Ethnicity may be associated with the incidence of pneumococcal infections and the frequency of protective vaccine responses. Earlier studies have suggested that HIV-infected persons of black ethnicity develop less robust immune responses to pneumococcal vaccination that may relate to their higher incidence of invasive disease. We evaluated the association of ethnicity with capsule-specific antibody responses to pneumococcal revaccination, with either the pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or polysaccharide (PPV) vaccines among 188 HIV-infected adults. The proportion of the 77 African Americans (AA) and 111 Caucasians with comparable virologic and immunologic parameters who achieved a positive immune response (≥2-fold rise in capsule-specific IgG from baseline with post-vaccination value ≥1 µg/mL for ≥2 of 4 serotypes) at day 60 after revaccination was similar (43% vs. 49%, respectively, p=0.65). Results were also similar when vaccine types (PPV and PCV) were examined separately. Mean changes in log10 transformed IgG levels from baseline to days 60 and 180 post-vaccination were also not significantly different between AA and Caucasians. In summary, in this ethnically diverse cohort with equal access to care, we did not observe differential antibody responses between AA and Caucasian HIV-infected adults after pneumococcal revaccination.
Controversy persists over the benefits of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in at-risk adults. We studied PPV, protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), or immunologic ‘priming’ with PCV followed by ‘boosting’ with PPV in adults who recovered from pneumococcal pneumonia.
Subjects received PPV followed in 6 months by PCV, or vice-versa. IgG to capsular polysaccharide and opsonophagocytic killing activity (OPK) were studied at baseline, 4–8 weeks and 6 months after each vaccination.
PPV and PCV stimulated similar IgG levels and OPK at 4–8 weeks. Six months post-PPV, antibody declined to baseline but remained modestly elevated post-PCV. PCV given 6 months post-PPV stimulated modest IgG increases that failed to reach post-PPV peaks. In contrast, PPV 6 months after PCV caused dramatic increases in IgG and OPK to all polysaccharides, consistent with a booster effect. Six months after the second vaccination, however, IgG and OPK in all patients fell precipitously, returning toward original baseline levels.
In high-risk subjects, the effect of PPV is short-lived; PCV stimulates a more prolonged response. PPV as a booster following PCV causes early antibody rises, but IgG declines rapidly thereafter, consistent with induction of suppressor cells or tolerance. Protein vaccines may be needed for high-risk adults.
Pneumococcus; Polysaccharide; Vaccine; Protein-conjugate; Pneumonia
The risk of pneumococcal disease persists and antibody responses to revaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) are low among HIV-infected adults. We determined whether revaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) would enhance these responses.
In a randomized clinical trial, we compared the immunogenicity of revaccination with PCV (n=131) or PPV (n=73) among HIV-infected adults (median CD4 count 533 cells/mm3) vaccinated with PPV 3–8 years earlier. HIV-uninfected adults (n=25) without prior pneumococcal vaccination received one dose of PCV. A positive response was defined as a ≥2-fold rise (baseline to day 60) in capsule-specific IgG with a post-vaccination level value ≥1000 ng/ml for at least 2 of the 4 serotypes.
HIV-infected persons demonstrated a higher frequency of positive antibody responses to PCV vs. PPV (57% vs. 36%, p=0.004) and greater IgG concentration mean changes from baseline to day 60 for serotypes 4, 9V, and 19F (all p<0.05), but not for serotype 14. However by day 180 both outcomes were similar. Responses to PCV were greater in frequency and magnitude for all serotypes in HIV-uninfected compared with those in HIV-infected adults.
Among persons with HIV infection, revaccination with PCV was only transiently more immunogenic than PPV, and responses were inferior to those in HIV-uninfected subjects with primary vaccination. Pneumococcal vaccines with more robust and sustained immunogenicity are needed for HIV-infected adults.
