The presence of hypoxic cells in human brain tumors is an important factor leading to resistance to radiation therapy. However, this physiological difference between normal tissues and tumors also provides the potential for designing cancer-specific gene therapy. We compared the increase of gene expression under anoxia (<0.01% oxygen) produced by 3, 6, and 9 copies of hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE) from the erythropoietin gene (Epo), which are activated through the transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Under anoxic conditions, nine copies of HRE (9XHRE) yielded 27- to 37-fold of increased gene expression in U-251 MG and U-87 MG human brain tumor cell lines. Under the less hypoxic conditions of 0.3% and 1% oxygen, gene activation by 9XHRE increased expression 11- to 18-fold in these cell lines. To generate a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) in which the transgene can be regulated by hypoxia, we inserted the DNA fragment containing 9XHRE and the LacZ reporter gene into an AAV vector. Under anoxic conditions, this vector produced 79- to 110-fold increase in gene expression. We believe this hypoxia-regulated rAAV vector will provide a useful delivery vehicle for cancer-specific gene therapy.
hypoxia; brain tumor cells; hypoxia-responsive element; adeno-associated virus; gene therapy
Treatment with iron chelators mimics hypoxic induction of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) which activates transcription by binding to hypoxia responsive elements (HRE). We investigated whether HIF-1 is involved in transcriptional activation of the transferrin receptor (TfR), a membrane protein which mediates cellular iron uptake, in response to iron deprivation. The transcription rate of the TfR gene in isolated nuclei was up-regulated by treatment of Hep3B human hepatoma cells with the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). The role of HIF-1 in the activation of TfR was indicated by the following observations: (i) DFO-dependent activation of a luciferase reporter gene in transfected Hep3B cells was mediated by a fragment of the human TfR promoter containing a putative HRE sequence; (ii) mutation of this sequence prevented stimulation of luciferase activity; (iii) binding to this sequence of HIF-1alpha, identified by competition experiments and supershift assays, was induced by DFO. Furthermore, in mouse hepatoma cells unable to assemble functional HIF-1, inducibility of TfR transcription by DFO was lost and TfR mRNA up-regulation was reduced. These results, which show the role of HIF-1 in the control of TfR gene expression in conditions of iron depletion, give insights into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation which concur with the well-characterized post-transcriptional control of TfR expression to expand the extent of response to iron deficiency.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in hypoxic pulmonary artery endothelial cells cause transient oxidative base modifications in the hypoxic response element (HRE) of the VEGF gene that bear a conspicuous relationship to induction of VEGF mRNA expression (FASEB J 19: 387-394, 2005). If such base modifications are indeed linked to transcriptional regulation, then they should be detected in HRE sequences associated with transcriptionally active nucleosomes. Southern blot analysis of the VEGF HRE associated with nucleosome fractions prepared by micrococcal nuclease digestion indicated that hypoxia redistributed some HRE sequences from multi-nucleosomes to transcriptionally-active mono- and di-nucleosome fractions. A simple PCR method revealed that VEGF HRE sequences harboring oxidative base modifications were found exclusively in mono-nucleosomes. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced ROS generation with myxathiozol prevented formation of oxidative base modifications but not the redistribution of HRE sequences into mono- and di-nucleosome fractions. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, caused retention of HRE sequences in compacted nucleosome fractions and prevented formation of oxidative base modifications. These findings suggest that the hypoxia-induced oxidant stress directed at the VEGF HRE requires the sequence to be repositioned into mono-nucleosomes, and support the prospect that oxidative modifications in this sequence are an important step in transcriptional activation.
