonide group and 11 in the placebo group. The standard deviation of the difference between duplicate measurements of PC20 histamine and citric acid cough threshold made two weeks apart was below one doubling dose step. There was a significant reduction in dyspnoea in the budesonide group, but otherwise no change in symptom scores or use of ipratropium bromide over the eight weeks of treatment within or between the two groups. No significant differences in spirometric values, peak expiratory flow, PC20 histamine, or citric acid cough threshold were found between the groups. Although differences were not significant, some of the changes showed a trend in favour of budesonide. Whether a longer observation period would show a significant influence of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease remains to be determined.
The aim of this study was to investigate bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) following methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction and to determine differences in BDR according to clinical parameters in children with asthma.
The methacholine challenge test was performed in 145 children with mild to moderate asthma, and the provocative concentration causing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20) was determined. Immediately after the challenge test, patients were asked to inhale short-acting β2-agonists (SABAs) to achieve BDR, which was assessed as the change in FEV1% predicted×100/post-methacholine FEV1% predicted. For each subject, the asthma medication, blood eosinophil count, serum total IgE, serum eosinophil cationic protein level, and skin prick test result were assessed.
The FEV1 (mean±SD) values of the 145 patients were 90.5±10.9% predicted, 64.2±11.5% predicted, and 86.2±11.2% predicted before and after methacholine inhalation, and following the administration of a SABA, respectively. The BDR did not differ significantly according to asthma medication, age, or gender. However, BDR in the atopy group (37.4±17.7%) was significantly higher than that in the non-atopy group (30.5±10.7%; P=0.037). Patients with blood eosinophilia (38.6±18.1%) displayed increased BDR compared with patients without eosinophilia (32.0±13.8%; P=0.037).
In children with mild to moderate asthma, the responsiveness to short-acting bronchodilators after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction was not related to asthma medication, but was higher in children with atopy and/or peripheral blood eosinophilia.
Atopy; asthma; beta-adrenergic agonist; child; eosinophilia; methacholine
A reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) has been reported in smoking asthmatic patients but the effects of other medications remain to be evaluated in this population.
Subjects and Methods:
We evaluated the effects of a combined therapy of budesonide 200 µg twice daily and formoterol 6 µg twice daily compared with budesonide 200 µg twice daily alone on asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ- Juniper), pulmonary function and airway inflammation, in a cross-over randomized double-blind study with treatment periods of two months separated by a one-month wash-out period. Seventeen smoking and 22 non-smoking patients not using inhaled corticosteroids with slightly uncontrolled mild asthma completed the study.
ACQ and AQLQ scores were similar in both groups at baseline and improved similarly after treatments. β2-agonist use was higher in smokers, regardless of the treatment received (p=0.03), as it was on baseline (p=0.003). Smokers treated with budesonide/formoterol showed an increase in the number of asthma episodes (intercurrent asthma symptoms, p=0.016) while non-smoking subjects had a significant decrease in these episodes (p=0.009). No difference was found between smokers and non-smokers in regard to post-treatment airway inflammatory parameters.
No significant differences were found between smoking and non-smoking subjects with mild asthma in regard to clinical changes in asthma control, pulmonary function and airway inflammation following a 2-month treatment period with budesonide or the association of budesonide and formoterol for a period of 2 months. This should be further explored in larger groups of subjects.
Asthma; formoterol; budesonide; smoking.