We have recently shown that a substantial proportion of antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or radioimmunoassay is removed by adsorption with pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS). The present study was undertaken to validate the hypothesis that only serotype-specific antibody that remains after adsorption with CWPS provides protection against pneumococcal infection. Serum samples were obtained from human subjects before and after they had been vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Antibody to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 was measured by ELISA without adsorption or after adsorption of serum with CWPS. Groups of mice were injected with graded doses of serum and then challenged intraperitoneally with 10, 100, or 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. pneumoniae serotype 4. Without adsorption, prevaccination sera from five healthy adults appeared to contain up to 33 micrograms of antibody to S. pneumoniae serotype 4 antigen per ml; adsorption with CWPS removed all detectable antibody, and pretreating mice with up to 0.1 ml of these sera (less than or equal to 3.3 micrograms of antibody) failed to protect them against challenge with 100 LD50. In contrast, postvaccination sera contained 2.9 to 30 micrograms of antibody per ml that was not removed by adsorption. Diluting sera to administer desired amounts of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G showed a significant relationship between protection and antibody remaining after adsorption (P less than 0.05 by linear regression analysis); 150 ng was uniformly protective against 1,000 LD50, and 50 ng was protective against 100 LD50. These studies have, for the first time, quantitated the amount of serotype-specific antibody that protects mice against challenge with S. pneumoniae type 4. In light of these observations, it is necessary to reassess current concepts regarding the presence of antipneumococcal antibody in the unvaccinated population, responses to pneumococcal vaccination, and protective levels of immunoglobulin G.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is of limited immunogenicity in infants and immunocompromised patients. Our prospective randomized controlled trial investigated whether priming with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) induced specific immunological memory in previously nonresponders to PPV. Of a total of 33 children (2 to 18 years) with polysaccharide-specific immunodeficiency (PSI), group A (n = 16) received two doses of 7-valent PCV in a 4- to 6-week interval, and a booster dose of 23-valent PPV after one year. Group B (n = 17) received two doses of PPV in a 1-year interval exclusively. Specific antibody concentrations for serotypes 4, 5, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F were determined (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) before and at 7 and 28 days after administration of the PPV booster and compared to an opsonophagocytosis assay. Of group A, 64 to 100% had antibody concentrations of ≥1 μg/ml on day 28 after the booster versus 25 to 94% of group B. Group A had significantly higher antibody concentrations for all PCV-containing serotypes already on day 7, indicating early memory response. Antibody concentrations were in accordance with functional opsonic activity, although opsonic titers varied among individuals. Pneumococcal vaccination was well tolerated. The incidence of airway infections was reduced after priming with PCV (10/year for group A versus 15/year for group B). Following a PPV booster, even patients primarily not responding to PPV showed a rapid and more pronounced memory response after priming with PCV.
We determined total and Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)-reactive antibody repertoires of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected Ugandans in a retrospective, case-control study of participants in a randomized controlled trial of pneumococcal vaccination. The study included 192 adults: 48 who subsequently developed cryptococcal meningitis (CM); (HIV+ CM+); 2 individuals who matched them in CD4+ T-cell level, stage of HIV disease, and age but did not develop CM (HIV+ CM−); and 48 HIV-uninfected individuals. Total serum immunoglobulin concentrations and titers of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA to GXM, pneumococcal polysaccharides, and antibodies expressing certain VH3 idiotypes were determined with banked sera obtained before the development of cryptococcosis for HIV+ CM+ subjects. The results showed that HIV-infected subjects had significantly lower levels of IgM to GXM but higher levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG and IgA to GXM than those of HIV-uninfected subjects. HIV-infected subjects with a history of pneumonia had higher levels, and those with a history of herpes zoster had lower levels of GXM-binding antibodies than subjects with no history of either disease. Minimal to no cross-reactivity was demonstrated between antibodies to GXM and polysaccharides in a pneumococcal vaccine. No significant differences between the antibody repertoires of HIV+ CM+ and HIV+ CM− subjects were identified, but among subjects without a history of pneumonia, there was a trend towards lower VH3-positive antibody levels among HIV+ CM+ than among HIV+ CM− subjects. Our findings demonstrate an association between previous infectious diseases and differences in the total and GXM-reactive antibody repertoires of HIV-infected subjects and suggest the question of whether certain microbes modulate subsequent antibody responses to GXM deserves further study.
