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1.  Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe: a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome 
Middle lobe syndrome is a well-known clinical condition. In this retrospective study, we report our experience with a similar clinicopathological condition affecting the left lower lobe.
The data of 17 patients with atelectasis or bronchiectasis of the left lower lobe who underwent lobectomy during the period from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, radiological and surgical data were collected.
Seventeen patients were included in this study, only one adult male patient of 52 years and 16 children. The paediatric patients were 10 boys and 6 girls, their age ranged from 2 to 11 years, mean 6.19 ± 2.6 years. Most patients presented with recurrent respiratory infection 15/17 (88.2%). The lag time before referral to surgery ranged from 3 to 48 months, mean 17.59 ± 13.1 months. Radiological signs of bronchiectasis were found in 11 (64.7%) patients. Bronchoscopy showed patent lower lobe bronchus in all patients. The criteria for lobectomy were evidence of bronchiectasis [11 (64.71%) patients], persistent atelectasis of the lobe after bronchoscopy and intensive medical therapy for a maximum of 2 months [6 (35.29%) patients]. Histopathological examination showed bronchiectasis in 11 (64.71%) patients, fibrosing pneumonitis in 4 (23.53%) patients and peribronchial inflammation in 2 (11.76%) patients. Most patients were doing well 1 year after surgery.
Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe is a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome. Impaired collateral ventilation together with airway plugging with secretion is an accepted explanation. Surgical resection is indicated for bronchiectatic lobe or failure of 2-month intensive medical therapy to resolve lobar atelectasis.
PMCID: PMC3445383  PMID: 22761114
Middle lobe syndrome; Atelectasis; Bronchiectasis; Lobectomy
2.  Clinical study on safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in both donors and recipients 
AIM: To investigate the safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) in both donors and recipients.
METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2006, 50 cases of A-A LDLT were performed at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, consisting of 47 cases using right lobe graft without middle hepatic vein (MHV), and 3 cases using dual grafts (one case using two left lobe, 2 using one right lobe and one left lobe). The most common diagnoses were hepatitis B liver cirrosis, 30 (60%) cases; and hepatocellular carcinoma, 15 (30%) cases in adult recipients. Among them, 10 cases had the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) with a score of more than 25. Donor screening consisted of reconstruction of the hepatic blood vessels and biliary system with 3-dimension computed tomography and volumetry of whole liver and right liver volume. Various improved surgical techniques were adopted in the procedures for both donors and recipients.
RESULTS: Forty-nine right lobes and 3 left lobes (2 left lobe grafts for 1 recipient, 1 left lobe graft for 1 recipient who had received right lobe graft donated by relative living donor) were obtained from 52 living donors. The 49 right lobe grafts, without MHV, weighed 400 g-850 g (media 550 g), and the ratio of graft volume to recipient standard liver volume (GV/SLV) ranged from 31.74% to 71.68% (mean 45.35%). All donors’ remnant liver volume was over 35% of the whole liver volume. There was no donor mortality. With a follow-up of 2-52 mo (media 9 mo), among 50 adult recipients, complications occurred in 13 (26%) cases and 4 (8%) died postoperatively within 3 mo. Their 1-year actual survival rate was 92%.
CONCLUSION: When preoperative CT volumetry shows volume of remnant liver is more than 35%, the ratio of right lobe graft to recipients standard liver volume exceeding 40%, A-A LDLT using right lobe graft without MHV should be a very safe procedure for both donors and recipients, otherwise dual grafts liver transplantation should be considered.
PMCID: PMC4065937  PMID: 17352031
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation; Middle hepatic vein; Dual grafts; Right lobe graft; Standard liver volume; Grafts; Weight; Complication
3.  Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary sequestration 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(1):31-35.
To analyze the characteristics and technical difficulties of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS) for treatment of pulmonary sequestration operation.
