The generation of mature cell types during pancreatic development depends on the expression of many regulatory and signaling proteins. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the transcriptional regulator Islet-1 (Isl-1), whose expression is first detected in the mesenchyme and epithelium of the developing pancreas and is later restricted to mature islet cells, is involved in the terminal differentiation of islet cells and maintenance of islet mass.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
To investigate the role of Isl-1 in the pancreatic epithelium during the secondary transition, Isl-1 was conditionally and specifically deleted from embryonic day 13.5 onward using Cre/LoxP technology.
Isl-1–deficient endocrine precursors failed to mature into functional islet cells. The postnatal expansion of endocrine cell mass was impaired, and consequently Isl-1 deficient mice were diabetic. In addition, MafA, a potent regulator of the Insulin gene and β-cell function, was identified as a direct transcriptional target of Isl-1.
These results demonstrate the requirement for Isl-1 in the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the second wave of hormone-producing islet cells.
Adult mammalian cardiac stem cells express the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1). They are considered remnants of Isl1-positive embryonic cardiac progenitor cells. During amniote heart development, Isl1-positive progenitor cells give rise mainly to the outflow tract, the right ventricle, and parts of the atria. This led to the hypothesis that the development of the right ventricle of the amniote heart depends on the recruitment of additional cells to the primary heart tube. The region from which these additional, Isl1-positive cells originate is called second heart field, as opposed to the first heart field whose cells form the primary heart tube. Here, we review the available data about Isl1 in different species, demonstrating that Isl1 is an important component of the core transcription factor network driving early cardiogenesis in animals of the two clades, deuterostomes, and protostomes. The data support the view of a single cardiac progenitor cell population that includes Isl1-expressing cells and which differentiates into the various cardiac lineages during embryonic development in vertebrates but not in other phyla of the animal kingdom.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00427-012-0400-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Islet1; Heart development; Cardiac progenitor cell; Cardiac stem cell
Islet 1 (ISL1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor is essential for promoting pancreatic islets proliferation and maintaining endocrine cells survival in embryonic and postnatal pancreatic islets. However, how ISL1 exerts the role in adult islets is, to date, not clear.
Our results show that ISL1 expression was up-regulated at the mRNA level both in cultured pancreatic cells undergoing glucose oxidase stimulation as well in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mouse models. The knockdown of ISL1 expression increased the apoptosis level of HIT-T15 pancreatic islet cells. Using HIT-T15 and primary adult islet cells as cell models, we show that ISL1 promoted adult pancreatic islet cell proliferation with increased c-Myc and CyclinD1 transcription, while knockdown of ISL1 increased the proportion of cells in G1 phase and decreased the proportion of cells in G2/M and S phases. Further investigation shows that ISL1 activated both c-Myc and CyclinD1 transcription through direct binding on their promoters.
ISL1 promoted adult pancreatic islet cell proliferation and probably by activating c-Myc and CyclinD1 transcription through direct binding on their promoters. Our findings extend the knowledge about the crucial role of ISL1 in maintaining mature islet cells homeostasis. Our results also provide insights into the new regulation relationships between ISL1 and other growth factors.
The activity of GATA factors is regulated, in part, at the level of protein-protein interactions. LIM domain proteins, first defined by the zinc finger motifs found in the Lin11, Isl-1, and Mec-3 proteins, act as coactivators of GATA function in both hematopoietic and cardiovascular tissues. We have identified a novel GATA-LIM interaction between GATA6 and LMCD1/dyxin. The LIM domains and cysteine-rich domains in LMCD1/dyxin and the carboxy-terminal zinc finger of GATA6 mediate this interaction. Expression of LMCD1/dyxin is remarkably similar to that of GATA6, with high-level expression observed in distal airway epithelium of the lung, vascular smooth muscle, and myocardium. In contrast to other GATA-LIM protein interactions, LMCD1/dyxin represses GATA6 activation of both lung and cardiac tissue-specific promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that LMCD1/dyxin represses GATA6 function by inhibiting GATA6 DNA binding. These data reveal an interaction between GATA6 and LMCD1/dyxin and demonstrate a novel mechanism through which LIM proteins can assert their role as transcriptional cofactors of GATA proteins.