We describe the optimization and application of a multiplex bead-based assay (Luminex) to quantify antibodies against polysaccharides of 13 pneumococcal serotypes. In the optimized multiplex immunoassay (MIA), intravenous immune globulin was introduced as an in-house reference serum, and nonspecific reacting antibodies were adsorbed with the commercial product pneumococcal C polysaccharides Multi. The antibody concentrations were assessed in 188 serum samples obtained pre- and post-booster vaccination at 11 months after administration of a primary series of the pneumococcal seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. The results of the MIA were compared with those of the ELISA for the serotypes included in the seven-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine and for a non-vaccine serotype, serotype 6A. The geometric mean concentrations of the antibodies determined by MIA were slightly higher than those determined by ELISA. The correlations between the assays were good, with R2 values ranging from 0.84 to 0.91 for all serotypes except serotype 19F, for which R2 was 0.70. The concentrations of antibody against serotype 6A increased after the administration of PCV-7 due to cross-reactivity with serotype 6B. The differences between the results obtained by ELISA and MIA suggest that the internationally established protective threshold of 0.35 μg/ml should be reevaluated for use in the MIA and may need to be amended separately for each serotype.
Rationale: Debate exists about the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of antibodies produced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 7-valent diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) induces a more robust immune response than PPSV23 in healthy elderly adults.
Objectives: We hypothesized that serotype-specific IgG antibody concentration and functional antibody activity would be superior after PCV7 vaccination compared with PPSV23 in moderate to severe COPD. We also posited that older age and prior PPSV23 vaccination would be associated with reduced vaccine responsiveness.
Methods: One hundred twenty patients with COPD were randomized to PPSV23 (63 subjects) or PCV7 (57 subjects). IgG concentrations were determined by ELISA; functional antibody activity was assayed with a standardized opsonophagocytosis assay and reported as an opsonization killing index (OPK). Increases in serotype-specific IgG and OPK at 1 month post vaccination were compared within and between vaccine groups.
Measurements and Main Results: Both vaccines were well tolerated. Within each study group, postvaccination IgG and OPK were higher than baseline (P < 0.01) for all serotypes. Adjusted for baseline levels, postvaccination IgG was higher in the PCV7 group than the PPSV23 group for all seven serotypes, reaching statistical significance for five (P < 0.05). PCV7 resulted in a higher OPK for six of seven serotypes (statistically greater for four) compared with PPSV23. In multivariate analyses, younger age, vaccine naivety, and receipt of PCV7 were associated with increased OPK responses.
Conclusions: PCV7 induces a superior immune response at 1 month post vaccination compared with PPSV23 in COPD. Older age and prior PPSV23 reduce vaccine responsiveness.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00457977).
pneumococcal vaccines; vaccination, COPD; immune responses; immunization
A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), recently approved for use in adults, induced an overall superior functional antibody response compared with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. PCV13 elicits immunological memory and provides a new approach to preventing pneumococcal disease in adults.
A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been studied in adults aged ≥50 years to compare the immune response to that induced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which has been the standard of care over the past 30 years. The results demonstrate that adults, regardless of whether they are naive or previously vaccinated with the polysaccharide vaccine, have an overall superior antibody response when vaccinated with the conjugate vaccine compared with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. More importantly, the nature of the response is indicative of a T-cell–dependent response that elicits immunological memory and, therefore, primes the immune system for either natural exposure or subsequent booster vaccination with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine. The conjugate vaccine, which has been successful in reducing pneumococcal disease in children, now provides a new approach to preventing pneumococcal disease, including community-acquired pneumonia, in adults.
The licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) relies on immunogenicity data. When defining correlates of protection, vaccine efficacy data must be included. In the FinOM Vaccine Efficacy Trial, the PncOMPC vaccine showed an efficacy profile similar to that of the licensed PncCRM vaccine despite different antibody responses after primary and booster vaccinations. We determined antibody kinetics and avidities in a subgroup of infants participating in the FinOM trial. A total of 166 infants in three vaccine groups were immunized at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age with 7-valent PCV, PncCRM or PncOMPC, or hepatitis B vaccine. Concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were determined at 2, 4, 6, 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age, and the avidity index (AI) to serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined at 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age by enzyme immunoassay. Both PCVs were highly immunogenic, but they demonstrated different kinetics of antibody response; the concentration of IgG against serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F declined faster after the third and fourth doses of vaccine in the PncCRM group than in the PncOMPC group. For both PCVs, the mean AI of anti-6B and -23F, but not of anti-19F, increased during the follow-up, which is in line with serotype-specific protection in the FinOM trial. Our data suggest that the kinetics and avidities of antibodies should be considered, in addition to antibody responses, when defining correlates of protection.