Hypoxia; reactive oxygen species; oxidative DNA modifications; chromatin remodeling; nucleosomes; gene expression
Transcriptional activation by hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) via binding to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE). Hypoxia in solid tumors associates with poorer outcome of the disease and reliable cellular markers of tumor hypoxia would represent a valuable diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target. In this category, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is one of the most promising candidates. Here, we summarize the knowledge about transcriptional regulation of CA9. The HRE is the central regulatory element in the CA9 promoter, whereas other elements are limited to lesser roles of amplification of signals received at the HRE. The analysis of known mechanisms of activation of CA9 reveals the prominent role of the HIF-1 pathway. Experimental paradigms with uncoupled HIF-1α stability and transcriptional activity (pericellular hypoxia, proteasomal inhibitor) provide evidence that CA9 expression monitors transcriptional activity of HIF-1, rather than the abundance of HIF-1α. Furthermore, these paradigms could provide a corollary to some of the apparently discordant cases (CAIX+, HIF-1α−) or (CAIX−, HIF-1α+) observed in vivo. In conclusion, the existing data support the notion that CA9, due to the unique structure of its promoter, is one of the most sensitive endogenous sensors of HIF-1 activity.
Carbonic anhydrase IX; transcriptional regulation; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor
Hypoxia, a fundamental stimulus in biology and medicine, uses reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers. A surprising target of hypoxia-generated ROS is specific bases within hypoxic response elements (HREs) of the VEGF and other hypoxia-inducible genes. Oxidative modifications coincide with the onset of mRNA accumulation and are localized to transcriptionally active mono-nucleosomes. The oxidative base modifications are removed by the base excision DNA repair pathway for which one of its components, the bifunctional transcriptional co-activator and DNA endonuclease Ref-1/Ape1, is critical for transcription complex assembly. Mimicking the effect of hypoxia by introducing an abasic site in an oligonucleotide model of the VEGF HRE, altered transcription factor binding, enhanced sequence flexibility, and engendered more robust reporter gene expression. These observations suggest that controlled DNA “damage” and repair, mediated by ROS used as second messengers and critically involving the base excision pathway of DNA repair, respectively, are important for hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation.
Hypoxia; oxygen radicals; oxidative DNA modifications; VEGF promoter; transcriptional regulation
Transcriptional activation of protective genes is mediated by a cis-acting element called the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). The transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) binds to the ARE. Activation of this pathway protects cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Increased oxidative stress is associated with neuronal cell death during the pathogenesis of multiple chronic neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We hypothesize that Nrf2-ARE activation is a novel neuroprotective pathway that confers resistance to a variety of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative insults. In recent studies, primary neuronal cultures treated with chemical activators of the Nrf2-ARE pathway displayed significantly greater resistance to oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Similar cultures generated from ARE-hPAP reporter mice demonstrated selective activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in astrocytes suggesting that Nrf2 activation in astrocytes somehow confers resistance to naïve neurons. Further, in chemical models of neurodegeneration, Nrf2 knockout mice are significantly more sensitive to mitochondrial complex I and II inhibitors. Combining these observations with the results implying that the astrocyte is central to Nrf2-ARE mediated neuroprotection, we transplanted Nrf2-overexpressing astrocytes into the mouse striatum prior to lesioning with malonate. This procedure led to dramatic protection against malonate-induced neurotoxicity. Translating this to other chemical and genetic models of neurodegeneration will be discussed.
Nrf2; oxidative stress; neurodegenerative diseases
Transcriptional regulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE) by Nrf2 is important for the cellular adaptive response to toxic insults. New data show that primary skin-derived fibroblasts from the long-lived Snell dwarf mutant mouse, previously shown to be resistant to many toxic stresses, have elevated levels of Nrf2 and of multiple Nrf2-sensitive ARE genes. Dwarf-derived fibroblasts exhibit many of the traits associated with enhanced activity of Nrf2/ARE, including higher levels of glutathione and resistance to plasma membrane lipid peroxidation. Treatment of control cells with arsenite, an inducer of Nrf2 activity, increases their resistance to paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium, and UV light, rendering these cells as stress resistant as untreated cells from dwarf mice. Furthermore, mRNA levels for some Nrf2-sensitive genes are elevated in at least some tissues of Snell dwarf mice, suggesting that the phenotypes observed in culture may be mirrored in vivo. Augmented activity of Nrf2 and ARE-responsive genes may coordinate many of the stress resistance traits seen in cells from these long-lived mutant mice.
To develop an hypoxia-regulated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer platform that exploits hypoxia as a physiologic trigger for an early antiangiogenic treatment strategy directed at arresting neovascularization in the eye.
