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1.  Practice-Based Teaching for Health Policy Action and Advocacy 
Public Health Reports  2008;123(Suppl 2):65-70.
SYNOPSIS
The Institute of Medicine has issued numerous reports calling for the public health workforce to be adept in policy-making, communication, science translation, and other advocacy skills. Public health competencies include advocacy capabilities, but few public health graduate institutions provide systematic training for translating public health science into policy action. Specialized health-advocacy training is needed to provide future leaders with policy-making knowledge and skills in generating public support, policy-maker communications, and policy campaign operations that could lead to improvements in the outcomes of public health initiatives. Advocacy training should draw on nonprofit and government practitioners who have a range of advocacy experiences and skills. This article describes a potential model curriculum for introductory health-advocacy theory and skills based on the course, Health Advocacy, a winner of the Delta Omega Innovative Public Health Curriculum Award, at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland.
PMCID: PMC2431098  PMID: 18770919
2.  Youth advocacy for obesity prevention: the next wave of social change for health 
ABSTRACT
Recommended obesity prevention interventions target multiple levels. Effective advocacy is needed to influence factors at individual, social, environmental, and policy levels. This paper describes the rationale for engaging youth in obesity prevention advocacy efforts targeting environment and policy changes to improve nutrition and physical activity. Advocacy involves education, skill development, and behavior and attitude changes, with the goal of persuading others or taking action. Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention, but it is relatively new in obesity prevention. A model is presented to guide intervention and evaluation in youth advocacy for obesity prevention. With youth advocacy as a central construct, the model outlines inputs and outcomes of advocacy at individual, social environment, built environment, and policy levels. The model can be used and refined in youth advocacy evaluation projects. By involving youth in their communities, advocacy can produce ownership, engagement, and future involvement yielding sustainable changes.
doi:10.1007/s13142-011-0060-0
PMCID: PMC3717625  PMID: 24073069
Advocacy; Ecological models; Nutrition; Physical activity; Policy; Environment
3.  Description of a Research-Based Health Activism Curriculum for Medical Students 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2006;21(12):1325-1328.
INTRODUCTION
Few curricula train medical students to engage in health system reform.
AIM
To develop physician activists by teaching medical students the skills necessary to advocate for socially equitable health policies in the U.S. health system.
SETTING
Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
We designed a 1-month curriculum in research-based health activism to develop physician activists. The annual curriculum includes a student project and 4 course sections; health policy, research methods, advocacy, and physician activists as role models; taught by core faculty and volunteers from academic institutions, government, and nongovernmental organizations.
PROGRAM EVALUATION
From 2002 to 2005, 47 students from across the country have participated. Students reported improved capabilities to generate a research question, design a research proposal, and create an advocacy plan.
DISCUSSION
Our curriculum demonstrates a model for training physician activists to engage in health systems reform.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00608.x
PMCID: PMC1924746  PMID: 16961754
medical education; professionalism; health care reform; curriculum evaluation
4.  Youth Advocacy as a Tool for Environmental and Policy Changes That Support Physical Activity and Nutrition: An Evaluation Study in San Diego County 
Background
As evidence grows about the benefits of policy and environmental changes to support active living and healthy eating, effective tools for implementing change must be developed. Youth advocacy, a successful strategy in the field of tobacco control, should be evaluated for its potential in the field of obesity prevention.
Community Context
San Diego State University collaborated with the San Diego County Childhood Obesity Initiative to evaluate Youth Engagement and Action for Health! (YEAH!), a youth advocacy project to engage youth and adult mentors in advocating for neighborhood improvements in physical activity and healthy eating opportunities. Study objectives included documenting group process and success of groups in engaging in community advocacy with decision makers.
Methods
In 2011 and 2012, YEAH! group leaders were recruited from the San Diego County Childhood Obesity Initiative’s half-day train-the-trainer seminars for adult leaders. Evaluators collected baseline and postproject survey data from youth participants and adult group leaders and interviewed decision makers.
Outcomes
Of the 21 groups formed, 20 completed the evaluation, conducted community assessments, and advocated with decision makers. Various types of decision makers were engaged, including school principals, food service personnel, city council members, and parks and recreation officials. Eleven groups reported change(s) implemented as a result of their advocacy, 4 groups reported changes pending, and 5 groups reported no change as a result of their efforts.
