Previous studies with extended-release (ER) paliperidone have reported an effective outcome in terms of personal and social functioning improvement and also reported schizophrenia symptom improvement. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate improvements in symptom control and social functioning of paliperidone ER and acknowledge the safety profile of paliperidone ER in Thai patients with schizophrenia.
Patients and methods
Patients with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the 10-week study duration. Patients were interviewed and assessed in social functioning using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale. Patients were also rated on overall severity of illness using the Clinical and Global Impressions – Severity (CGI-S) scale.
In total, 40 patients were enrolled, 80% of enrolled patients (n = 32) completed the 10-week study period. Thirty-eight eligible patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis set (male 39.5%, female 60.5%). One patient was lost to follow-up without postbaseline-efficacy measurements. Another patient was terminated early due to a change in diagnosis during the trial. Statistically significant improvements from baseline in PSP total score were observed at all time points. Clinically relevant improvement in PSP (increase of at least one 10-point category) was observed in 47.40% of patients at end point. Improvement in CGI-S was observed at end point (P < 0.001). The mean reduction ± standard deviation at end point in CGI-S was 0.8 ± 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.48–1.16). The most commonly reported adverse events (≥5% of patients) were daytime drowsiness (15%) and headache (15%). Three subjects (7.5%) discontinued due to adverse events.
This study suggests that paliperidone ER is well tolerated in Thai patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone ER showed improvement in schizophrenic symptom control and social functioning.
schizophrenia; social function; paliperidone
Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent. This 13-week, multicenter, randomized (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), double-blind, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed 25, 50, and 100 milligram equivalent (mg equiv.) doses of paliperidone palmitate vs placebo administered as gluteal injections on days 1 and 8, then every 4 weeks (days 36 and 64) in 518 adult patients with schizophrenia. The intent-to-treat analysis set (N=514) was 67% men and 67% White, with a mean age of 41 years. All paliperidone palmitate dose groups showed significant improvement vs placebo in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary efficacy measure; 25 and 50 mg equiv., p=0.02; 100 mg equiv., p<0.001), as well as Clinical Global Impression Severity scores (p⩽0.006) and PANSS negative and positive symptom Marder factor scores (p⩽0.04). The Personal and Social Performance scale showed no significant difference between treatment groups. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between groups. Parkinsonism, the most frequently reported extrapyramidal symptom, was reported at similar rates for placebo (5%) and paliperidone palmitate (5–6% across doses). The mean body mass index and mean weight showed relatively small dose-related increases during paliperidone palmitate treatment. Investigator-evaluated injection-site pain, swelling, redness, and induration were similar across treatment groups; scores for patient-evaluated injection-site pain (visual analog scale) were similar across groups and diminished with time. All doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate were efficacious and generally tolerated, both locally and systemically. Paliperidone palmitate offers the potential to improve outcomes in adults with symptomatic schizophrenia.
paliperidone palmitate; schizophrenia; long acting; injectable; antipsychotic; efficacy; psychiatry & behavioral sciences; schizophrenia; antipsychotics; clinical pharmacology; trials; drug discovery; development; paliperidone palmitate; schizophrenia; injectable
Antipsychotic medications facilitate the improvement of psychotic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis. Paliperidone extended-release (pali-ER), an atypical antipsychotic, was assessed for efficacy and safety in Chinese patients with first-episode psychosis.
In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study, patients with first-episode psychosis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria) and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score ≥70 were treated with flexible-dose pali-ER tablets (3–12 mg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with an increase of ≥8 points in Personal and Social Performance (PSP) score from baseline to day 56 (8 weeks). Secondary endpoints included reduction in PANSS total score, improvement in Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, PSP score, Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics Scale score, and relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and PANSS or PSP. Incidences of treatment-emergent adverse events were used to evaluate safety.
Overall, 283 of 294 patients (96%) achieved a ≥8-point increase in PSP (primary endpoint, analysis set). For the secondary efficacy endpoints, 284/306 patients (93%) had a ≥30% reduction in PANSS total score; 266/306 patients (87%) achieved a ≤3 Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale score, and 218/294 patients (74%) had a PSP score ≥71. The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics Scale score was improved from a baseline mean of 72.7 to 94.7 at endpoint. There was a negative correlation between duration of untreated psychosis and posttreatment PSP score and a positive correlation with posttreatment PANSS total score. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms (12%), and agitation, somnolence, and xerostomia (4% each).
An 8-week, flexible-dose (3–12 mg/day) treatment with pali-ER resulted in significant improvements in psychotic symptoms and social functioning in Chinese patients with first-episode psychosis and was generally tolerable.
paliperidone; first-episode psychosis; Personal and Social Performance score
This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI), in subjects with schizophrenia experiencing clinically significant symptoms despite recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics.
