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1.  Methylation of HPV16 genome CpG sites is associated with cervix precancer and cancer 
Gynecologic oncology  2011;121(1):59-63.
Objective
Invasive cervix cancer (ICC) is the second most common malignant tumor in women. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) causes more than 50% of all ICC and is a major cause of cervix intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). DNA methylation is a covalent modification predominantly occurring at CpG dinucleotides. Such epigenetic modifications are associated with changes in DNA-protein interactions and gene activation. This study examined the association of viral and host genomic methylation patterns and cervix neoplasia.
Methods
Exfoliated cervical lavage samples positive for HPV16 from women with and without cytomorphic changes of infection (n=46), CIN2 (n=12), and CIN3+ (n=27) were used to interrogate the methylation patterns of the HPV16 L1 gene and upstream regulatory region (URR), five host nuclear genes (TERT, RARB, DAPK1, MAL, and CADM1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). DNA isolated from exfoliated cervicovaginal cells was treated with bisulfite, specific regions of the viral and host genome were PCR amplified and CpG methylation was quantified using EpiTYPER and pyrosequencing.
Results
Methylation at 14 of the tested CpG sites within the HPV16 L1 region were significantly higher in CIN3+ compared to HPV16 genomes from women without CIN3+. In contrast, only 2 out of 16 CpG sites in HPV16 URR, 5/5 in TERT, 1/4 in DAPK1 and 1/3 mtDNA, and 2/5 in RARB were associated with increased methylation in CIN3+.
Conclusions
These results indicate that increased methylation of CpG sites in the HPV16 L1 ORF is associated with CIN3+ and thus, may constitute a potential biomarker for precancerous and cancerous cervix disease.
doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.01.013
PMCID: PMC3062667  PMID: 21306759
cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; methylation
2.  Case–control study of HLA-G promoter methylation status, HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in Curitiba, Brazil: a pilot analysis 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:618.
Background
The causal association between persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has been established, but the mechanisms that favor HPV persistence in cervical cells are still unknown. The diminished capability of the immune system to control and resolve HPV infection is one of several hypotheses. The tolerogenic protein HLA-G has shown aberrant expression in a variety of cancers, which has been suggested as a mechanism for tumor escape from immunosurveillance. In the present study we evaluate the role of epigenetic modification (promoter de-methylation) of the HLA-G gene on susceptibility to HPV infection and development of high-grade cervical lesions.
Methods
A case–control study was carried out in Curitiba, Brazil, between February and June 2010. A total of 789 women aged 15–47 years were recruited: 510 controls with normal cervical cytology, and 279 cases with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, N = 150) or grade 3 (CIN3, N = 129). All women were administered a questionnaire by interview, which collected information on demographic and lifestyle factors, and a cervical sample was collected. HPV DNA detection was performed by GP5+/GP6+ primer-mediated PCR. HPV-positive samples were genotyped by multiplex PCR. A pilot analysis of HLA-G promoter methylation was carried out in a subset of the study population (96 cases and 76 controls) by pyrosequencing. HLA-G methylation and HPV infection status of cases and controls were compared, and confounding factors were computed by t Student and non-parametric Wilcoxon tests. Comparison of HLA-G methylation between cases and controls was assessed by the Bonferroni correction. The association of HLA-G methylation with CIN2/3 was evaluated by logistic regression.
Results
HPV prevalence was 19.6% in controls and 94.3% in CIN2/3 cases. HPV16, 31, 33, 35 and 18 were the most prevalent types. Methylation analysis of seven CpGs in the HLA-G promoter did not reveal any spontaneous de-methylation events in CIN2/3 cases (mean proportion of methylation: 75.8%) with respect to controls (mean 73.7%; odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.96, 1.07).
Conclusions
This study did not support the hypothesis that spontaneous de-methylation events in the HLA-G promoter play a primary role in promoting escape from immunosurveillance in the development of precancerous cervical lesions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-618
PMCID: PMC3545901  PMID: 23265140
HPV; Cervical cancer; HLA-G; Methylation
3.  A comparison of methylation levels in HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 genomes reveals similar associations with cervical precancers☆ 
Journal of Clinical Virology  2014;59(3):161-166.
Background
High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is common and only a small minority of infections become persistent and lead to cervical cancers. Women positive for HR-HPV usually require a second test to avoid unnecessary colposcopies and over treatment. Elevated DNA methylation of HR-HPV L1 and L2 genes in high grade disease has emerged as a promising molecular triage tool.
Objectives
Our aim was to accurately measure methylation levels at selected CpG positions in the HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 genomes. We focused on the L2, L1, URR and E6 regions because these were previously shown to be interesting areas for study.
Study design
Pyrosequencing was used to measure methylation in 208 HPV18, 207 HPV31, and 126 HPV33 positive women selected from a London colposcopy referral population.
Results
After adjustment for multiple testing, at FDR 5%, elevated methylation was significantly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) in all investigated CpGs in HPV18 L2 and L1. Two of 6 L2 and 12 of 15 L1 sites in HPV31 and 6 of 8 L2 and 3 of 13 L1 sites in HPV33 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2+. Methylation of CpG sites in the URR and E6 region of the HPV types was low and most differences were not significant.
Conclusion
Elevated methylation of CpG sites in the L1 and L2 regions of HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 is associated with CIN2+ and a panel test may be useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections.
doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.12.014
PMCID: PMC3969303  PMID: 24468012
HR-HPV, high risk human papilloma virus; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CI, confidence interval; FDR, false discovery rate; P1, predictors 1; P2, predictors 2; ROC, receiver operator characteristics; AUC, area under the curve; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; High risk human papillomavirus; Methylation; L1; L2; Pyrosequencing
4.  Methylation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Genome and Risk of Cervical Precancer in a Costa Rican Population 
Background
Previous studies have suggested an association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome methylation and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (ie, cervical precancer) and cancer, but the results have been inconsistent.