25 cases of c-VATS lobectomy for intrapulmonary sequestration performed between January 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed. The 25 patients included 13 (52%) males and 12 (48%) females, with a mean age of 34.7 years (range, 16-62 years). Preoperative imaging by CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction of abnormal blood vessels diagnosed 19 cases as pulmonary sequestration, misdiagnosed 1 case as pulmonary cyst syndrome, 4 cases as bronchiectasis and 1 case as benign tumor.
All the patients underwent c-VATS excision, 16 in the left lower lobe, 7 in the right lower lobe, 1 in right middle lobe and 1 extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Vascular abnormality was observed intraoperative including the thoracic aorta in 20 cases, abdominal aorta in 2 cases, phrenic arteries and intercostal artery in 1 cases and thoracic aorta combined with abdominal aorta in 1 case. No conversion to open was achieved in all cases. The mean operating time was 114.2 mins (range, 78-156 mins), the mean blood loss was 228 mL (range, 50-3,000 mL), the mean duration of chest drainage was 3.2 days (range, 2-7 days) and the mean length of post-operative hospital stay was 6.6 days (range, 3-13 days). There was no mortality, without significant postoperative complications, were cured and discharged. Patients were followed up for 2-32 months, mean 21.4 months, with no recurrence.
c-VATS is feasible, effective, and safe in treatment of pulmonary sequestration. It is worthy of clinical application.
PMCID: PMC3548003  PMID: 23372948
Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS); pulmonary sequestration; treatment
4.  Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(5):e180.
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a β-herpesvirus with 90% seroprevalence that infects and establishes latency in the central nervous system. Two HHV-6 variants are known: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Active infection or reactivation of HHV-6 in the brain is associated with neurological disorders, including epilepsy, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis. In a preliminary study, we found HHV-6B DNA in resected brain tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and have localized viral antigen to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)–positive glia in the same brain sections. We sought, first, to determine the extent of HHV-6 infection in brain material resected from MTLE and non-MTLE patients; and second, to establish in vitro primary astrocyte cultures from freshly resected brain material and determine expression of glutamate transporters.
Methods and Findings
HHV-6B infection in astrocytes and brain specimens was investigated in resected brain material from MTLE and non-MTLE patients using PCR and immunofluorescence. HHV-6B viral DNA was detected by TaqMan PCR in brain resections from 11 of 16 (69%) additional patients with MTLE and from zero of seven (0%) additional patients without MTLE. All brain regions that tested positive by HHV-6B variant-specific TaqMan PCR were positive for viral DNA by nested PCR. Primary astrocytes were isolated and cultured from seven epilepsy brain resections and astrocyte purity was defined by GFAP reactivity. HHV-6 gp116/54/64 antigen was detected in primary cultured GFAP-positive astrocytes from resected tissue that was HHV-6 DNA positive—the first demonstration of an ex vivo HHV-6–infected astrocyte culture isolated from HHV-6–positive brain material. Previous work has shown that MTLE is related to glutamate transporter dysfunction. We infected astrocyte cultures in vitro with HHV-6 and found a marked decrease in glutamate transporter EAAT-2 expression.
Overall, we have now detected HHV-6B in 15 of 24 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis/MTLE, in contrast to zero of 14 with other syndromes. Our results suggest a potential etiology and pathogenic mechanism for MTLE.
Steve Jacobson and colleagues report finding human herpesvirus-6B DNA in brain resections from 11 of 16 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, strengthening the evidence for a role for this virus in this condition.
Editors' Summary
Epilepsy is a common brain disorder caused by a sudden, excessive electrical discharge in a cluster of neurons—the cells that transmit electrical messages between the body and the brain. Its symptoms depend on which part of the brain is affected by this electrical firestorm and how far the disturbance spreads. When only part of the brain is affected (a partial seizure or fit), patients may see or smell strange things, recall forgotten memories, or have part of their body jerk uncontrollably. When the electrical disturbance spreads across the whole brain (a generalized seizure), there may be loss of consciousness and/or the whole body may become rigid or jerk. Epilepsy is usually controlled with anti-epileptic drugs or, in very severe focal cases, surgery to the area of the brain where the seizure starts. Although head injuries or brain tumors can trigger epilepsy, the cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown.