Adult subjects were eligible for the 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy trial (NCT00589914) if they had an established diagnosis of schizophrenia for at least one year and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of 60–120 inclusive at screening. Subjects received either paliperidone palmitate (234 mg, day 1; 156 mg, day 8; then once-monthly flexible dosing) or RLAI (25–50 mg biweekly, with oral risperidone supplementation on days 1–28), plus matched placebo injections/tablets.
This post hoc analysis reports data on 747 subjects who, within 2 weeks of starting double-blind study medication, had reportedly received oral risperidone only (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 126; RLAI group, n = 107), other oral antipsychotics (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 199; RLAI group, n = 203), or no antipsychotic (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 56; RLAI group, n = 56). Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly at end point across all subgroups (mean change from baseline ranged from −17.5 to −19.5, all P < 0.0001). Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Personal and Social Performance scale measures also significantly improved from baseline (all P < 0.0001).
Treatment with paliperidone palmitate or RLAI resulted in a significant reduction in the symptoms of schizophrenia irrespective of previous recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics. For subjects who had previously received oral risperidone only, the difference in formulation was the main change in the intervention because the molecule delivered remained the same or similar. These data support the contribution of a long-acting formulation to improving the treatment response and suggest that nonadherence may be a significant contributor to inadequate efficacy of oral formulations in subjects with schizophrenia.
paliperidone palmitate; risperidone long-acting injection; schizophrenia
Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available.
This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity.
Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46–4.35; p < 0.001]. Similarly, risk of relapse after withdrawal of paliperidone ER treatment (placebo group of the paliperidone ER study) was higher than after withdrawal of PP (paliperidone ER placebo/PP placebo HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.59–3.18; p < 0.001). Stabilised schizophrenic subjects treated with PP maintained functioning demonstrated by the same proportions of subjects with mild to no difficulties in functioning at DB baseline and end point [Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale total score >70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar.
This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Post hoc analysis; Paliperidone extended release; Long-acting injectable; Paliperidone palmitate
To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology.
Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day) was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE) reports and weight. AEs with rates ≥5% and with a ≥2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified.
Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95) and risperidone trials (n = 122) groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768). Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179), risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113) or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129) were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159). PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p < 0.05) and similar to risperidone 4-6 mg/day (0.2; p = 0.927). Placebo-adjusted AEs more common with paliperidone ER were insomnia, sinus tachycardia and tachycardia; more common with risperidone were somnolence, restlessness, nausea, anxiety, salivary hypersecretion, akathisia, dizziness and nasal congestion. Weight changes with paliperidone ER and risperidone were similar (paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.489; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.236).
This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg/day. The AE-adjusted incidence rates suggest differences between treatments that may be relevant for individual patients. Additional randomized, direct, head-to-head clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate relationships between hospital admission or discharge and scores for symptom or functioning in patients with schizophrenia.
Data were from three 52-week open-label extensions of the double-blind pivotal trials of paliperidone extended-release (ER). Symptoms and patient function were measured every 4 weeks using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The intent-to-treat analysis set was defined as open-label patients who had at least one post-baseline PSP and PANSS measurement. Time until first hospitalization was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard model with categorical time-dependent measures for the PSP (1 to 30, 31 to 70, 71 to 100) or PANSS (< 75, ≥ 75 to < 95, ≥ 95), as well as age, gender, schizophrenia duration, and country. Similar analyses were performed for time to discharge.
Of the 1,077 enrolled patients, 1,028 (95.5%) met study criteria; of these, 382 (37.2%) were hospitalized at open-label baseline. Compared with patients with PSP ≥ 71 group, the hazard for new hospitalization was 8.351 times greater (P = 0.0001) for patients with the poorest functioning (PSP 1 to 30) and 1.977 times greater (P = 0.0295) for patients with PSP of 31-70 compared to the ≥ 71 group. The hazard for new hospitalization was 5.457 times greater (P < 0.0001) for patients PANSS ≥ 95 and 2.316 times greater (P = 0.0027) for the ≥ 75 to < 95 group compared with the < 75 group. For patients hospitalized at baseline, the PANSS ≥ 95 patients had a discharge hazard that was 0.456 times lower than for the < 75 patients (P < 0.0001). The hazard for discharge was 0.646 times lower (P = 0.0012) for the PANSS ≥ 75 to < 95 group compared with the < 75 group. A patient's country was a significant predictor variable, with US patients being admitted and discharged faster.