The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) is expressed in multiple organs and plays essential roles during embryogenesis. Isl1 is required for the survival and specification of spinal cord motor neurons. Due to early embryonic lethality and loss of motor neurons, the role of Isl1 in other aspects of motor neuron development remains unclear. In this study, we generated Isl1 mutant mouse lines expressing graded doses of Isl1. Our study has revealed essential roles of Isl1 in multiple aspects of motor neuron development, including motor neuron cell body localization, motor column formation and axon growth. In addition, Isl1 is required for survival of cranial ganglia neurons.
Motor neuron; V2 interneuron; Cranial ganglia; Cell death; Isl1; Axon growth
Islet1 (Isl1) is a LIM homedomain protein that plays a pivotal role in cardiac progenitors of the second heart field. Here, lineage studies with an inducible isl1-cre demonstrated that most Isl1 progenitors have migrated into the heart by E9. Although Isl1 expression is downregulated in most cardiac progenitors as they differentiate, analysis of an isl1-nlacZ mouse and coimmunostaining for Isl1 and lineage markers demonstrated that Isl1 is expressed in distinct subdomains of the heart, and in diverse cardiovascular lineages. Isl1 expression was observed in myocardial lineages of the distal outflow tract, atrial septum, and in sinoatrial and atrioventricular node. The myocardialized septum of the outflow tract was found to derive from Isl1 expressing cells. Isl1 expressing cells also contribute to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle lineages including smooth muscle of the coronary vessels. Our data indicate that Isl1 is a specific marker for a subset of pacemaker cells at developmental stages examined, and suggest genetic heterogeneity within the central conduction system and coronary smooth muscle. Our studies suggest a role for Isl1 in these distinct domains of expression within the heart.
Cardiac progenitor; Lineage; Isl1; pacemaker; Coronary smooth muscle; Tamoxifen; Inducible Cre
The mammalian retina is comprised of six major neuronal cell types and is subdivided into more morphological and physiological subtypes. The transcriptional machinery underlying these subtype fate choices is largely unknown. The LIM-homeodomain protein, Isl1, plays an essential role in central nervous system (CNS) differentiation but its relationship to retinal neurogenesis remains unknown. We report here its dynamic spatiotemporal expression in the mouse retina. Among bipolar interneurons, Isl1 expression commences at postnatal day (P)5 and is later restricted to ON-bipolar cells. The intensity of Isl1 expression is found to segregate the pool of ON-bipolar cells into rod and ON-cone bipolar cells with higher expression in rod bipolar cells. As bipolar cell development proceeds from P5–10 the colocalization of Isl1 and the pan-bipolar cell marker Chx10 reveals the organization of ON-center bipolar cell nuclei to the upper portion of the inner nuclear layer. Further, whereas Isl1 is predominantly a ganglion cell marker prior to embryonic day (E)15.5, at E15.5 and later its expression in nonganglion cells expands. We demonstrate that these Isl1-positive, nonganglion cells acquire the expression of amacrine cell markers embryonically, likely representing nascent cholinergic amacrine cells. Taken together, Isl1 is expressed during the maturation of and is later maintained in retinal ganglion cells and subtypes of amacrine and bipolar cells where it may function in the maintenance of these cells into adulthood. J. Comp. Neurol. 503: 182–197, 2007.
ON-bipolar cells; Chx10; amacrine cell; retina; neurogenesis; transcription factors; subtype markers
Whereas the mammalian retina possesses a repertoire of factors known to establish general retinal cell types, these factors alone cannot explain the vast diversity of neuronal subtypes. In other CNS regions, the differentiation of diverse neuronal pools is governed by coordinately acting LIM-homeodomain proteins including the Islet-class factor Islet-1 (Isl1). We report that deletion of Isl1 profoundly disrupts retinal function as assessed by electroretinograms and vision as assessed by optomotor behavior. These deficits are coupled with marked reductions in mature ON- and OFF-bipolar (>76%), cholinergic amacrine (93%), and ganglion (71%) cells. Mosaic deletion of Isl1 permitted a chimeric analysis of “wild-type” cells in a predominantly Isl1-null environment, demonstrating a cell-autonomous role for Isl1 in rod bipolar and cholinergic amacrine development. Furthermore, the effects on bipolar cell development appear to be dissociable from the preceding retinal ganglion cell loss, because Pou4f2-null mice are devoid of similar defects in bipolar cell marker expression. Expression of the ON- and OFF-bipolar cell differentiation factors Bhlhb4 and Vsx1, respectively, requires the presence of Isl1, whereas the early bipolar cell marker Prox1 initially did not. Thus, Isl1 is required for engaging bipolar differentiation pathways but not for general bipolar cell specification. Spatiotemporal expression analysis of additional LIM-homeobox genes identifies a LIM-homeobox gene network during bipolar cell development that includes Lhx3 and Lhx4. We conclude that Isl1 has an indispensable role in retinal neuron differentiation within restricted cell populations and this function may reflect a broader role for other LIM-homeobox genes in retinal development, and perhaps in establishing neuronal subtypes.