Why Was This Study Done?
Knowing what causes epilepsy might lead to better treatments for it. One possibility is that infections trigger epilepsy. The researchers in this study asked whether infections with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) are associated with a common type of epilepsy called mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Patients with MTLE often have extensive scarring in the hippocampus, a brain region responsible for memory that lies deep within a bigger region called the temporal lobe. Hippocampal scarring and MTLE are associated with a history of fever-induced fits, and HHV-6B infection can cause such fits in young children. Most people become infected with HHV-6B (or the closely related HHV-6A) early in life. The virus then remains latent for years within the brain and elsewhere. Given these facts and a previous investigation that showed that brain tissue from several patients with MTLE contained HHV-6B, the researchers reasoned that it was worth investigating HHV-6B as a cause of MTLE.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first looked for HHV-6B DNA in brain tissue surgically removed from patients with MTLE or another type of epilepsy. Tissue from 11 of 16 patients with MTLE (but from 0 of 7 control patients) contained HHV-6B DNA. When the researchers grew astrocytes (a type of brain cell) from some of these samples, only those from HHV-6B DNA-positive samples from patients with MTLE expressed an HHV-6-specific protein. Next, the researchers investigated in detail a patient with MTLE who had four sequential operations to control his epilepsy. This patient's hippocampus, which was removed in his first operation, contained a higher level of HHV-6B DNA than the tissues removed in later operations. After the fourth operation (which removed half of his brain and cured his epilepsy), astrocytes grown from the temporal lobe and the frontal/parietal lobe (a brain region next to the temporal lobe) but not the frontal and occipital lobes contained HHV-6B DNA and expressed a viral protein. The researchers also measured the production by these various astrocytes of a substance that moves glutamate (an amino acid that also acts as a neurotransmitter) across cell membranes—MTLE has been associated with a glutamate transporter deficiency. Consistent with this, astrocytes from the patient's temporal lobe made no glutamate transporter mRNA (mRNA is an essential precursor for protein to be produced). Finally, infection of astrocytes isolated from a patient without MTLE with HHV-6B greatly reduced expression of glutamate transporter in these astrocytes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings, together with those from the previous study, reveal that nearly two-thirds of patients with MTLE (but no patients with other forms of epilepsy) have an active HHV-6B infection in the brain region where their epilepsy originates. Overall, they provide strong support for the idea that HHV-6B infections might cause MTLE, particularly given the results obtained from the patient whose condition only improved after multiple brain operations had removed all the virally infected material. Furthermore, the demonstration that HHV-6B infection reduces glutamate transporter expression in astrocytes suggests that HHV-6B infection might cause astrocyte dysfunction. This dysfunction could lead to injury of the sensitive neurons in the hippocampus and trigger MTLE. Additional patients now need to be studied both to confirm the association between HHV-6B infection and MTLE and to discover exactly how this virus triggers epilepsy.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
MedlinePlus encyclopedia page on epilepsy (in English and Spanish)
World Health Organization fact sheet on epilepsy (in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese)
US National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke epilepsy information page (in English and Spanish)
UK National Health Service Direct information for patients on epilepsy (in several languages)
Neuroscience for kids, an educational Web site prepared by Eric Chudler (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States), who also has a site that includes information on epilepsy and a list of links to epilepsy organizations (mainly in English but some sections in other languages as well)
A short scientific article on human herpes virus 6 in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases
PMCID: PMC1880851  PMID: 17535102
5.  Transcription factor ERG is a specific and sensitive diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma 
AIM: To investigate the expression of ERG, CD34, CD31 (PECAM-1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) and factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIRAg) in the diagnosis of hepatic angiosarcoma patients.