Better functioning or being less symptomatic is associated with reduced risk for hospitalization and greater chance for early discharge. Treatments or programs that reduce symptoms or improve function decrease the risk of hospitalization in community patients or increase the chance of discharge for hospitalized patients.
Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic for the acute and maintenance treatment of adults with schizophrenia. The recommended initiation dosing regimen is 234 mg on Day 1 and 156 mg on Day 8 via intramuscular (deltoid) injection; followed by 39 to 234 mg once-monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal). These post-hoc analyses addressed two commonly encountered clinical issues regarding the initiation dosing: the time to onset of efficacy and the associated tolerability.
In a 13-week double-blind trial, 652 subjects with schizophrenia were randomized to paliperidone palmitate 39, 156, or 234 mg (corresponding to 25, 100, or 150 mg equivalents of paliperidone, respectively) or placebo (NCT#00590577). Subjects randomized to paliperidone palmitate received 234 mg on Day 1, followed by their randomized fixed dose on Day 8, and monthly thereafter, with no oral antipsychotic supplementation. The onset of efficacy was defined as the first timepoint where the paliperidone palmitate group showed significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score compared to placebo (Analysis of Covariance [ANCOVA] models and Last Observation Carried Forward [LOCF] methodology without adjusting for multiplicity) using data from the Days 4, 8, 22, and 36 assessments. Adverse event (AE) rates and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) versus placebo were determined.
Paliperidone palmitate 234 mg on Day 1 was associated with greater improvement than placebo on Least Squares (LS) mean PANSS total score at Day 8 (p = 0.037). After the Day 8 injection of 156 mg, there was continued PANSS improvement at Day 22 (p ≤ 0.007 vs. placebo) and Day 36 (p < 0.001). Taken together with results in the 39 mg and 234 mg Day 8 arms, these findings suggest a trend towards a dose-dependent response. During Days 1 to 7, AEs reported in ≥2% of paliperidone palmitate subjects (234 mg) and a greater proportion of paliperidone palmitate than placebo subjects were: agitation (3.2% vs. 1.3%; RR 2.52 [95% CI 0.583, 10.904]), headache (4.0% vs. 3.8%; RR 1.06 [95% CI 0.433, 2.619]), and injection site pain (6.7% vs. 3.8%; RR 1.79 [95% CI 0.764, 4.208]). Days 8 to 36 AEs meeting the same criteria in the 156 mg Day 8 arm were: anxiety (3.1% vs. 2.5%; RR 1.24 [95% CI 0.340, 4.542]), psychotic disorder (2.5% vs. 1.3%; RR 1.99 [95% CI 0.369, 10.699]), dizziness (2.5% vs. 1.3%; RR 1.99 [95% CI 0.369, 10.699]), and injection site pain (2.5% vs. 1.3%; RR 1.99 [95% CI 0.369, 10.699]). Corresponding Days 8 to 36 AEs in the 39 mg Day 8 group were: agitation (4.5% vs. 4.4%; RR 1.03 [95% CI 0.371, 2.874]), anxiety (3.9% vs. 2.5%; RR 1.55 [95% CI 0.446, 5.381]), and psychotic disorder (2.6% vs. 1.3%; RR 2.07 [95% CI 0.384, 11.110]) while in the 234 mg Day 8 group it was anxiety (3.1% vs. 2.5%, RR 1.25 [95% CI 0.342, 4.570]).
Significantly greater symptom improvement was observed by Day 8 with paliperidone palmitate (234 mg on Day 1) compared to placebo; this effect was maintained after the 156 mg Day 8 injection, with a trend towards a dose-dependent response. No unexpected tolerability findings were noted in the first week or month after the initiation dosing.
This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577) assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP), a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population.
Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively]) or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid), followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal). Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP), and adverse events (AEs). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92) versus placebo, which was maintained through end point.
A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg) versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012) and day 8 (P = 0.007). After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P < 0.05). PANSS improvements were greater from day 36 through end point in the 156-mg group (P < 0.05) and only at end point in the 39-mg group (P < 0.05). CGI-S and PSP scores improved significantly in the 234-mg and 156-mg PP groups versus placebo at end point (P < 0.05 for both, respectively); improvement in the 39-mg group was not significant. The most common AEs for PP-treated subjects (≥10%, any treatment group) were headache, insomnia, schizophrenia exacerbation, injection site pain, and agitation.
In this markedly to severely ill population, acute treatment with 234 mg PP improved psychotic symptoms compared with placebo by day 4. After subsequent injections, observed improvements are suggestive of a dose-dependent effect. No unexpected tolerability findings were noted.
Paliperidone is an active metabolite of risperidone and actss through a combination of central dopamine Type 2 (D2) and serotonin Type 2 (5HT2A) receptor antagonism.