Interpretation
Even a brief training session, paired with a practical manual, technical assistance, and commitment of adult leaders and youth may successfully engage decision makers and, ultimately, bring about change.
doi:10.5888/pcd11.130321
PMCID: PMC3970770  PMID: 24674636
5.  Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: a case study in Andhra Pradesh, India 
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health  2012;66(Suppl_2):ii87-ii94.
Background
To examine the association between the presence of community advocacy groups (CAGs) and female sex workers' (FSWs) access to social entitlements and outcomes of police advocacy.
Methods
Data were used from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010–2011 among 1986 FSWs and 104 NGO outreach workers from five districts of Andhra Pradesh. FSWs were recruited using a probability-based sampling from 104 primary sampling units (PSUs). A PSU is a geographical area covered by one outreach worker and is expected to have an active CAG as per community mobilisation efforts. The presence of active CAGs was defined as the presence of an active committee or advocacy group in the area (PSU). Outcome indicators included acquisition of different social entitlements and measures of police response as reported by FSWs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations.
Results
Areas with active CAGs compared with their counterparts had a significantly higher mean number of FSWs linked to ration cards (12.8 vs 6.8; p<0.01), bank accounts (9.3 vs 5.9; p=0.05) and health insurance (13.1 vs 7.0; p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of FSWs from areas with active CAGs as compared with others reported that the police treat them more fairly now than a year before (79.7% vs 70.3%; p<0.05) and the police explained the reasons for arrest when arrested the last time (95.7% vs 87%; p<0.05).
Conclusion
FSWs from areas with active CAGs were more likely to access certain social entitlements and to receive a fair response from the police, highlighting the contributions of CAGs in community mobilisation.
doi:10.1136/jech-2011-200478
PMCID: PMC3433220  PMID: 22495774
Structural interventions; sex workers; HIV prevention intervention; community advocacy; social capital; empowerment; HIV; AIDS; public health; violence; epidemiology; statistics
6.  Canadian Cardiovascular Society Access to Care Workshop proceedings and next steps 
On October 24, 2008, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Standing Committee on Access to Care invited clinical practitioners, researchers and administrators from across Canada to provide input on the CCS action plan for 2009/2010. The meeting provided an opportunity for stakeholders to identify initiatives under three CCS priority areas for action: collecting and reporting wait time data, improving systems to improve access, and establishing national networks. Building on the suggestions from this meeting, the Standing Committee drafted an action plan for 2009/2010. This plan includes a lead role for the CCS in facilitating consensus on pan-Canadian data standards and definitions, and using current resources and infrastructure. The CCS and its Standing Committee look forward to continuing to work with stakeholders to promote awareness and adoption of the benchmarks, and to undertake new initiatives that will provide insight into access to care issues along the continuum of care.
PMCID: PMC2851385  PMID: 20151051
Access to care; Cardiovascular care; Wait times data
7.  A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:463.
Background
Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of 'Interface NGOs' and involvement of community groups such as women's self-help groups, local government bodies, village health sanitation committees, and general health staff in promoting TB control efforts.
Methods
The study utilized a rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology. The approach combined both qualitative field work approaches, including semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with empirical data collection and desk research.
Results
Results revealed that a combination of factors including the involvement of Interface NGOs, coupled with increased training and engagement of front line health workers and community groups, and dissemination of community based resources, contributed to improved awareness and knowledge about TB in the targeted districts. Project activities also contributed towards improving health worker and community effectiveness to raise the TB agenda, and improved TB literacy and treatment adherence. Engagement of successfully treated patients also assisted in reducing community stigma and discrimination.