Methods
We designed a case–control study within a large prospective cohort of women who underwent multiple screenings for cervical cancer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Diagnostic specimens were collected at the time of CIN3 diagnosis (n = 30 case subjects) and persistent HPV16 infection (persistence; n = 35 case subjects), prediagnostic specimens at the first HPV16-positive screening visit (n = 20 CIN3 case subjects; n = 35 persistence case subjects), and control specimens from women with infection clearance within 2 years (n = 34 control subjects). DNA extracted from specimens (cervical cells) was analyzed for methylation levels at 67 CpG sites throughout the HPV16 genome using pyrosequencing. Benjamini–Hochberg method was used to account for multiple testing. Associations between methylation levels and risk of CIN3 or persistence were assessed using logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
Increased methylation in diagnostic vs control specimens at nine CpG sites, three in each L1, L2, and E2/E4 genomic regions, was associated with an increased risk of CIN3 (third tertile [high] vs first and second tertiles combined [low], OR = 3.29 [95% CI = 1.16 to 9.34] to 11.12 [95% CI = 2.29 to 76.80]) and persistence. High methylation at three of these CpG sites was associated with a much higher risk when combined compared with low methylation at these sites (OR = 52, 95% CI = 4.0 to 670). In prediagnostic vs control specimens, increased methylation at a CpG site (nucleotide position 4261) in L2 was associated with an increased risk of CIN3.
Conclusion
In this HPV16-infected cohort, increased methylation of CpG sites within the HPV16 genome before diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis was associated with cervical precancer.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djs135
PMCID: PMC3317880  PMID: 22448030
5.  Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology 
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women.
Material and Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens.
Results: Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p < 0.05), but was not significantly different between HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004)
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections may have an important role in high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥CIN3) in HPV L1-positive cases.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5585
PMCID: PMC3880994  PMID: 24396289
cervical cancer; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; human papillomavirus; immunocytochemistry; cervical cytology
6.  Aetiology, pathogenesis, and pathology of cervical neoplasia. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1998;51(2):96-103.
Early epidemiological studies of cervical neoplasia suggested a causal relation with sexual activity and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have emerged as prime suspects as venerally transmitted carcinogens. HPVs fall into two broad camps: low risk types, associated with cervical condylomas and CIN 1; and high risk types (mostly 16 and 18), found in 50-80% of CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions, and 90% of cancers. This association with cancer is very strong, with odds ratios of > 15 (often much higher) in case-control studies that are methodologically sound. An infrequently detected third group of intermediate risk type HPVs is associated with all grades of CIN and occasionally with cancers. HPVs have also been detected in a wide range of asymptomatic controls, indicating that other events are required for development of neoplasia such as viral persistence and/or altered expression of viral genes, often following integration of the viral genome. This leaves the two major viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, directly coupled to viral enhancers and promoters, allowing their continued expression after integration. High risk HPV E7 proteins bind and inactivate the Rb protein, whereas E6 proteins bind p53 and direct its rapid degradation. A range of putative cofactors has been implicated in progression: HLA type, immunosuppression, sex steroid hormones, and smoking; most of these cofactors appear to influence progression to CIN 3. The natural history includes progression to CIN 3 in 10% of CIN 1 and 20% of CIN 2 cases, whereas at least 12% of CIN 3 cases progress to invasive carcinoma. Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) often coexists with squamous CIN, and the premalignant potential of high grade CGIN is not in doubt, but the natural history of low grade CGIN remains uncertain. A high proportion of CGIN lesions and adenocarcinomas are HPV positive, and HPV18 has been implicated more in glandular than in squamous lesions. A strong clinical case for the application of HPV typing of cells recovered from cervical scrapes can be made; however, a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of introducing HPV typing into the cervical screening programme is required. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are under development. This article reviews the aetiology, pathogenesis, and pathology of cervical neoplasia, emphasising the role of HPVs.
PMCID: PMC500501  PMID: 9602680
7.  Association of human ß-herpesviruses with the development of cervical cancer: bystanders or cofactors 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2001;54(1):48-53.
Background/Aim—Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important, but not sufficient, for the development of cervical cancer. All three human ß-herpesviruses—cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesviruses (HHV) types 6 and 7—have been detected in the cervix. In addition, CMV and HHV-6 can interact with HPVs in vivo. This study examined the possible role of ß-herpesviruses in cervical cancer development.
Methods—HPV, CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-7 were detected by the polymerase chain reaction using cervical scrapes taken at colposcopy from 388 women. HPV types were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Colposcopy guided biopsies were taken from abnormal areas, and the histological findings were regarded as the final diagnoses. The associations between herpesvirus infection and the degree of cervical lesion were analysed with respect to HPV status.
Results—Of the 388 women, 51.8% had a normal cervix, 14.4% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 8.2% had CIN2, 19.3% had CIN3, and 6.2% had invasive carcinoma. Overall, the positive rates for high, intermediate, and low risk HPVs were 18.8%, 21.4%, and 5.2%, respectively. Fifteen patients harboured HPVs for which the genotype could not be identified. Positive rates for CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-7 were 9.5%, 3.6%, and 3.4%, respectively. HPV positive patients carried a higher risk for high grade lesions (CIN2/3 or carcinoma) (odds ratio (OR), 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.19 to 8.62; χ2 = 51.79; p < 0.001), whereas those positive for CMV, HHV-6, or HHV-7 did not. Thirteen of 131 patients with high grade lesions had HPV/herpesvirus coinfections, but no association with the cervical lesion was noted. Furthermore, positive rates for herpesviruses among HPV negative, high/intermediate risk HPV negative, and high risk HPV negative subgroups were similarly low and without a significant association.