METHODS: Patient samples were collected from January 1986 to December 2012 from the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing, China. We obtained twenty-four samples of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) that were confirmed by two pathologist. The samples were the result of three autopsy cases, eight biopsy cases and 13 patients who underwent surgical tumor removal. The HAS cases accounted for 2.23% (24/1075) of all hepatic vascular tumors at the hospital during the same time period. Patient histories including age, gender, clinical manifestations, medical treatments, laboratory tests, radiological images, histological observations and outcomes for each case were analyzed in detail. All samples were evaluated histologically with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression and localization of ERG was examined in all HAS specimens and compared to the known endothelial markers CD34, CD31 and FVIIIRAg. The endothelial markers were also evaluated in a panel of non-HAS tumors.
RESULTS: This cohort of 24 HAS cases is, to the best of our knowledge, currently the largest cohort in the world in the publicly available literature. Hepatic angiosarcoma tissue samples were obtained from 14 males and 10 females with a mean age of 50.6 years (range: 7-86 years). The patients presented with the following clinical manifestations: abdominal pain (16/24), back pain (3/24), heart palpitations (1/20), cough (1/24) or no clinical symptoms (3/24). Tumors were predominantly localized in the right hepatic lobe (15/24) or left hepatic lobe (6/24), or a diffuse growth on the right and left hepatic lobes (3/24). Eleven patients underwent surgical resection (45.8%), two patients received a liver transplant (8.3%), eight patients received interventional therapy (33.3%) and three patients received no treatment (lesions discovered at autopsy, 12.5%). Postoperative follow-up of patients revealed that 87.5% (21/24) of patients had died and three cases were not able to be tracked. In all cases, the mean survival time was 12.1 mo. While 100% of the HAS samples were positive for ERG expression, expression of the other markers was more variable. CD31 was expressed in 79.2% (19/24) of samples, CD34 was expressed in 87.5% (21/24) of samples and FVIIIRAg was expressed in 41.7% (10/24) of samples.
CONCLUSION: ERG is a more sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma in comparison to CD31, CD34 and FVIIIRAg.
PMCID: PMC3974537  PMID: 24707153
Liver; Angiosarcoma; ERG; Immunohistochemistry; Diagnosis
6.  Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*  
To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period.
We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up.
During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed.
Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective.
PMCID: PMC4075869  PMID: 24068262
Respiratory system abnormalities; Congenital abnormalities; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Pulmonary emphysema
7.  Nodal involvement pattern in resectable lung cancer according to tumor location 
The aim in this study was to define the pattern of lymph node metastasis according to the primary tumor location. In this retrospective cohort study, each of the operable patients diagnosed with lung cancer was grouped by tumor mass location. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer nodal chart with stations and zones, established in 2009, was used to define lymph node levels. From 2006 to 2010, 197 patients underwent a lobectomy with systematic nodal resection for primary lung cancer at Chiang Mai University Hospital. There were 123 male and 74 female patients, with ages ranging from 16– 85 years old and an average age of 61.31. Analyses of tumor location, histology type, and nodal metastasis were performed. The locations were the right upper lobe in 63 patients (31.98%), the right middle lobe in 18 patients (9.14%), the right lower lobe in 30 patients (15.23%), the left upper lobe in 55 patients (27.92%), the left lower lobe in 16 patients (8.12%), and mixed lobes (more than one lobe) in 15 patients (7.61%). The mean tumor size was 4.45 cm in diameter (range 1.2–16.5 cm). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type, which occurred in 132 cases (67.01%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma in 41 cases (20.81%), bronchiolo alveolar cell carcinoma in nine cases (4.57%), and large cell carcinoma in seven cases (3.55%). Eighteen cases (9.6%) had skip metastasis (mediastinal lymph node metastasis without hilar node metastasis). Adenocarcinoma and intratumoral lymphatic invasion were the predictors of mediastinal lymph node metastases. There were statistically significant differences between a tumor in the right upper lobe and the right lower lobe. However, there were no statistically significant differences between tumors in the other lobes. In conclusion, tumor location is not a precise predictor of the pattern of nodal metastasis. Systematic lymph node dissection is the only way to accurately determine lymph node status. Further studies are required for evaluation and conclusions.
