PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (171263)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Tele-Education in South Africa 
Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation.
Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made.
Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education.
Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained settings. The development of local and international tele-education at the UKZ-N has not followed what is currently considered to be best practice but shows how programs can develop if there is a real need and the solution assists in meeting the need. Further work is required to analyze the economics of these tele-education endeavors.
doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00173
PMCID: PMC4217325  PMID: 25405146
tele-education; videoconference; South Africa; eHealth implementation; telemedicine; review
2.  Accreditation and Continuous Quality Improvement In Athletic Training Education 
Journal of Athletic Training  2000;35(2):188-193.
Objective:
To apply the continuous quality improvement model commonly associated with the business sector to entrylevel athletic training education program accreditation.
Data Sources:
We applied athletic training educational program accreditation as a tool for ensuring quality in the entrylevel athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Literature from the business, education, and athletic training fields is integrated to support this paradigm shift in athletic training education.
Data Synthesis:
The advent of mandated entry-level athletic training educational program accreditation has forced institutions to evaluate their educational programs. Accreditation will promote continuous quality improvement in athletic training education through mechanisms such as control measures and process improvement.
Conclusions/Recommendations:
Although accreditation of entry-level athletic training education programs has created some dissonance among athletic training professionals, it will strengthen the profession as a whole. Athletic training educators must capture the synergy generated from this change to ensure quality educational experiences for all our students as we move forward to secure a strong position in the allied health care market.
PMCID: PMC1323416  PMID: 16558629
process improvement; Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP); Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training (JRC-AT); leadership
3.  Self-Perceived Continuing Education Needs of Certified Athletic Trainers 
Journal of Athletic Training  2001;36(4):388-395.
Objective:
To determine the self-perceived continuing education needs of current certified athletic trainers and the factors that affect those needs.
Design and Setting:
Self-reporting surveys using a Likert-type scale were sent to 2000 certified athletic trainers.
Subjects:
All subjects were certified athletic trainers working in the United States.
Measurements:
A 3-part survey of continuing education participation, continuing education needs, and demographic data was developed. Continuing education items were based on the domains of athletic training as defined by the Athletic Training Role Delineation Study, 3rd edition.
Results:
The response rate was 52% (1040/2000). Athletic trainers in this study perceived “some to moderate need” for continuing education within each of the domains. Rehabilitation of Athletic Injuries (domain 3) was the area in which athletic trainers saw the most need for continuing education. The back and neck were specific anatomical areas perceived by the athletic trainers as needing the highest level of continuing education. Sex was a significant factor in the perceived importance of continuing education within all but domain 5, Professional Development and Responsibility. Other factors included employment setting and years of experience.
Conclusions:
Athletic trainers in this study perceived each of the tasks within the domains to be at least “somewhat important,” with rehabilitation and specific continuing education programs for the back and neck being the most important. Sex, employment setting, and years of experience may influence what athletic trainers think is important. Therefore, continuing education providers should attempt to vary programs and tailor them to various audiences.
PMCID: PMC155434  PMID: 12937481
continuing education; professional development; adult learning
4.  The development of a taste education program for preschoolers and evaluation of a program by parents and childcare personnel 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2012;6(5):466-473.
The change in people's dietary life has led to an increase in an intake of processed foods and food chemicals, raising awareness about taste education for preschoolers whose dietary habits start to grow. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of parents and childcare personnel after developing a taste education program and demonstrating it in class. A part of the curriculum developed by Piusais and Pierre was referred for the program. After educating 524 preschoolers in child care facilities in Seoul, a satisfaction survey was conducted on the program. The data in this study were analyzed using SPSS 14.0. Statistical analysis was conducted based on the frequency after collecting the data. Mean ± SD used to determine satisfaction with taste education, with preferences marked on a five-point scale and the alpha was set at 0.05. The program includes five teachers' guides with subjects of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and harmony of flavor, and ten kinds of teaching tools. For the change in parents' recognition of the need for taste education based on five-point scale, the average of 4.06 ± 0.62 before the program has significantly increased to 4.32 ± 0.52 (P < 0.01). Regarding the change in the preferences for sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness, the average has increased to 3.83 ± 0.61, 3.62 ± 0.66, 3.64 ± 0.66, and 3.56 ± 0.75 respectively. In an evaluation of instructors in child care facilities, the average scores for education method, education effect, education contents and nutritionists, and teaching tools were at 4.15 ± 0.63, 3.91 ± 0.50, 4.18 ± 0.50, and 3.80 ± 0.56 respectively. In addition, the need for a continuous taste education scored 4.42 ± 0.67. This program has created a positive change in preschoolers' dietary life, therefore the continuation and propagation of the taste education program should be considered.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.466
PMCID: PMC3506879  PMID: 23198027
Taste; nutrition education; preschooler
5.  The Long-Term Effects of a Peer-Led Sex Education Programme (RIPPLE): A Cluster Randomised Trial in Schools in England 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(11):e224.
Background
Peer-led sex education is widely believed to be an effective approach to reducing unsafe sex among young people, but reliable evidence from long-term studies is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of one form of school-based peer-led sex education in reducing unintended teenage pregnancy, we did a cluster (school) randomised trial with 7 y of follow-up.
