Quercetin, the predominant flavonoid, has been reported to lower the risk of several cancers. This flavonoid found in onion, grapes, green vegetables, etc. has been shown to possess potent antiproliferative effects against various malignant cells. This study was designed to investigate its effects on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) proteins secretion and also apoptosis induction in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3.
We evaluated the secretion of IGF-I, -II and IGFBP-3 in quercetin treated cells by immunoradiometric (IRMA) method. Apoptosis was studied in quercetin treated cells by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation. Protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and caspase-3 were studied by western blot.
At a dose of 100 μM concentration, we observed increased IGFBP-3 accumulation in PC-3 cells conditioned medium with a dose dependent increase with 2 fold over a base line, and significantly reduced the both IGF-I and IGF-II levels. Apoptosis induction was also confirmed by TUNEL assay. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expressions were significantly decreased and Bax and caspase-3 were increased.
These results suggest that the decreased level of IGFs could be due to the increased levels of IGFBP-3, because of the high binding affinity towards IGFs, thereby decreasing the cell proliferation. The increased level of IGFBP-3 was associated with increased pro-apoptotic proteins and apoptosis in response to quercetin, suggesting it may be a p53-independent effector of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to behavioral problems, including overactivity, motor dysfunction and learning deficits. Despite warnings about the effects of drinking during pregnancy, rates of fetal alcohol syndrome remain unchanged and thus, there is an urgent need to identify interventions that reduce the severity of alcohol’s teratogenic effects. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective against ethanol-related toxicity and promotes white matter production following a number of insults. Given that prenatal alcohol leads to cell death and white matter deficits, the present study examined whether IGF-I could reduce the severity of behavioral deficits associated with developmental alcohol exposure. Sprague-Dawley rat pups received ethanol intubations (5.25 g/kg/day) or sham intubations on postnatal days (PD) 4–9, a period of brain development equivalent to the third trimester. On PD 10–13, subjects from each treatment received 0 or 10 μg IGF-I intranasally each day. Subjects were then tested on a series of behavioral tasks including open field activity (PD 18–21), parallel bar motor coordination (PD 30–32) and Morris maze spatial learning (PD 45–52). Ethanol exposure produced overactivity, motor coordination impairments, and spatial learning deficits. IGF-I treatment significantly mitigated ethanol’s effects on motor coordination, but not the other two behavioral deficits. These data indicate that IGF-I may be a potential treatment for some of ethanol’s damaging effects, a finding that has important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.
fetal alcohol; open field activity; cerebellum; motor coordination; spatial learning
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential to hippocampal neurogenesis and the neuronal response to hypoxia/ischemia injury. IGF (IGF-1 and -2) signaling is mediated primarily by the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and modulated by six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP) and the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF-2R), collectively termed IGF system proteins. Defining the precise cells that express each is essential to understanding their roles. With the exception of IGFBP-1, we found that mouse hippocampus expresses mRNA for each of these proteins during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Compared to postnatal day 14 (P14), mRNA abundance at P5 was higher for IGF-1, IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 (by 71%, 108%, 100%, and 98%, respectively), lower for IGF-2, IGF-2R, and IGFBP-6 (by 65%, 78%, and 44%, respectively), and unchanged for IGF-1R and IGFBP-4. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM), we found that granule neurons and pyramidal neurons exhibited identical patterns of expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2R, IGFBP-2, and -4, but did not express other IGF system genes. We then compared IGF system expression in mature granule neurons and their progenitors. Progenitors exhibited higher mRNA levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1R (by 130% and 86%, respectively), lower levels of IGF-2R (by 72%), and similar levels of IGFBP-4. Our data support a role for IGF in hippocampal neurogenesis and provide evidence that IGF actions are regulated within a defined in vivo milieu.