The present randomized, double-blind, multicentric trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of paliperidone extended release (ER) compared to olanzapine in the treatment of acute schizophrenia.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 214 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomized to paliperidone ER (n=109) and olanzapine (n=106) treatment groups. Totally 206 patients were evaluated for efficacy parameters using Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) score and Clinical Global Impression-severity of illness (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impression-improvement of illness (CGI-I) scales. Safety was assessed by treatment-emergent adverse events and movement disorders.
All patients showed significant reduction in PANSS scores at the end of treatment. However, the results were comparable and there was no significant difference at the end of the trial between paliperidone ER group and olanzapine group. Both the treatment groups showed decrease in the severity of illness and improvement in symptomatology. The most common adverse events reported in paliperidone ER versus olanzapine group were Extra Pyramidal Syndrome (EPS) (13.7% vs. 15.6%), headache (12.7% vs. 8.9%), increased appetite (8.8% vs. 10.0%) and drowsiness (4.9% vs. 303%). There was no clinically relevant difference in change from baseline to the end of the trial in abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) and barnes akathisia rating scale (BARS) total scores between both the groups.
Paliperidone ER is effective in controlling schizophrenic symptoms as well as exhibits comparable tolerability profile. Thus, paliperidone ER has the potential to be a useful new treatment option for patients with schizophrenia.
Paliperidone; olanzapine; schizophrenia
Paliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER) is a new oral psychotropic agent developed for schizophrenia treatment. There have been some studies about paliperidone's good efficacy and tolerability. Clinicians appear to change the antipsychotic medication to paliperidone ER. However, it is not known what patients are favorable responsive to paliperidone ER. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of early responders and investigate predictors of acute response when the medications changed to paliperidone ER.
Data were analyzed from schizophrenic patients who participated in a multi-center, open-label, non-comparative clinical trial. Total 320 patients were examined in this study. Sociodemographic, psychopathology, social function and metabolic data were evaluated. Unpaired t-test for continuous and χ2 for categorical data, respectively, were used to compare early responder and non-responders. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish a prediction model.
38.7% of study subjects (124 of 320) responded to paliperidone ER treatment. Logistic regression analysis showed that a good paliperidone ER response was more likely when patients were social drinkers, when patients had started medication at inpatient, when negative symptoms were less severe, and when patients' social relationship and self-care were better.
Early response to paliperidone ER treatment is associated with less negative symptoms and good social relationships and self-care. Strategies to reduce these symptoms may contribute to early response to paliperidone ER.
Schizophrenia; Paliperidone ER; Early response; Predictors; Antipsychotics
Paliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER; INVEGA™) is an oral antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. The recommended dose range is 3–12 mg per day. Paliperidone ER utilizes the OROS® delivery system, which allows for once-daily dosing. Its pharmacokinetic profile results in a more stable serum concentration. Paliperidone is 9-hydroxyrisperidone, the chief active metabolite of risperidone. It undergoes limited hepatic metabolism, thereby minimizing the risks of hepatic drug–drug and drug–disease interactions. Three 6-week trials in patients with acute schizophrenia reported that paliperidone ER was effective, well tolerated, and produced clinically meaningful improvements in personal and social functioning compared with placebo. Post-hoc analysis of these trials in various populations, including recently diagnosed, elderly and more severely ill patients, those with sleep disturbances and those with predominant negative symptoms demonstrated improvement as well. Paliperidone ER was also significantly better than placebo in the prevention of symptom recurrence in a 6-month maintenance study. The most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with paliperidone ER were extrapyramidal symptoms, tachycardia and somnolence. The incidence of Parkinsonism, akathisia and use of anticholinergic medications increased in a dose-related manner. Further, modest QTc interval prolongation was observed but did not produce clinical symptoms. Similar to risperidone, paliperidone ER is associated with increases in serum prolactin levels. Overall, paliperidone ER was effective, well tolerated and provides a new treatment option for patients with schizophrenia.
paliperidone; extended-release; antipsychotic; schizophrenia
This 13-week, double-blind study was conducted to confirm the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate (PP), at dosing regimens approved in other countries, in Asian patients with schizophrenia.
Asian patients (aged ≥20 years) diagnosed with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria), and having a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of 60 to 120 were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to a PP or placebo group. Patients received PP intramuscularly at recommended doses: initiation dose 150 mg equivalent (eq) PP on day 1 and 100 mg eq PP on day 8 (deltoid); and a monthly maintenance dose of 75 mg eq PP on days 36 and 64 (deltoid or gluteal). The change from baseline to week 13 in PANSS total scores (primary endpoint), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores, and PANSS Marder factor scores and subscales, and responder rate at week 13 were evaluated. Safety was also assessed.