Methods and Findings
Twenty-seven representative schools in England, with over 9,000 pupils aged 13–14 y at baseline, took part in the trial. Schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). Peer educators, aged 16–17 y, were trained to deliver three 1-h classroom sessions of sex education to 13- to 14-y-old pupils from the same schools. The sessions used participatory learning methods designed to improve the younger pupils' skills in sexual communication and condom use and their knowledge about pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), contraception, and local sexual health services. Main outcome measures were abortion and live births by age 20 y, determined by anonymised linkage of girls to routine (statutory) data. Assessment of these outcomes was blind to sex education allocation. The proportion of girls who had one or more abortions before age 20 y was the same in each arm (intervention, 5.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0%–6.3%]; control, 5.0% [95% CI 4.0%–6.4%]). The odds ratio (OR) adjusted for randomisation strata was 1.07 (95% CI 0.80–1.42, p = 0.64, intervention versus control). The proportion of girls with one or more live births by 20.5 y was 7.5% (95% CI 5.9%–9.6%) in the intervention arm and 10.6% (95% CI 6.8%–16.1%) in the control arm, adjusted OR 0.77 (0.51–1.15). Fewer girls in the peer-led arm self-reported a pregnancy by age 18 y (7.2% intervention versus 11.2% control, adjusted OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42–0.91], weighted for non-response; response rate 61% intervention, 45% control). There were no significant differences for girls or boys in self-reported unprotected first sex, regretted or pressured sex, quality of current sexual relationship, diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases, or ability to identify local sexual health services.
Conclusion
Compared with conventional school sex education at age 13–14 y, this form of peer-led sex education was not associated with change in teenage abortions, but may have led to fewer teenage births and was popular with pupils. It merits consideration within broader teenage pregnancy prevention strategies.
Trial registration:
ISRCTN (ISRCTN94255362).
Judith Stephenson and colleagues report on a cluster randomized trial in London of school-based peer-led sex education and whether it reduced unintended teenage pregnancy.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Teenage pregnancies are fraught with problems. Children born to teenage mothers are often underweight, which can affect their long-term health; young mothers have a high risk of poor mental health after the birth; and teenage parents and their children are at increased risk of living in poverty. Little wonder, then, that faced with one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Western Europe, the Department of Health in England launched a national Teenage Pregnancy Strategy in 2000 to reduce teenage pregnancies. The main goal of the strategy is to halve the 1998 under-18 pregnancy rate—there were 46.6 pregnancies for every 1,000 young women in this age group in that year—by 2010. Approaches recommended in the strategy to achieve this goal include the provision of effective sexual health advice services for young people, active engagement of health, social, youth support, and other services in the reduction of teenage pregnancies, and the improvement of sex and relationships education (SRE).
Why Was This Study Done?
Although the annual under-18 pregnancy rate in England is falling, it is still very high, and it is extremely unlikely that the main goal of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy will be achieved. Experts are, therefore, looking for better ways to reduce both teenage pregnancy rates and the high rates of sexual transmitted diseases among teenagers. Many believe that peer-led SRE—the teaching (sharing) of sexual health information, values, and behaviours by people of a similar age or status group—might be a good approach to try. Peers, they suggest, might convey information about sexual health and relationships better than teachers. However, little is known about the long-term effectiveness of peer-led SRE. In this randomized cluster trial, the researchers compare the effects of a peer-led SRE program and teacher-led sex education given to13- to 14-y-old pupils on abortion and live birth numbers among young women up to age 20 y. In a cluster randomized trial, participants are randomly assigned to the interventions being compared in “clusters”; in this trial, each “cluster” is a school.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Twenty-seven schools in England (about 9,000 13- to 14-y-old pupils) participated in the RIPPLE (Randomized Intervention of PuPil-Led sex Education) trial. Each school was randomly assigned to peer-led SRE (the intervention arm) or to existing teacher-led SRE (the control arm). For peer-led SRE, trained 16- to 17-y-old peer educators gave three 1-h SRE sessions to the younger pupils in their schools. These sessions included practice with condoms, role play to improve sexual negotiating skills, and exercises to improve knowledge about sexual health. The researchers then used routine data on abortions and live births to find out how many female study participants had had an unintended pregnancy before the age of 20 y. One in 20 girls in both study arms had had one or more abortions. Slightly more girls in the control arm than in the intervention arm had had live births, but the difference was small and might have occurred by chance. However, significantly more girls in the intervention arm (11.2%) self-reported a pregnancy by age 18 than in the intervention arm (7.2%). There were no differences between the two arms for girls or boys in any other aspect of sexual health, including sexually transmitted diseases.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that the peer-led SRE program used in this trial had no effect on the number of teenage abortions but may have led to slightly fewer live births among the young women in the study. This particular peer-led SRE program was very short so a more extended program might have had a more marked effect on teenage pregnancy rates; this possibility needs to be tested, particularly since the pupils preferred peer-led SRE to teacher-led SRE. Even though peer-led SRE requires more resources than teacher-led SRE, this form of SRE should probably still be considered as part of a broad teenage prevention strategy, suggest the researchers. But, they warn, their findings should also “temper high expectations about the long-term impact of peer-led approaches” on young people's sexual health.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050224.