PMCID: PMC3379857  PMID: 22740775
lung cancer; nodal metastasis
8.  Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis: a retrospective observational study of 138 patients 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(3):228-233.
We analyzed cases of bronchiectasis; its presentation, etiology, diagnosis, indications for surgery, surgical approach, and the outcome.
A retrospective analysis of 138 patients who underwent surgery for bronchiectasis.
The mean age was 30.2±15.7 years. 55.8% patients were males. Symptoms were recurrent infection with cough in all patients, fetid sputum (79.7%), and hemoptysis (22.5%). The etiology was recurrent childhood infection (38.4%), pneumonia (29%), TB (9.4%), sequestration (4.3%), foreign body obstruction (4.3%), and unknown etiology (14.5%). CXR, CT scan, and bronchoscope were done for all patients. Bronchiectasis was left-sided in (55.1%) of patients. It was mainly confined to the lower lobes either alone (50.7%) or in conjunction with middle lobe or lingual (7.2%). Indications for resection were failure of conservative therapy (71.7%), hemoptysis (15.9%), destroyed lung (8%), and sequestration (4.3%). Surgery was lobectomy (81.2%), bilobectomy (8.7%), and pneumonectomy (8%). Complications occurred in 13% with no operative mortality. 84% of patients had relief of their preoperative symptoms.
Surgery for bronchiectasis can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality at any age for localized disease. Proper selection and preparation of the patients and complete resection of the involved sites are required for the optimum control of symptoms and better outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3698249  PMID: 23825752
Bronchiactesis; pneumonia; TB; lobectomy; bilobectomy; pneumonectomy
9.  AB 27. Unusual presentation of a pulmonary hamartoma 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB27.
Presentation of an unusual case of pulmonary hamartoma.
Materials and methods
Clinical presentation, imaging and outcome.
A male patient, 73 years old, ex-smoker, 80 pack-years, was admitted at the outpatient department, complaining of acute, intense dyspnea, right-sided and retrosternal chest pain for the past few hours and hemoptysis for the past 12 days. Medical history: chronic obstructive airway disease (FEV1: 1.72 L - 63% predicted), carotid and abdominal aortic aneurysm and two temporary ischemic vascular episodes. Chest radiograph showed elevation of the right hemidiaphragm, infiltrates at the right upper and middle lung field and traction of the trachea to the right. Due to resistant hypoxemia (pO2: 49 mmHg, pCO2: 39 mmHg, ph: 7.4 on 30 lt O2/min) he was intubated and put on mechanical ventilation. After intubation his radiograph showed complete atelectasis of the right lung. Computed tomography with i.v. contrast infusion revealed no vascular thrombi, but a thelomatous projection in the lumen of the right main bronchus, causing atelectasis to segments of all the lobes of the right lung. Bronchoscopy was performed, showing a mass occluding the right main bronchus. Two successful attempts were made for partial debulking of the mass bronchoscopically, as the initial oxygenation of the patient was difficult, with an FiO2 of 100%. With a tentative diagnosis of hamartoma, a right upper lobectomy (sleeve resection) was performed (the mass originated from the posterior segment of the upper lobe) and hamartoma was confirmed. Afterwards the patient had pump failure and required tracheostomy and prolonged mechanical ventilation with gradual amelioration. The tracheostomy was finally closed and the patient was released in excellent condition after a two-month hospital stay. Pulmonary hamartomas usually present as an asymptomatic peripheral nodule and are the commonest benign pulmonary nodules (75%). In big series endobronchial localization is less than 6%, while in another study obstructive signs were present in 14%. The present case was unusual in that it presented with respiratory failure requiring intubation, due to the position of the lesion very close to the origin of the right mainstem bronchus.
Even benign pulmonary tumors may mimic an advanced lung carcinoma, so special attention is needed in the diagnostic procedures.
PMCID: PMC3537420
10.  Isolated middle lobe atelectasis: aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the so-called middle lobe syndrome. 
Thorax  1980;35(6):449-452.
Isolated atelectasis of the middle lobe has been known for many years as the "middle lobe syndrome". Several clinical studies have shown that it may bae caused by malignant tumours. A 10-year study of 135 patients with isolated middle lobe atelectasis is presented. Fifty-eight patients (43%) had malignant tumours. Of 38 who had a thoracotomy, lung resection was possible in 25. In 20 patients regional or systemic dissemination of the tumour had been diagnosed before operation. Seventy-seven patients had benign diseases, of which 74 were non-specific infections. Bronchography was performed in 46 of these cases, and all had abnormal findings in the middle lobe, eight revealing definite bronchiectasis. In three cases tuberculosis was found. In 16 cases the benign diagnosis was established at thoracotomy. Only three patients out of 58 with malignant tumours lived more than five years. Atelectasis of the middle lobe is always a sign of potential malignancy especially in patients with a previously normal chest radiograph.
PMCID: PMC471309  PMID: 7434301
11.  Catamenial pneumothorax: a rare entity? Report of 5 cases and review of the literature 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):17-31.
Spontaneous recurrent pneumothorax during menstruation is reported as catamenial pneumothorax. It is encountered in 3-6% of spontaneous pneumothorax cases among menstruating women. The percentage among women referred for surgery is significantly higher (25-30%). Although it usually involves the right-side (85-95%) it can be left-sided or bilateral. It is associated with diaphragmatic perforations and/or thoracic endometriosis. There is pelvic endometriosis in up to 30-51% of cases. The lesions that are not always found may present as small or larger holes at the central tendon of the diaphragm, as red, blueberry, brown spots or larger nodules at the diaphragm, the visceral or parietal pleura. Lesion histology may reveal endometriosis. We present 5 cases of catamenial pneumothorax treated surgically during the last 6 years.
Patients and methods
Five women, with a mean age of 34+/-9.9 years (median 38, range, 19-45 years) presented with right-sided recurrent catamenial pneumothorax. In 3 patients diaphragmatic perforation(s) were found; perforation suturing (n=1), and diaphragmatic plication reinforced with bovine pericardial patch (n=1) were performed. All patients underwent atypical resection of upper and/or middle lobe segments of lung parenchyma that appeared abnormal (haemorrhagic/emphysematous or blebs). Four patients underwent pleurodesis and 1 patient underwent pleurectomy. Four interventions were performed through video assisted thoracoscopic surgery, while diaphragmatic plication was performed through a video assisted mini-thoracotomy. Histology did not reveal endometriosis tissue.
The postoperative course was uneventful. The patients were extubated in theatre and were discharged home at a mean of 7+/-4 days (median 6 days, range, 4-14 days). Two of them received hormonal therapy [Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogue] postoperatively. At a follow-up of 14.16 patient-years (mean 2.83+/-1.08 years, range, 1.33-3.83 years) there was recurrence, 6.5 months postoperatively, in one patient that had not undergone closure of a tiny diaphragmatic hole and had not received hormonal treatment postoperatively. She was treated medically (amenorrhea for 6 months with GnRH analogue) and had no further recurrences (in 3.3 years).
Surgery is the treatment of choice of catamenial pneumothorax. It should aim to complete management of all lesions. The most common complication is recurrence. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment including hormonal therapy may be beneficial in high risk patients.
PMCID: PMC3537379  PMID: 23304438
Catamenial pneumothorax; thoracic endometriosis; video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
12.  A long-term study assessing the factors influencing survival and morbidity in the surgical management of bronchiectasis 
Although the prevalence of bronchiectasis decreased significantly in developed countries, in less developed and in developing countries, it still represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to present our surgical experiences, the morbidity and mortality rates and outcome of surgical treatment for bronchiectasis.