Conclusions—The ubiquitous nature of herpesviruses may pose difficulty in elucidating their pathogenic role. These results indicate that CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-7 are bystanders rather than cofactors in the oncogenesis of cervical cancer.
Key Words: human papillomavirus • human herpesvirus 6 • human herpesvirus 7
doi:10.1136/jcp.54.1.48
PMCID: PMC1731269  PMID: 11271789
8.  Natural History of Progression of HPV Infection to Cervical Lesion or Clearance: Analysis of the Control Arm of the Large, Randomised PATRICIA Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79260.
Background
The control arm of PATRICIA (PApillomaTRIal against Cancer In young Adults, NCT00122681) was used to investigate the risk of progression from cervical HPV infection to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or clearance of infection, and associated determinants.
Methods and Findings
Women aged 15-25 years were enrolled. A 6-month persistent HPV infection (6MPI) was defined as detection of the same HPV type at two consecutive evaluations over 6 months and clearance as ≥2 type-specific HPV negative samples taken at two consecutive intervals of approximately 6 months following a positive sample. The primary endpoint was CIN grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) associated with the same HPV type as a 6MPI. Secondary endpoints were CIN1+/CIN3+ associated with the same HPV type as a 6MPI; CIN1+/CIN2+/CIN3+ associated with an infection of any duration; and clearance of infection. The analyses included 4825 women with 16,785 infections (3363 womenwith 6902 6MPIs). Risk of developing a CIN1+/CIN2+/CIN3+ associated with same HPV type as a 6MPI varied with HPV type and was significantly higher for oncogenic versus non-oncogenic types. Hazard ratios for development of CIN2+ were 10.44 (95% CI: 6.96-15.65), 9.65 (5.97-15.60), 5.68 (3.50-9.21), 5.38 (2.87-10.06) and 3.87 (2.38-6.30) for HPV-16, HPV-33, HPV-31, HPV-45 and HPV-18, respectively. HPV-16 or HPV-33 6MPIs had ~25-fold higher risk for progression to CIN3+. Previous or concomitant HPV infection or CIN1+ associated with a different HPV type increased risk. Of the different oncogenic HPV types, HPV-16 and HPV-31 infections were least likely to clear.
Conclusions
Cervical infections with oncogenic HPV types increased the risk of CIN2+ and CIN3+. Previous or concomitant infection or CIN1+ also increased the risk. HPV-16 and HPV-33 have by far the highest risk of progression to CIN3+, and HPV-16 and HPV-31 have the lowest chance of clearance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079260
PMCID: PMC3834039  PMID: 24260180
9.  Mandatory fortification with folic acid in the United States appears to have adverse effects on histone methylation in women with pre-cancer but not in women free of pre-cancer 
Objective:
To evaluate whether mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid in the US is associated with changes in histone methylation in cells involved in cervical carcinogenesis.
Methods:
Cervical specimens obtained before (1990 to 1992) and after mandatory folic acid fortification (2000 to 2002) were used to examine the degree of histone methylation (H3 Lys-9) by immunohistochemistry. 91 women (51 before and 40 after fortification) were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS) and sections utilized in the study also contained normal, reactive or metaplastic cervical epithelium, CIN 1 or CIN 2. 64 women (34 before and 30 after fortification) were free of CIN and these sections contained only normal or reactive cervical epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining for H3 Lys-9, its assessment in different cell or lesion types and data entry were blinded for fortification status. For each cell type or lesion category we used PROC MIXED in SAS with the specimen identifier as a random effect and the robust variance estimator to estimate age- and race-adjusted intensity score for H3 Lys-9 in the pre- and post-fortification periods.
Results:
Degree of H3 Lys-9 methylation was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in ≥CIN 2 lesions (CIN 2, CIN 3 and CIS) than in ≤CIN 1 lesions (CIN 1, normal, reactive and metaplastic), in both pre- and post-fortification CIN 3/CIS specimens. Age- and race-adjusted mean H3 Lys-9 score was significantly higher in all cell or lesion types in CIN 3/CIS specimens obtained in the post-fortification period compared to pre-fortification period (P < 0.05, all comparisons). In contrast, in specimens obtained from women free of CIN, Lys-9 methylation in normal/reactive cervical epithelium was significantly lower in post-fortification specimens than in pre-fortification specimens (P = 0.03).
Conclusions:
Higher levels of Lys-9 methylation in ≥CIN 2 compared to ≤CIN 1 lesions suggest that higher Lys-9 methylation is associated with progression of lower grade CIN to higher grade CIN. Higher Lys-9 methylation in cervical tissues of women diagnosed with CIN 3 in the post-fortification period than in pre-fortification period suggest that fortification may adversely affect histone methylation in already initiated cells. Lower Lys-9 methylation in normal/reactive cervical cells of women free of CIN in the post-fortification period than pre-fortification on the other hand suggests that fortification is likely to protect against initiation of carcinogenic process in the cervix. These results suggest that mandatory fortification with folic acid in the US seems to have different effects on cancer depending on the stage of carcinogenesis. Because this is the first study to report folic acid fortification-associated differences in histone methylation and because of the limitations inherent to the approach we have taken to demonstrate these differences, validation of the results in other study populations or with other techniques for assessing histone methylation is necessary.
PMCID: PMC2971712  PMID: 21072283
folic acid; fortification; histone methylation; cervix
10.  Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotypes in Women with Cervical Precancer and Cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California† 
Background
The human papillomavirus (HPV) Persistence and Progression Cohort is a natural history study of carcinogenic HPV positive women. Here, we present the HPV genotypes found in first ∼500 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or more severe disease (CIN3+) diagnosed at the study baseline.