Conclusion
The expanded use of advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities in TB control has resulted in a number of benefits. These include bridging pre-existing gaps between the health system and the community through support and coordination of general health services stakeholders, NGOs and the community. The strategic use of 'tailored messages' to address specific TB problems in low performing areas also led to more positive behavioural outcomes and improved efficiencies in service delivery. Implications for future studies are that a comprehensive and well planned range of ACSM activities can enhance TB knowledge, attitudes and behaviours while also mobilising specific community groups to build community efficacy to combat TB. The use of rapid assessments combined with other complementary evaluation approaches can be effective when reviewing the impact of TB advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-463
PMCID: PMC3141449  PMID: 21663623
tuberculosis; advocacy; communication; social mobilisation; rapid assessment and review
8.  Faculty experiences with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) public access policy, compliance issues, and copyright practices 
Objectives:
The research assessed faculty awareness of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) public access policy and faculty experiences with the copyright terms in their author agreements with publishers.
Methods:
During the fall of 2011, 198 faculty members receiving funding from NIH at a large urban academic institution were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. A total of 94 faculty members responded to the survey, representing a response rate of 47%.
Results:
Thirty percent of the survey respondents were either unaware of or not familiar with the NIH policy. Further, a significant number of faculty members (97.8%) indicated that they usually signed their copyright forms “as is.” The findings show that time, confusing instructions, and unclear journal policies are challenges experienced by NIH-funded faculty in complying with the federal mandate.
Conclusion:
There is a need to educate faculty with respect to the value of retaining their copyrights and self-archiving their publications to help advance public access and open access scholarship.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.101.1.004
PMCID: PMC3543125  PMID: 23405043
9.  A Collaborative and Reflective Academic Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience 
Objectives. To implement a co-precepted advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on traditional pharmacy faculty and administrative responsibilities and reflection opportunities.
Design. A multi-faceted, reflection-infused academic APPE was designed that exposed students to activities related to teaching, curriculum revision, scholarly writing, committee service, faculty role-modeling, mentorship and development, and school-level administrative decision-making.
Assessment. Two students completed the APPE in the first 2 semesters it was offered (1 in spring 2010 and 1 in fall 2010). Formative and summative evaluations confirmed that the students achieved the APPE goals and viewed the experience as valuable, informative, and enjoyable as expressed both in reflective journal submissions and survey comments.
Conclusion. Co-precepting by pharmacy faculty members primarily engaged in traditional faculty- and administration-related responsibilities can provide students with a robust learning experience that surpasses that which could be achieved by a single mentor.
doi:10.5688/ajpe756120
PMCID: PMC3175684  PMID: 21931458
advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE); experiential learning; academic APPE
10.  Childhood tuberculosis: progress requires an advocacy strategy now 
The European Respiratory Journal  2012;40(2):294-297.
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable infectious disease that remains overlooked by public health authorities, health policy makers and TB control programmes. Childhood TB contributes significantly to the burden of disease and represents the failure to control transmission in the community. Furthermore, the pool of infected children constitutes a reservoir of infection for the future burden of TB. It is time to prioritise childhood TB, advocate for addressing the challenges and grasp the opportunities in its prevention and control. Herein, we propose a scientifically informed advocacy agenda developed at the International Childhood TB meeting held in Stockholm, Sweden, from March 17 to 18, 2011, which calls for a renewed effort to improve the situation for children affected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease. The challenges and needs in childhood TB are universal and apply to all settings and must be addressed more effectively by all stakeholders.
doi:10.1183/09031936.00187711
PMCID: PMC3409406  PMID: 22337859
Control; infectious disease; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; public health
11.  Negotiation in Academic Medicine: Narratives of Faculty Researchers and Their Mentors 
Purpose
Few researchers have explored the negotiation experiences of academic medical faculty even though negotiation is crucial to their career success. The authors sought to understand medical faculty researchers' experiences with and perceptions of negotiation.
Method
Between February 2010 and August 2011, the authors conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 100 former recipients of National Institutes of Health mentored career development awards and 28 of their mentors. Purposive sampling ensured a diverse range of viewpoints. Multiple analysts thematically coded verbatim transcripts using qualitative data analysis software.
Results
Participants described the importance of negotiation in academic medical careers but also expressed feeling naïve and unprepared for these negotiations, particularly as junior faculty. Award recipients focused on power, leverage, and strategy, and they expressed a need for training and mentorship to learn successful negotiation skills. Mentors, by contrast, emphasized the importance of flexibility and shared interests in creating win-win situations for both the individual faculty member and the institution. When faculty construed negotiation as adversarial and/or zero-sum, participants believed it required traditionally masculine traits and perceived women to be at a disadvantage.