The PANSS total score (P<0.0001, least-squares mean change from baseline to week 13: PP, −3.5; placebo, +6.2), CGI-S score (P<0.0001), and PANSS Marder factor scores (P≤0.0025) were significantly improved at week 13 in the PP group versus placebo. More treatment responders (≥30% decrease in PANSS total score) were in the PP group (22.8%) versus placebo (8.5%). Insomnia (PP 17.0% versus placebo 15.2%), injection site pain (13.2% versus 6.7%), nasopharyngitis (12.6% versus 6.1%), psychiatric symptoms (11.3% versus 26.2%), and extrapyramidal symptoms (10.1% versus 4.9%) were the most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events.
PP is efficacious for Asian patients with schizophrenia at the dosing regimen approved in other countries, with a similar safety and tolerability profile.
Asian; paliperidone palmitate; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score
To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia.
Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies.
Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in the four acute treatment studies. In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. It was shown to be reasonably well tolerated in all clinical trials. Acute treatment phase should be initiated with a dose of 234 mg on day one and 156 mg on day eight, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability results from the clinical studies.
Providing an optimal long-term treatment can be challenging. Paliperidone palmitate can be used as an acute treatment even in outpatient setting, and it has shown to be well tolerated by patients. Also, it does not require overlapping oral antipsychotic supplementation while being initiated, and is dosed once per month.
schizophrenia; antipsychotic; long-acting injection; paliperidone
Paliperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, is a second-generation antipsychotic that has been developed as an extended-release (ER) tablet formulation that minimizes peak-trough fluctuations in plasma concentrations, allowing once-daily administration and constant drug delivery. Paliperidone ER has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms in 6-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials and clinical benefits were maintained in the longer-term according to extension studies of up to 52 weeks in duration. Compared with quetiapine, paliperidone ER was associated with a more rapid symptom improvement. In addition, it was more effective than placebo in the prevention of symptom recurrence. Paliperidone ER is generally well tolerated with a predictable adverse event profile. Like risperidone, it is associated with a dose-dependent risk of extrapyramidal symptoms and prolactin elevation. Short- and longer-term studies have indicated a low liability for paliperidone ER to cause metabolic (ie, weight gain, hyperglycaemia and lipid dysregulation) or cardiovascular adverse effects. Available safety data from elderly patients appear to be promising. Due to negligible hepatic biotransformation, paliperidone ER is unlikely to be involved in clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions. Additional active comparator trials evaluating efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness are required to better define the role of paliperidone ER in the treatment of schizophrenia in relation to other currently available second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risperidone.
paliperidone; risperidone; antipsychotics; schizophrenia; efficacy; tolerability; safety
Objective: To examine the tolerability of the recommended initiation doses for once-monthly injectable paliperidone palmitate in patients who have recently been diagnosed with schizophrenia and for whom high doses may pose tolerability concerns.
Methods: A post hoc analysis from a 13-week double-blind study of patients with schizophrenia randomized 1:1:1:1 to placebo or paliperidone palmitate at 25, 100, or 150 mg equivalents (mg eq) of paliperidone (corresponding to 39, 156, or 234 mg respectively). This analysis focused on the recently diagnosed subgroup (≤5 years; N = 146) who received the recommended initiation dosage of paliperidone palmitate [150 mg eq on day 1 (n = 109) followed by 100 mg eq on day 8 (n = 39)] or placebo (n = 37). Adverse events (AEs), reported in ≥2% of patients receiving paliperidone palmitate during days 1–7 or ≥5% during days 8–36, and in a higher percentage of patients receiving paliperidone palmitate than placebo, were identified. AE relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. A RR was considered potentially significant when its 95% CI did not include 1.
Results: Overall, day 1–7 AE rates were 37.6% (41 of 109) and 29.7% (11 of 37) with paliperidone palmitate and placebo respectively; injection site pain (5.5% versus 2.7%, RR 2.0; 95% CI 0.25 to 16.37), agitation (4.6% versus 2.7%; RR 1.7; 95% CI 0.21 to 14.06), and headache (3.7% versus 0.0%; RR 3.1; 95% CI 0.17 to 56.41) met the ≥2% criteria. Day 8–36 AE rates were 41.0% (16 of 39) and 37.8% (14 of 37) with paliperidone palmitate and placebo respectively; anxiety (5.1% versus 0.0%; RR 4.8; 95% CI 0.24 to 95.76) met the ≥5% criteria.
Key limitations were that some patients may have been ill for a significant time before formal diagnosis and that the number of patients is low in this subgroup, limiting the ability to detect statistical significance for AE RRs.
Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate initiation doses (150 mg eq day 1, 100 mg eq day 8) were tolerated in this subgroup of patients who were recently diagnosed with schizophrenia, with no unexpected findings. Although the same size was small, these data identified AEs that may be encountered during the week and month after initiation dosing. These findings may assist clinicians when paliperidone palmitate is considered an appropriate treatment choice for these patients.
paliperidone palmitate; recent diagnosis; schizophrenia; tolerability; treatment
Psychosocial dysfunction is one of schizophrenia’s core features, often leading to a deprecation of independent living and significant failure to maintain a competent quality of life. Cognitive and occupational performance as well as psychosocial functioning is moreover recognized as determinants of treatment response. Therefore, the elaboration of measures regarding social performance besides scales that assess psychopathology is essential. The Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale has been found to be as much valid as reliable for assessing social functioning in the acute and stable stage of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlation between the PSP and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (convergent validity) in patients with schizophrenia during routine clinical practice.
A longitudinal study with a six-month follow-up is presented. Correlation between the PSP scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was conducted in a Greek sample of 2010 patients with schizophrenia in outpatient setting in two successive visits. PANSS and PSP scales were used for the assessment of psychopathological symptoms and social and personal functioning.
The PSP subscales scores were well correlated with each other with Spearman correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.56 to 0.76 on both visits in three out of the four main areas, whereas in the category of “disturbing and aggressive behavior” the correlations were lower but still significant. Furthermore, total PSP score showed high association to PANSS total score in the first (r = -0.59) as well as in the second visit (r = -0.50). Regression analysis showed that one point decrease of PANSS’s total score is associated with a 0.42 points increase on the PSP scale. PSP and PANSS scales exhibited high convergent validity.
The PSP could provide additional valuable information in the assessment of schizophrenia related social functioning and treatment response.
PSP; PANSS; Correlation; Social functioning; Validity; Reliability
Schizoaffective disorder is characterized by the presence of symptoms of both schizophrenia and a major mood disorder. The coexistence of these symptoms can be difficult to manage, and these patients are generally treated with antipsychotics as well as mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. Additionally, no established treatment guidelines exist for this disorder. This review describes the combined results of two international, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies of paliperidone extended-release (ER), an atypical antipsychotic recently approved in the US for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Subjects in these six-week trials were aged 18–65 years, had a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder based on the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) Disorders, and were experiencing an acute exacerbation. The subjects from these studies had significant symptomatology as evidenced by a mean (standard deviation) baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of 92.8 (13.0). Based on Young Mania Rating Scale and/or a 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of ≥16 at baseline, 79.5% and 66.9% of subjects presented with prominent manic and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 46.4% presented with mixed symptoms. Approximately half (45%) of subjects were taking adjunctive mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. Paliperidone ER was found to be effective in improving psychotic and mood symptoms in these subjects. Paliperidone ER was also effective as monotherapy or adjunctive to mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants for subjects with prominent manic, depressive, or mixed symptoms at baseline. No new tolerability signals were observed in this population. To the best of our awareness, these pooled data provide the largest data set of patients with schizoaffective disorder, and extend our knowledge of disease characteristics and treatment response.
paliperidone extended-release; antipsychotic; schizoaffective disorder
There are no previous reports of paliperidone palmitate's (PP) long term tolerability or pharmacokinetics of the highest dose in patients with schizophrenia. This study evaluates safety and tolerability, as well as pharmacokinetics, of the highest marketed dose of PP (150 mg eq. [234 mg]) in stable patients with schizophrenia over a 1-year period.
In this 1-year prospective study, eligible patients (aged 18-65 years; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale's total score ≤ 70) received an initial deltoid injection of PP 150 mg eq. The second injection one week later and subsequent once-monthly injections were deltoid or gluteal. All injections were to be PP 150 mg eq. Patients willing to participate in intensive pharmacokinetic sampling were classified as Treatment A. Patients unwilling to undergo intensive pharmacokinetic sampling or unable to tolerate the 150 mg eq. dose (consequently receiving flexible doses of 50, 100 or 150 mg eq.) were classified as Treatment B.
Of the 212 patients (safety analysis set), 73% were men; 45% white; 20% black; 34% Asians; mean (SD) age 41 (10.2) years, and mean (SD) baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score 54.9 (9.03). A total of 53% (n = 113) patients completed the study and 104 received PP 150 mg eq. throughout. Mean (SD) mode dose of PP was 144.8 (19.58) mg eq. The dosing initiation regimen resulted in rapidly achieved and maintained therapeutic paliperidone levels over the study (average concentrations during the dosing interval were 34.7, 40.0, and 47.8 ng/mL after the 2nd, 8th, and 14th injection respectively). Most frequent (≥ 10%) treatment-emergent adverse events were nasopharyngitis (n = 37), insomnia (n = 32), injection-site pain (n = 32), headache (n = 28), and tachycardia (n = 27). Akathisia (n = 19) and tremor (n = 11) were the most common extrapyramidal adverse events. 33 patients had an SAE and 27 discontinued due to treatment-emergent adverse events. No deaths were reported. Mean (SD) weight change from baseline was 2.5 (5.41) kg at endpoint. Patients' psychoses remained stable.