Methods
Women aged 30 and older were screened for cervical cancer using Pap smears and tested for carcinogenic HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen). We randomly selected women who tested HPV positive and were diagnosed with CIN3+ (n = 448) or without CIN3+ (
Results
Among HC2-positive women, HPV16 (48.9%), HPV31 (9.2%), and HPV18 (8.5%) were the most common HPV genotypes in CIN3+. There was a decrease at older ages in the fraction of CIN3 (ptrend = 0.006), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (ptrend = 0.08), and CIN3/AIS (ptrend = 0.002) associated with HPV16. Compared to the other carcinogenic HPV genotypes in aggregate, HPV18 was strongly associated with CIN3+ in women with a normal Pap (odds ratio ([OR] = 5.7, 95%CI = 1.2-26) but not in women with abnormal Pap (OR = 1.3, 95%CI = 0.74-2.3).
Conclusions
HPV16 is associated with cervical precancer diagnosed in younger women (vs. older women). HPV18 infections were linked to precancerous lesions that were missed by cytology.
Impact
The progression timeline of HPV16 differs from other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, which may impact the use of HPV16 detection in the management of HPV-positive women.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-1267
PMCID: PMC3117227  PMID: 21415357
Pap; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN); cervical cancer; human papillomavirus (HPV); atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US); hybrid capture 2 (HC2)
Our objective was to determine the human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence in cervical samples in women with and without cervical neoplasia in an opportunistic hospital-based cancer-screening program.
A cross-sectional study of 524 women presenting from January 2003 through June 2005 with symptoms of persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual bleeding, and postcoital bleeding or detected to have an unhealthy cervix underwent HPV genotyping by consensus polymerase chain reaction and reverse line-blot hybridization assay, conventional Pap smear, and colposcopy, with directed biopsy from all lesions detected.
The prevalence rates of HPV infection among women with normal, low-grade cervical neoplasia (CIN 1) and high-grade CIN (>CIN2) were found to be 7.6%, 42.3%, and 87.5%, respectively. Seventeen high-risk and 6 low-risk HPV types were identified by the reverse line-blot assay. Multiple infections were seen in 20% of women. In normal women, the 6 commonest types were HPV-16, HPV-89, HPV-39, HPV-52, HPV-62, and HPV-18, whereas in high-grade disease, these were all high-risk types HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33, HPV-39, HPV-35, and HPV-56. HPV-16 was the commonest type in all groups, seen in 49.4% cases overall and in 74.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. It was followed by HPV-18 (7.4%) and HPV-33 and HPV-39 (4.9% each). HPV-89 was the commonest low-risk type (9.9%). HPV-16/18 were associated with 34.3% of normal, 45.4% of low-grade and 65.7% of high-grade lesions. A wide spectrum of HPV types is seen in north Indian women, with the majority being HPV-16 in all grades of histology. A vaccine against HPV-16 and HPV-18 could prevent two thirds of cases of high-grade cervical neoplasia.
doi:10.1097/PGP.0b013e31816085ba
PMCID: PMC4156035  PMID: 18580322
Background
There are few large case series describing the HPV genotypes found in women diagnosed with rigorously reviewed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), cervical precancer.
Methods
The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) Triage Study (ALTS) was a clinical trial to evaluate the best management strategies for women with equivocal (ASCUS) or mildly abnormal (LSIL) Pap tests. During enrollment and the two-year follow-up, 608 women had a histopathologic diagnosis of CIN3 and PCR-based HPV genotyping results. The genotyping results were ranked hierarchically according to cancer risk: HPV16 > other carcinogenic HPV > non-carcinogenic HPV > PCR negative.
Results
Among the 608 women diagnosed with CIN3, 601 (98.8%) cases were positive for any HPV genotype and 95.4% for any carcinogenic HPV. HPV16 (59.9%), HPV31 (18.1%), HPV52 (14.8%), HPV51 (14.0%), and HPV18 (13.2%) were the 5 most common HPV genotypes detected. Younger age, consensus histologic confirmation, smoking, and multi-parity increased the likelihood of testing HPV 16 positive. Specifically, HPV16-positive CIN3 occurred at a younger age than CIN3 positive for other carcinogenic HPV genotypes (median of 23.5 years versus 25 years, respectively, p = 0.0003, Kruskal-Wallis).
Conclusions
HPV16-positive CIN3 was more commonly diagnosed in younger women (vs. older women), with consensus diagnosis (vs. some disagreement between reviewers), and in smokers (vs. non-smokers), and less commonly diagnosed in multi-parous women.
Impact
In populations vaccinated against HPV16 (and HPV18), the median age of CIN3 in women with ASC-US and LSIL cytology should shift to older ages, possibly permitting later age at first screening.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0251
PMCID: PMC2901898  PMID: 20615885
Background
Worldwide, one-seventh of cervical cancers occur in China, which lacks a national screening program. By evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of self-collected cervicovaginal specimens tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA (Self-HPV testing) in China, we sought to determine whether Self-HPV testing may serve as a primary cervical cancer screening method in low-resource settings.