Tissue-specific and hypoxia-regulated expression vectors were constructed with tandem combinations of hypoxia responsive elements and aerobically silenced elements (HRSE) that together induce gene expression in hypoxia and suppress it in normoxia. For RPE-specific expression, the HRSE and a (6x) HRE (hypoxia responsive element) oligomer were ligated upstream of the Rpe65 promoter in a pGL3 firefly luciferase plasmid (pGL3-HRSE-6xHRE-Rpe65). The cell specificity of this novel hybrid promoter was tested in human RPE (ARPE-19), human glioblastoma, rat C6 glioma, mouse hippocampal neurons, and human embryonic kidney cell lines. Expression of all cell types in normoxia, and following 40 h hypoxia, was analyzed by dual luciferase assay. After confirmation of its tissue-specificity and hypoxia-inducibility, the hybrid promoter construct was integrated into a replication-deficient AAV delivery system and tested for cell-selectivity and hypoxia-inducible green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter expression.
The HRSE-6xHRE-Rpe65 promoter was highly selective for RPE cells, strongly induced in hypoxia, and similar in activation strength to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The AAV.HRSE.6xHRE.Rpe65 vector induced robust GFP expression in hypoxic ARPE-19 cells, but elicited no GFP expression in hypoxia in other cell types or in normoxic ARPE-19 cells.
The hypoxia-regulated, aerobically-silenced RPE-targeting vector forms a platform for focal autoregulated delivery of antiangiogenic agents in hypoxic regions of the RPE. Such autoinitiated therapy provides a means for early intervention in choroidal neovascularization, when it is most sensitive to inhibition.
Relative deficiency in production of glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is a major cause of renal anemia. This study planned to investigate whether the hypoxia-regulated system of Epo expression, constructed by fusing Epo gene to the chimeric phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) hypoxia response elements (HRE) in combination with cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV IE) basal gene promoter and delivered by plasmid intramuscular injection, might provide a long-term physiologically regulated Epo secretion expression to correct the anemia in adenine-induced uremic rats. Plasmid vectors (pHRE-Epo) were synthesized by fusing human Epo cDNA to the HRE/CMV promoter. Hypoxia-inducible activity of this promoter was evaluated first in vitro and then in vivo in healthy and uremic rats (n = 30 per group). The vectors (pCMV-Epo) in which Epo expression was directed by a constitutive CMV gene promoter served as control. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used to analyze between-group differences. A high-level expression of Epo was induced by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. Though both pHRE-Epo and pCMV-Epo corrected anemia, the hematocrit of the pCMV-Epo-treated rats exceeded the normal (P < 0.05), but that of the pHRE-Epo-treated rats didn't. Hypoxia-regulated system of Epo gene expression constructed by fusing Epo to the HRE/CMV promoter and delivered by plasmid intramuscular injection may provide a long-term and stable Epo expression and secretion in vivo to correct the anemia in adenine-induced uremic rats.
anemia; erythropoietin; gene therapy; hypoxia response element; uremia
Cellular metabolism depends on the availability of oxygen and the major regulator of oxygen homeostasis is hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a highly conserved transcription factor that plays an essential role in cellular and systemic homeostatic responses to hypoxia. HIF-1 is a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of hypoxia-inducible HIF-1α and constitutively expressed HIF-1β. Under hypoxic conditions, the two subunits dimerize, allowing translocation of the HIF-1 complex to the nucleus where it binds to hypoxia-response elements (HREs) and activates expression of target genes implicated in angiogenesis, cell growth, and survival. The HIF-1 pathway is essential to normal growth and development, and is involved in the pathophysiology of cancer, inflammation, and ischemia. Thus, there is considerable interest in identifying compounds that modulate the HIF-1 signaling pathway. To assess the ability of environmental chemicals to stimulate the HIF-1 signaling pathway, we screened a National Toxicology Program collection of 1408 compounds using a cell-based β-lactamase HRE reporter gene assay in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. Twelve active compounds were identified. These compounds were tested in a confirmatory assay for induction of vascular endothelial growth factor, a known hypoxia target gene, and confirmed compounds were further tested for their ability to mimic the effect of a reduced-oxygen environment on hypoxia-regulated promoter activity. Based on this testing strategy, three compounds (o-phenanthroline, iodochlorohydroxyquinoline, cobalt sulfate heptahydrate) were confirmed as hypoxia mimetics, whereas two compounds (7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracence) were found to interact with HIF-1 in a manner different from hypoxia. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of qHTS in combination with secondary assays for identification of HIF-1α inducers and for distinguishing among inducers based on their pattern of activated hypoxic target genes. Identification of environmental compounds having HIF-1α activation activity in cell-based assays may be useful for prioritizing chemicals for further testing as hypoxia-response inducers in vivo.
cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; 7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin; 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracence; HIF-1α; inducers; iodochlorohydroxyquinoline; NTP 1408 compound library; o-phenanthroline; qHTS
Hypoxia can induce lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells. However, the molecular mechanism of lytic reactivation of KSHV by hypoxia remains unclear. Here we show that the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which plays a crucial role in modulating viral and cellular gene expression, directly associated with a low oxygen responder, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). LANA enhanced not only the transcriptional activities of HIF-1α but also its mRNA level. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies documented a physical interaction between LANA and HIF-1α in transiently transfected 293T cells as well as in PEL cell lines during hypoxia. Through sequence analysis, several putative hypoxia response elements (HRE-1 to -6) were identified in the essential lytic gene Rta promoter. Reporter assays showed that HRE-2 (−1130 to −1123) and HRE-5 and HRE-6 (+234 to +241 and +812 to +820, respectively, within the intron sequence) were necessary and sufficient for the LANA-mediated HIF-1α response. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed HIF-1α-dependent binding of a LANA protein complex specifically to the HRE-2, -5, and -6 motifs within the promoter regulatory sequences. This study demonstrates that hypoxia-induced KSHV lytic replication is mediated at least in part through cooperation of HIF-1α with LANA bound to the HRE motifs of the Rta promoter.
Increased cellular production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is responsible for the development and progression of multiple cancers and other neovascular conditions, and therapies targeting post-translational VEGF products are used in the treatment of these diseases. Development of methods to control and modify the transcription of the VEGF gene is an alternative approach that may have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that isoforms of the transcriptional enhancer factor 1-related (TEAD4) protein can enhance the production of VEGF. In this study we describe a new TEAD4 isoform, TEAD4216, which represses VEGF promoter activity. The TEAD4216 isoform inhibits human VEGF promoter activity and does not require the presence of the hypoxia responsive element (HRE), which is the sequence critical to hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated effects. The TEAD4216 protein is localized to the cytoplasm, whereas the enhancer isoforms are found within the nucleus. The TEAD4216 isoform can competitively repress the stimulatory activity of the TEAD4434 and TEAD4148 enhancers. Synthesis of the native VEGF165 protein and cellular proliferation is suppressed by the TEAD4216 isoform. Mutational analysis indicates that nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of any isoform determines whether it acts as an enhancer or repressor, respectively. The TEAD4216 isoform appears to inhibit VEGF production independently of the HRE required activity by HIF, suggesting that this alternatively spliced isoform of TEAD4 may provide a novel approach to treat VEGF-dependent diseases.
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1α and HIF2α are major transcription factors required for adaptive responses to hypoxia. HIFs form a complex with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to bind to the regulatory regions of target genes. The acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is one of the epigenetic marks associated with active chromatin. Indeed, HIFs recruit p300 HAT to hypoxia response elements (HREs) within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report an unusual HIF-mediated transcriptional activation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC). While characterizing coagulation factor VII (FVII) gene induction during hypoxic conditions, we observed that the interaction of HIF2α with Sp1, but not with ARNT, could induce transcription of FVII in a HRE-independent manner. Unexpectedly, this gene activation is associated with histone deacetylation. We found that a class II HDAC, HDAC4, is recruited with HIF2α to the FVII promoter as a co-activator, while p300 HAT negatively regulated this process. Furthermore, this mechanism can be synergistically enhanced via a deacetylation-dependent pathway when cells are simultaneously exposed to hypoxic and serum-free conditions. These results suggest the presence of a stress-responsive transcription mediated by the HIF2α/Sp1/HDAC4 network and explain how CCC shed their procoagulant activity under hypoxia.