insulin-like growth factor (IGF); hippocampus; dentate gyrus; laser capture microdissection (LCM)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol and associated with hypoplasia and impaired neuronal migration in the cerebellum. Neuronal survival and motility are stimulated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), whose signaling pathways are major targets of ethanol neurotoxicity. To better understand the mechanisms of ethanol-impaired neuronal migration during development, we examined the effects of chronic gestational exposure to ethanol on aspartyl (asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase (AAH) expression, because AAH is regulated by insulin/IGF and mediates neuronal motility. Pregnant Long—Evans rats were pair-fed isocaloric liquid diets containing 0, 8, 18, 26, or 37% ethanol by caloric content from gestation day 6 through delivery. Cerebella harvested from postnatal day 1 pups were used to examine AAH expression in tissue, and neuronal motility in Boyden chamber assays. We also used cerebellar neuron cultures to examine the effects of ethanol on insulin/IGF—stimulated AAH expression, and assess the role of GSK-3β—mediated phosphorylation on AAH protein levels. Chronic gestational exposure to ethanol caused dose-dependent impairments in neuronal migration and corresponding reductions in AAH protein expression in developing cerebella. In addition, prenatal ethanol exposure inhibited insulin and IGF-I—stimulated directional motility in isolated cerebellar granule neurons. Ethanol-treated neuronal cultures (50 mM × 96 h) also had reduced levels of AAH protein. Mechanistically, we showed that AAH protein could be phosphorylated on Ser residues by GSK-3β, and that chemical inhibition of GSK-3β and/or global Caspases increases AAH protein in both control- and ethanol-exposed cells. Ethanol-impaired neuronal migration in FASD is associated with reduced AAH expression. Because ethanol increases the activities of both GSK-3β and Caspases, the inhibitory effect of ethanol on neuronal migration could be mediated by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation and Caspase degradation of AAH protein.
Aspartyl (asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase; Fetal alcohol syndrome; Neuronal migration; Insulin; Central nervous system; Glycogen synthase kinase 3β
To report effects of weight-based recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) on IGF axis parameters in children with hyperinsulinism.
Open label trial with subcutaneous rhIGF-I (40 μg/kg/dose). Patients studied were children (1 month to 11 years) with diffuse hyperinsulinism (n = 7). Serial serum IGF and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations were measured by RIA and analyzed by linear Pearson regression.
Following the initial rhIGF-I dose, total insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) rose by 56% at 30 min (p < 0.01) and 85% at 120 min (p < 0.02). Serum IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 levels did not change. Peak serum IGF-I levels within 12 h of the initial rhIGF-I dose were 167–700 mg/ml. The variable peak IGF-I response is attributable in part to IGFBP-3 differences across this pediatric age range. Models of rhIGF-I dosing based upon body surface area (BSA) or initial IGFBP-3 resulted in predictable peak serum IGF-I levels (r = 0.78; p < 0.03). Recalculating rhIGF-I dosing based upon the BSA · IGFBP-3 product correlated closely with peak IGF-I level (r = 0.85; p < 0.007).
Weight-based IGF-I dosing in this cohort resulted in variable IGF-I levels. Considering BSA and serum IGFBP-3 concentration in children is appropriate for subcutaneous IGF-I administration. A combination of these values may yield predictable individualization of rhIGF-I dosing.
Hyperinsulinism; IGF-I dosing; rhIGF-I dosing; Pharmacokinetics; IGF-I; IGFBP
Deregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-IR signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Agents that can suppress the mitogenic activity of the IGF/IGF-IR growth axis may be of preventive or therapeutic value. We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, modulates IGF signaling through upregulation of IGFBP-3. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of apigenin action on the IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway. Exposure of human prostate cancer DU145 cells to apigenin markedly reduced IGF-I-stimulated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apigenin inhibited IGF-I-induced activation of IGF-IR and Akt in DU145 cells. Similar growth inhibitory and apoptotic responses were observed in PC-3 cells, which constitutively over-express this pathway. This effect of apigenin appears to be due partially to reduced autophosphorylation of IGF-IR. Inhibition of p-Akt by apigenin resulted in decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β along with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of p27/kip1. In vivo administration of apigenin to PC-3 tumor xenografts inhibited tumor growth, resulted in IGF-IR inactivation and dephosphorylation of Akt and its downstream signaling. These results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by apigenin are mediated, at least in part, by its ability to inhibit IGF/IGF-IR signaling and the PI3K/Akt pathway.