retina; retinal bipolar cell; transcription factor; differentiation; ERG (electroretinogram); optomotor behavior; amacrine; retinal ganglion cell
Proteins with a PDZ (for PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1) and one to three LIM (for Lin11, Isl-1, Mec-3) domains are scaffolding sarcomeric and cytoskeletal elements that form structured muscle fibres and provide for the link to intracellular signalling by selectively associating protein kinases, ion channels, and transcription factors with the mechanical stress–strain sensors. Enigma homolog (ENH) is a PDZ–LIM protein with four splice variants: ENH1 with an N-terminal PDZ domain and three C-terminal LIM domains and ENH2, ENH3, and ENH4 without LIM domains. We addressed the functional role of ENH alternative splicing.
Methods and results
We studied the expression of the four ENH isoforms in the heart during development and in a mouse model of heart hypertrophy. All four isoforms are expressed in the heart but the pattern of expression is clearly different between embryonic, neonatal, and adult stages. ENH1 appears as the embryonic isoform, whereas ENH2, ENH3, and ENH4 are predominant in adult heart. Moreover, alternative splicing of ENH was changed following induction of heart hypertrophy, producing an ENH isoform pattern similar to that of neonatal heart. Next, we tested a possible causal role of ENH1 and ENH4 in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. When overexpressed in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, ENH1 promoted the expression of hypertrophy markers and increased cell volume, whereas, on the contrary, ENH4 overexpression prevented these changes.
Antagonistic splice variants of ENH may play a central role in the adaptive changes of the link between mechanical stress-sensing and signalling occurring during embryonic development and/or heart hypertrophy.
Hypertrophy; PDZ–LIM protein; Alternative splicing
The LIM homeodomain gene Islet-1 (ISL1) encodes a transcription factor that has been associated with the multipotency of human cardiac progenitors, and in mice enables the correct deployment of second heart field (SHF) cells to become the myocardium of atria, right ventricle and outflow tract. Other markers have been identified that characterize subdomains of the SHF, such as the fibroblast growth factor Fgf10 in its anterior region. While functional evidence of its essential contribution has been demonstrated in many vertebrate species, SHF expression of Isl1 has been shown in only some models. We examined the relationship between human ISL1 and FGF10 within the embryonic time window during which the linear heart tube remodels into four chambers. ISL1 transcription demarcated an anatomical region supporting the conserved existence of a SHF in humans, and transcription factors of the GATA family were co-expressed therein. In conjunction, we identified a novel enhancer containing a highly conserved ISL1 consensus binding site within the FGF10 first intron. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated its direct occupation by ISL1. Transcription mediated by ISL1 from this FGF10 intronic element was enhanced by the presence of GATA4 and TBX20 cardiac transcription factors. Finally, transgenic mice confirmed that endogenous factors bound the human FGF10 intronic enhancer to drive reporter expression in the developing cardiac outflow tract. These findings highlight the interest of examining developmental regulatory networks directly in human tissues, when possible, to assess candidate non-coding regions that may be responsible for congenital malformations.
Actinin-associated LIM protein (ALP) and Enigma are two subfamilies of Postsynaptic density 95, discs large and zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)–Lin-11, Isl1 and Mec-3 (LIM) domain containing proteins. ALP family members have one PDZ and one LIM domain, whereas Enigma proteins contain one PDZ and three LIM domains. Four ALP and three Enigma proteins have been identified in mammals, each having multiple splice variants and unique expression patterns. Functionally, these proteins bind through their PDZ domains to α-actinin and bind through their LIM domains or other internal protein interaction domains to other proteins, including signaling molecules. ALP and Enigma proteins have been implicated in cardiac and skeletal muscle structure, function and disease, neuronal function, bipolar disorder, tumor growth, platelet and epithelial cell motility and bone formation. This review will focus on recent advances in the biological roles of ALP/Enigma PDZ–LIM domain proteins in cardiac muscle and provide insights into mechanisms by which mutations in these proteins are related to human cardiac disease.