Methods
We compiled individual patient data from five population-based cervical cancer–screening studies in China. Participants (n = 13 140) received Self-HPV testing, physician-collected cervical specimens for HPV testing (Physician-HPV testing), liquid-based cytology (LBC), and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Screen-positive women underwent colposcopy and confirmatory biopsy. We analyzed the accuracies of pooled Self-HPV testing, Physician-HPV testing, VIA, and LBC to detect biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+) and CIN3+. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
Of 13 004 women included in the analysis, 507 (3.9%) were diagnosed as CIN2+, 273 (2.1%) as CIN3+, and 37 (0.3%) with cervical cancer. Self-HPV testing had 86.2% sensitivity and 80.7% specificity for detecting CIN2+ and 86.1% sensitivity and 79.5% specificity for detecting CIN3+. VIA had statistically significantly lower sensitivity for detecting CIN2+ (50.3%) and CIN3+ (55.7%) and higher specificity for detecting CIN2+ (87.4%) and CIN3+ (86.9%) (all P values < .001) than Self-HPV testing, LBC had lower sensitivity for detecting CIN2+ (80.7%, P = .015), similar sensitivity for detecting CIN3+ (89.0%, P = .341), and higher specificity for detecting CIN2+ (94.0%, P < .001) and CIN3+ (92.8%, P < .001) than Self-HPV testing. Physician-HPV testing was more sensitive for detecting CIN2+ (97.0%) and CIN3+ (97.8%) but similarly specific for detecting CIN2+ (82.7%) and CIN3+ (81.3%) (all P values <.001) than Self-HPV testing.
Conclusions
The sensitivity of Self-HPV testing compared favorably with that of LBC and was superior to the sensitivity of VIA. Self-HPV testing may complement current screening programs by increasing population coverage in settings that do not have easy access to comprehensive cytology-based screening.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djr532
PMCID: PMC3274511  PMID: 22271765
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29051.
Objective
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), the immediate cervical cancer precursor, is a target of cervical cancer prevention. However, less than half of CIN3s will progress to cancer. Routine treatment of all CIN3s and the majority of CIN2s may lead to overtreatment of many lesions that would not progress. To improve our understanding of CIN3 natural history, we performed a detailed characterization of CIN3 heterogeneity in a large referral population in the US.
Methods
We examined 309 CIN3 cases in the SUCCEED, a large population-based study of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Histology information for 12 individual loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) segments was evaluated for each woman. We performed case-case comparisons of CIN3s to analyze determinants of heterogeneity and screening test performance.
Results
CIN3 cases varied substantially by size (1–10 LEEP segments) and by presentation with concomitant CIN2 and CIN1. All grades of CINs were equally distributed over the cervical surface. In half of the women, CIN3 lesions were found as multiple distinct lesions on the cervix. Women with large and solitary CIN3 lesions were more likely to be older, have longer sexual activity span, and have fewer multiple high risk HPV infections. Screening frequency, but not HPV16 positivity, was an important predictor of CIN3 size. Large CIN3 lesions were also characterized by high-grade clinical test results.
Conclusions
We demonstrate substantial heterogeneity in clinical and pathological presentation of CIN3 in a US population. Time since sexual debut and participation in screening were predictors of CIN3 size. We did not observe a preferential site of CIN3 on the cervical surface that could serve as a target for cervical biopsy. Cervical cancer screening procedures were more likely to detect larger CIN3s, suggesting that CIN3s detected by multiple independent diagnostic tests may represent cases with increased risk of invasion.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029051
PMCID: PMC3258246  PMID: 22253702
Background
Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type–specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types.
Methods
A cohort of 8656 women from the general population of Denmark was examined twice, 2 years apart (first study examination: May 15, 1991, to January 31, 1993; second study examination: October 1, 1993, to January 31, 1995). The women underwent a gynecological examination and cervical cytology and had swabs taken for HPV DNA analysis by the Hybrid Capture 2 and line probe assays. The women were followed up through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank for cervical neoplasia for up to 13.4 years. The absolute risk of developing cervical lesions before a given time was estimated as a function of time.
Results
For women with normal cytological findings who were concurrently HPV16 DNA positive at the second examination, the estimated probability of developing CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse within 12 years of follow-up was 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1% to 31.8%). The corresponding risks among those infected with HPV18 was 19.1% (95% CI = 10.4% to 27.3%), with HPV31 was 14.3% (95% CI = 9.1% to 19.4%), and with HPV33 was 14.9% (95% CI = 7.9% to 21.1%). The absolute risk of CIN3 or worse after infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33 was 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8% to 8.3%). The estimated absolute risk for CIN3 or cancer within 12 years of the second examination among women who were HPV16 DNA positive at both examinations was 47.4% (95% CI = 34.9% to 57.5%); by contrast, the risk of CIN3 or worse following a negative Hybrid Capture 2 test was 3.0% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.5%).
Conclusion
HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV33 infection and especially HPV16 persistence were associated with high absolute risks for progression to high-grade cervical lesions. The results indicate the potential value of genotyping in cervical cancer screening. Given that HPV DNA–negative women retained their low risk of CIN3 or worse for many years, frequent screening of these women may be unnecessary.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djq356
PMCID: PMC2950170  PMID: 20841605
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13525.
Background
Although cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining condition, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may only modestly increase the risk of cervical cancer. There is a paucity of information regarding factors that influence the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in HIV-infected women. We examined factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) in Rwandan women infected with both HIV and HPV (HIV+/HPV+).
Methods
In 2005, 710 HIV+ Rwandan women ≥25 years enrolled in an observational cohort study; 476 (67%) tested HPV+. Each woman provided sociodemographic data, CD4 count, a cervical cytology specimen and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), which was tested for >40 HPV genotypes by MY09/MY11 PCR assay. Logistic regression models calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associations of potential risk factors for CIN3+ among HIV+/HPV+ women.