We determined the effectiveness of a 23-valent-polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV-23) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in reducing adult pneumococcal mortality by comparing historically predicted declines in pneumococcal disease mortality with observed patterns since the introduction of PPV-23 and PCV-7, including analyses of age, gender, and racial/ethnic subgroups.
We analyzed all deaths registered on U.S. death certificates reporting any site of pneumococcal infection (e.g., meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, bacteremia, and peritonitis) from 1968 to 2006. We used time-series dynamic linear regression on annual pneumococcal mortality rates to determine the percentage reduction in post-1983 mortality rates for a given increase in PPV-23 vaccination rates and post-2000 mortality rates for a given increase in PCV-7 vaccination rates.
Pneumococcal mortality decreased well before the introduction of PPV-23 in 1983 and again before the introduction of PCV-7 in 2000. The level of PPV-23 vaccination was associated with a direct and significant reduction in adult mortality, especially white female adults ≥65 years of age. In contrast, the level of PCV-7 vaccination in the population was not associated with an indirect and significant reduction in pneumococcal mortality beyond the historical pace of decline.
PPV-23 introduction was associated with a reduction in pneumococcal mortality among older adults ≥65 years of age beyond levels predicted by secular trends, whereas PCV-7 introduction was not. Mortality reduction was not uniformly experienced across the population, revealing the need for additional strategies to reduce pneumococcal mortality in older adults.
HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/− a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. These findings suggests that CPG 7909 as adjuvant to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces cellular memory to pneumococcal polysaccharides in HIV-patients, independently of the humoral response.
pneumococcal vaccine; cellular memory; CpG-ODN; adjuvants; HIV; TLR9
Invasive (IPD, defined as detection of pneumococci in sterile body fluids like meningitis or bacteremic pneumonia) and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (i.e. non-bacteremic pneumonia, otitis media) in adults are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. In Germany, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPV23) is recommended for all persons >60 years and for defined risk groups (age 5–59). The aim of this model was to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios of the adult vaccination program (18 years and older), considering the launch of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults (PCV13).
A cross-sectional steady state Markov model was developed to estimate the outcomes of PCV13, PPV23 vaccination schemes and ‘no vaccination’. Conservative assumptions were made if no data were available for PCV13 and PPV23 respectively. The effectiveness of individual pneumococcal vaccination in adults was adjusted for expected indirect effects due to the vaccination in infants. Data on incidences, effectiveness and costs were derived from scientific literature and publicly available databases. All resources used are indicated. Benefit-cost ratios and cost-effectiveness were evaluated from the perspective of the German Statutory Health Insurance as well as from social perspective.
Under the assumption that PCV13 has a comparable effectiveness to PCV7, a vaccination program with PCV13 revealed the potential to avoid a greater number of yearly cases and deaths in IPD and pneumonia in Germany compared to PPV23. For PCV13, the costs were shown to be overcompensated by monetary savings resulting from reduction in the use of health care services. These results would render the switch from PPV23 to PCV13 as a dominant strategy compared to PPV23 and ‘no vaccination’. Given the correctness of the underlying assumptions every Euro spent on the PCV13 vaccination scheme yields savings of 2.09 € (social perspective: 2.16 €) compared to PPV23 and 1.27 € (social perspective: 1.32 €) compared to ‘no vaccination’, respectively.
Results of the model indicate that the health economic benefit of immunizing adults with PCV13 can be expected to outperform the sole use of PPV23, if the effectiveness of PCV13 is comparable to the effectiveness of PCV7.
Cost; Effectiveness; Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Adult; Benefit-cost
In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year.
We investigated antibody responses against pneumococci of serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in 56 children and adolescents with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Overall immune responses differed greatly between serotypes. Correlation coefficients between immunoglobulin G (IgG) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and functional antibodies measured by a flow cytometry opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) varied with serotype and time points studied. After 3 months of administering a second PCV7 dose we got the highest correlation (with significant r values of 0.754, 0.414, and 0.593 for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F, respectively) but no significant increase in IgG concentration and OPA titers compared to the first dose. We defined a responder to a serotype included in the vaccine with two criteria: frequency of at least twofold OPA and ELISA increases for each serotype and frequency of conversion from negative to positive OPA levels. Responders varied from 43.9% to 46.3%, 28.5% to 50.0%, and 38.0% to 50.0% for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F, respectively, depending on the response criterion. The present research highlights the importance of demonstrating vaccine immunogenicity with suitable immunological endpoints in immunocompromised patients and also the need to define how much antibody is required for protection from different serotypes, since immunogenicity differed significantly between serotypes.