PDZ; LIM; cypher; ZASP; cardiomyopathy; Z-disc
The cells of the second heart field (SHF) contribute to the outflow tract and right ventricle, as well as to parts of the left ventricle and atria. Isl1, a member of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor family, is expressed early in this cardiac progenitor population and functions near the top of a transcriptional pathway essential for heart development. Isl1 is required for the survival and migration of SHF-derived cells into the early developing heart at the inflow and outflow poles. Despite this important role for Isl1 in early heart formation, the transcriptional regulation of Isl1 has remained largely undefined. Therefore, to identify transcription factors that regulate Isl1 expression in vivo, we screened the conserved noncoding sequences from the mouse Isl1 locus for enhancer activity in transgenic mouse embryos. Here, we report the identification of an enhancer from the mouse Isl1 gene that is sufficient to direct expression to the SHF and its derivatives. The Isl1 SHF enhancer contains three consensus Forkhead transcription factor binding sites that are efficiently and specifically bound by Forkhead transcription factors. Importantly, the activity of the enhancer is dependent on these three Forkhead binding sites in transgenic mouse embryos. Thus, these studies demonstrate that Isl1 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead transcription factors in the SHF and establish a transcriptional pathway upstream of Isl1 in the SHF.
Isl1 is a LIM/homeodomain transcription factor with critical roles for the development of the heart, the nervous system and the pancreas. Both deficiency and mis-expression of Isl1 cause profound developmental defects, demonstrating the importance of proper regulation of Isl1 gene expression during development. In order to understand the mechanisms that control Isl1 expression during embryogenesis and in tissue differentiation, we initiated a screen for gene regulatory elements in the Isl1 locus using a novel dual reporter gene vector that allows screens of large genomic regions through reporter gene assays in vitro and in vivo. We identified regions from the Isl1 gene locus that confer transcriptional activity in pancreatic cell lines in vitro. Using transgenic mice, we furthermore discovered an enhancer with in vivo specificity for the developing heart, as well as visceral and posterior mesoderm. Our findings further suggest that Foxo1 as well as Gata4 contribute to the activity of this enhancer in the developing embryo. We conclude that Isl1 gene expression is controlled in modular fashion by several elements with distinct functionality. Embryonic Isl1 expression in several tissues of mesodermal origin is driven by a specific enhancer that is located 3-6kb downstream of the gene.
transgenic reporter; enhancer; heart mesoderm; cardiac crescent; lateral mesoderm
LIM-homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HDs) are essential in tissue patterning and differentiation. But their expression patterns in the inner ear are largely unknown. Here we report on a study of twelve LIM-HDs, by their tempo-spatial patterns that imply distinct yet overlapping roles, in the developing mouse inner ear. Expression of Lmx1a and Isl1 begins in the otocyst stage, with Lmx1a exclusively in the non-sensory and Isl1 in the prosensory epithelia. The second wave of expression at E12.5 includes Lhx3, 5, 9, Isl2 and Lmx1b in the differentiating sensory epithelia with cellular specificities. With the exception of Lmx1a and Lhx3, all LIM-HDs are expressed in ganglion neurons. Expression of multiple LIM-HDs within a cell type suggests their redundant function.
LIM-HD; development; Inner ear; hair cells; differentiation
Islet1 (Isl1) belongs to the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family. Its roles in differentiation of motor neurons and organogenesis of pancreas and heart have been revealed. However, less is known about its regulatory mechanism and the target genes. In this study, we identified interactions between Isl1 and Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK), as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3, but not Stat1 and Stat5, in mammalian cells. We found that Isl1 not only forms a complex with Jak1 and Stat3 but also triggers the tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and its kinase activity, thereby elevating the tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding activity, and target gene expression of Stat3. In vivo, the tyrosine-phosphorylated Stat3 was colocalized with Isl1 in the nucleus of the mouse motor neurons in spinal cord after nerve injury. Correspondingly, electroporation of Isl1 and Stat3 into the neural tube of chick embryos resulted in the activation of a reporter gene expression controlled by a Stat3 regulatory sequence, and cotransfection of Isl1 and Stat3 promoted the proliferation of the mouse motor neuron cells. Our data suggest a novel role of Isl1 as an adaptor for Jak1 and Stat3 and reveal a possible functional link between LIM homeodomain transcription factors and the Jak-Stat pathway.