Results
Of the 476 HIV+/HPV+ women 42 (8.8%) were diagnosed with CIN3+. Factors associated with CIN3+ included ≥7 (vs. 0-2) pregnancies, malarial infection in the previous six months (vs. never), and ≥7 (vs. 0-2) lifetime sexual partners. Compared to women infected by non-HPV16 carcinogenic HPV genotypes, HPV16 infection was positively associated and non-carcinogenic HPV infection was inversely associated with CIN3+. CD4 count was significantly associated with CIN3+ only in analyses of women with non-HPV16 carcinogenic HPV (OR = 0.62 per 100 cells/mm3, CI = 0.40-0.97).
Conclusions
In this HIV+/HPV+ population, lower CD4 was significantly associated with CIN3+ only in women infected with carcinogenic non-HPV16. We found a trend for higher risk of CIN3+ in HIV+ women reporting recent malarial infection; this association should be investigated in a larger group of HIV+/HPV+ women.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013525
PMCID: PMC2958122  PMID: 20976000
DNA methylation changes in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) DNA are common and might be important for identifying women at increased risk of cervical cancer. Using recently published data from Costa Rica we developed a classification score to differentiate women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2/3) from those with no evident high-grade lesions. Here, we aim to investigate the performance of the score using data from the UK. Exfoliated cervical cells at baseline and 6-months follow-up were analyzed in 84 women selected from a randomized clinical trial of women undergoing surveillance for low-grade cytology. Selection of women for the methylation study was based on detectable HPV16 in the baseline sample. Purified DNA was bisulfite converted, amplified and pyrosequenced at selected CpG sites in the viral genome (URR, E6, L1 and L2), with blinding of laboratory personnel to the clinical data. The primary measure was a predefined score combining the mean methylation in L1 and any methylation in L2. At the second follow-up visit, 73/84 (87%) women were HPV16 positive and of these 25 had a histopathological diagnosis of CIN2/3. The score was significantly associated with CIN2/3 (area under curve = 0.74, p = 0.002). For a cutoff with 92% sensitivity, colposcopy could have been avoided in 40% (95% CI 27–54%) of HPV16 positive women without CIN2/3; positive predictive value was 44% (32–58%) and negative predictive value was 90% (71–97%). We conclude that quantitative DNA methylation assays could help to improve triage among HPV16 positive women.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28050
PMCID: PMC3708123  PMID: 23335178
HPV; DNA methylation; cervical cancer; triage; biomarkers
We explored the association of HPV16 DNA methylation with age, viral load, viral persistence, and risk of incident and prevalent high grade CIN (CIN2+) in serially collected specimens from the Guanacaste, Costa Rica cohort. 273 exfoliated cervical cell specimens (diagnostic and pre-diagnostic) were selected: 1) 92 with HPV16 DNA clearance (controls), 2) 72 with HPV16 DNA persistence (without CIN2+), and 3) 109 with CIN2+. DNA was extracted, bisulfite converted and methylation was quantified using pyrosequencing assays at 66 CpGs across the HPV genome. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine significant differences among groups, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate how well methylation identified women with CIN2+. In diagnostic specimens, 88% of CpG sites had significantly higher methylation levels in CIN2+ after correction for multiple tests compared with controls. The highest AUC was 0.82 for CpG site 6457 in L1, and a diagnostic sensitivity of 91% corresponded to a specificity of 60% for CIN2+. Prospectively, 17% of CpG sites had significantly higher methylation in pre-diagnostic CIN2+ specimens (median time of 3 years before diagnosis) vs. controls. The strongest pre-diagnostic CpG site was 6367 in L1 with an AUC of 0.76. Age-stratified analyses suggested that women older than the median age of 28 years have an increased risk of precancer associated with high methylation. Higher methylation in CIN2+ cases was not explained by higher viral load. We conclude that elevated levels of HPV16 DNA methylation may be useful to predict concurrently diagnosed as well as future CIN2+.
doi:10.1002/ijc.27750
PMCID: PMC3493709  PMID: 22847263
HPV16; methylation; epidemiology; receiver operating curve; biomarker
Vaccine  2012;30(0 5):F24-F33.
This chapter addresses the natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical infections are the best understood HPV infection. Cervical HPV persistence is the known necessary event for the development of cervical cancer. New infections appearing at any age are benign unless they persist. Several long-term natural history studies have now shed light on the very low risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3+ in women past the peak of HPV acquisition (e.g., 30 or older) who are HPV-negative or clear their HPV. Although data on transmission of HPV are finally emerging, rates of transmission between heterosexual couples vary widely among studies. Factors that affect the calculations of these rates include a) intervals between testing points, b) rates of concordance or discordance at baseline, and c) difficulty in defining established infections versus contamination. Both cervix to anus and anus to cervix autoinoculation in the same woman appears to be quite common. Whether either site serves as a long-term reservoir is unknown. Studies show that anal infections in women and in men who have sex with men are quite common with cumulative rates up to 70–90%. Similarly, clearance of anal HPV is also common, with few individuals showing persistence unless they are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected. HIV strongly influences the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The few studies on the natural history of AIN in HIV-infected men suggest that high-grade AIN is a precursor to invasive anal cancer. Although no natural history studies of AIN are available in women, women with other HPV-associated lesions, including CIN3+ and vulvar cancer, have higher rates of anal cancer. Data on the natural history of HPV of the male genitalia are also emerging, although penile intraepithelial neoplasia is poorly understood. Cumulative rates of HPV are extremely high in men and risks are associated with sexual behavior. Unlike women, prevalence rates are steady across all ages, suggesting that men do not develop protection against reinfection.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.089
PMCID: PMC3700362  PMID: 23199964
HPV; Natural history; Transmission; Male infections; Anal disease
Background
The clinical relevance of the amount of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) DNA in cervical tissue (ie, HPV18 DNA load) is unknown.