Safety results after one-year therapy with the highest available dose of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate were consistent with results from previous studies, with no new concerns noted. Plasma concentrations were within the expected range.
Trial registration no
Antipsychotics; Paliperidone palmitate; Pharmacokinetics; Schizophrenia; Safety; Long-term therapy
Direct and indirect effects of the new psychotropic paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER) tablets on negative symptom improvement in schizophrenia were investigated using path analysis. A post hoc analysis of pooled data from three 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER in patients experiencing acute exacerbation was conducted. Regression analysis explored relationships between baseline/study characteristics and negative symptoms. Change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative factor score at endpoint was the dependent variable; explanatory variables included demographic and clinical characteristics. Path analysis determined direct and indirect effects of treatment on negative symptom change. Indirect mediators of negative symptom change in the model included changes in positive symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and movement disorders. Path analysis indicated that up to 33% of negative symptom improvement was a direct treatment effect. Indirect effects on negative symptoms were mediated through changes in positive symptoms (51%) and anxiety/depression symptoms (18%), whereas changes in movement disorders had a 2.1% inverse effect. Path analysis indicated that paliperidone ER has a direct effect on negative symptoms. Negative symptom improvement also was indirectly mediated via changes in positive and depressive symptoms.
antipsychotic; paliperidone ER; path analysis; psychotropic; schizophrenia
Although antipsychotic polypharmacy is widely used in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, its effectiveness is controversial. In particular, clinicians tend to avoid switching to monotherapy in patients who have been prescribed polypharmacy. In the present study, the authors investigate whether there is difference in time to discontinuation of antipsychotics between patients on previous monotherapy or polypharmacy.
Pooled analysis was conducted on two 24-week, multicenter, open-label, non-comparative studies that were originally designed to investigate the effectiveness of switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER) in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were divided into two groups according to previously prescribed antipsychotics, that is, to a polypharmacy group or a monotherapy group. The primary outcome measure was time to discontinuation of paliperidone ER. In addition, the authors sought to identify clinical variables that influence time to discontinuation.
Before switching to paliperidone ER, 535 of 673 (79.5%) patients were prescribed antipsychotic monotherapy, and the remaining 138 (20.5%) patients were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy. No significant differences in time to discontinuation of paliperidone ER were observed between the polypharmacy and monotherapy groups. Personal and social performance scale score was the only factor found to influence time to discontinuation of paliperidone ER. No differences in psychopathology or adverse effects were found between the monotherapy and polypharmacy groups.
Our results suggest that number of antipsychotics prescribed before switching to monotherapy does not influence clinical prognosis in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia; Antipsychotic agents; Polypharmacy; 9-Hydroxyrisperidone; Treatment outcome
This study aimed to compare the performance of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptom severity criteria established by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) with criteria based on Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity score. The 6-month duration criterion was not taken into consideration.
A convenience sample of 112 chronic psychotic outpatients was examined. Symptomatic remission was evaluated according to RSWG severity criterion and to a severity criterion indicated by the overall score obtained at CGI-Schizophrenia (CGI-SCH) rating scale (≤3) (CGI-S).
Clinical remission rates of 50% and 49.1%, respectively, were given by RSWG and CGI-S, with a significant level of agreement between the two criteria in identifying remitted and non-remitted cases. Mean scores at CGI-SCH and PANSS scales were significantly higher among remitters, independent of the remission criteria adopted. Measures of cognitive functioning were largely independent of clinical remission evaluated according to both RSWG and CGI-S. When applying RSWG and CGI-S criteria, the rates of overall good functioning yielded by Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) were 32.1% and 32.7%, respectively, while the mean scores at PSP scale differed significantly between remitted and non-remitted patients, independent of criteria adopted. The proportion of patients judged to be in a state of well-being on Social Well-Being Under Neuroleptics-Short Version scale (SWN-K) were, respectively, 66.1% and 74.5% among remitters according to RSWG and CGI-S; the mean scores at the SWN scale were significantly higher only among remitters according to CGI-S criteria.
CGI severity criteria may represent a valid and user-friendly alternative for use in identifying patients in remission, particularly in routine clinical practice.