Conclusions
Academic medical faculty often lack the skills and knowledge necessary for successful negotiation, especially early in their careers. Many view negotiation as an adversarial process of the sort that experts call “hard positional bargaining.” Increasing awareness of alternative negotiation techniques (e.g., “principled negotiation,” in which shared interests, mutually satisfying options, and fair standards are emphasized), may encourage the success of medical faculty, particularly women.
doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318286072b
PMCID: PMC3699307  PMID: 23425992
12.  The FDP Faculty Burden Survey 
Research management review  2009;16(2):29-44.
To better understand the administrative burdens placed on faculty who perform research, the Faculty Standing Committee of the Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP) invited 23,325 full-time faculty members who were Principal Investigators (PI) or Co-Principal Investigators (Co-PI) on active federally funded research grants to participate in a web-based survey that contained questions on the nature, size, and impact of the administrative tasks associated with their research projects. The responses of the 6,081 faculty respondents show that the administrative burden on faculty is very significant: 42% of the time spent by an average PI on a federally funded research project was reported to be expended on administrative tasks related to that project rather than on research. This administrative burden does not stem from one or a few exceptionally onerous tasks, but instead reflects the cumulative effect of the many administrative burdens imposed by different funding agencies, different offices within agencies, auditing and accrediting agencies, and academic institutions. The lack of institutional assistance contributes to the administrative workload of the faculty. Many burdens are remarkably constant across funding agencies, universities, disciplines, and faculty subgroups. The report documents the negative effect reported for these administrative burdens on the productivity of researchers, the careers of young faculty members, and the training of students.
PMCID: PMC2887040  PMID: 20563268
13.  Creating a Provincial Family Council to Engage Youth and Families in Child & Youth Mental Health Systems 
Objective:
To create a mechanism in British Columbia (BC) for youth and families to directly engage with key provincial committees that develop policy and implement service delivery for child and youth mental health.
Method:
In 2009, a plan was initiated to increase the involvement and influence of youth and families in research, policy, practices and programs related to child and youth mental health. This initiative, led by a provincial family advocacy society in partnership with representatives from health services and government, resulted in the establishment of the Provincial Family Council for Child and Youth Mental Health (PFC). Formation of the PFC occurred in two phases: initially, a Working Group co-chaired by a parent and a youth was tasked with developing the Terms of Reference and framework for the PFC; phase two involved ensuring important constituencies/demographics and competencies were represented in the membership of the PFC. Result: The Provincial Family Council is officially endorsed by the provincial government and is informing key provincial committees in British Columbia.
Conclusion:
In BC, the PFC is the vehicle through which youth and families can now work in partnership with “the system” to promote and improve the mental health of BC’s children and youth.
PMCID: PMC2938749  PMID: 20842271
early intervention; parenting; partnerships; family engagement; intervention précoce; rôle des parents; partenariat; engagement de la famille
14.  Building Alliances in Unlikely Places: Progressive Allies and the Tobacco Institute’s Coalition Strategy on Cigarette Excise Taxes 
American journal of public health  2009;99(7):1188-1196.
The tobacco industry utilizes third parties to advance its policy agenda. On excise taxes, the industry identified organized labor and progressive groups as potential allies whose advocacy could undermine public support for tax increases. To attract such collaboration, the industry framed the issue as one of tax fairness, creating a labor management committee to provide distance from tobacco companies and furthering progressive allies’ interests through financial and logistical support. Internal industry documents indicate that this strategic use of ideas, institutions, and interests facilitated the recruitment of leading progressive organizations as allies. By placing excise taxes within a strategic policy nexus that promotes mutual public interest goals, public health advocates may use a similar strategy in forging their own excise tax coalitions.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.143131
PMCID: PMC2696666  PMID: 19443832
15.  Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative 
Background
Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
Methods
This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005–2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening.
Results
Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff.