The Food and Drug Adminstration recently approved a diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults, although its long-term immunogenicity is unknown. We report that, in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, conjugate vaccination elicits a superior immune response to free-polysaccharide vaccine that persists for >2 years.
Background. Although the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) protects against invasive disease in young healthy persons, randomized controlled trials in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have demonstrated no benefit in the intention-to-treat population. We previously reported that the 7-valent diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) is safe and induced greater serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and functional antibody than did PPSV23 1 month after vaccination. We hypothesized that these advantages would persist at 1 and 2 years.
Methods. One hundred eighty-one patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to receive PPSV23 (n = 90) or PCV7 (1.0 mL; n = 91). We measured IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed functional antibody activity by a standardized opsonophagocytosis assay, reported as a killing index (OPK). We determined differences in IgG and OPK between vaccine groups at 1 and 2 years.
Results. Relative to PPSV23, PCV7 induced greater OPK at both 1 and 2 years for 6 of 7 serotypes (not 19F). This response was statistically greater for 5 of 7 serotypes at 1 year and 4 of 7 at 2 years. Comparable differences in IgG were observed but were less often statistically significant. Despite meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for PPSV23 administration, almost 50% of individuals had never been vaccinated. No differences in the frequency of acute exacerbations, pneumonia, or hospitalization were observed.
Conclusions. PCV7 induces a greater functional antibody response than PPSV23 in patients with COPD that persists for 2 years after vaccination. This superior functional response supports testing of conjugate vaccination in studies examining clinical end points.
Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00457977.
The measurement of serotype-specific anti-capsular polysaccharide antibodies remains the mainstay of pneumococcal (Pn) vaccine evaluation. New methods that allow the simultaneous measurement of antibodies to several antigens in small volumes of serum, and that agree well with existing techniques, are urgently required to support the increasing number of concomitant vaccines delivered in the infant immunization schedules and the use of extended-valency Pn vaccines. We therefore compared a relatively new multiplexed platform for measuring anti-Pn antibodies with the existing WHO consensus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A panel of 50 pediatric samples (34 collected after receipt of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV7] and 16 without PCV7) was analyzed across two different laboratories using a new multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based detection assay developed for the quantitation of IgG serotype-specific antipneumococcal antibodies, and the results were compared to those obtained using the WHO consensus ELISA. For the seven serotypes measured, there was good agreement between the techniques and laboratories. The most notable difference was found between the ECL assay and the ELISA: concentrations tended to be higher in the ECL assay. For serotypes 6B, 9V, 18C, and 23F, the average increases in concentration ranged from 48 to 102%. However, the agreement rates on the proportions of samples with concentrations surrounding 0.35 μg/ml were >82% for all serotypes tested. Agreement between the two laboratories running the ECL assay was generally good: agreement on proportions of samples with concentrations surrounding 0.35 μg/ml was in excess of 92%, and agreement on average antibody concentrations was within 31%. We conclude that the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform provides a promising new technique for the simultaneous measurement of antipneumococcal antibodies.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. Anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-infected individuals reduces their risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), however, it remains 20- to 40-fold greater compared with age-matched general population. This review summarizes the available published data on the immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PCV) in HIV-infected children and adults.
Several studies have demonstrated that PCV are safe in the HIV-infected persons. Although PCV are immunogenic in HIV-infected infants, the antibodies produced are functionally impaired, there is possibly a lack or loss of anamnestic responses and immunity declines in later life However, quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to PCV in HIV-infected infants are enhanced when vaccination occurs whilst on ART, as well as if vaccination occurs when the CD4+ cell percentage is ≥ 25% and if the nadir CD4+ is >15%. Although the efficacy of PCV was lower, the vaccine preventable burden of hospitalization for IPD and clinical pneumonia were 18-fold and 9-fold greater, respectively, in HIV-infected children compared with –uninfected children.