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activates transcription via binding to the highly variable hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). All hypoxia-inducible constructs described to date utilize multimers of naturally occurring HREs. Here, we describe the rational design of minimal hypoxia-inducible enhancers, conceptually equivalent to using an optimized HIF-binding site (HBS) as the building block. Optimizations of the HBS, spacing between HBSs, the distance from the minimal promoter, and orientation of HBSs allowed us to design constructs with high hypoxic activity. Activation of the 4xopt HBS (36 bp) construct by hypoxia or HIF-1α and HIF-2α was comparable with that of the 4xEPO HRE (208 bp) construct. The strong synergism between the properly arranged optimized HBSs was due to stimulation of high affinity HIF binding. Our data prove, for the first time, that it is possible to assemble artificial hypoxia-inducible enhancers from a single type of regulatory element-optimized HBS.
Hypoxia; Hypoxia-inducible factor; Hypoxia responsive element; HIF-binding site
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the major hypoxia-regulated transcription factor that regulates cellular responses to low oxygen environments. HIF-1 is composed of two subunits: hypoxia-inducible HIF-1α and constitutively-expressed HIF-1β. During hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α heterodimerizes with HIF-1β and translocates to the nucleus where the HIF-1 complex binds to the hypoxia-response element (HRE) and activates expression of target genes implicated in cell growth and survival. HIF-1α protein expression is elevated in many solid tumors, including those of the cervix and brain, where cells that are the greatest distance from blood vessels, and therefore the most hypoxic, express the highest levels of HIF-1α. Therapeutic blockade of the HIF-1 signaling pathway in cancer cells therefore provides an attractive strategy for development of anticancer drugs. To identify small molecule inhibitors of the HIF-1 pathway, we have developed a cell-based reporter gene assay and screened a large compound library by using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach.
The assay is based upon a β-lactamase reporter under the control of a HRE. We have screened approximate 73,000 compounds by qHTS, with each compound tested over a range of seven to fifteen concentrations. After qHTS we have rapidly identified three novel structural series of HIF-1 pathway Inhibitors. Selected compounds in these series were also confirmed as inhibitors in a HRE β-lactamase reporter gene assay induced by low oxygen and in a VEGF secretion assay. Three of the four selected compounds tested showed significant inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation by western blot analysis.
The use of β-lactamase reporter gene assays, in combination with qHTS, enabled the rapid identification and prioritization of inhibitors specific to the hypoxia induced signaling pathway.
The presence of radioresistant hypoxic cells in human brain tumors limits the overall effectiveness of conventional fractionated radiation therapy. Tumor-specific therapies that target hypoxic cells are clearly needed. We have investigated the expression of suicide genes under hypoxia by a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE), which can be activated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We transfected plasmids containing multiple copies of HRE into U-87 MG and U-251 MG-NCI human brain tumor cells and tested their ability to induce LacZ gene expression under anoxia. Gene expression under anoxia versus oxia was increased about 12-fold for U-87 MG cells and about fourfold for U-251 MG-NCI cells. At intermediate hypoxic conditions, increased LacZ gene expression in U-87 MG cells was induced by the plasmid that contained three HREs, but not by the plasmid with two HREs. Lastly, when we placed a suicide gene BAX under the control of HREs, cells transfected with the BAX plasmids were preferentially killed through apoptosis under anoxia. Our studies demonstrate that HRE-regulated gene expression is active in brain tumor cells, and that the amount of increased gene expression obtained is dependent on the cell line, the HRE copy number, and the degree of hypoxia.