Conclusion
By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory compliance systems were in place, training African investigators and community members, and engaging in other systems strengthening activities, the GHF program helped IAVI to accelerate vaccine development activities in the field, and to develop the organization’s capacity to manage change in the future. Our study suggests that a program of sustained corporate volunteering over several years may increase organizational learning and trust, leading to stronger capacity to advance and achieve NGO goals.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-378
PMCID: PMC3851536  PMID: 24088300
16.  A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy 
Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented.
doi:10.1080/19320240903329055
PMCID: PMC3489110  PMID: 23144678
sustainable agriculture; policy; climate change; food; hospital; health care; prevention; nutrition
17.  Domestic violence surveillance system:a model 
Salud publica de Mexico  2008;50(Suppl 1):S12-S18.
Objective
To develop a domestic violence surveillance system.
Material and Methods
The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives.
Results
A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services.
Conclusions
Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies.
PMCID: PMC3413269  PMID: 18373003
domestic violence; health surveillance; inter-sectorial action; prevention and control; public policies
18.  Assessment of Streams of Knowledge, Skill, and Attitude Development Across the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum 
Objective. To continue efforts of quality assurance following a 5-year curricular mapping and course peer review process, 18 topics (“streams”) of knowledge, skills, and attitudes were assessed across the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.
Design. The curriculum committee merged the 18 topics into 9 streams. Nine ad hoc committees (“stream teams”) of faculty members and preceptors evaluated the content, integration, and assessment for their assigned streams across the 4 professional years. Committees used a reporting tool and curriculum database to complete their reviews.
Assessment. After each team presented their findings and recommendations at a faculty retreat, the 45 faculty members were asked to list their top priorities for curriculum improvement. The 5 top priorities identified were: redefinition and clarification of program outcomes; improved coordination of streams across the curriculum; consistent repetition and assessment of math skills throughout the curriculum; focused nonprescription and self-care teaching into an individual course; and improved development of problem solving.
Conclusions. This comprehensive assessment enabled the college to identify areas for curriculum improvement that were not readily apparent to the faculty from prior reviews of individual courses.
doi:10.5688/ajpe75583
PMCID: PMC3142981  PMID: 21829257
curricular assessment; curriculum; streams of knowledge; curricular mapping
19.  Academic Ranking Score: A Publication-Based Reproducible Metric of Thought Leadership in Urology 
European Urology  2011;61(3):435-439.
Background
Hospital rankings have become integral to the marketing strategies of many health care systems. Methodology used in compiling these lists appears highly flawed.
Objective
Improve on current hospital ranking systems and to develop a more meaningful measure of a urology department’s contribution to the field, we developed an academic ranking score (ARS) based on publicly available data.
Design, setting, and participants
An active faculty list was assembled for each department. A list of all publications from each department from 2005 to 2010 was then compiled. Only publications with faculty members as first or last author were considered. The ARS was then derived by identifying the number of publications within an institution, normalized by the impact factor of the peer-reviewed journal in which the publication appeared.
Measurements
The 2010 U.S. News and World Report (USNWR) urology list was reranked based on ARS and compared with the USNWR rank list. ARS was also calculated for several leading European urologic centers.
Results and limitations
A total of 6437 urologic publications were indexed to calculate the ARS. Two of the top three programs in the USNWR rankings dropped out of the top 10. The top 10 academically ranked programs increased or decreased an average of >5 positions (range: 0–17). No correlation was seen between programs ranked in the top 10 by USNWR and our objective ARS method (Spearman ρ: −0.1; p = 0.75). Because ARS only includes first- or last-author publications for faculty with clinical duties, ARS likely excludes basic science contributions and contributions from nonclinical faculty.
Conclusions
Ranking of urology departments through quantification of each program’s recent academic contribution, as captured by the ARS, differs substantially from rankings developed by USNWR. Integration of such objective measures into an overall urology program ranking system would replace current subjective opinions marred by historical biases with up-to-date merit-based assessments.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.10.025
PMCID: PMC3269521  PMID: 22036644
20.  Cultural health capital and the interactional dynamics of patient-centered care 
Social science & medicine (1982)  2013;93:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.06.014.