prostate cancer; apigenin; IGF-I; IGF-IR; PI3K-Akt; glycogen synthase kinase-3
Deregulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, including the autocrine production of IGFs, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP proteases, and the expression of the IGF receptors, has been identified in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Characteristic alterations detected in HCC and hepatoma cell lines comprise the increased expression of IGF-II and the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), which have emerged as crucial events in malignant transformation and the growth of tumours. Alterations of IGFBP production and the proteolytic degradation of IGFBPs resulting in an excess of bioactive IGFs, as well as the defective function of the IGF degrading IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II/M6PR), may further potentiate the mitogenic effects of IGFs in the development of HCC.
insulin-like growth factors; insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; insulin-like growth factor I receptor; insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor; hepatocarcinogenesis; hepatocellular carcinoma
We hypothesize that racial differences in utero contribute to the racial disparity in prostate cancer risk. Leptin is a candidate for evaluating this hypothesis because it influences fetal development and newborn growth.
We measured leptin concentration by ELISA in venous cord blood collected from 70 African-American and 37 white male full-term births. We measured sex steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis concentrations previously. Separately by race, we calculated the geometric mean leptin concentration and estimated the geometric mean adjusted for birth and placental weights, mother’s age and parity, time of day and season of birth, and sex steroid hormone and IGF-axis concentrations using linear regression.
Leptin was positively correlated with birth (r=0.34) and placental (r=0.25) weights, IGF-1 (r=0.21), and IGF binding protein-3 (r=0.29) adjusting for race. Unadjusted geometric mean leptin did not differ (p=0.92) between African Americans (5,280 pg/mL; 95% CI: 4,322-6,451) and whites (5,187 pg/mL; 95% CI: 3,938-6,832). Adjusted geometric mean leptin was nonstatistically significantly higher (p=0.15) in African Americans (5,954 pg/mL; 95% CI: 4,725-7,502) than whites (4,133 pg/mL; 95% CI: 2,890-5,910).
We observed a non-significantly higher adjusted cord blood leptin concentration in African-American compared with white male babies, although unadjusted levels were similar.
These findings do not support the hypothesis that leptin level in utero contributes to the racial disparity in prostate cancer risk in adulthood.
Leptin; in utero; race; male
Alterations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system were evaluated in 16 patients treated with diethylstilboestrol 5 mg 3 times daily. Fasting blood samples were obtained before treatment and after 2 weeks, 1 month and/or 2–3 months on therapy. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, free IGF-I, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured by radioimmuno-/immunoradiometric-assays. All samples were subjected to Western ligand blotting as well as immunoblotting for IGFBP-3. We observed a significant decrease (percentage of pretreatment levels with 95 confidence intervals of the mean) in IGF-I [2 weeks 63% (49–79); 1 month 56% (44–73); 2–3 months 66% (53–82)], IGF-II [2 weeks 67% (56–80); 1 month 60% (52–68); 2–3 months 64% (55–75)], free IGF-I [2 weeks 29% (19–42); 1 month 25% (18–36); 2–3 months 31% (21–46)], IGFBP-2 [2 weeks 53% (18–156); 1 month 69% (61–78); 2–3 months 66% (57–78)], IGFBP-3 [2 weeks 74% (63–85); 1 month 69% (62–76); 2–3 months 71% (63–80)], as well as IGFBP-3 protease activity [2 weeks 71% (54–95); 1 month 78% (64–94); 2–3 months 71% (54–93)]. Contrary, the plasma levels (percentage of pretreatment levels with 95 confidence intervals of the mean) of IGFBP-1 [2 weeks 250% (127–495); 1 month 173% (138–542); 2–3 months 273% (146–510)] and IGFBP-4 [2 weeks 146% (112–192); 1 month 140% (116–169); 2–3 months 150% (114–198)] increased significantly. While this study confirms previous observations during treatment with oral oestrogens in substitution doses, the reduction in plasma IGF-II, free IGF-I, IGFBP-2 and -3 are all novel findings. A profound decrease in free IGF-I suggests a reduced bioavailability of IGFs from plasma to the tissues. These observations may be of significance to understand the mechanisms of the antitumour effect of diethylstilboestrol in pharmacological doses. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
high dose oestrogens; breast cancer therapy; IGF-system
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with dramatic changes in the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis, resulting in growth retardation. Moderate-to-severe growth retardation in CKD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Renal failure is a state of GH resistance and not GH deficiency. Some mechanisms of GH resistance are: reduced density of GH receptors in target organs, impaired GH-activated post-receptor Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling, and reduced levels of free IGF-1 due to increased inhibitory IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been proven to be safe and efficacious in children with CKD. Even though rhGH has been shown to improve catch-up growth and to allow the child to achieve normal adult height, the final adult height is still significantly below the genetic target. Growth retardation may persist after renal transplantation due to multiple factors, such as steroid use, decreased renal function and an abnormal GH–IGF1 axis. Those below age 6 years are the ones to benefit most from transplantation in demonstrating acceleration in linear growth. Newer treatment modalities targeting the GH resistance with recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1), recombinant human IGFBP3 (rhIGFBP3) and IGFBP displacers are under investigation and may prove to be more effective in treating growth failure in CKD.
Growth hormone; Insulin-like growth factor; Chronic kidney failure; Growth failure; Treatment
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is an embryonal liver neoplasm of early childhood with a poor prognosis for patients with distant metastases and vascular invasion. We and others have previously shown that the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), loss of imprinting at the IGF2/H19 locus, and amplification of pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) are common features in HB, suggesting a critical role of the IGF axis in hepatoblastomagenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), a known competitor of the IGF axis, in pediatric liver cancers.
The IGFBP3 gene was highly expressed in normal pediatric livers but was heavily downregulated in four HB cell lines and the majority of HB primary tumors (26/36). Detailed methylation analysis of CpG sites in the IGFBP3 promoter region by bisulfite sequencing revealed a high degree of DNA methylation, which is causatively associated with the suppression of IGFBP3 in HB cell lines. Consequently, the treatment of HB cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in DNA demethylation and reactivation of the epigenetically silenced IGFBP3 expression. Interestingly, IGFBP3 promoter methylation predominantly occurred in metastatic HB with vascular invasion. Restoring IGFBP3 expression in HB cells resulted in reduced colony formation, migration, and invasion.
This study provides the first direct evidence that the reactivation of IGFBP3 decreases aggressive properties of pediatric liver cancer cells and that IGFBP3 promoter methylation might be used as an indicator for vessel-invasive tumor growth in HB patients.
Hepatoblastoma; Epigenetics; Methylation; Invasion; IGF2
the serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and
IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the level of IGFBP-3 protease
activity in 38 children presenting with malignancies, and to assess
their relation with auxological parameters and nutritional status.
weight, skinfold thickness, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were
recorded using standard techniques. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured
using specific radioimmunoassays. Serum IGFBPs were also visualised
on western ligand blot. IGFBP-3 protease activity was assessed by the
extent of fragmentation of recombinant [125I]-IGFBP-3,
compared with that induced by pregnancy serum. Anthropometric and
radioimmunoassay data were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS).
(range) IGF-I SDS was significantly reduced in all patients (−1.1
(−5.1 to 1.2)) and lower in children who were malnourished (−2.5
(−3.9 to 0.1)). IGFBP-3 SDS was within the normal range for 31 of 38 patients but IGFBP-3 protease activity was raised in all patients.
Neither IGFBP-3 concentration nor protease activity was affected by
nutritional status. IGF-I correlated with MUAC
(r = 0.41) and subscapular skinfold
thickness SDS (r = 0.38), but not with
weight, height, weight for height, or triceps skinfold thickness.
low in children with malignancies, and even lower in those who are
malnourished. IGFBP-3 concentrations were normal in most patients but
interpretation is complicated by the presence of raised IGFBP-3
protease activity, which could lead to overestimating concentrations of
intact peptide. IGF-I appears to relate to arm anthropometry as an
index of nutritional status but not height, weight, or weight for
height, as would be expected in normal children.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are bound by several IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that appear to regulate IGF transportation, receptor binding and action. In adult human serum, most of IGFs are bound in a 150 kDa complex which could not cross the capillary wall. We measured IGF-I and IGFBPs in chyle by radioimmunoassay and western ligand blot. The concentration of IGF-I in chyle was only 15% of the corresponding serum level and most of IGF-I was found in 50 kDa complex. The IGFBPs profile in chyle, especially IGFBP-3, was different from that of serum. The concentration of IGFBP-3 in chyle was much less than in serum and the size of glycosylated IGFBP-3 was different from that of serum. However, the size and relative amount of IGFBP-1 and -2 in chyle were similar to serum. This finding indicates that IGF-I and IGFBPs in chyle to a large extent originate in the vascular system and only the 50 kDa complex can cross the capillary barrier.