LIM-homeodomain (HD) and POU-HD transcription factors play critical roles in neurogenesis. However, it remains largely unknown how they cooperate in this process and what downstream target genes they regulate. Here we show that ISL1, a LIM-HD protein, is co-expressed with BRN3B, a POU-HD factor, in nascent, post-mitotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Similar to the Brn3b-null retinas, retina-specific deletion of Isl1 results in the apoptosis of a majority of RGCs and in RGC axon guidance defects. The Isl1 and Brn3b double null mice display more severe retinal abnormalities with a near complete loss of RGCs, indicating the synergistic functions of these two factors. Furthermore, we show that both Isl1 and Brn3b function downstream of Math5 to regulate the expression of a common set of RGC-specific genes. Whole retina chromatin immunoprecipitation and in vitro transactivation assays reveal that ISL1 and BRN3B concurrently bind to and synergistically regulate the expression of a common set of RGC-specific genes. Thus, our results uncover a novel regulatory mechanism of BRN3B and ISL1 in RGC differentiation.
LIM-homeodomain; POU-domain; Math5; Atoh7; Pou4f2; RGC; retinal development; transcription factor
The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, LHX3, is essential for pituitary development in mouse and man. Lhx3 engineered null mice have profound pituitary hypoplasia that we find is attributable to an increase in cell death early in pituitary development. Dying cells are localized to regions of TPIT expression indicating that cell death may contribute to the severe reduction in differentiated corticotrope cells and lower expression of the corticotrope transcription factors, TPIT and NEUROD1. Lhx3 deficiency also results in dorsal ectopic expression of transcription factors characteristic of gonadotropes, SF1 and ISL1, but no gonadotropin expression. This apparent disturbance of cell differentiation may be due, in part, to loss of NOTCH2. NOTCH2 is normally expressed in the pituitary at the boundary between dorsal, proliferating cells and ventral, differentiating cells and is important for maintaining dorsal-ventral patterning in other organs. Thus, Lhx3 contributes significantly to pituitary development by maintaining normal dorsal-ventral patterning, cell survival, and normal expression of corticotrope-specific transcription factors, which are necessary for repressing ectopic gonadotrope differentiation.
Isl1; Sf1; NR5A1; Notch2; Tpit; Neurod1; Tle3; Pitx1; Pitx2; LIM3; P-LIM
The specificity of protein–protein interactions in cellular signaling cascades is dependent on the sequence and intramolecular location of distinct amino acid motifs. We used the two-hybrid interaction trap to identify proteins that can associate with the PDZ motif-rich segment in the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL. A specific interaction was found with the Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3 (LIM) domain containing protein RIL. More detailed analysis demonstrated that the binding specificity resides in the second and fourth PDZ motif of PTP-BL and the LIM domain in RIL. Immunohistochemistry on various mouse tissues revealed a submembranous colocalization of PTP-BL and RIL in epithelial cells. Remarkably, there is also an N-terminal PDZ motif in RIL itself that can bind to the RIL-LIM domain. We demonstrate here that the RIL-LIM domain can be phosphorylated on tyrosine in vitro and in vivo and can be dephosphorylated in vitro by the PTPase domain of PTP-BL. Our data point to the presence of a double PDZ-binding interface on the RIL-LIM domain and suggest tyrosine phosphorylation as a regulatory mechanism for LIM-PDZ associations in the assembly of multiprotein complexes. These findings are in line with an important role of PDZ-mediated interactions in the shaping and organization of submembranous microenvironments of polarized cells.