As intuitive and inviting as it may appear, the concept of patient-centered care has been difficult to conceptualize, institutionalize and operationalize. Informed by Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, we employ the framework of cultural health capital to uncover the ways in which both patients' and providers' cultural resources, assets, and interactional styles influence their abilities to mutually achieve patient-centered care. Cultural health capital is defined as a specialized collection of cultural skills, attitudes, behaviors and interactional styles that are valued, leveraged, and exchanged by both patients and providers during clinical interactions. In this paper, we report the findings of a qualitative study conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the Western United States. We investigated the various elements of cultural health capital, how patients and providers used cultural health capital to engage with each other, and how this process shaped the patient-centeredness of interactions. We find that the accomplishment of patient-centered care is highly dependent upon habitus and the cultural health capital that both patients and providers bring to health care interactions. Not only are some cultural resources more highly valued than others, their differential mobilization can facilitate or impede engagement and communication between patients and their providers. The focus of cultural health capital on the ways fundamental social inequalities are manifest in clinical interactions enables providers, patients, and health care organizations to consider how such inequalities can confound patient-centered care.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.06.014
PMCID: PMC3887515  PMID: 23906128
United States; Cultural health capital; Patient-centered care; Patient–provider interactions; Health inequalities; Bourdieu; Habitus
21.  FOREIGN MEDICAL SCHOOL GRADUATES—Problems of Qualifying as Competent to Practice 
California Medicine  1955;83(1):22-26.
It is financially and practically impossible to investigate thoroughly all the medical schools in the world and to keep the records current.
There is at present no acceptable method for screening the graduates. The official policy of the American Medical Association regarding licensing to practice medicine in the United States is that it is a state right and that it is entirely under the jurisdiction of the governments of the individual states.
Hospitals in this country have a great responsibility to the public and to their attending physicians not to engage incompetent physicians and not to exploit the physicians they engage.
It is the obligation of all medical licensing boards to constantly help in elevating and improving the standards of medical care. The foreign - trained physicians who have received medical education and training comparable to that given in this country will always be welcome.
The exchange of students and faculty members between schools in friendly foreign countries and the United States should be encouraged.
The number of foreign physicians serving as interns and residents in this country is steadily increasing.
PMCID: PMC1532484  PMID: 14390005
22.  Making Better Use of the Policies and Funding We Already Have 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;7(5):A97.
The potential for population health reform could be enhanced by assessing whether we have made the most of policies and resources already available. Opportunities to promote population health independent of major changes in resources or public authority include the following: enforcing laws already in effect; clarifying and updating the application of long-standing policies; leveraging government's and the private sector's purchasing and investment clout; facilitating access to programs by everyone who is eligible for them; evaluating the effectiveness of population health programs, agencies, and policies; and intervening to stop agencies and policies from operating at cross-purposes.
PMCID: PMC2938413  PMID: 20712945
23.  Addressing the Scholarly Activity Requirements for Residents: One Program's Solution 
Background
Scholarly activity as a component of residency education is becoming increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. “Limited or no evidence of resident or faculty scholarly activity” is a common citation given to family medicine residency programs by the Review Committee for Family Medicine.
Objective
The objective was to provide a model scholarly activity curriculum that has been successful in improving the quality of graduate medical education in a family medicine residency program, as evidenced by a record of resident academic presentations and publications.
Methods
We provide a description of the Clinical Scholars Program that has been implemented into the curriculum of the Trident/Medical University of South Carolina Family Medicine Residency Program.
Results
During the most recent 10-year academic period (2000–2010), a total of 111 residents completed training and participated in the Clinical Scholars Program. This program has produced more than 24 presentations during national and international meetings of medical societies and 15 publications in peer-reviewed medical journals. In addition, many of the projects have been presented during meetings of state and regional medical organizations.
Conclusions
This paper presents a model curriculum for teaching about scholarship to family medicine residents. The success of this program is evidenced by the numerous presentations and publications by participating residents.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00201.1
PMCID: PMC3179232  PMID: 22942967
24.  Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations 
BMC Public Health  2010;10(Suppl 1):S6.
The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-S1-S6
PMCID: PMC3005578  PMID: 21143828
25.  Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India 
Health Promotion Perspectives  2013;3(1):102-112.
Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy.
Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy.
Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes.
Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations.
doi:10.5681/hpp.2013.012
PMCID: PMC3963681
Tobacco industry; Advocacy; Conflict of interests; India

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