This study is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by David Ross
Every Child Matters, a Web site produced by the UK government, includes information on teenage pregnancy, the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, and teenage pregnancy statistics in England
Directgov, an official government Web site for UK citizens, provides advice for parents on talking to children about sex and teenage pregnancyand advice for young people on sexual health and preventing pregnancy
Teachernet, a UK source of online publications for schools, also provides information for parents about sex and relationships education and the UK government's current guidance on SRE in schools
Avert, an international AIDS charity, also provides a fact sheet on sex education
The Sex Education Forum in the UK is the national authority on Sex and Relationships Education
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050224
PMCID: PMC2586352  PMID: 19067478
6.  A Model for Continuing Pharmacy Education 
Objective
To develop and implement a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program at Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO)
Design
To address the continuing education needs of its diverse pharmacy staff, an internal continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program was developed. The pharmacy department became an accredited provider by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Live, interactive, and evidence-based CPE programs, presented by highly qualified internal staff members, utilized videoconferencing and a Web-based learning management system. Cross-accreditation of medical and pharmacy educational programs was offered to KPCO staff members.
Assessment
Annual needs assessments were conducted to ensure the provision of relevant educational topics and to assess learning needs. To demonstrate outcomes of the CPE programs, 2 methods were utilized: objective effectiveness assessment and knowledge acquisition assessment. This program met the objectives for CPE activities a large majority of the time (usually over 90%), demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in knowledge from before to after the CPE activity in 11 of 13 questions asked, and minimized the cost to acquire CPE credit for both the pharmacy department and its staff members.
Conclusion
The KPCO continuing pharmacy education program has developed a high quality and cost-favorable system that has resulted in significant improvements in attendee knowledge.
PMCID: PMC2739070  PMID: 19777102
continuing education; videoconferencing
7.  An evaluation of the integration of non-traditional learning tools into a community based breast and cervical cancer education program: The witness project of Buffalo 
BMC Cancer  2003;3:18.
Background
Breast and cervical cancer continue to represent major health challenges for African American women. among Caucasian women. The underlying reasons for this disparity are multifactorial and include lack of education and awareness of screening and early detection. Traditional educational methods have enjoyed varied success in the African American community and spawned development of novel educational approaches. Community based education programs employing a variety of educational models have been introduced. Successful programs must train and provide lay community members with the tools necessary to deliver strong educational programs.
Methods
The Witness Project is a theory-based, breast and cervical cancer educational program, delivered by African American women, that stresses the importance of early detection and screening to improve survival and teaches women how to perform breast self examination. Implementing this program in the Buffalo Witness Project of Buffalo required several modifications in the curriculum, integration of non-traditional learning tools and focused training in clinical study participation. The educational approaches utilized included repetition, modeling, building comprehension, reinforcement, hands on learning, a social story on breast health for African American women, and role play conversations about breast and cervical health and support.
Results
Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into the Witness Project training resulted in a 79% improvement in the number of women who mastered the didactic information. A seventy-two percent study participation rate was achieved by educating the community organizations that hosted Witness Project programs about the informed consent process and study participation.
Conclusion
Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into community outreach programs increases training success as well as community participation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-3-18
PMCID: PMC165423  PMID: 12775219
8.  Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project 
Background
The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP).
Aims
The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020.
Methods
The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies prevention modules into all elementary schools in Bohol. Existing public health legislation at the national, provincial, and municipal level strengthened the enforcement of activities. A Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey was conducted in 2009 to evaluate the educational knowledge of the population. Increased surveillance was instituted to ensure that dogs traveling into and out of the province were vaccinated against rabies. Human and animal cases of rabies were reported to provincial and national authorities.
Key Results
Within the first 18 months of the BRPEP, human rabies deaths had decreased annually from 0.77 to 0.37 to zero per 100,000 population from 2007–2009. Between October 2008 and November 2010 no human and animal cases were detected. Increased surveillance on the island detected one suspected human rabies case in November 2010 and one confirmed case of canine rabies in April 2011. Two mass vaccination campaigns conducted in 2007 and 2008 successfully registered and vaccinated 44% and 70% of the dogs on the island. The additional surveillance activities enabled a mobilization of mop up vaccination activities in the region where the human and canine case was located. Due to the increased effective and continuous surveillance activities, rabies was stopped before it could spread to other areas on the island. The program costs totaled USD 450,000. Registration fees collected to maintain the program amounted to USD 105,740 and were re-allocated back into the community to sustain the program.
Author Summary
The Province of Bohol, Philippines has eliminated dog and human rabies in less than three years by empowering the community and implementing an intersectoral strategy. In 2006, Bohol ranked 4th highest in the Philippines for human rabies, averaging 10 deaths per year. Launched in 2007, the program utilized a social awareness campaign, dog population control, mass dog vaccination campaigns, improved dog bite management and veterinary quarantine, a new diagnostic laboratory, expanded surveillance, and the inclusion of education modules into the school curriculum. Improving community compliance to existing national and provincial rabies laws and engaging volunteers to help conduct the project was a key to success. The program, led by the Governor of Bohol, was administered through a group of departments working together at a provincial and local level, and supervised through the Office of the Provincial Veterinarian. Financial support came through the Governor and several NGOs including the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The program is self-sustaining, through a small dog registration fee fed back into the program, through the continuing education of children in their classrooms, and through the dedicated efforts of over 15,000 staff and volunteers throughout the island.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001891
PMCID: PMC3516573  PMID: 23236525
9.  Empowering the people: Development of an HIV peer education model for low literacy rural communities in India 
Background
Despite ample evidence that HIV has entered the general population, most HIV awareness programs in India continue to neglect rural areas. Low HIV awareness and high stigma, fueled by low literacy, seasonal migration, gender inequity, spatial dispersion, and cultural taboos pose extra challenges to implement much-needed HIV education programs in rural areas. This paper describes a peer education model developed to educate and empower low-literacy communities in the rural district of Perambalur (Tamil Nadu, India).
Methods
From January to December 2005, six non-governmental organizations (NGO's) with good community rapport collaborated to build and pilot-test an HIV peer education model for rural communities. The program used participatory methods to train 20 NGO field staff (Outreach Workers), 102 women's self-help group (SHG) leaders, and 52 barbers to become peer educators. Cartoon-based educational materials were developed for low-literacy populations to convey simple, comprehensive messages on HIV transmission, prevention, support and care. In addition, street theatre cultural programs highlighted issues related to HIV and stigma in the community.
Results
The program is estimated to have reached over 30 000 villagers in the district through 2051 interactive HIV awareness programs and one-on-one communication. Outreach workers (OWs) and peer educators distributed approximately 62 000 educational materials and 69 000 condoms, and also referred approximately 2844 people for services including voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), care and support for HIV, and diagnosis and treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STI). At least 118 individuals were newly diagnosed as persons living with HIV (PLHIV); 129 PLHIV were referred to the Government Hospital for Thoracic Medicine (in Tambaram) for extra medical support. Focus group discussions indicate that the program was well received in the communities, led to improved health awareness, and also provided the peer educators with increased social status.
Conclusion
Using established networks (such as community-based organizations already working on empowerment of women) and training women's SHG leaders and barbers as peer educators is an effective and culturally appropriate way to disseminate comprehensive information on HIV/AIDS to low-literacy communities. Similar models for reaching and empowering vulnerable populations should be expanded to other rural areas.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-6-6
PMCID: PMC2377249  PMID: 18423006
10.  Preventive health care, 2000 update: prevention of child maltreatment 
Objectives
To update the 1993 report from the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination (now the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care) by reviewing the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing child maltreatment described in the scientific literature over the past 6 years.
Options
Screening: a variety of techniques including assessment of risk indicators. Prevention: programs including home visitation; comprehensive health care programs; parent education and support, combined services and programs aimed specifically at preventing sexual abuse.
Outcomes
Occurrence of one or more of the subcategories of physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and emotional abuse in childhood.
Evidence
MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, ERIC and several other databases were searched, experts were consulted, and published recommendations were reviewed. Original research articles and overviews that examined screening for or prevention of child maltreatment were included in the update. No meta-analysis was performed because the range of manoeuvres precluded comparability.
Benefits, harms and costs
Because of the high false-positive rates of screening tests for child maltreatment and the potential for mislabelling people as potential child abusers, the possible harms associated with these screening manoeuvres outweigh the benefits. Two randomized controlled trials showed a reduction in the incidence of childhood maltreatment or outcomes related to physical abuse and neglect among first-time disadvantaged mothers and their infants who received a program of home visitation by nurses in the perinatal period extending through infancy. It is expected that a reduction in incidence of child maltreatment and other outcomes will lead to substantial government savings. Evidence remains inconclusive on the effectiveness of a comprehensive health care program, a parent education and support program, or a combination of services in preventing child maltreatment. Education programs designed to teach children prevention strategies to avoid sexual abuse show increased knowledge and skills but not necessarily reduced abuse.
Values
The systematic review and critical appraisal of the evidence were conducted according to the evidence-based methodology of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.
Recommendations
There is further evidence of fair quality to exclude screening procedures aimed at identifying individuals at risk of experiencing or committing child maltreatment (grade D recommendation). There is good evidence to continue recommending a program of home visitation for disadvantaged families during the perinatal period extending through infancy to prevent child abuse and neglect (grade A recommendation). The target group for this program is first-time mothers with one or more of the following characteristics: age less than 19 years, single parent status and low socioeconomic status. The strongest evidence is for an intensive program of home visitation delivered by nurses beginning prenatally and extending until the child's second birthday. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a comprehensive health care program (grade C recommendation), a parent education and support program (grade C recommendation) or a combination of home-based services (grade C recommendation) as a strategy for preventing child maltreatment, but these interventions may be recommended for other reasons. There is insufficient evidence to recommend education programs for the prevention of sexual abuse (grade C recommendation); whether such programs reduce the incidence of sexual abuse has not been established.
Validation
The members of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care reviewed the findings of this analysis through an iterative process. The task force sent the final review and recommendations to selected external expert reviewers, and their feedback was incorporated.