In the mammalian heart a conduction system of nodes and conducting cells generates and transduces the electrical signals evoking myocardial contractions. Specialized pacemaker cells initiating and controlling cardiac contraction rhythmicity are localized in an anatomically identifiable structure of myocardial origin, the sinus node. We previously showed that in mammalian embryos sinus node cells originate from cardiac progenitors expressing the transcription factors T-box transcription factor 3 (Tbx3) and Islet-1 (Isl1). Although cardiac development and function are strikingly conserved amongst animal classes, in lower vertebrates neither structural nor molecular distinguishable components of a conduction system have been identified, questioning its evolutionary origin. Here we show that zebrafish embryos lacking the LIM/homeodomain-containing transcription factor Isl1 display heart rate defects related to pacemaker dysfunction. Moreover, 3D reconstructions of gene expression patterns in the embryonic and adult zebrafish heart led us to uncover a previously unidentified, Isl1-positive and Tbx2b-positive region in the myocardium at the junction of the sinus venosus and atrium. Through their long interconnecting cellular protrusions the identified Isl1-positive cells form a ring-shaped structure. In vivo labeling of the Isl1-positive cells by transgenic technology allowed their isolation and electrophysiological characterization, revealing their unique pacemaker activity. In conclusion we demonstrate that Isl1-expressing cells, organized as a ring-shaped structure around the venous pole, hold the pacemaker function in the adult zebrafish heart. We have thereby identified an evolutionary conserved, structural and molecular distinguishable component of the cardiac conduction system in a lower vertebrate.
Epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein characterized by the presence of a single centrally located lin-11, isl-1, and mec-3 (LIM) domain. We have reported previously that EPLIN is down-regulated in transformed cells. In this study, we have investigated whether ectopic expression of EPLIN affects transformation. In untransformed NIH3T3 cells, retroviral-mediated transduction of EPLIN did not alter the cell morphology or growth. NIH3T3 cells expressing EPLIN, however, failed to form colonies when transformed by the activated Cdc42 or the chimeric nuclear oncogene EWS/Fli-1. This suppression of anchorage-independent growth was not universal because EPLIN failed to inhibit the colony formation of Ras-transformed cells. Interestingly, the localization of EPLIN to the actin cytoskeleton was maintained in the EWS/Fli-1– or Cdc42-transformed cells, but not in Ras-transformed cells where it was distributed heterogeneously in the cytoplasm. Using truncated EPLIN constructs, we demonstrated that the NH2-terminal region of EPLIN is necessary for both the localization of EPLIN to the actin cytoskeleton and suppression of anchorage-independent growth of EWS/Fli-1–transformed cells. The LIM domain or the COOH-terminal region of EPLIN could be deleted without affecting its cytoskeletal localization or ability to suppress anchorage-dependent growth. Our study indicates EPLIN may function in growth control by associating with and regulating the actin cytoskeleton.
A complex comprising the LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx4 tethered to a peptide region of Isl2 has been engineered, purified and crystallized. Crystals of this intramolecular complex diffracted to 2.16 Å resolution.
A stable intramolecular complex comprising the LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx4 tethered to a peptide region of Isl2 has been engineered, purified and crystallized. The monoclinic crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.8, b = 88.7, c = 49.9 Å, β = 111.9°, and diffracted to 2.16 Å resolution.
Lhx4; Isl2; Lim domains; Lim-homeodomain transcription factors
lim-7 is one of seven C. elegans LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD)-encoding genes and the sole Islet ortholog. LIM-HD transcription factors, including Islets, function in neuronal and non-neuronal development across diverse phyla. Our results show that a lim-7 deletion allele causes early larval lethality with terminal phenotypes including uncoordination, detached pharynx, constipation and morphological defects. A lim-7(+) transgene rescues lethality but not adult sterility. A lim-7(+) reporter in the full genomic context is expressed in all gonadal sheath cells, URA neurons, and additional cells in the pharyngeal region. Finally, we identify a 45-bp regulatory element in the first intron that is necessary and sufficient for lim-7 gonadal sheath expression.