Our previous studies show that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can either protect against or increase lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced damage in the developing brain, depending on the dose, when it is co-administered with LPS through intracerebral injection. To further explore effects of IGF-1 on central inflammation associated brain injury, IGF-1 was administered through intranasal infusion in the current study. Postnatal day 5 (P5) rats were exposed to LPS at a dose of 1 μg/g body weight or sterile saline through intracerebral injection. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) at a dose of 50 μg/pup or vehicle was administered intranasally 1 or 2 hr after the LPS injection. Neonatal LPS exposure resulted in oligodendrocyte (OL) and white matter injury in the P6 or P21 rat brain. The damages include dilatation of lateral ventricles, pyknotic cell death, loss of OL progenitor cells and mature OLs in the cingulum area, and impairment of myelination at the corpus callosum area. Neurological dysfunctions were observed in juvenile rats with neonatal LPS exposure. Intranasal IGF-1 treatment at either 1 or 2 hr after LPS exposure significantly attenuated LPS-induced brain injury and improved some behavioral deficits. Intranasal IGF-1 treatment also reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and activation of microglia in the rat brain 24 hr after LPS exposure, but it did not prevent the elevation in concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the LPS-exposed rat brain during the first 24 hr. This is an indication that direct anti-inflammation might not be the primary mechanism for the protection of IGF-1, and other mechanisms, such as anti-apoptotic effects, are likely involved in its protective effects.
insulin-like growth factor-1; intranasal administration; LPS; oligodendrocyte; apoptotic cell death; inflammatory cytokine
Fasting blood samples were obtained before definitive surgery or biopsy in 128 patients referred to the department of surgery with suspected or manifest breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II and free IGF-I were measured by radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay, while IGFBP-3 proteolysis was evaluated by Western immunoblot. 12 patients had ductal carcinoma in situ benign conditions, while staging revealed metastatic disease in 15 of 16 patients with invasive cancers. IGFBP-3 proteolysis above the normal range was recorded in 19 patients with invasive cancers, but in none of the patients suffering from DCIS/benign conditions. Increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis was most frequently recorded in patients harbouring large tumours and metastatic disease (Stage I: 0/19, 0%; Stage II: 3/45, 7%, Stage III: 9/37, 24%, and Stage IV: 7/15, 47%). IGFBP-3 proteolysis was significantly higher in Stage III (P =0.01) and IV (P< 0.001) patients compared to the other stage groups (P = 0.001). IGF-I and IGF-II correlated negatively to IGFBP-3 proteolysis and age. Plasma levels of IGF-I and -II were significantly lower in patients with elevated IGFBP-3 proteolysis compared to those within the normal range. Our findings reveal alterations in the IGF-system among a substantial number of patients with large primary breast cancers. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3; proteolysis; insulin-like growth factor-I; primary breast cancer
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) provide trophic support during development and also appear to influence cell structure, function and replacement in the adult brain. Recent studies demonstrated effects of the GH/IGF-I axis on adult neurogenesis, but it is unclear whether the GH/IGF-I axis influences glial turnover in the normal adult brain. In the current study we used a selective model of adult-onset GH and IGF-I deficiency to evaluate the role of GH and IGF-I in regulating glial proliferation and survival in the adult corpus callosum. GH/IGF-I-deficient dwarf rats of the Lewis strain were made GH/IGF-I replete via twice daily injections of GH starting at postnatal day 28 (P28), approximately the age at which GH pulse amplitude increases in developing rodents. GH/IGF-I deficiency was initiated in adulthood by removing animals from GH treatment. Quantitative analyses revealed that adult-onset GH/IGF-I deficiency decreased cell proliferation in the white matter and decreased the survival of newborn oligodendrocytes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that aging-related changes in the GH/IGF-I axis produce deficits in ongoing turnover of oligodendrocytes, which may contribute to aging-related cognitive changes and deficits in remyelination after injury.
white matter; trophic factor; oligodendrocytes; demyelination; aging
Recent studies have provided evidence for a link between leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mediates the metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH). The GH axis is believed to be suppressed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study is to find out whether acute exacerbations of COPD are followed by changes in plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and furthermore, whether these changes are related to systemic inflammation.
We measured serum leptin, IGF-I, TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels in 52 COPD patients with acute exacerbation on admission to hospital (Day 1) and two weeks later (Day 15). 25 healthy age-matched subjects served as controls. COPD patients were also divided into two subgroups (29 with chronic bronchitis and 23 with emphysema). Serum leptin and IGF-I were measured by radioimmunoassay and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured by ELISA.
Serum leptin levels were significantly higher and serum IGF-I levels significantly lower in COPD patients on Day 1 than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between leptin and TNF-α on Day 1 (r = 0.620, p < 0.001). Emphysematous patients had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to those with chronic bronchitis both on Day 1 and Day 15 (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively).
Inappropriately increased circulating leptin levels along with decreased IGF-I levels occured during acute exacerbations of COPD. Compared to chronic bronchitis, patients with emphysema had lower circulating IGF-I levels both at the onset of the exacerbation and two weeks later.
The IGF axis plays a significant role in normal growth and development and variation in IGFs is associated with health outcomes. Past studies report variation in IGF levels among race/ethnic groups known to differ in disease incidence. This paper reports on race/ethnic variation in serum levels of IGF-I and IGF-BP3 in a nationally representative and ethnically diverse sample of US adults.
Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels from the fasting subsample (n = 6061) of respondents to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) were analyzed using an IGF-I ELISA (Diagnostic Systems Laboratory (DSL) 10–5600) and an IGFBP-3 IRMA (DSL 6600). The NHANES is a combined examination and interview survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults. Regression analyses were used to estimate cross-sectional associations between the IGF axis and demographic variables.
In unadjusted analyses, serum IGF-I levels were higher in males than in females, and IGFBP-3 levels were higher in females than in males. Both analytes were lower in older adults. Univariate analyses indicate that serum levels of IGF-I are lower in female Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) (256 [4.9]) and Hispanics (249 [6.6]) than in Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) (281 [4.9]). However, in males, IGF levels in NHWs (287 [3.6]) and NHBs (284 [4.3]) are similar and levels in Mexican-Americans are only moderately reduced (265 [3.4]). Notably, NHB’s have the highest molar ratio of IGF-I:IGFBP-3 at all ages. After adjustment for age and BMI, gender and race/ethnicity differences persist.
These cross-sectional data support exploration of the IGF axis as an explanation for some race/ethnic differences in cancer incidence.
Cancer; Insulin-Like Growth Factor; Race/Ethnicity; Age
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) differentially modulates breast epithelial cell growth through insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent and IGF-independent pathways and is a direct (IGF-independent) growth inhibitor as well as a mitogen that potentiates EGF (epidermal growth factor) and interacts with HER-2. Previously, high IGFBP-3 levels in breast cancers have been determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoradiometric assay methods. In vitro, IGFBP-3's mechanisms of action may involve cell membrane binding and nuclear translocation. To evaluate tumour-specific IGFBP-3 expression and its subcellular localisation, this study examined immunohistochemical IGFBP-3 expression in a series of invasive ductal breast cancers (IDCs) with synchronous ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) in relation to clinicopathological variables and patient outcome.
Immunohistochemical expression of IGFBP-3 was evaluated with the sheep polyclonal antiserum (developed in house) with staining performed as described previously.
IGFBP-3 was evaluable in 101 patients with a variable pattern of cytoplasmic expression (positivity of 1+/2+ score) in 85% of invasive and 90% of DCIS components. Strong (2+) IGFBP-3 expression was evident in 32 IDCs and 40 cases of DCIS. A minority of invasive tumours (15%) and DCIS (10%) lacked IGFBP-3 expression. Nuclear IGFBP-3 expression was not detectable in either invasive cancers or DCIS, with a consistent similarity in IGFBP-3 immunoreactivity in IDCs and DCIS. Positive IGFBP-3 expression showed a possible trend in association with increased proliferation (P = 0.096), oestrogen receptor (ER) negativity (P = 0.06) and HER-2 overexpression (P = 0.065) in invasive tumours and a strong association with ER negativity (P = 0.037) in DCIS. Although IGFBP-3 expression was not an independent prognosticator, IGFBP-3-positive breast cancers may have shorter disease-free and overall survivals, although these did not reach statistical significance.