Sponsors
The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care is funded through a partnership between the Provincial and Territorial Ministries of Health and Health Canada.
PMCID: PMC80412  PMID: 11192650
11.  Overview of Athletic Training Education Research Publications 
Journal of Athletic Training  2002;37(4 suppl):S-162-S-167.
Objective: To provide an overview of the limited amount of peer-reviewed literature on athletic training education that has been published in athletic training journals. Publications that related specifically to the development of evaluation tools or specific addenda to the required athletic training curriculum were not included.
Background: As education reform continues to unfold in athletic training, it is important for all certified athletic trainers to understand the research that undergirds the educational practices in athletic training. Many of the profession's educational practices have been taken from standards and methods developed by the discipline of education, with very little validation for applicability to the discipline of athletic training. A very limited number of comprehensive scientific investigations of the educational standards and practices in athletic training education have been carried out; however, for more research to be conducted, it is essential that the currently available research be reviewed.
Description: The summaries of athletic training educational research in this article include the topics of learning styles, facilitation of learning and professional development, instructional methods, clinical instruction and supervision, predictors of success on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification certification examination, program administration, and continuing education. The amount of research in athletic training education is limited when compared with the amount and quality of educational research available in other professions, such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. In this article, I attempt to describe the existing literature and identify what is needed to expand the breadth and depth of research in athletic training education.
Clinical Advantages: This article is intended to help educators identify areas within athletic training education that require further validation and to provide both educators and clinicians with insight into the current validated educational practices that may be appropriate to incorporate into educational settings or practice.
PMCID: PMC164419  PMID: 12937539
learning styles; professional development; instructional methods; clinical instruction; clinical supervision; predictors of success; administration; continuing education
12.  The Toxicology Education Summit: Building the Future of Toxicology Through Education 
Toxicological Sciences  2012;127(2):331-338.
Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the “Total Toxicologist”; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.
doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs111
PMCID: PMC3355314  PMID: 22461448
toxicology; education
13.  Program evaluation of a model to integrate internationally educated health professionals into clinical practice 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:140.
Background
The demand for health professionals continues to increase, partially due to the aging population and the high proportion of practitioners nearing retirement. The University of British Columbia (UBC) has developed a program to address this demand, by providing support for internationally trained Physiotherapists in their preparation for taking the National Physiotherapy competency examinations.
The aim was to create a program comprised of the educational tools and infrastructure to support internationally educated physiotherapists (IEPs) in their preparation for entry to practice in Canada and, to improve their pass rate on the national competency examination.
Methods
The program was developed using a logic model and evaluated using program evaluation methodology. Program tools and resources included educational modules and curricular packages which were developed and refined based on feedback from clinical experts, IEPs and clinical physical therapy mentors. An examination bank was created and used to include test-enhanced education. Clinical mentors were recruited and trained to provide clinical and cultural support for participants.
Results
The IEP program has recruited 124 IEPs, with 69 now integrated into the Canadian physiotherapy workforce, and more IEPs continuing to apply to the program. International graduates who participated in the program had an improved pass rate on the national Physiotherapy Competency Examination (PCE); participation in the program resulted in them having a 28% (95% CI, 2% to 59%) greater possibility of passing the written section than their counterparts who did not take the program. In 2010, 81% of all IEP candidates who completed the UBC program passed the written component, and 82% passed the clinical component.
Conclusion
The program has proven to be successful and sustainable. This program model could be replicated to support the successful integration of other international health professionals into the workforce.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-140
PMCID: PMC3852753  PMID: 24119470
International health graduates; Educational program development; Program evaluation; Integration
14.  A clinical student exchange program organized by cardiothoracic department: feedback of participants 
Background
The development of a student exchange program was an essential part of the cooperation between the Medical Schools of the University of Goettingen (Germany) and the University of Thrace in Alexandroupolis (Greece). The student exchange program started in 2008 and was performed once a year. The experiences of this program and the feedback of participants are presented.
Methods
Although organized by the Dept. of Thoracic, Cardiac, and Vascular Surgery, the approach of the program was multidisciplinary. Participants also attended Continuous Medical Education activities primary addressed to physicians. At the end of the program, the participants evaluated the program anonymously. The educational units were rated via a 4-grade system. Additionally, it was possible to comment both positive and negative aspects of the program.
Results
Twenty-nine educational units were evaluated. The practical teaching units yielded a better result than the classical teaching units (93% of practical units were evaluated as “very good” vs. 74% of lectures/seminars). The Continuous Medical Education activities were evaluated less favorable (only 61% were evaluated as “very good”).
Conclusions
The student exchange program enhanced effective teaching and learning. Courses supporting practical medical skills were extremely positive evaluated. Continuous Medical Education activities are not suitable for students and therefore, we do not include such an event anymore. Additionally, the program created an excellent forum for contact and communication between the students of the two universities.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-56
PMCID: PMC3621607  PMID: 23537248
Medical education; Medical student; Communication; International cooperation; Cardiovascular
15.  Inadequate investment on management of diabetes education 
Aims:
Reforming and improving the patient education process need more insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the existing education process. There is little documentation on patient education in National Diabetes Prevention and Control Program in Iran, so the present study aimed to describe patient education process in diabetes centers in one of the provinces of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This is a qualitative content analysis. Twelve nurses who work as diabetes nurse educators (DNEs) and an internal medicine specialist participated in this study. Data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews, a focus group, existing documents, field notes, and multiple observations. Data analysis was guided by the conventional approach of qualitative content analysis.