hypoxia; brain tumor cells; hypoxia-responsive element; BAX; suicide gene
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the PR39 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) controlled by the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease. The minimal HRE was artificially synthesized and the AAV vector controlled by HRE was introduced with NT4-TAT-His-PR39 to investigate the expression of AAV-PR39 in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells (VEC) of human umbilical vein (CRL-1730 cell line) and the angiogenesis-promoting effect in pigs with acute myocardial infraction (AMI). The minimal HRE/CMV was designed and artificially synthesized using the PCR method and cloned with the T vector cloning method. The pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV plasmid was constructed. Using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, HEK-293 cells were co-transfected with three plasmids to produce the recombinant virus. An equal volume of pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyAAAV and enterovirus (EV, blank virus) was transfected into CRL-1730 cell lines, respectively. The immunohistochemical method was used to assay the expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cell lines and the expression of PR39 under hypoxia. Eighteen AMI miniature pigs were randomized into the experimental group (HRE-AAV-PR39 group), control group 1 (physical saline group) and control group 2 (EV group). The area of ischemia was assessed with conventional MRI and myocardium perfusion MRI. Pigs were sacrificed at preset time-points to obtain samples of ischemic myocardium. Morphological and pathological data were collected. According to data in the literature and databases, the minimal HRE was designed and synthesized with the PCR method. A large number of HREs were connected to modified pSSHGAAV (pSSV9int-/XbaI) vector followed by insertion of the NT4-6His-PR39 gene segment and, thus, the recombinant plasmid pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV was successfully constructed. The expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cells under the regulation of HRE was assayed using the immunohistochemical method and results showed that the expression was positive in the experimental group. Myocardium perfusion MRI displayed that the infracted area significantly decreased under the action of pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-PR39-PolyA-AAV. The artificial minimal HRE in CRL-1730 cells effectively and rapidly regulates the expression of the downstream gene NT4-TAT-His-PR39 of the CMV promoter. Recombinant pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-PR39-Poly-AAAV promotes neoangiogenesis in the ischemic area, reduces the area of infarction and improves heart function.
hypoxia-responsive enhancer; hypoxia induction; gene therapy; myocardial infarction
Solid tumors generally grow under hypoxic conditions, a pathophysiological change, which activates the expression of genes responsible for malignant, aggressive, and treatment-refractory properties. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is the chief transcription factor regulating hypoxia-driven gene expression. Therefore, the HIF pathway has become a critical target for cancer therapeutics development. We screened a privileged library of about 10,000 natural-product-like compounds using a cell-based assay for HIF-dependent transcriptional activity and identified several arylsulfonamide HIF pathway inhibitors. Among these compounds, the most potent ones showed an IC50 of ~0.5 μM in the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE)-luciferase reporter system. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the mechanism of action of this class of compounds and their structure-activity relationship.
drug development; cancer; transcription factor; hypoxia; angiogenesis; glycolysis
Hypoxia is closely associated with the radioresistance of tumours; therefore, targeting hypoxic areas is very important for cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to establish such a targeting strategy by applying a bacterial cytosine deaminase (BCD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy system and to examine whether the strategy enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy in a tumour xenograft. The hypoxia-responsive promoter 5HREp, in which five copies of the hypoxia-response element (HRE) enhance transcription from a cytomegalovirus minimal promoter, was employed to induce the expression of BCD under hypoxic conditions. The adenoviral vector Ad/5HREp-BCD, encoding the gene 5HREp-BCD, robustly induced BCD expression under hypoxic conditions and this led to significant cytotoxicity in combination with 5-FC in vitro. Intratumoral Ad/5HREp-BCD administration resulted in the expression of BCD at the border between normoxic and necrotic regions. The BCD/5-FC gene therapy enhanced the therapeutic effects of both single (12.5 Gy) and fractionated (3 Gy × 5 days) radiotherapy with few side effects and significantly increased tumour growth doubling time by up to 2.4-fold (P<0.01) and 2.5-fold (P<0.05), respectively. All of these results suggest that the present BCD/5-FC gene therapy has the ability to specifically target hypoxic tumour cells and significantly improves the control of tumour growth after radiotherapy.
tumour hypoxia; hypoxia-response element (HRE); hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1); adenovirus; gene therapy; radiotherapy
Although the lung constitutes the major exposure route for airborne manganese (Mn), little is known about the potential pulmonary effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Transition metals can mimic a hypoxia-like response, activating the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor family. Through binding to the hypoxia-response element (HRE) these factors regulate expression of many genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Increases in VEGF, an important biomarker of angiogenesis, have been linked to respiratory diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate pulmonary hypoxia-associated angiogenic gene expression in response to exposure of soluble Mn(II) and to assess the genes' role as intermediaries of potential pulmonary Mn toxicity. In vitro, 0.25 mM Mn(II) altered morphology and slowed the growth of human pulmonary epithelial cell lines. Acute doses between 0.05 and 1 mM stimulated VEGF promoter activity up to 3.7-fold in transient transfection assays. Deletion of the HRE within the promoter had no effect on Mn(II)-induced VEGF expression but decreased cobalt [Co(II)]-induced activity 2-fold, suggesting that HIF-1 may not be involved in Mn(II)-induced VEGF gene transcription. Nose-only inhalation to 2 mg Mn(II)/m3 for 5 days at 6h/day produced no significant pulmonary inflammation but induced a 2-fold increase in pulmonary VEGF mRNA levels in adult mice and significantly altered expression of genes associated with murine angiogenesis. These findings suggest that even short-term exposures to soluble, occupationally relevant Mn(II) concentrations may alter pulmonary gene expression in pathways that ultimately could affect the lungs' susceptibility to respiratory disease.
Transition metals; Manganese; Inhalation; Hypoxia; VEGF; Angiogenesis
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) is a hypoxia-inducible gene that plays an important role in regulating embryonic growth and development under hypoxic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced IGFBP-1 gene expression in the embryonic tissues are not well understood. Here we report that the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) pathway is established in early embryogenesis and mediates hypoxia-induced IGFBP-1 expression. Hypoxia increased the HIF-1 activity, and HIF-1α overexpression or CoCl2 treatment resulted in elevated IGFBP-1 expression in zebra fish embryos. Although the zebra fish IGFBP-1 promoter contains 13 consensus hypoxia response elements (HREs), deletion and mutational analysis revealed that only the HRE positioned at −1090/−1086 is required for the hypoxia and HIF-1 induction. Further experiments revealed that there is an HIF-1 ancillary sequence (HAS) adjacent only to the functional HRE. Mutation of this HAS greatly reduced the responsiveness of the IGFBP-1 promoter to hypoxia and HIF-1. The HAS does not directly bind to HIF-1 or affect the binding of the HRE to HIF-1. The HAS is bound to a nuclear protein(s), and this HAS binding activity is reduced by hypoxia. These results suggest that HIF-1 mediates hypoxia-induced IGFBP-1 gene expression in early development by selectively interacting with the −1090/−1086 HRE and its adjacent HAS.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is an etiologic agent of KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. We recently demonstrated that hypoxia can induce lytic replication of KSHV in PEL cell lines. Hypoxia induces the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), and we hypothesized that the KSHV genome may respond to hypoxia through functional hypoxia response elements (HREs). Here, we demonstrate the presence of at least two promoters within the KSHV genome that are activated by hypoxia or hypoxia mimics. One is in the promoter region of the gene for Rta, the main lytic switch gene, and the other is within the promoter region of ORF34, a lytic gene of unknown function. The ORF34 promoter contains three putative consensus HREs oriented in the direction of the gene. Dissection and site-directed mutagenesis studies confirmed that one of the HREs of the ORF34 promoter is functional. Under conditions of hypoxia, the ORF34 promoter was strongly upregulated by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. By contrast, the promoter of the gene for Rta appeared to be preferentially upregulated by HIF-2α. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that specific messages for ORF34 and ORF50 are upregulated in BCBL-1 cells exposed to hypoxia. An HIF-1 binding and competition assay demonstrated that the HRE sequence from the ORF34 promoter can compete for HIF-1α binding to an erythropoietin HRE oligonucleotide while a mutant sequence cannot. Thus, we demonstrated that a viral gene can be activated by hypoxia through activation of a functional viral HRE. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a functional HRE in a viral promoter.
Tumor hypoxia is important in the development and treatment of human cancers. We have developed a novel xenograft model for studying and imaging of hypoxia-induced gene expression. A hypoxia-inducible dual reporter herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (HSV1-TKeGFP), under the control of hypoxia response element (9HRE), was stably transfected into human colorectal HT29 cancer cells. Selected clones were further enriched by repeated live cell sorting gated for hypoxia-induced eGFP expression. Fluorescent microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and radioactive substrate trapping assays showed strong hypoxia-induced expression of eGFP and HSV1-tk enzyme in the HT29-9HRE cells in vitro. Sequential micropositron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor-bearing animals, using the hypoxic cell tracer 18F-FMISO and the reporter substrate 124I-FIAU, yielded similar tumor hypoxia images for the HT29-9HRE xenograft but not in the parental HT29 tumor. Using autoradiography and IHC, detailed spatial distributions in tumor sections were obtained and compared for the following hypoxia-associated biomarkers in the HT29-9HRE xenograft: 124I-FIAU, 18F-FMISO, Hoechst (perfusion), lectin-TRITC (functional blood vessels), eGFP, pimonidazole, EF5, and CA9. Intratumoral distributions of 124I-FIAU and 18F-FMISO were similar, and eGFP, pimonidazole, EF5, and CA9 colocalized in the same areas but not in well-perfused regions that were positive for Hoechst and lectin-TRITC. In enabling the detection of hypoxia-induced molecular events and mapping their distribution in vivo with serial noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging, and multiple variable analysis with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, this human xenograft model provides a valuable tool for studying tumor hypoxia and in validating existing and future exogenous markers for tumor hypoxia.
Arsenic is widely spread in our living environment and imposes a big challenge on human health worldwide. Arsenic damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms including the generation of reactive oxygen species. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the cellular antioxidant response that protects cells from various insults. In this study, the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic toxicity was investigated in a human bladder urothelial cell line, UROtsa. Using an UROtsa cell line stably infected with Nrf2-siRNA, we clearly demonstrate that compromised Nrf2 expression sensitized the cells to As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity. On the other hand, the activation of the Nrf2 pathway by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (SF), the known Nrf2-inducers, rendered UROtsa cells more resistant to As(III)- and MMA(III). Furthermore, the wild type mouse embryo fibroblast (WT-MEF) cells were protected from As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity following Nrf2 activation by tBHQ or SF whereas neither tBHQ nor SF conferred protection in the Nrf2−/−-MEF cells, demonstrating that tBHQ- or SF-mediated protection against As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity depends on Nrf2 activation. These results, obtained by both loss of function and gain of function analyses, clearly demonstrate the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic-induced toxicity. The current work lays the groundwork for using Nrf2 activators for therapeutic and dietary interventions against adverse effects of arsenic.
Nrf2; Keap1; arsenic; arsenite; MMA(III); UROtsa
Spermatic cord torsion can lead to testis ischemia (I) and subsequent ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causing germ cell-specific apoptosis. Previously, we demonstrated that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor, a key regulator of physiological responses to hypoxia, is abundant in Leydig cells in normoxic and ischemic testes. We hypothesize that testicular HIF-1 activates the expression of antiapoptotic target genes to protect Leydig cells from apoptosis. In silico analysis of testis genes containing a consensus hypoxia response element (HRE, 5’-RCGTG-3’) identified myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) as a potential HIF-1 target gene. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HIF-1 shows DNA-binding activity in normoxic and ischemic testes and whether Mcl-1 is a target gene of testicular HIF-1.
The testicular HIF-1 DNA-binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). MCL-1 protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The binding of testicular HIF-1 to the Mcl-1 gene was examined via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis.
The ELISA and EMSA assays demonstrated that testicular HIF-1 from normoxic and ischemic testes binds DNA equally strongly, suggesting physiological roles for HIF-1 in the normoxic testis, unlike most tissues in which HIF-1 is degraded under normoxic conditions and is only activated by hypoxia. MCL-1 protein was determined to be abundant in both normoxic and ischemic testes and expressed in Leydig cells. In a pattern identical to that of HIF-1 expression, the steady-state levels of MCL-1 were not significantly affected by I or I/R and MCL-1 co-localized with HIF-1α in Leydig cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis using a HIF-1 antibody revealed sequences enriched for the Mcl-1 promoter.
The results demonstrated that, unlike what is observed in most tissues, HIF-1 displays DNA-binding activity in both normoxic and ischemic testes, and Mcl-1 may be a key target gene of testicular HIF-1 with potential roles in the antiapoptotic protection of Leydig cells.
Apoptosis; Torsion; Ischemia; Leydig cells