Increased breast epithelial IGFBP-3 expression is a feature of tumorigenesis with cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the absence of significant nuclear localisation in IDCs and DCIS. There are trends between high levels of IGFBP-3 and poor prognostic features, suggesting that IGFBP-3 is a potential mitogen. IGFBP-3 is not an independent prognosticator for overall survival or disease-free survival, to reflect its dual effects on breast cancer growth regulated by complex pathways in vivo that may relate to its interactions with other growth factors.
clinicopathology; ductal carcinoma in situ; IGFBP-3; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in the IGF axis contribute to the development of chemo- and radio-resistant, advanced-stage cancers. Additionally, they contribute to hormonal insensitivity in adenocarcinomas such as those derived from prostate and breast. The ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II, along with their receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, have been implicated in a wide range of disease. Activation and subsequent signal transduction through the receptors is attenuated, and/or potentiated, by the interactions of IGF axis ligands, IGF-I/II, with the high affinity IGF-binding proteins 1 to 6 (IGFBP1-6). New evidence indicates that the IGFBPs, irrespective of ligand interactions, correlate with the development and metastatic behavior of several cancers. Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is found in advanced cancers of the ovary, breast, stomach, adrenal gland, bladder, CNS, and prostate. Further, IGFBP-2 seemingly has ligand-independent effects that participate in the development and dissemination of advanced cancer cells. As such, IGFBP-2 can assist in the development of the lethal phenotype for some cancers. While several reports have shown an important role for IGFBP-2 in the development of androgen insensitivity and the proliferation of AI PCa cells in vivo, these studies have not tested a role for IGFBP-2 in the metastatic spread of AI PCa cells. Additionally, the mechanism of IGFBP-2 action in these events has not been elucidated. The redundancy and abundance of the IGFBPs have precluded a clear understanding of the means by which IGFBP-2 signals. Components of these signaling pathways, particularly IGFBP-2, are being evaluated currently in clinical trials.
Insulin-like growth factor, IGF; prostate cancer, PCa; androgen insensitivity, AI; androgen sensitive, AS; neoplasm, bone, metastasis
Growth retardation has been described in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). An abnormal growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been postulated as a possible etiology. We compared anthropometric parameters and IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in patients with EHPVO with their siblings as controls.
Methods and patients
Consecutive patients diagnosed with EHPVO who presented to out-patient clinic in Department of Gastroenterology between February 2005 and February 2006 were enrolled along with their siblings whenever possible. After detailed history and clinical examination, anthropometric parameters such as age, height, weight, and mid-parental height were measured in patients and controls. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were also estimated.
Fifty-two patients (40 males, 32 adults) were enrolled. Sibling controls were available for 28 patients. Variceal bleeding was the presenting symptom in 41 of 52 (78.8%) patients. Target height was not achieved in 7 of 32 (22.6%) adults and 6 of 20 (30%) children, showing evidence of growth retardation. The mean IGF-1 levels in patients and controls were 124.71 ± 65.49 ng/ml and 233 ± 76.98 ng/ml (P < 0.01), respectively. The mean IGFBP-3 levels in patients and controls were 2.90 ± 1.07 μg/ml and 4.22 ± 0.77 μg/ml (P < 0.01), respectively. Hormonal levels between those with and without evidence of growth retardation did not differ significantly. Duration of symptoms, spleen size, platelet count, and age of presentation did not correlate with anthropometry and hormonal levels.
Growth retardation by anthropometry was documented in a quarter of patients with EHPVO. All patients had significantly low IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in comparison with controls despite normal anthropometry in majority of patients (75%).
Portal vein thrombosis; Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
The serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factors-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and growth hormone (GH) are related to body composition, function and metabolism, and are influenced by the aging process. This study was to investigate the influence of gender on serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and GH in middle and old age subjects.
Materials and Methods
Sixty healthy volunteers (male 35, female 25, 36-70 years) were divided into ≤ 50 and > 50 years groups, based on gender. Women > 50 years were post-menopause. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and GH were determined by immunoradiometric assay.