Methods
Study subjects were 303 women who were HPV18 positive at enrollment into the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) Triage Study. HPV18 DNA load, expressed as copies of HPV18 per nanogram of cellular DNA, at enrollment was quantitatively measured. Subjects were followed up semiannually for a period of 2 years for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2–3 (CIN2–3). A linear regression model was used to examine associations of CIN2–3 with HPV18 DNA load. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
CIN2–3 was confirmed in 92 of 303 (30.4%) HPV18-positive women. Among women without CIN2–3, HPV18 DNA load was positively associated with increasing severity of cervical cytology at enrollment (Ptrend < .001). However, among those with CIN2–3, HPV18 DNA load was not associated with severity of cervical cytology at enrollment (Ptrend = .33). The ratios of geometric means of HPV18 DNA load at enrollment among women with CIN2–3, relative to those without, were 6.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31 to 117.92) for those with normal cytology at enrollment, 0.50 (95% CI = 0.10 to 2.44) for those with ASC-US, 0.11 (95% CI = 0.03 to 0.46) for those with LSIL, and 0.07 (95% CI = 0.01 to 0.80) for those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). After adjusting for age and coinfection with other high-risk HPVs, a statistically significant association of lower HPV18 DNA load with CIN2–3 was observed among women with LSIL or HSIL at enrollment (P = .02). Within the 2-year period, HPV18 DNA load was unrelated to the timing of CIN2–3 diagnosis. Overall results were similar when the outcome was CIN3.
Conclusions
HPV18 DNA load was higher for women with LSIL or HSIL at enrollment with no evidence of CIN2–3 during the 2-year follow-up period than it was for women with CIN2–3. Thus, testing for high levels of HPV18 DNA does not appear to be clinically useful.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djn461
PMCID: PMC2724855  PMID: 19176451
Testing for high-risk (hr) types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly sensitive as a screening test of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic (CIN2/3) disease, the precursor of cervical cancer. However, it has a relatively low specificity. Our objective was to develop a prediction rule with a higher specificity, using combinations of human and HPV DNA methylation. Exfoliated cervical specimens from colposcopy-referral cohorts in London were analyzed for DNA methylation levels by pyrosequencing in the L1 and L2 regions of HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and human genes EPB41L3, DPYS and MAL. Samples from 1,493 hrHPV-positive women were assessed and of these 556 were found to have CIN2/3 at biopsy; 556 tested positive for HPV16 (323 CIN2/3), 201 for HPV18 (73 CIN2/3) and 202 for HPV31 (98 CIN2/3). The prediction rule included EPB41L3 and HPV and had area under curve 0.80 (95% CI 0.78–0.82). For 90% sensitivity, specificity was 36% (33–40) and positive predictive value (PPV) was 46% (43–48). By HPV type, 90% sensitivity corresponded to the following specificities and PPV, respectively: HPV16, 38% (32–45) and 67% (63–71); HPV18, 53% (45–62) and 52% (45–59); HPV31, 39% (31–49) and 58% (51–65); HPV16, 18 or 31, 44% (40–49) and 62% (59–65) and other hrHPV 17% (14–21) and 21% (18–24). We conclude that a methylation assay in hrHPV-positive women might improve PPV with minimal sensitivity loss.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28790
PMCID: PMC4235302  PMID: 24535756
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; DNA methylation; early detection of cancer; human papillomavirus 16; human papillomavirus 18; human papillomavirus 31; human papillomavirus DNA tests; uterine cervical neoplasms
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(6):593-599.
The association between cervical cancers and human papillomavirus (HPV) is now well established. To estimate the extent of infection with common HPVs among Korean women, we have examined 224 cervical scrapes of various cervical lesions. Detection and typing of HPVs were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers followed by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR using type-specific primers. The prevalence of total HPV infection in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer were significantly higher than those in healthy women and patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). HPV typing in 41 invasive carcinomas of the cervix revealed the prevalence of HPV 16 in 15 cases, followed by HPV 58, 18, 33, 31, 52 and 35. The distribution pattern of HPV types in CIN were not much different from carcinomas. HPV types except HPV 18 had a tendency to show higher prevalence in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), however, HPV 18 was detected in LSIL but not in HSIL. HPV 18 tended to have the worse clinical stage, although it was not statistically significant. These findings suggest the importance of HPV typing other than HPV 16 and 18 and a different clinicopathologic significance of HPV 18.
PMCID: PMC3054446  PMID: 10642935
Sexually transmitted carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections are extraordinarily prevalent worldwide. However, most incident HPV infections clear within a few years, whereas a small minority persists to invasive cancer. Recent studies indicate that detection of methylated viral DNA may distinguish women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) from those with a carcinogenic HPV type infection that shows no evidence of CIN2+. Several studies have reported a positive association between methylation of CpG sites in the L1 gene and CIN2+, while there are inconclusive results regarding methylation of CpG sites in the Upstream Regulatory Region (URR). In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on HPV DNA methylation in cervical carcinogenesis, and discuss the merits of different methods used to measure HPV DNA methylation. To follow the promising leads, we suggest future studies to validate the use of methylated carcinogenic HPV DNA as a predictive and/or diagnostic biomarker for risk of cervical cancer among HPV-positive women.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0905
PMCID: PMC3664203  PMID: 23035178
human papillomavirus; methylation; cervical cancer; biomarker; epigenetics
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(5):e1000270.
Analysis of a telephone survey by Gina Ogilvie and colleagues identifies the parental factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a school-based program in Canada.
Background
Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada.
Methods and Findings
All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008–June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1–67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1–89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1–87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program. By contrast, having a family with two parents, having three or more children, and having more education was associated with a decreased likelihood of having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine.