In HIV-infected adults, PCV vaccination induces more durable and functional antibody responses in individuals on ART at the time of vaccination than in ART-naive adults, independently of baseline CD4+ cell count, although there does not appear to be much benefit from a second-dose of PCV. PCV has also been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent IPD by 74% in HIV-infected adults not on ART, albeit, also with subsequent decline in immunity and protection.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; HIV; immunogenicity; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; pneumococcal disease
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons have a high incidence of pneumonia and pneumococcal disease. Benefits of vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) among these patients continue to be debated.
The impact of PPV vaccination on the incidence of pneumonia events (i.e., the composite of pneumococcal pneumonia and pneumonia due to nonspecified organisms) was examined among participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5-Site Study, an ongoing prospective study of HIV-infected patients matched to an HIV-uninfected control group. Dates of PPV vaccination and pneumonia were determined by retrospective review of electronic medical records. Time to events was measured for up to 2 years from PPV vaccination or from enrollment for vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to examine the incidence of pneumonia by HIV infection and PPV vaccination status.
Among 692 HIV-uninfected and 934 HIV-infected study participants, 59% were vaccinated with PPV. The 2-year incidence of pneumonia was 6% (97 participants developed pneumonia). HIV-infected patients had a higher rate of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 5.81; 95% confidence interval, 3.15–10.71); overall, vaccinated patients showed a trend toward lower risk of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.50–1.13). Among HIV-infected patients, after controlling for HIV-specific and other variables, vaccination significantly reduced the risk of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.42–1.00); current smoking, low hemoglobin level, and low CD4 cell count significantly increased such risk. The effect of PPV vaccination among HIV-uninfected patients was not significant.
Among HIV-infected patients, PPV vaccination offered protection against pneumonia. Smoking cessation needs to be pursued as an additional strategy for preventing pneumonia.
Most studies of Lactococcus lactis as delivery vehicles of pneumococcal antigens are focused on the effectiveness of mucosal recombinant vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in animal models. At present, there are three types of pneumococcal vaccines: capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines (PPV), protein-polysaccharide conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCV) and protein-based pneumococcal vaccines (PBPV). Only PPV and PCV have been licensed. These vaccines, however, do not represent a definitive solution. Novel, safe and inexpensive vaccines are necessary, especially in developing countries. Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an interesting alternative for their use as vehicles in pneumococcal vaccines due to their GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status. Thus, the adjuvanticity of Lactococcus lactis by itself represents added value over the use of other bacteria, a question dealt with in this review. In addition, the expression of different pneumococcal antigens as well as the use of oral and nasal mucosal routes of administration of lactococcal vaccines is considered. The advantages of nasal live vaccines are evident; nonetheless, oral vaccines can be a good alternative when the adequate dose is used. Another point addressed here is the use of live versus inactivated vaccines. In this sense, few researchers have focused on inactivated strains to be used as vaccines against pneumoccoccus. The immunogenicity of live vaccines is better than the one afforded by inactivated ones; however, the probiotic-inactivated vaccine combination has improved this matter considerably. The progress made so far in the protective immune response induced by recombinant vaccines, the successful trials in animal models and the safety considerations of their application in humans suggest that the use of recombinant vaccines represents a good short-term option in the control of pneumococcal diseases.
recombinant vaccine; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Lactococcus lactis
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the
amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent
recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the
peripheral blood CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate
whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of
the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave
13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts
(<200 × 106/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults
with intermediate CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (≥200 ×
106/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster
immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody
concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected
and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1
anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in
group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1
anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within
the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4+
There is still a lack of effective vaccination strategies for patients with a deficient antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. In an open trial, we evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerance of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 22 infection-prone nonresponders to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 21 controls. In the patient group, nonresponsiveness was confirmed by repeated vaccination with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The study protocol provided two doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, given 4 to 6 weeks apart, for both groups. The antibody response was determined before each vaccination and on follow-up by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared to the response in a functional opsonophagocytosis assay. Patients showed a significantly lower postvaccination immune response for all serotypes than did controls. The postvaccination response was serotype dependent. A median titer of >1 μg/ml in patients was recorded only for serotypes 4, 9V, 14, and 19F, which are known to be more immunogenic than serotypes 6B, 18C, and 23F. In the patient group, 70% responded to serotype 19F (Pnc 19F), 65% responded to Pnc 14 and 4, 60% responded to Pnc 9V, 55% responded to Pnc 18C, 50% responded to Pnc 23F, and 25% responded to Pnc 6B. In the control group >95% of individuals showed a titer of >1 μg/ml to every serotype. The vaccine was tolerated well, and no major side effects have been reported. The new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is clearly more immunogenic in previous nonresponders than is the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Immunization with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk patients.