IGF-I was shown to be negatively correlated with age (women r = -0.62, p < 0.001; men r = -0.38, p < 0.05), whereas there was no correlation between IGF-I and GH values. Women > 50 years showed a significant reduction in IGF-I values than women ≤ 50 years (p < 0.01). Women > 50 years showed smaller IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratios (0.177998 ± 0.039404) than men of same age group (0.228326 ± 0.050979, p < 0.01) and women ≤ 50 years (0.247667 ± 0.069411, p < 0.01). Age was shown to positively correlate with GH/IGF-I (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) and GH/IGFBP-3 ratios (r = 0.40, p < 0.05) in women.
The influence of aging on serum concentrations of IGF-I is more remarkable in women than in men. Menopause causes reduction of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. Women have the trend of progressive hypoactivity of GH to stimulate IGF-I and IGFBP-3 secretions with age.
Growth hormone; insulin-like growth factors-I; insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3; menopause; middle age; aging
Background. The pathogenetic mechanisms of fetal growth restriction associated with placental malaria are largely unknown. We sought to determine whether placental malaria and related inflammation were associated with disturbances in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, a major regulator of fetal growth.
Method. We measured IGF-1 and IGF-2 concentrations in plasma from 88 mother-neonate pairs at delivery and IGF binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, respectively) in cord plasma from a cohort of Papua New Guinean women with and without placental malaria. Messenger RNA levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and the IGF receptors were measured in matched placental biopsy specimens.
Results. Compared with those for uninfected pregnancies, IGF-1 levels were reduced by 28% in plasma samples from women with placental Plasmodium falciparum infection and associated inflammation (P = .007) and by 25% in their neonates (P = .002). Levels of fetal IGFBP-1 were elevated in placental malaria with and without inflammation (P = .08 and P = .006, respectively) compared with uninfected controls. IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 plasma concentrations and placental IGF ligand and receptor messenger RNA transcript levels were similar across groups.
Conclusion. Placental malaria-associated inflammation disturbs maternal and fetal levels of IGFs, which regulate fetal growth. This may be one mechanism by which placental malaria leads to fetal growth restriction.
To assess the role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in growth and transformation of normal (myometrium) and tumorous smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissues, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis for insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) mRNAs was combined with detection of IGF peptides, their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). mRNAs for both IGFs were detected in smooth muscle cells in normal, benign and malignant SMC tissues, together with the IGF peptides, both IGF receptors and IGFBP-3. This suggests an autocrine role for both IGFs. Leiomyomas had higher IGF-I peptide levels and higher levels of type I IGF receptors than myometrium, supporting the idea that IGFs play a role in the growth and transformation of these tumours. Low-grade leiomyosarcomas contained more IGF-II mRNAs than myometrium and leiomyoma, fewer type II IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and less IGFBP-3 than myometrium and, in addition, fewer IGF-I mRNAs and type I IGF receptors than leiomyoma. Intermediate- and high-grade leiomyosarcomas had intermediate levels of IGF-II mRNAs and peptide, ranging between those in myometrium and low-grade leiomyosarcomas. Thus, growth and transformation of leiomyosarcomas may be regulated by IGF-II, although more markedly in low-grade than in high-grade leiomyosarcomas. In conclusion, the various categories of SMC tissues are associated with a distinct expression pattern of the IGF system. This suggests that each category of SMC tumours arises as a distinct entity and that there is no progression of transformation in these tissues.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and II) are important endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mediators of physiological growth. They promote cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation. Their effects are mediated mainly through the IGF-I receptor, but IGFs also bind to the IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate and insulin receptors. IGF activity is modulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs); in most situations, IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions but they may also enhance them. Assays are now available for IGF-I, IGF-II and individual IGFBPs. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 assays have some utility in the diagnosis and management of acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency. There is a large body of in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a pathogenic role for alterations in the IGF system in many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and neuromuscular disease. More recently, epidemiological studies have linked high IGF-I levels with some cancers and low IGF-I levels with ischaemic heart disease. Preliminary studies of recombinant IGF-I as a treatment for diabetes, osteoporosis and neuromuscular disease have been performed in humans. In contrast, there is considerable interest in developing IGF inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. This apparent paradox highlights the need to develop therapeutics beyond the natural ligands and inhibitors, with characteristics such as ligand and tissue specificity. This will only become possible as we increase our understanding of this complex system. Additionally, as IGF and IGFBP assays are becoming more readily available, their role in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases should be more clearly defined in the near future.