The purpose of this study was to compare incidence rates and time course of extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) between oral and long-acting injectable (LAI) paliperidone.
The analysis included pooled data (safety analysis set, 2,256 antipsychotic-treated and 865 placebo-treated patients with schizophrenia) from seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled paliperidone studies (three oral [6 weeks each] and four LAI [9–13 weeks]) and assessed comparable doses (oral, 3–15 mg; LAI, 25–150 mg eq. [US doses 39–234 mg]). We summarized incidence rates and time of onset for EPS-related TEAE, categorized by EPS group terms, ie, tremor, dystonia, hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, and dyskinesia, and use of anti-EPS medication. Mean scores over time for the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS, for dyskinesia), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS, for akathisia), and Simpson Angus Rating Scale (SAS, for parkinsonism) were graphed.
Incidence rates for all categories of spontaneously reported EPS-related TEAEs except for hyperkinesia, were numerically lower in pooled LAI studies than in pooled oral studies. Highest rates were observed in the first week of paliperidone-LAI (for all EPS symptoms except dyskinesia) and oral paliperidone treatment (except parkinsonism and tremor). Anti-EPS medication use was significantly lower in LAI (12%) versus oral studies (17%, P = 0.0035). Mean values for EPS scale scores were similar between LAI and oral treatment at endpoint, and no dose response was evident. Mean reductions (standard deviation) from baseline to endpoint in EPS scale scores were larger for LAI (AIMS, −0.10 [1.27]; BARS, −0.09 [1.06]; SAS, −0.04 [0.20]) versus oral studies (AIMS, −0.08 [1.32]; BARS, −0.03 [1.24]; SAS, 0.0 [0.23]). These changes favored LAI for BARS (P = 0.023) and SAS (P < 0.0001), but not for AIMS (P = 0.49), at endpoint for the studies.
In this posthoc descriptive analysis, incidence rates of spontaneously reported EPS-related TEAEs were numerically lower following approximately 90 days of exposure with LAI and approximately 40 days with oral paliperidone at comparable doses.
antipsychotic agents; extrapyramidal symptoms; long-acting injectable; movement disorder; second-generation
A standardized definition of remission criteria in schizophrenia was proposed by the International group of NC Andreasen in 2005 (low symptom threshold for the eight core Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptoms for at least 6 consecutive months).
A cross-sectional study of remission rate, using a 6-month follow-up to assess symptomatic stability, was conducted in two healthcare districts (first and second) of an outpatient psychiatric service in Moscow. The key inclusion criteria were outpatients with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Remission was assessed using modern criteria (severity and time criteria), PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients who were stable but did not satisfied the symptomatic criteria were included in a further 1-year observational study, with the first group (first district) receiving risperidone (long-acting, injectable) (RLAI) and the second group (second district) continuing to receiving routine treatment. Symptoms were assessed with PANSS, social functioning with the personal and social performance scale, compliance with rating of medication influences scale, and extrapyramidal side effects with the Simpson-Angus scale.
Only 64 (31.5%) of 203 outpatients met the criteria for symptomatic remission in the cross-sectional study, but at the end of the 6-month follow-up period, 158 (77.8%) were stable (irrespective of remission status). Among these only 53 (26.1%) patients fulfilled the remission criteria. The observational study had 42 stable patients in the RLAI group and 35 in the routine treatment group: 19.0% in the RLAI group and 5.7% in the control group met remission criteria after 12 months of therapy. Furthermore, reduction of PANSS total and subscale scores, as well as improvement in social functioning, was more significant in the first group.
Only around one-quarter of our outpatient schizophrenic population met full remission criteria. Use of RLAI gave a better remission rate than achieved in standard care with routine treatment. Criteria for remission should take into account clinical course and functioning to support clinical care.
This study aims to compare severity criteria defined by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWGcr) with other criteria in relation to functional and neurocognitive outcome.
112 chronic psychotic outpatients were examined. Symptomatic remission according to RSWGcr was compared with the outcome achieved using criteria based on PANSS Positive and Negative Scales (PANSS-PNScr) and the entire PANSS (PANNS-TScr).
Remission rates were 50%, 35% and 23% respectively at RSWGcr, PANSS-PNScr and PANNS-TScr; functional remission rates were 32%, 42% and 54%. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and ROC analysis demonstrated the superiority of PANSS-PNScr in identifying patients with higher functional and cognitive outcomes. Regression analysis showed a significant predictive effect of PANSS-TScr on functioning. General linear model analyses demonstrated significantly higher mean scores at PSP and BACS for patients remitted according to PANSS-TScr.
The use of more restrictive severity criteria of remission seems to be associated with improved identification of truly remitted patients.