Results:
Three main themes including unequipped trainers (insufficient knowledge and experience, lack of appropriate educational facilities, lack of time, lack of patient's interest), unstructured education (lack of educational need assessment, lack of evaluation, lack of continuing patient education), unmanaged education (lack of official planning for patient education and supervising the education process) emerged from qualitative content analysis.
Conclusions:
Although patient education is one of the important strategies in National Diabetes Prevention and Control Program, there however has not been necessary investment and adequate space to achieve it. Patient education was not structured and based on scientific principles. Training of diabetes nurse educators (DNEs) is neglected, and there is no supervision on patient education process.
PMCID: PMC3687889  PMID: 23798949
Diabetes mellitus; education; health educator; need assessment
16.  Exploring impacts of multi-year, community-based care programs for orphans and vulnerable children: A case study from Kenya 
AIDS Care  2013;25(Suppl 1):S40-S45.
The Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO) program operated in Kenya during 2006–2010. In Eastern Province, the program provided support to approximately 3000 orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) living in 1500 households. A primary focus of the program was to support savings and loan associations composed of OVC caregivers (typically elderly women) to improve household and OVC welfare. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2011 from 1500 randomly selected households from 3 populations: program participants (CBCO group, n = 500), households in the same villages as program participants but not in the program (the local-community-group = Group L, n = 300), and households living in nearby villages where the program did not operate (the adjacent-community-group, Group A, n = 700). Primary welfare outcomes evaluated are household food security, as measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access instrument, and OVC educational attainment. We compared outcomes between the CBCO and the subset of Group L not meeting program eligibility criteria (L-N) to investigate disparities within local communities. We compared outcomes between the CBCO group and the subset of Group A meeting eligibility criteria (A-E) to consider program impact. We compared outcomes between households not eligible for the program in the local and adjacent community groups (L-N and A-N) to consider if the adjacent communities are similar to the local communities. In May-June 2011, at the end of the OVC program, the majority of CBCO households continued to be severely food insecure, with rates similar to other households living in nearby communities. Participation rates in primary school are high, reflecting free primary education. Among the 18–22 year olds who were “children” during the program years, relatively few children completed secondary school across all study groups. Although the CBCO program likely provided useful services and benefits to program participants, disparities continued to exist in food security and educational outcomes between program participants and their non-OVC peers in the local community. Outcomes for CBCO households were similar to those observed for OVC households in adjacent communities.
doi:10.1080/09540121.2012.729807
PMCID: PMC4003573  PMID: 23745629
orphans and vulnerable children; village savings and loan associations; food security; educational attainment
17.  Building School Health Programs Through Public Health Initiatives: The First Three Years of the Healthy Hawaii Initiative Partnership for School Health 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2003;1(1):A10.
Background
The Healthy Hawaii Initiative, funded through the Hawaii tobacco settlement, allocates funds from the Hawaii Department of Health to the Hawaii Department of Education for school programs that promote health and reduce the burden of chronic disease. This article outlines progress, challenges, and insights from the first 3 years of the Hawaii Partnership for Standards-based School Health Education (the Partnership).
Context
The Hawaii Department of Education added health education as a content area to the Hawaii Content and Performance Standards in 1999. The American Cancer Society, Hawaii Pacific, Inc., convened a Comprehensive School Health Education Committee that initiated a school health professional development program for teachers. During the 2000–2001 academic year, new Healthy Hawaii Initiative funding began for school health programs.
Methods
Healthy Hawaii Initiative (HHI) funding has been used to provide new state and district resource teacher positions, professional development workshops for educators, tuition waivers and materials for graduate-level summer institutes for educators, annual statewide school health conferences, and pilot school implementation of coordinated school health programs.
Consequences
Schools across Hawaii demonstrate clear progress in implementing standards-based school health education and coordinated school health programs. The funding has led to increased support from other sources to build school health programs.
Interpretation
The ultimate beneficiaries of school health programs are the children and families of Hawaii. This health and education partnership continues to work toward improved health outcomes for young people as the future leaders and citizens of Hawaii.
PMCID: PMC544533  PMID: 15634372
18.  Impact of education and training on type of care provided by community-based breastfeeding counselors: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Studies using community-based breastfeeding counselors (CBBCs) have repeatedly shown positive impact on breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity and duration, particularly among low-income mothers. To date, there has not been a comprehensive study to determine the impact of CBBC attributes such as educational background and training, on the type of care that CBBCs provide.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of CBBCs to ascertain the influence of counselor education and type of training on type of support and proficiency of CBBCs in communities across the United States. Invitations to participate in this online survey of CBBCs were e-mailed to program coordinators of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), La Leche League, and other community-based health organizations, who in turn invited and encouraged their CBBCs to participate. Descriptive analysis was used to describe participants (N = 847), while bivariate analysis using χ2 test was used to examine the differences between CBBC education, training received and breastfeeding support skills used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent determinants of specific breastfeeding support skills.
Results
The major findings from the research indicate that overall, educational attainment of CBBCs is not a significant predictor for the curriculum used in their training and type of support skills used during counseling sessions, but initial training duration was positively associated with the use of many breastfeeding support skills. Another major influence of counselor support to clients is the type of continuing education they receive after their initial training, with higher likelihood of use of desirable support skills associated with counselors continuing their breastfeeding education at conferences or trainings away from their job sites.
Conclusions
Our results show that different programs use different training curricula to train their CBBCs varying in duration and content. Counselor education is not a significant predictor of the type of training they receive. Continuing breastfeeding education is a significant determinant of type of counseling techniques used with clients. Further research is therefore needed to critically examine the content of the various training curricula of CBBC programs. This may show a need for a standardized training curriculum for all CBBC programs worldwide to make CBBCs more proficient and efficient, ensuring successful and optimum breastfeeding experiences for mothers and their newborns.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-6-12
PMCID: PMC3177880  PMID: 21871062
19.  A Mind–Body Program for Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Pilot Study 
Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)  2009;10(8):1395-1407.
Objectives
Determine the impact of an 8-week mindfulness meditation program on disability, psychological function, and pain severity in community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain, and to test the education control program for feasibility.
Design
Randomized controlled trial.
Participants
Forty community-dwelling older adults with moderate low back pain or greater for at least the previous 3 months.
Intervention
Participants were randomized to an 8-week meditation program or an 8-week education control program.
Outcome Measures
Disability, psychological function, and pain severity were assessed. The same measures were obtained for both groups at baseline, at the end of the program, and 4 months after program completion.
Results
Sixteen participants (80%) completed the meditation program and 19 (95%) completed the education program. Both the meditation and control group improved on measures of disability, pain, and psychological function, both at program completion and 4-month follow-up. The differences between the two groups did not reach statistical significance. The meditation group practiced mindfulness meditation a mean of 5 days/week (range 1–7) and mean of 31 minutes/session (range 22–48). At 4 months follow-up 14/16 (88%) participants continued to meditate.
Conclusion
Both the intervention group and the education control group improved on outcome measures suggesting both programs had a beneficial effect. Participants continued to meditate on 4-month follow-up. The control program was feasible but not inert. Piloting the control program in mind–body research can inform the design of larger clinical trials.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00746.x
PMCID: PMC2849802  PMID: 20021599
Low Back Pain; Mindfulness; Meditation; Mind-Body; Aged
20.  Enhancing Research Capacity for Global Health: Evaluation of a Distance-Based Program for International Study Coordinators 
Introduction
Due to the increasing number of clinical trials conducted globally, there is a need for quality continuing education for health professionals in clinical research manager (CRM) roles. This paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a distance-based continuing education program for CRMs working outside the United States.
Methods
A total of 692 applications were received from CRMs in 50 countries. Of these, 166 were admitted to the program in two cohorts. The program, taught online and in English, included four required and one optional course. Course materials were also provided as hard copies and on CDs. A pretest/posttest design was used to evaluate the outcome of the program in terms of changes in knowledge, participants’ capacity-building activities at their research sites; and participant and supervisor perceptions of program impact.
Results
Participants demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge about clinical research, rated course content and teaching strategies positively, and identified the opportunity for interactions with international peers as a major program strength. Challenges for participants were limited time to complete assignments and erratic internet access. Participants offered capacity building programs to 5061 individuals at their research sites. Supervisors indicated that they would recommend the program and perceived the program improved CRM effectiveness and site research capacity.
Findings
Results suggest that this type of continuing education program addresses a growing need for education of CRMs working in countries that have previously had limited involvement with global clinical trials.
doi:10.1002/chp.21167
PMCID: PMC3615256  PMID: 23512562
International Research; Global Clinical Trials; Research Coordinator Education
21.  Professional Medical Library Education in the United States in Relation to the Qualifications of Medical Library Manpower in Ohio * 
The present system of education for medical library practice in the United States consists of four major components: graduate degree programs in library science with specialization in medical librarianship; graduate degree programs in library science with no such specialization; postgraduate internships in medical libraries; continuing education programs. Data are presented illustrating the flow of graduates along these several educational pathways into medical library practice.
The relevance of these educational components to the current medical library work force is discussed with reference to manpower data compiled for Ohio. The total number of medical library personnel in Ohio in 1968 is 316. Of this total, only forty-two (approximately 14 percent) have received any formal library training. Seventy persons have only a high school education. From these figures, it is concluded that there is no standard or essential qualification which is universally accepted as educational preparation for work in medical libraries; that the comparative sophistication of the educational programs in medical librarianship has yet to be reflected widely in general medical library practice; that an increasingly large number of non-professional or ancillary personnel are being, and will continue to be, utilized in medical libraries; that large numbers of untrained persons have sole responsibility for medical libraries; and that appropriate educational programs will have to be designed specifically for this type of personnel.