LIM-homeodomain; transcription factor; C. elegans; gonadal sheath; pharynx; Pun
In order to defend against microbial infection, plants employ a complex immune system that relies partly on resistance (R) proteins that initiate intricate signaling cascades upon pathogen detection. The resistance signaling network utilized by plants is only partially characterized. A genetic screen conducted to identify novel defense regulators involved in this network resulted in the isolation of the snc6-1D mutant. Positional cloning revealed that this mutant contained a molecular lesion in the chilling sensitive 3 (CHS3) gene, thus the allele was renamed chs3-2D. CHS3 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR R protein that contains a C-terminal zinc-binding LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3) domain. Although this protein has been previously implicated in cold stress and defense response, the role of the LIM domain in modulating protein activity is unclear. The chs3-2D allele contains a G to A point mutation causing a C1340 to Y1340 substitution close to the LIM domain. It encodes a dominant gain-of-function mutation. The chs3-2D mutant is severely stunted and displays curled leaf morphology. Additionally, it constitutively expresses PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes, accumulates salicylic acid, and shows enhanced resistance to the virulent oomycete isolate Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (H.a.) Noco2. Subcellular localization assays using GFP fusion constructs indicate that both CHS3 and chs3-2D localize to the nucleus. A third chs3 mutant allele, chs3-3D, was identified in an unrelated genetic screen in our lab. This allele contains a C to T point mutation resulting in an M1017 to V1017 substitution in the LRR–LIM linker region. Additionally, a chs3-2D suppressor screen identified two revertant alleles containing secondary mutations that abolish the mutant morphology. Analysis of the locations of these molecular lesions provides support for the hypothesis that the LIM domain represses CHS3 R-like protein activity. This repression may occur through either autoinhibition or binding of a negative defense regulator.
innate immunity; Arabidopsis; resistance protein; CHS3; LIM domain
Axial mesendoderm is comprised of prechordal plate and notochord. Lack of a suitable Cre driver has hampered the ability to genetically dissect the requirement for each of these components, or genes expressed within them, to anterior patterning. Here, we have utilized Isl1-Cre to investigate roles of the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 specifically in prechordal plate and ventral endoderm. Foxa2loxP/loxP; Isl1-Cre mutants died at 13.5 dpc, exhibiting aberrations in anterior neural tube and forebrain patterning, and in ventral foregut morphogenesis and cardiac fusion. Molecular analysis of Foxa2loxP/loxP; Isl1-Cre mutants indicated that Foxa2 is required in Isl1 lineages for expression of notochord and dorsal foregut endoderm markers, Shh. Brachyury, and Hlxb9. Our results support a requirement for Foxa2 in prechordal plate for notochord morphogenesis, axial patterning, and patterning of dorsal foregut endoderm. Loss of Foxa2 in ventral endoderm resulted in reduced expression of Sox17, Gata4, and ZO proteins, accounting at least in part for observed lack of foregut fusion, cardia bifida, and increased apoptosis of ventral endoderm.
axial mesendoderm; notochord; Isl1; foregut pocket
Nicotine is a drug of abuse that has been reported to have many adverse effects on the developing nervous system. We previously demonstrated that embryonic exposure to nicotine alters axonal pathfinding of spinal secondary motoneurons in zebrafish. We hypothesize that these changes will persist into adulthood. The Tg(isl1:GFP) line of zebrafish, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subtype of spinal secondary motoneurons, was used to investigate potential long-term consequences of nicotine exposure on motoneuron development. Anatomical characterization of Tg(isl1:GFP) zebrafish ranging between 3 and 30 days postfertilization (dpf) was initially performed in fixed tissue to characterize axonal trajectories in larval and juvenile fish. Tg(isl1:GFP) embryos were transiently exposed to 5–30 μM nicotine. They were then rescued from nicotine and raised into later stages of life (3–30 dpf) and fixed for microscopic examination. Morphological analysis revealed that nicotine-induced abnormalities in secondary motoneuron anatomy were still evident in juvenile fish. Live imaging of Tg(isl1:GFP) zebrafish using fluorescent stereomicroscopy revealed that the nicotine-induced changes in motoneuron axonal pathfinding persisted into adulthood. We detected abnormalities in 37-dpf fish that were transiently exposed to nicotine as embryos. These fish were subsequently imaged over a 7-week period of time until they were ≈3 months of age. These pathfinding errors of spinal secondary motoneuron axons detected at 37 dpf persisted within the same fish until 86 dpf, the latest age analyzed. These findings indicate that exposure to nicotine during embryonic development can have permanent consequences for motoneuron anatomy in zebrafish. J. Comp. Neurol. 512:305–322, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
neuromuscular junction; fluorescent stereomicroscopy; live imaging; GFP; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor