PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (793859)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  One-year prevalence and the impact of migraine and tension-type headache in Turkey: a nationwide home-based study in adults 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):147-157.
Several studies have shown that the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) varied between different geographical regions. Therefore, there is a need of a nationwide prevalence study for headache in our country, located between Asia and Europe. This nationwide study was designed to estimate the 1-year prevalence of migraine and TTH and analyse the clinical features, the impact as well as the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the participant households in Turkey. We planned to investigate 6,000 representative households in 21 cities of Turkey; and a total of 5,323 households (response rate of 89%) aged between 18 and 65 years were examined for headache by 33 trained physicians at home on the basis of the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II). The electronically registered questionnaire was based on the headache features, the associated symptoms, demographic and socio-economic situation and history. Of 5,323 participants (48.8% women; mean age 35.9 ± 12 years) 44.6% reported recurrent headaches during the last 1 year and 871 were diagnosed with migraine at a prevalence rate of 16.4% (8.5% in men and 24.6% in women), whereas only 270 were diagnosed with TTH at a prevalence rate of 5.1% (5.7% in men and 4.5% in women). The 1-year prevalence of probable migraine was 12.4% and probable TTH was 9.5% additionally. The rate of migraine with aura among migraineurs was 21.5%. The prevalence of migraine was highest among 35–40-year-old women while there were no differences in age groups among men and in TTH overall. More than 2/3 of migraineurs had ever consulted a physician whereas only 1/3 of patients with TTH had ever consulted a physician. For women, the migraine prevalence was higher among the ones with a lower income, while among men, it did not show any change by income. Migraine prevalence was lower in those with a lower educational status compared to those with a high educational status. Chronic daily headache was present in 3.3% and the prevalence of medication overuse headache was 2.1% in our population. There was an important impact of migraine with a monthly frequency of 5.9 ± 6, and an attack duration of 35.1 ± 72 h, but only 4.9% were on prophylactic treatment. The one-year prevalence of migraine estimated as 16.4% was similar or even higher than world-wide reported migraine prevalence figures and identical to a previous nation-wide study conducted in 1998, whereas the TTH prevalence was much lower using the same methodology with the ICHD-II criteria.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5
PMCID: PMC3274583  PMID: 22246025
Prevalence of migraine; Prevalence of tension-type headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Headache
2.  Health-care utilization for primary headache disorders in China: a population-based door-to-door survey 
Background
In order to know the status quo of health care for primary headache disorders in China, questions about headache consultation and diagnosis were included in a nationwide population-based survey initiated by Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache.
Methods
Throughout China, 5,041 unrelated respondents aged 18–65 years were randomly sampled from the general population and visited unannounced at their homes. After basic sociodemographic and headache diagnostic questions, respondents with headache answered further questions about health-care utilization in the previous year.
Results
Significantly higher proportions of respondents with migraine (239/452; 52.9%) or headache on ≥15 days per month (23/48; 47.9%) had consulted a physician for headache than of those with tension-type headache (TTH) (218/531; 41.1%; P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed associations between disability and probability of consultation in those with migraine (mild vs. minimal: AOR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4; moderate vs. minimal: 2.5, 1.2–5.4; severe vs. minimal: 3.9, 1.9–8.1) and between rural habitation and probability of consulting in those with TTH (AOR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.9–6.3, P < 0.001). Married respondents with TTH were less likely than unmarried to have consulted (AOR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.07–0.93; P = 0.038). About half of consultations (47.8–56.5%) for each of the headache disorders were at clinic level in the health system. Consultations in level-3 hospitals were relatively few for migraine (5.9%) but more likely for headache on ≥15 days/month (8.7%) and, surprisingly, for TTH (13.3%). Under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis were common in consulters. More than half with migraine (52.7%) or headache on ≥15 days/month (51.2%), and almost two thirds (63.7%) with TTH, reported no previous diagnosis. Consulters with migraine were as likely (13.8%) to have been diagnosed with “nervous headache” as with migraine. “Nervous headache” (9.8%) and “vascular headache” (7.6%) were the most likely diagnoses in those with TTH, of whom only 5.6% had previously been correctly diagnosed. These were also the most likely diagnoses (14.0% each) in consulters with headache on ≥15 days/month.
Conclusions
This picture of the status quo shows limited reach of headache services in China, and high rates of under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis in those who achieve access to them. This is not a picture of an efficient or cost-effective response to major causes of public ill-health and disability.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-47
PMCID: PMC3673891  PMID: 23731663
China; Headache disorders; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Health-care utilization; Global campaign against headache
3.  Prevalence and Impact of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache in Korea 
Background and Purpose
The epidemiology and impact of headache disorders are only partially documented for Asian countries. We investigated the prevalence and impact of migraine and tension-type headache - which are the two most common primary headache disorders - in a Korean population.
Methods
A stratified random population sample of Koreans older than 19 years was selected and evaluated using a 29-item, semistructured interview. The questionnaire was designed to classify headache types according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, including migraine and tension-type headache. The questionnaire also included items on basic demographics such as age, gender, geographical region, education level, and income, and the impact of headache on the participant.
Results
Among the 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence of all types of headaches was 61.4% (69.9% in women and 52.8% in men). The overall prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headaches were 6.1% (9.2% in women and 2.9% in men) and 30.8% (29.3% in women and 32.2% in men), respectively. The prevalence of migraine peaked at the age of 40-49 years in women and 19-29 years in men. In contrast to migraine, the prevalence of tension-type headache was not influenced by either age or gender. Among individuals with migraine and tension-type headache, 31.5% and 7% reported being substantially or severely impacted by headache, respectively (Headache Impact Test score ≥56). Overall, 13.4% of all headache sufferers reported being either substantially or severely impacted by headache.
Conclusions
The 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache in the studied Korean population were 6.1% and 30.8%, respectively. One-third of migraineurs and some individuals with tension-type headache reported being either substantially or severely impacted by headache.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2012.8.3.204
PMCID: PMC3469801  PMID: 23091530
epidemiology; headache; impact; migraine; tension-type headache; prevalence
4.  Impact of sex hormonal changes on tension-type headache and migraine: a cross-sectional population-based survey in 2,600 women 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(7):557-565.
Sex hormones have some implications on headaches. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of hormonal changes comparatively on tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine, in a population-based sample. A nationwide face-to-face prevalence study was conducted using a structured electronic questionnaire. 54.3 % of the migraineurs reported that the probability of experiencing headache during menstruation was high, whereas 3.9 % had headache only during menstruation. Forward logistic regression analysis revealed that menstruation was a significant trigger for migraine in comparison to TTH. On the other hand, nearly double the number of TTH sufferers reported “pure menstrual headache” compared to migraineurs (p = 0.02). Menstrual headaches caused significantly higher MIDAS grades. One-third of the definite migraineurs reported improvement during pregnancy and oral contraceptives significantly worsened migraine. Menopause had a slight improving effect on migraine compared to TTH. Sex hormonal changes have major impacts particularly on migraine; however, the effects of hormonal fluctuations on TTH should not be underestimated.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0475-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0475-0
PMCID: PMC3444543  PMID: 22935969
Sex hormones; Headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Menstruation; Menopause
5.  Interactions between migraine and tension-type headache and alcohol drinking, alcohol flushing, and hangover in Japanese 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):137-145.
The aim of the study was to investigate associations between headache types and alcohol drinking, alcohol flushing, and hangover. Alcohol consumption is inhibited by the presence of inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) whose carriers are susceptible to alcohol flushing and hangovers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the 2,577 subjects (men/women: 1,018/1,559) who reported having ever experienced headaches unrelated to common colds and alcohol hangovers among 5,408 (2,778/2,630) Tokyo health checkup examinees. We used a questionnaire inquiring about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer which identifies the presence of inactive ALDH2 with a sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%. Based on ICHD-II criteria migraine was diagnosed in 419 (75/344) subjects, and tension-type headache (TTH) in 613 (249/364). We classified the headaches of the remaining 1,545 (694/851) of headaches sufferers into the category “other headaches (OH)”. The migraineurs drank alcohol less frequently than the subjects with TTH among current/past alcohol flushers and than the subjects with OH regardless of flushing category. No such difference in drinking frequency was observed between TTH and OH. Current/past flushers drank alcohol less frequently than never flushers, and the likelihood that male migraineurs would avoid alcohol drinking than men with TTH or OH was stronger among current/past flushers than among never flushers. Flushers and women were more susceptible to hangover than never flushers and men, respectively, regardless of headache type. Among never flushers, women with migraine were more susceptible to hangover than women with OH. The difference in alcohol sensitivity may partly explain less alcohol consumption by migraineurs.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0413-6
PMCID: PMC3274580  PMID: 22234728
Alcohol; Alcohol flushing; Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2; Hangover; Migraine; Tension-type headache
6.  Interactions between migraine and tension-type headache and alcohol drinking, alcohol flushing, and hangover in Japanese 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):137-145.
The aim of the study was to investigate associations between headache types and alcohol drinking, alcohol flushing, and hangover. Alcohol consumption is inhibited by the presence of inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) whose carriers are susceptible to alcohol flushing and hangovers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the 2,577 subjects (men/women: 1,018/1,559) who reported having ever experienced headaches unrelated to common colds and alcohol hangovers among 5,408 (2,778/2,630) Tokyo health checkup examinees. We used a questionnaire inquiring about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer which identifies the presence of inactive ALDH2 with a sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%. Based on ICHD-II criteria migraine was diagnosed in 419 (75/344) subjects, and tension-type headache (TTH) in 613 (249/364). We classified the headaches of the remaining 1,545 (694/851) of headaches sufferers into the category “other headaches (OH)”. The migraineurs drank alcohol less frequently than the subjects with TTH among current/past alcohol flushers and than the subjects with OH regardless of flushing category. No such difference in drinking frequency was observed between TTH and OH. Current/past flushers drank alcohol less frequently than never flushers, and the likelihood that male migraineurs would avoid alcohol drinking than men with TTH or OH was stronger among current/past flushers than among never flushers. Flushers and women were more susceptible to hangover than never flushers and men, respectively, regardless of headache type. Among never flushers, women with migraine were more susceptible to hangover than women with OH. The difference in alcohol sensitivity may partly explain less alcohol consumption by migraineurs.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0413-6
PMCID: PMC3274580  PMID: 22234728
Alcohol; Alcohol flushing; Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2; Hangover; Migraine; Tension-type headache
7.  Prevalence of headache in an elderly population: attack frequency, disability, and use of medication 
OBJECTIVES—To assess the 1 year prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH), migraine headache (MH), and chronic daily headache (CDH), as well as of headache in general in a rural elderly population.
METHODS—A door to door two phase survey was carried out on all elderly (⩾65 years) residents in three villages in central Italy. Participants completed a standardised headache questionnaire and underwent a clinical evaluation by a neurologist. Headache diagnosis was made according to the classification of the International Headache Society, with minor modifications for the classification of patients with MH with⩾15 attacks/month.
RESULTS—Eight hundred and thirty three (72.6%) of the 1147 eligible persons completed the study protocol. One year prevalence rates were respectively 44.5% for TTH, 11.0% for MH, 2.2% for symptomatic headaches, and 0.7% for the remaining types of headache. The prevalence of headache in general was 51.0% because 62 residents had both TTH and MH attacks. Prevalence rates of patients with headache were higher in women than men (62.1% and 36.6% respectively) and decreased steadily with age for the 65-74, 75-84, and 85-96 age groups (56.7%, 45.2% and 26.1% respectively). Prevalence rates were 20.4% for patients with moderate to severe attacks, 18.0% for those with ⩾1 attacks a month, and 4.4% for those with CDH. Of the 425 with headache 52 (12.2%) had not taken any drugs for their attacks in the previous year, 195 (45.9%) had taken them regularly, and 178 (41.9%) had taken them only when the headache pain interfered with activities that could not be postponed. Medication overuse was reported by 37.8% of patients with CDH with higher proportions for transformed migraine than for patients with chronic TTH (69.2% and 23.8% respectively, p=0.009)
CONCLUSIONS—A consistent proportion of elderly people have primary headaches and consultation with a specialist is particularly recommended for patients with moderate or severe attacks, or with CDH.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.70.3.377
PMCID: PMC1737286  PMID: 11181862
8.  The impact of headache in Europe: principal results of the Eurolight project 
Background
European data, at least from Western Europe, are relatively good on migraine prevalence but less sound for tension-type headache (TTH) and medication-overuse headache (MOH). Evidence on impact of headache disorders is very limited. Eurolight was a data-gathering exercise primarily to inform health policy in the European Union (EU). This manuscript reports personal impact.
Methods
The study was cross-sectional with modified cluster sampling. Surveys were conducted by structured questionnaire, including diagnostic questions based on ICHD-II and various measures of impact, and are reported from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom. Different methods of sampling were used in each. The full methodology is described elsewhere.
Results
Questionnaires were analysed from 8,271 participants (58% female, mean age 43.4 y). Participation-rates, where calculable, varied from 10.6% to 58.8%. Moderate interest-bias was detected. Unadjusted lifetime prevalence of any headache was 91.3%. Gender-adjusted 1-year prevalences were: any headache 78.6%; migraine 35.3%; TTH 38.2%, headache on ≥15 d/mo 7.2%; probable MOH 3.1%. Personal impact was high, and included ictal symptom burden, interictal burden, cumulative burden and impact on others (partners and children). There was a general gradient of probable MOH > migraine > TTH, and most measures indicated higher impact among females. Lost useful time was substantial: 17.7% of males and 28.0% of females with migraine lost >10% of days; 44.7% of males and 53.7% of females with probable MOH lost >20%.
Conclusions
The common headache disorders have very high personal impact in the EU, with important implications for health policy.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-31
PMCID: PMC4045992  PMID: 24884549
Headache; Migraine; Impact; Prevalence; Europe; Eurolight project; Global Campaign against Headache
9.  Migraine and Psychiatric Comorbidities among Sub-Saharan African Adults 
Headache  2012;53(2):310-321.
Background
Despite being a highly prevalent disorder and substantial cause of disability, migraine is understudied in Africa. Moreover, no previous study has investigated the effects of stress and unipolar psychiatric comorbidities on migraine in a sub-Saharan African cohort.
Objective
To evaluate the prevalence of migraine and its association with stress and unipolar psychiatric comorbidities among a cohort of African adults.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study evaluating 2,151 employed adults in sub-Saharan Africa. A standardized questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic, headache, and lifestyle characteristics of participants. Migraine classification was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 diagnostic criteria. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were ascertained with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
A total of 9.8% (n=212) of study participants fulfilled criteria for migraine (9.8%; 95%CI: 8.6, 11.1) with a higher frequency among women (14.3%; 95%CI: 11.9, 16.6) than men (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.5, 8.3). Similar to predominantly Caucasian migraine cohorts, sub-Saharan African migraineurs were more likely to be younger, have a lower education and more likely to report a poor health status than non-migraineurs. However, in contrast to historical reports in predominantly Caucasian migraine cohorts, sub-Saharan African migraineurs were less likely to report smoking than non-migraineurs. Participants with moderately severe depressive symptoms had over a 3-fold increased odds of migraine (OR=3.36; 95% CI 1.30,8.70), compared with those classified as having minimal or no depressive symptoms; and the odds of migraine increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms (p-trend <0.001). Similarly those with mild, moderate and severe anxiety symptoms had increased odds of migraine (OR=2.28; 95%CI 1.24, 4.21; OR=1.77; 95%CI 0.93, 3.35, and OR=5.39; 95%CI 2.19, 13.24, respectively). Finally, those with severe stress had a 3.57-fold increased odds of migraine (OR=3.57; 95%CI 1.35, 9.46).
Conclusion
Although historically it has been reported that migraine prevalence is greater in Caucasians than African Americans, our study demonstrates a high migraine prevalence among urban dwelling Ethiopian adults (9.9%) that is comparable to what is typically reported in predominantly Caucasian cohorts. Further, among employed sub-Saharan African adults, and similar to predominantly Caucasian populations, migraine is strongly associated with stress and unipolar psychiatric symptoms. The high burden of migraine and its association with stress and unipolar psychiatric symptoms in our study of well-educated and urban dwelling African adults has important clinical and public health implications pending confirmation in other African populations.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02259.x
PMCID: PMC3556345  PMID: 23095087
Migraine; Depression; Anxiety; Stress; Comorbidities; Sub-Saharan Africa
10.  Field testing the alternative criteria for tension-type headache proposed in the third beta edition of the international classification of headache disorders: results from the Korean headache-sleep study 
Background
According to the third beta edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorder (ICHD-3 beta), the diagnostic criteria for tension-type headache (TTH) might lead to the inclusion of individuals with headaches showing migrainous features. To better define TTH, the alternative diagnostic criteria were proposed in the appendix of ICHD-3 beta. This study attempted to test the alternative criteria for diagnosis of TTH proposed in ICHD-3 beta in a population-based sample from Korea.
Methods
We selected participants from the Korean population aged 19–69 years using stratified random sampling and evaluated them by interview using a questionnaire designed to identify headache type, headache characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidities.
Results
Of the 2,762 participants, 586 (21.3%) were diagnosed as having TTH using the standard criteria. Among these, 238 (40.6%) were also classified as having TTH using the alternative criteria. All 238 TTH subjects first diagnosed as having TTH by the alternative criteria were also classified as having TTH by the standard criteria. If the standard criteria were not applied, the remaining 348 patients were subclassified as having probable migraine (115, 19.6%) and unclassified headache (233, 39.7%). Compared with subjects diagnosed with TTH using the standard criteria, those diagnosed using the alternative criteria were less likely to demonstrate unilateral, pulsating headache, which is aggravated by movement, photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia.
Conclusion
Using the alternative criteria, less than half of the subjects with TTH according to the standard criteria were classified as having TTH. All the subjects with TTH by the alternative criteria were classified as having TTH by the standard criteria. This study also demonstrated that subjects diagnosed with TTH using the standard criteria could include people with headaches showing migrainous features.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-28
PMCID: PMC4030019  PMID: 24884333
Classification; Criteria; Headache; Migraine; Probable migraine; Tension-type headache
11.  Migraine may be a risk factor for the development of complex regional pain syndrome 
The aim was to assess the relative frequency of migraine and the headache characteristics of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) sufferers. CRPS and migraine are chronic, often disabling pain syndromes. Recent studies suggest that headache is associated with the development of CRPS. Consecutive adults fulfilling International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for CRPS at a pain clinic were included. Demographics, medical history, and pain characteristics were obtained. Headache diagnoses were made using International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn criteria. Migraine and pain characteristics were compared in those with migraine with those without. ANOVA with Tukey post hoc tests was used to determine the significance of continuous variables and Fisher’s exact or χ2 tests for categorical variables. The expected prevalence of migraine and chronic daily headache (CDH) was calculated based on age- and gender-stratified general population estimates. Standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) were calculated by dividing the observed prevalence of migraine by the expected prevalence from the general population. The sample consisted of 124 CRPS participants. The mean age was 45.5 ± 12.0 years. Age-and gender-adjusted SMRs showed that those with CRPS were 3.6 times more likely to have migraine and nearly twice as likely to have CDH as the general population. Aura was reported in 59.7% (74/124) of participants. Of those CRPS sufferers with migraine, 61.2% (41/67) reported the onset of severe headaches before the onset of CRPS symptoms Mean age of onset of CRPS was earlier in those with migraine (34.9 ± 11.1 years) and CDH (32.5 ± 13.4 years) compared with those with no headaches (46.8 ± 14.9 years) and those with tension-type headache (TTH) (39.9 ± 9.9 years), P < 0.05. More extremities were affected by CRPS in participants with migraine (median of four extremities) compared with the combined group of those CRPS sufferers with no headaches or TTH (median 2.0 extremities), P < 0.05. The presence of static, dynamic and deep joint mechanoallodynia together was reported by more CRPS participants with migraine (72.2%) than those with no headaches or TTH (46.2%), P ≤ 0.05. Migraine may be a risk factor for CRPS and the presence of migraine may be associated with a more severe form of CRPS. Specifically: (i) migraine occurs in a greater percentage of CRPS sufferers than expected in the general population; (ii) the onset of CRPS is reported earlier in those with migraine than in those without; and (iii) CRPS symptoms are present in more extremities in those CRPS sufferers with migraine compared with those without. In addition, as we also found that the presence of aura is reported in a higher percentage of those CRPS sufferers with migraine than reported in migraineurs in the general population, further evaluation of the cardiovascular risk profile of CRPS sufferers is warranted.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2009.01916.x
PMCID: PMC3979276  PMID: 19614690
Migraine; chronic daily headache; complex regional pain syndrome; allodynia; aura
12.  Comparison of clinical characteristics of migraine and tension type headache 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2011;53(2):134-139.
Context:
Migraine and tension type headache (TTH) are two most common types of primary headaches. Though the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 (ICHD-2) describes the diagnostic criteria, even then in clinical practice, patients may not respect these boundaries resulting in the difficulty in diagnosis of these pains.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study involved 50 subjects in each of the two groups – migraine and TTH – after screening for the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Diagnosis was made according to the ICHD-2 criteria. Their clinical history was taken in detail and noted in a semi-structured performa. They were examined for the presence of a number of factors like pericranial tenderness and muscle parafunction. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS v 11.0. To compare the non-parametric issues, chi-square test was run and continuous variables were analyzed using independent sample t test.
Results:
In general, migraineurs had progressive illness (χ2=9.45; P=0.002) with increasing severity (χ2=21.86; P<0.001), frequency (χ2=8.5; P=0.04) and duration of each headache episode (χ2=4.45; P=0.03) as compared to TTH subjects. Along with the headache, they more commonly suffered orthostatic pre-syncope (χ2=19.94; P<0.001), palpitations (42%vs.18% among TTH patients; χ2=6.87; P=0.009), nausea and vomiting (68% vs. 6% in TTH; χ2=41.22; P<0.001, and 38% vs. none in TTH; χ2=23.45, P<0.001, respectively), phonophobia (χ2=44.98; P<0.001), photophobia (χ2=46.53; P<0.001), and osmophobia (χ2=15.94; P<0.001). Their pain tended to be aggravated by head bending (χ2=50.17; P<0.001) and exercise (χ2=11.41; P<0.001). Analgesics were more likely to relieve pain in migraineurs (χ2=21.16; P<0.001). In addition, post-headache lethargy was more frequent among the migraineurs (χ2=22.01; P<0.001). On the other hand, stressful situations used to trigger TTH (χ2=9.33; P=0.002) and muscle parafunction was more common in TTH patients (46% vs. 20%; χ2=7.64; P=0.006). All the cranial autonomic symptoms were more common in migraineurs as compared to TTH subjects (conjunctival injection: χ2=10.74, P=0.001; lacrimation: χ2=17.82, P<0.001; periorbital swelling: χ2=23.45, P<0.001; and nasal symptoms: χ2=6.38, P=0.01).
Conclusion:
A number of symptoms that are presently not included in the ICHD-2 classification may help in differe-ntiating the migraine from the TTH.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.82538
PMCID: PMC3136015  PMID: 21772645
Migraine; symptoms; tension type headache
13.  Physical and psychological correlates of primary headache in young adulthood: A 26 year longitudinal study 
Objectives: To determine if physical and/or psychological risk factors could differentiate between subtypes of primary headache (migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and coexisting migraine and TTH (combined)) among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study.
Methods: At age 26, the headache status of members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) was determined using International Headache Society criteria. Headache history and potential physical and psychological correlates of headache were assessed. These factors included perinatal problems and injuries sustained to age 26; and behavioural, personality, and psychiatric disorders assessed between ages 5 to 21.
Results: The 1 year prevalences for migraine, TTH, and combined headache at the age of 26 were 7.2%, 11.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Migraine was related to maternal headache, anxiety symptoms in childhood, anxiety disorders during adolescence and young adulthood, and the stress reactivity personality trait at the age of 18. TTH was significantly associated with neck or back injury in childhood (before the age of 13). Combined headache was related to maternal headache and anxiety disorder at 18 and 21 only among women with a childhood history of headache. Headache status at the age of 26 was unrelated to a history of perinatal complication, neurological disorder, or mild traumatic head injury.
Conclusions: Migraine and TTH seem to be distinct disorders with different developmental characteristics. Combined headache may also have a distinct aetiology.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.1.86
PMCID: PMC1737678  PMID: 11784831
14.  Prevalence of primary headaches in Germany: results of the German Headache Consortium Study 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(3):215-223.
We investigated the prevalence of migraine (MIG), tension-type headache (TTH), and chronic headache in a population-based sample in Germany. A total of 18,000 subjects aged between 18 and 65 years were screened from 2003 until 2005 using a validated questionnaire. Overall 9,944 participants (55.2%) responded (mean age 43 ± 13.1 years, 52.7% women). Headache frequency <15 days/month was reported by 5,350 (55.5%) subjects of whom 1,601 (16.6%, [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 15.9–17.4]) reported episodic MIG, 1,202 (12.5%, 95% CI 11.8–13.1) episodic TTH, and 1,150 (11.9%, [11.3–12.6]) episodic MIG + episodic TTH, 1,396 (14.5%, [13.8–15.2]) unclassifiable headache. In women, episodic MIG peaked between 36 and 40 years, episodic MIG + TTH between 18 and 35 years and episodic TTH between 56 and 66 years. In men, episodic MIG was predominant between 36 and 45 years, episodic MIG + TTH between 26 and 35 years and episodic TTH showed comparable frequency between 36 and 66 years. Headache ≥15 days/month was reported by 2.6% (n = 255, [95% CI 2.3–3]). Chronic MIG was reported by 1.1% (n = 108, [0.91–1.33]), chronic TTH (n = 50, [95% CI 0.4–0.7]), chronic MIG + TTH 0.8% (n = 74, 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and unclassifiable headache 0.2% (n = 23, [95% CI 0.1–0.3]). Chronic headache was more frequent in women compared to men with the highest prevalence between 46 and 65 years. It is of note that the number of subjects with chronic headache is small in all age groups. The results of our large, population-based study provide reliable, age- and sex-specific estimates of the prevalence of primary headache disorders in Germany. The prevalence with respect to episodic and chronic primary headache disorders in Germany is comparable to other European countries and the USA.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0425-x
PMCID: PMC3311829  PMID: 22395638
Migraine; Tension-type headache; Chronic daily headache; Prevalence
15.  Prevalence of primary headaches in Germany: results of the German Headache Consortium Study 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(3):215-223.
We investigated the prevalence of migraine (MIG), tension-type headache (TTH), and chronic headache in a population-based sample in Germany. A total of 18,000 subjects aged between 18 and 65 years were screened from 2003 until 2005 using a validated questionnaire. Overall 9,944 participants (55.2%) responded (mean age 43 ± 13.1 years, 52.7% women). Headache frequency <15 days/month was reported by 5,350 (55.5%) subjects of whom 1,601 (16.6%, [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 15.9–17.4]) reported episodic MIG, 1,202 (12.5%, 95% CI 11.8–13.1) episodic TTH, and 1,150 (11.9%, [11.3–12.6]) episodic MIG + episodic TTH, 1,396 (14.5%, [13.8–15.2]) unclassifiable headache. In women, episodic MIG peaked between 36 and 40 years, episodic MIG + TTH between 18 and 35 years and episodic TTH between 56 and 66 years. In men, episodic MIG was predominant between 36 and 45 years, episodic MIG + TTH between 26 and 35 years and episodic TTH showed comparable frequency between 36 and 66 years. Headache ≥15 days/month was reported by 2.6% (n = 255, [95% CI 2.3–3]). Chronic MIG was reported by 1.1% (n = 108, [0.91–1.33]), chronic TTH (n = 50, [95% CI 0.4–0.7]), chronic MIG + TTH 0.8% (n = 74, 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and unclassifiable headache 0.2% (n = 23, [95% CI 0.1–0.3]). Chronic headache was more frequent in women compared to men with the highest prevalence between 46 and 65 years. It is of note that the number of subjects with chronic headache is small in all age groups. The results of our large, population-based study provide reliable, age- and sex-specific estimates of the prevalence of primary headache disorders in Germany. The prevalence with respect to episodic and chronic primary headache disorders in Germany is comparable to other European countries and the USA.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0425-x
PMCID: PMC3311829  PMID: 22395638
Migraine; Tension-type headache; Chronic daily headache; Prevalence
16.  Headache-related work disability in young men 
Based on the knowledge that migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are associated with reduced effectiveness at work and impairment of function in social roles, we studied the different influences that these primary headaches have on work in a specialized and homogeneous population. We studied 140 consecutive male patients, aged 18–35 years, attending an outpatient headache clinic at the Neurology Department of an Army General Hospital. Using International Headache Society (IHS) criteria, 60 patients were diagnosed with migraine and 80 patients with TTH. The impact of headache on work during the preceding 2 months was assessed using a selfadministered questionnaire, based on MIDAS. Two parameters of work disability were derived: the lost work days (LWD) and the days with reduced effectiveness while being at work (REWD). Of 142 LWD due to headaches, 95 (66.9%) were attributable to migraine and 47 (33.1%) to TTH (plt;0.001). Of 490 REWD, 120 (24.4%) were reported by migraineurs and 370 (75.5%) by TTH patients (p<0.001). The number of LWD in migraine was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in TTH group; the number of REWD in TTH group was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in migraine group. Pain intensity was the main factor contributing to disability at work in migraine group (plt;0.001), in contrast with TTH group in which there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between pain intensity and duration of pain. Patients with migraine were much more likely to report actual lost workdays because of headache whereas TTH was responsible for the largest proportion of decreased work effectiveness. Assessing headache severity with an objective method (i.e. questionnaire) may improve headache care and lead to proper treatment decisions. Special attention must be given to particular populations.
doi:10.1007/s101940200023
PMCID: PMC3613233
Key words Migraine; Tension-type headache; Worn effectiveness
17.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
18.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
19.  Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey 
Background
Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender.
Methods
We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables.
Results
Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache.
Conclusions
The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-82
PMCID: PMC3850998  PMID: 24093215
Socioeconomic status; Prevalence; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Gender; Education
20.  Application of ICHD-II Criteria in a Headache Clinic of China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50898.
Background
China has the huge map and the largest population in the world. Previous studies on the prevalence and classification of headaches were conducted based on the general population, however, similar studies among the Chinese outpatient population are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of 1843 headache patients enrolled in a North China headache clinic of the General Hospital for Chinese People's Liberation Army from October 2011 to May 2012, with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II).
Methods and Results
Personal interviews were carried out and a detailed questionnaire was used to collect medical records including age, sex and headache characteristics. Patients came from 28 regions of China with the median age of 40.9 (9–80) years and the female/male ratio of 1.67/1. The primary headaches (78.4%) were classified as the following: migraine (39.1%), tension-type headache (32.5%), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (5.3%) and other primary headache (1.5%). Among the rest patients, 12.9% were secondary headaches, 5.9% were cranial neuralgias and 2.5% were unspecified or not elsewhere classified. Fourteen point nine percent (275/1843) were given an additional diagnosis of chronic daily headache, including medication-overuse headache (MOH, 49.5%), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH, 32.7%) and chronic migraine (CM, 13.5%). The visual analogue scale (VAS) score of TTH with MOH was significantly higher than that of CTTH (6.8±2.0 vs 5.6±2.0, P<0.001). The similar result was also observed in VAS score between migraine with MOH and CM (8.0±1.5 vs 7.0±1.5, P = 0.004). The peak age at onset of TTH for male and female were both in the 3rd decade of life. However, the age distribution at onset of migraine shows an obvious sex difference, i.e. the 2nd decade for females and the 1st decade for males.
Conclusions/Significance
This study revealed the characteristics of the headache clinic outpatients in a tertiary hospital of North China that migraine is the most common diagnosis. Furthermore, most headaches in this patient population can be classified using ICHD-II criteria.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050898
PMCID: PMC3519829  PMID: 23239993
21.  The Impact of Dyspepsia on Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Adults with Headache 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e0115838.
Background
Dyspepsia and headache frequently co-exist, but the clinical implication of this association is uncertain. We planned to examine the prevalence and impact of dyspepsia in adults with headache.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary care setting. Clinical, psychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were compared between subjects with headache and controls (non-headache subjects). The impact of dyspepsia was analysed further in subjects with headache alone.
Results
280 subjects (93 cases with headache and 187 matched controls) were recruited. The following baseline characteristics of subjects were as follows: mean age 45.0±17.3 years, 57.0% females and ethnic distribution—Malaysian = 45 (48.4%), Chinese n = 24 (25.8%) and Indians n = 24 (25.8%). Headache sub-types among cases with headache were as follows: tension-type headache (TTH) n = 53 (57.0%) and migraine n = 40 (43.0%). Dyspepsia was more prevalent in cases with headache compared to controls (25.8% vs 12.8%, p = 0.011), and headache was independently associated with dyspepsia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.39–5.43). Among cases with headache, there was a trend towards a higher prevalence of dyspepsia in those with migraine (27.5%) compared to TTH (24.5%). Subjects with headache and dyspepsia, compared to those with headache alone, had a greater severity of headache symptoms (63.67±22.85 mm vs 51.20 ±24.0 mm VAS, p = 0.029). Overall HRQOL scores were lower in headache subjects with dyspepsia (EQ-5D summary score 0.82±0.18 vs 0.90 ±0.16, p = 0.037 and EQ-5D VAS 62.08±17.50 mm vs 72.62 ±18.85 mm, p = 0.018), compared to those without dyspepsia.
Conclusion
Dyspepsia is associated with more severe headache symptoms and results in a lower HRQOL in patients with headache.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115838
PMCID: PMC4309562  PMID: 25629323
22.  Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study. 
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random sample of 25-64 year-old individuals was drawn from the Danish National Central Person Registry. All subjects were living in the Copenhagen County. PARTICIPANTS--740 subjects participated (76% of the sample); 119 had migraine and 578 had tension type headache. MAIN RESULTS--Among subjects with migraine 56% had, at some time, consulted their general practitioner because of the migraine. The corresponding percentage among subjects with tension type headache was 16. One or more specialists had been consulted by 16% of migraine sufferers and by 4% of subjects with tension type headache. The consultation rates of chiropractors and physiotherapists were 5-8%. Hospital admissions and supplementary laboratory investigations due to headache were rare (< 3%). Half of the migraine sufferers and 83% of subjects with tension type headache in the previous year had managed with at least one type of drug in the current year. Acetylsalicylic acid preparations and paracetamol were the most commonly used analgesics. Prophylaxis of migraine was used by 7%. In the preceding year 43% of employed migraine sufferers and 12% of employed subjects with tension type headache had missed one or more days of work because of headache. Most common was 1-7 days off work. The total loss of workdays per year due to migraine in the general population was estimated at 270 days per 1000 persons. For tension type headache the corresponding figure was 820. Women were more likely to consult a practitioner than men, whereas no significant sex difference emerged as regards absenteeism from work. CONCLUSIONS--The impact of the headache disorders on work performance in the general population is substantial, and the disorders merit increased attention.
PMCID: PMC1059617  PMID: 1431724
23.  Comparison of oxidative stress among migraineurs, tension-type headache subjects, and a control group 
Background:
A primary headache, particularly migraine, is associated with oxidative stress during the attack. However, data regarding the interictal state in migraineurs and in those with tension-type headache (TTH) is limited.
Objectives:
(1) To assess the oxidative stress in migraineurs and TTH subjects in between the episodes and (2) to see if there is a difference in the degree of oxidative stress in the different subtypes of migraine and TTH.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty migraineurs, 50 patients with TTH, and 50 control subjects were included in this study after screening for the exclusion criteria. Diagnosis of headache was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 criteria. A venous blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein at least 3 days after the last attack of headache. The sample was centrifuged immediately and the plasma was stored at –70°C. The ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS for Windows, v 11.0. One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test, independent sample t test, univariate regression, and multivariate regression analysis were done as indicated.