PMCID: PMC200735  PMID: 5702318
22.  A Comparison of the Acceptability and Effectiveness of Two Methods of Distance Education: CD-ROM and Audio Teleconferencing 
Objectives
To fulfill a need for convenient and effective continuing education for pharmacists throughout Wisconsin by developing a pharmacy continuing education program using 2 different methods for distance education: audio teleconferencing and CD-ROM.
Methods
Eighty pharmacists were recruited from a 2003 University of Wisconsin distance education program, 47 of whom participated in the course using the traditional audio teleconference method, and 33 of whom participated using a home study CD-ROM containing the same material presented in the teleconference. Volunteers were required to complete a pretest, a first posttest immediately following completion of the continuing education course, a second posttest 1 month following the conclusion of the course, and an evaluation.
Results
The CD-ROMs were a more acceptable method for distance education than audio teleconferencing and resulted in better retention of the course information.
Conclusion
These study results can help coordinators of continuing pharmaceutical education programs to determine the most effective and acceptable method for future distance-education opportunities.
PMCID: PMC1636889  PMID: 17136154
distance education; continuing education; audio teleconferencing; CD-ROM instruction
23.  Continuing medical education challenges in chronic fatigue syndrome 
Background
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects at least 4 million people in the United States, yet only 16% of people with CFS have received a diagnosis or medical care for their illness. Educating health care professionals about the diagnosis and management of CFS may help to reduce population morbidity associated with CFS.
Methods
This report presents findings over a 5-year period from May 2000 to June 2006 during which we developed and implemented a health care professional educational program. The objective of the program was to distribute CFS continuing education materials to providers at professional conferences, offer online continuing education credits in different formats (e.g., print, video, and online), and evaluate the number of accreditation certificates awarded.
Results
We found that smaller conference size (OR = 80.17; 95% CI 8.80, 730.25), CFS illness related target audiences (OR = 36.0; 95% CI 2.94, 436.34), and conferences in which CFS research was highlighted (OR = 4.15; 95% CI 1.16, 14.83) significantly contributed to higher dissemination levels, as measured by visit rates to the education booth. While print and online courses were equally requested for continuing education credit opportunities, the online course resulted in 84% of the overall award certificates, compared to 14% for the print course. This remained consistent across all provider occupations: physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that educational programs promoting materials at conferences may increase dissemination efforts by targeting audiences, examining conference characteristics, and promoting online continuing education forums.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-70
PMCID: PMC2795739  PMID: 19954535
24.  Assessment of the multidisciplinary education for a major change in clinical practice; a prospective cohort study 
Background
New approaches are often introduced to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and other areas of the health service in either a haphazard or cataclysmic fashion. The needs of staff education are often addressed incompletely or too late. Rarely is education assessed after the introduction of a major change. We changed the basis of our NICU respiratory support. We conducted a major educational and support program before this intervention. This study documented and assessed the educational components of this change in our health service provision.
Methods
Senior medical and nursing staff attended training abroad and an education program was applied for one year prior to the change. Multidisciplinary educational support for doctors, nurses and allied health was continued after the change. Assessment was by anonymous questionnaire, prior to change, at one and at nine months. Our hypothesis was that dissatisfaction with education would be greatest at one month.
Results
Both theory education and practical education aspects of the new approach were rated as good to very good and this did not change with time. Difficulty of applying the technique was rated as ambivalent initially but decreased significantly over 9 months until it was rated easy to very easy (p < 0.001). Over all, the change was rated by staff as beneficial, both at the end of the education period and at nine months, with no decrease at one month.
Conclusion
If education and training reaches all staff, with a system of mutual and continued support, even large changes in clinical practice can be achieved without the dissatisfaction with the educational process that is often otherwise seen.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-9-28
PMCID: PMC2645385  PMID: 19208262
25.  Healthy Minds/Healthy Children Outreach Service: Lessons Learned After Eight Years 
Objectives:
This article describes the Healthy Minds/Healthy Children Outreach Service (HMHC), an ongoing clinical and educational outreach service which makes use of technology to bridge geographical barriers to help build capacity in front-line professionals to meet children’s mental health needs in rural areas.
Method:
A description of the HMHC clinical consultation and educational services is given. Utilization patterns of these services are reviewed.
Results:
Clinical service accounts for approximately 1/3 of the service’s activities. Continuing professional development has experienced strong growth since the program’s inception eight years ago. The majority of consultees and continuing professional development users have been non-physicians.
Discussion:
Future challenges for program development include increasing physician involvement and continuing to adapt the program’s continuing education program to the multidisciplinary professionals who provide support to children in rural areas. Measuring the program’s outcome in terms of its effect on clinical care through knowledge transfer has been difficult to do because of methodological research challenges, while successful research in this area will be helpful to determine how collaborative care models can help in the provision of mental health services to youth in rural communities. The growth of collaboration across various professional disciplines and service sectors demonstrates that programs like HMHC can be effective in meeting some of the unmet needs in providing mental health services to children and youth.
PMCID: PMC3338176  PMID: 22548107
capacity-building outreach service; youth mental health; service de formation professionnelle; santé mentale des enfants et des adolescents

Results 1-25 (171263)