Conclusions
This study is, to our knowledge, one of the first population-based assessments of factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a publicly funded school-based program worldwide. Policy makers need to consider that even with the removal of financial and health care barriers, parents, who are key decision makers in the uptake of this vaccine, are still hesitant to have their daughters receive the HPV vaccine, and strategies to ensure optimal HPV vaccine uptake need to be employed.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
About 10% of cancers in women occur in the cervix, the structure that connects the womb to the vagina. Every year, globally, more than a quarter of a million women die because of cervical cancer, which only occurs after the cervix has been infected with a human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual intercourse. There are many types of HPV, a virus that infects the skin and the mucosa (the moist membranes that line various parts of the body, including the cervix). Although most people become infected with HPV at some time in their life, most never know they are infected. However, some HPV types cause harmless warts on the skin or around the genital area and several—in particular, HPV 16 and HPV 18, so-called high-risk HPVs—can cause cervical cancer. HPV infections are usually cleared by the immune system, but about 10% of women infected with a high-risk HPV develop a long-term infection that puts them at risk of developing cervical cancer.
Why Was This Study Done?
Screening programs have greatly reduced cervical cancer deaths in developed countries in recent decades by detecting the cancer early when it can be treated; but it would be better to prevent cervical cancer ever developing. Because HPV is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, vaccination of girls against HPV infection before the onset of sexual activity might be one way to do this. Scientists recently developed a vaccine that prevents infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 (and with two HPVs that cause genital warts) and that should, therefore, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Publicly funded HPV vaccination programs are now planned or underway in several countries; but before girls can receive the HPV vaccine, parental consent is usually needed, so it is important to know what influences parental decisions about HPV vaccination. In this study, the researchers undertake a telephone survey to determine the uptake of the HPV vaccine by 11-year-old girls (grade 6) in British Columbia, Canada, and to determine the parental factors associated with vaccine uptake; British Columbia started a voluntary school-based HPV vaccine program in September 2008.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In early 2009, the researchers contacted randomly selected parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the 2008–2009 academic year and asked them to complete a telephone survey that explored factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. 65.1% of the 2,025 parents who completed the survey had consented to their daughter receiving the first dose of HPV vaccine. By contrast, more than 85% of the parents had consented to hepatitis B and meningitis C vaccination of their daughters. Nearly half of the parents surveyed said their main reason for consenting to HPV vaccination was the effectiveness of the vaccine. Conversely, nearly a third of the parents said concern about the vaccine's safety was their main reason for not consenting to vaccination and one in eight said they had been given insufficient information to make an informed decision. In a statistical analysis of the survey data, the researchers found that a positive parental attitude towards vaccination, a parental belief that HPV vaccination had limited impact on sexual practices, and completed childhood vaccination increased the likelihood of a daughter receiving the HPV vaccine. Having a family with two parents or three or more children and having well-educated parents decreased the likelihood of a daughter receiving the vaccine.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings provide one of the first population-based assessments of the factors that affect HPV vaccine uptake in a setting where there are no financial or health care barriers to vaccination. By identifying the factors associated with parental reluctance to agree to HPV vaccination for their daughters, these findings should help public-health officials design strategies to ensure optimal HPV vaccine uptake, although further studies are needed to discover why, for example, parents with more education are less likely to agree to vaccination than parents with less education. Importantly, the findings of this study, which are likely to be generalizable to other high-income countries, indicate that there is a continued need to ensure that the public receives credible, clear information about both the benefits and long-term safety of HPV vaccination.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000270.
The US National Cancer Institute provides information about cervical cancer for patients and for health professionals, including information on HPV vaccines (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also has information about cervical cancer and about HPV
The UK National Health Service Choices website has pages on cervical cancer and on HPV vaccination
More information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination is available from the Macmillan cancer charity
ImmunizeBC provides general information about vaccination and information about HPV vaccination in British Columbia
MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources about cervical cancer (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000270
PMCID: PMC2864299  PMID: 20454567
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38731.
Background
The distribution of HPV genotypes, their association with rigorously confirmed cervical precancer endpoints, and factors associated with HPV infection have not been previously documented among HIV-infected women in India. We conducted an observational study to expand this evidence base in this population at high risk of cervical cancer.
Methods
HIV-infected women (N = 278) in Pune, India underwent HPV genotyping by Linear Array assay. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) disease ascertainment was maximized by detailed assessment using cytology, colposcopy, and histopathology and a composite endpoint.
Results
CIN2+ was detected in 11.2% while CIN3 was present in 4.7% participants. HPV genotypes were present in 52.5% (146/278) and ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 35.3% (98/278) HIV-infected women. ‘Possibly carcinogenic’ and ‘non/unknown carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 14.7% and 29.5% participants respectively. Multiple (≥2) HPV genotypes were present in half (50.7%) of women with HPV, while multiple ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in just over a quarter (27.8%) of women with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV. HPV16 was the commonest genotype, present in 12% overall, as well as in 47% and 50% in CIN2+ and CIN3 lesions with a single carcinogenic HPV infection, respectively. The carcinogenic HPV genotypes in declining order of prevalence overall included HPV 16, 56, 18, 39, 35, 51, 31, 59, 33, 58, 68, 45 and 52. Factors independently associated with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV type detection were reporting ≥2 lifetime sexual partners and having lower CD4+ count. HPV16 detection was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts and currently receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.
Conclusion
HPV16 was the most common HPV genotype, although a wide diversity and high multiplicity of HPV genotypes was observed. Type-specific attribution of carcinogenic HPV genotypes in CIN3 lesions in HIV-infected women, and etiologic significance of concurrently present non/unknown carcinogenic HPV genotypes await larger studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038731
PMCID: PMC3378535  PMID: 22723879

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