Results:
Migraineurs had higher values of MDA and FRAP than the subjects in the other two groups (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the TTH group and the control group. FRAP levels were significantly higher in subjects who had mixed migraine (migraine with aura and without aura) as compared to those with only migraine without aura (mean difference 196.1; 95% CI = 27.3 to 364.9; P = 0.01). Similarly, oxidative stress was significantly higher in patients with episodic TTH as compared to those with chronic TTH (FRAP t = 3.16; P = 0.003 and MDA t = 2.75; P = 0.008).
Conclusions:
This study suggests that oxidative stress continues even between headache episodes in migraineurs but not in those with TTH. This could probably be consequent to the different pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and migraine.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.56316
PMCID: PMC2824933  PMID: 20174497
Migraine; tension type headache; oxidative stress; ferric reducing activity of plasma; malondialdehyde
24.  Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population: a prospective longitudinal population-based study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e000962.
Objective
It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark.
Design
Prospective longitudinal population-based study.
Setting
30 000 twin individuals were invited to participate in two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys containing validated questions to diagnose migraine in 1994 and 2002. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases.
Participants
The 1994 cohort comprised 28 571 twin individuals aged 12–41 years and the 2002 cohort 31 865 twin individuals aged 20–71 years.
Outcome measures
Sex-, age- and subtype-specific incidence and lifetime prevalence as well as 1-year prevalence of migraine.
Results
1-year prevalence in 2002 was 12.3% for migraine, 4.1% for migraine with aura and 8.2% for migraine without aura. Lifetime prevalence of migraine was 16.1% in 1994 (aged 12–41 years) and 25.2% in 2002 (aged 20–71 years). Lifetime prevalence of migraine for age 20–41 was increased from 1994 to 2002 (18.5% vs 24.5%) by 32.2% (95% CI 27.0% to 37.3%; p<0.001). The difference was primarily seen in the population older than 32 years. The increase was especially evident in migraine with aura (5.6% vs 9.4%, p<0.001) but also a significant increase in migraine without aura was found (13.0% vs 15.1%, p<0.001). Eight-year period incidence rate of migraine was 0.141 corresponding to an average annual incidence rate of 17.6 per 1000 person-years.
Conclusions
Lifetime prevalence of migraine in Denmark increased substantially from 1994 to 2002. Part of the increase may be due to increased medical consultation resulting in increased rate of physician diagnosis or awareness due to previously participation in the 1994 survey. It is pertinent to study the environmental causes of the increase and to implement preventive measures.
Article summary
Article focus
Has migraine prevalence increased in modern society?
Key messages
Self-reported migraine prevalence increased substantially in the Danish young adult population.
Sex- and age-specific prevalence and incidence of migraine and its subtypes were estimated in a large population-based sample.
Strengths and limitations of this study
Large sample size made it possible to differentiate between migraine with aura and migraine without aura using the validated diagnostic questions and furthermore subdivide between men and women and to distinguish between age groups.
The validation of the two questions used to identify migraine cases showed that self-reported migraine was only correct in 74.5% of cases, and furthermore, approximately 23.8% of the migraine patients were not identified. Thus, our estimates would tend to be conservative.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000962
PMCID: PMC3391377  PMID: 22761284
25.  High diagnostic stability of confirmed migraine and confirmed tension-type headache according to the ICHD-3 beta in adolescents 
Background
Stable headache diagnosis classification is a prerequisite for identification of headache type specific risk factors. Does the stability of a headache diagnosis over time vary between migraine and tension-type headache (TTH)? Are there differences in diagnosis stability between a probable and a definite headache diagnosis?
Findings
In a sample of 783 students (ages 12 to 18 years) participating in a headache intervention study in greater Munich, the stability of headache classification according to the International Classification of Headache Disorder - third edition (beta version) (ICHD-3 beta) after a follow-up of 7 months was examined. Differences in stability of probable or definite migraine and probable or definite TTH were assessed. The stability of the headache diagnosis was assessed as predictive value of headache diagnosis with regard to confirmation of the headache type using the same diagnostic instrument 7 months later. Predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported.
Of students with initial migraine, a diagnosis of migraine was confirmed in 65.71% of students after 7 months (95%-CI [59.40-71.64]). A clear distinction between probable (44.71%, 95%-CI [33.91-53.89]) and confirmed diagnosis (76.88% 95%-CI [69.56-83.17]) of migraine was observed. For TTH the predictive value was 62.66% (95%-CI [57.07-68.01]) overall with a lower stability for probable (46.10%, 95%-CI [37.68-54.69]) compared to the confirmed diagnosis (69.71%, 95%-CI [23.58-37.67]).
Conclusion
While confirmed migraine and confirmed TTH diagnoses seem stable over time, stability of a probable diagnosis for either headache type was lower.
Trial registration
The trial was registered at the German Clinical Trial Register with the ID DRKS00003308.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-36
PMCID: PMC4075938  PMID: 24916858
Headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Adolescents; Stability; Tracking; Headache type; Probable diagnosis; Confirmed diagnosis

Results 1-25 (793859)