Protection against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on the presence of antibodies against capsular polysaccharides that facilitate phagocytosis. Asplenic patients are at increased risk for pneumococcal infections, since both phagocytosis and the initiation of the antibody response to polysaccharides take place in the spleen. Therefore, vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines is recommended prior to splenectomy, which, as in the case of trauma, is not always feasible. We show that in rats, vaccination with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine can induce good antibody responses even after splenectomy, particularly after a second dose. The spleen remains necessary for a fast, primary response to (blood-borne) polysaccharides, even when they are presented in a conjugated form. Coadministration of a conjugate vaccine with additional nonconjugated polysaccharides of other serotypes did not improve the response to the nonconjugated polysaccharides. We conclude that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines can be of value in protecting asplenic or hyposplenic patients against pneumococcal infections.
Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing invasive pneumococcal diseases but may have poor response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). It may be possible to enhance immunogenicity by priming with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPnC) and boosting with PPV 1 year later. In a randomized single-blind, controlled study, adult recipients of renal transplants received either 7nPVC or PPV followed by PPV 1 year later. The vaccine response was defined as 2-fold increase in antibody concentration from baseline and an absolute post-vaccination values ≥1 µg/ml. The primary endpoint was vaccine response of the primed group (7vPnC/PPV) compared with single PPV vaccination. Antibody concentrations for 10 serotypes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks after first vaccination, before second vaccination, and 8 weeks after second vaccination. Of 320 screened patients, 80 patients were randomized and 62 completed the study. Revaccination with PPV achieved no significant increase of immune response in the 7vPnC/PPV group compared with the single PPV recipients A response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 77.1% of patients who received 7vPnC and 93.1% of patients who received PPV (P = 0.046). After second vaccination response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 87.5% patients of 7vPnC/PPV group and 87.1% patients of PPV group (non significant p). The median number of serotypes eliciting a response was 3.5 (95% CI 2.5–4.5) in the 7vPnC/PPV group versus 5 (95% CI 3.9–6.1) in the PPV group (non-significant p). Immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccination was not enhanced by the prime–boost strategy compared with vaccination with PPV alone. Administration of a single dose of PPV should continue to be the standard of care for adult recipients of renal transplants.
Meningococcal group C polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (MCV) prime infants and children for memory anticapsular responses upon subsequent exposure to unconjugated polysaccharide. The objective of this study was to determine whether MCV primes vaccine-naïve adults and adults previously vaccinated with meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV) for memory antibody responses. Meningococcal vaccine-naïve adults were randomized to receive either MCV (MCV/naïve group) (n = 35) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (PCV/naïve group) (n = 34). Participants with a history of receiving MPSV were given MCV (MCV/MPSV group) (n = 26). All subjects were challenged 10 months later with one-fifth of the usual dose of MPSV (10 μg of each polysaccharide). Sera were obtained before the conjugate vaccination and before and 7 days after the MPSV challenge and assayed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anticapsular antibody concentrations and bactericidal titers. The MCV/naïve group had 7- to 10-fold-higher serum IgG and bactericidal responses after the MPSV challenge than the PCV/naïve group (P < 0.001). The increases (n-fold) in anticapsular antibody concentrations in the MCV/naïve group were greatest in subjects with antibody concentrations of ≤2 μg/ml before the challenge (geometric mean increase [n-fold] of 8.3 versus 1.1 in subjects with concentrations of >2 μg/ml before the challenge; P < 0.0001). Only 3 of 11 MCV-vaccinated subjects who had received MPSV before enrollment and who had antibody concentrations of ≤2 μg/ml before the polysaccharide challenge showed more-than-twofold increases in anticapsular antibody concentration or bactericidal titer after the challenge. MCV vaccination of meningococcal vaccine-naïve adults primes for robust memory antibody responses. There was no evidence of induction of memory by MCV in adults previously vaccinated with MPSV.