We reviewed the medical records of 129 patients who underwent surgical resection for bronchiectasis between April 2002 and April 2010, at Van Training and Research Hospital, Thoracic Surgery Department. Variables of age, sex, symptoms, etiology, and surgical procedures, mortality, morbidity and the result of surgical therapy were analyzed retrospectively.
Mean age was 21.8 year (the eldest was 67 year, the youngest was 4 years-old). Male/female ratio was 1.86 and 75% of all patients were young population under the age of 40. Bilateral involvement was 14.7%, left/right side ratio according to localization was 2.1/1. The most common reason for bronchiectasis was recurrent infection. Surgical indications were as follows: recurrent infection (54%), hemoptysis (35%), empyema (6%), and lung abscess (5%). There was no operative mortality. Complications occurred in 29 patients and the morbidity rate was 22.4%. Complete resection was achieved in 110 (85.2%) patients. Follow-up data were obtained for 123 (95%) of the patients. One patient died during follow-up. The mean follow-up of this patient was 9 months. Mean postoperative hospitalization time was 9.15 ± 6.25 days. Significantly better results were obtained in patients who had undergone a complete resection.
Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality at any age. The involved bronchiectatic sites should be resected completely for the optimum control of symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3261112  PMID: 22152759
Bronchiectasis; surgical management; morbidity
13.  AB 3. Catamenial pneumothorax: a rare entity? Report of 5 cases and review of the literature 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB3.
Spontaneous recurrent pneumothorax during menstruation is reported as catamenial pneumothorax. It is encountered in 3-6% of spontaneous pneumothorax cases among menstruating women. The percentage among women referred for surgery is significantly higher (26-30%). Although it usually involves the right-side (85-95%) it can be left-sided or bilateral. It is associated with diaphragmatic perforations and/or thoracic endometriosis. There is pelvic endometriosis in up to 30-51% of cases. The lesions that are not always found may present as small or larger holes at the central tendon of the diaphragm, as red, blueberry, brown spots or larger nodules at the diaphragm, the visceral or parietal pleura. Lesion histology may reveal endometriosis. We present 5 cases of catamenial pneumothorax treated surgically during the last 6 years.
Patients and methods
Five women, with a mean age of 34+/-9.9 years (median 38, range, 19-45 years) presented with right-sided recurrent catamenial pneumothorax. In 3 patients diaphragmatic perforation(s) were found; perforation suturing (n=1), and diaphragmatic plication reinforced with bovine pericardial patch (n=1) were performed. All patients underwent atypical resection of upper and/or middle lobe segments of lung parenchyma that appeared abnormal (haemorrhagic/emphysematous or blebs). Four patients underwent pleurodesis. Four interventions were performed through video assisted thoracoscopic surgery, while diaphragmatic plication was performed through a video assisted mini-thoracotomy. Histology did not reveal endometriosis tissue.
The postoperative course was uneventful. The patients were extubated in theatre and were discharged home at a mean of 7+/-4 days (median 6, range, 4-14 days). Two of them received hormonal therapy (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogue) postoperatively. At a follow-up of 14.6 patient-years (mean 2.83+/-1.08 years, range, 1.33-3.83 years) there was recurrence, 6.5 months postoperatively, in one patient that had not undergone closure of a tiny diaphragmatic hole and had not received hormonal treatment postoperatively. She was treated medically (amenorrhea for 6 months with GnRH analogue) and had no further recurrences (in 3.3 years).
Surgery is the treatment of choice of catamenial pneumothorax. It should aim to complete management of all lesions. The most common complication is recurrence. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment including hormonal therapy may be beneficial in high risk patients.
PMCID: PMC3537426
14.  Electrocorticography-guided resection of temporal cavernoma: is electrocorticography warranted and does it alter the surgical approach? 
Journal of neurosurgery  2009;110(6):1179-1185.
Cavernous hemangiomas associated with epilepsy present an interesting surgical dilemma in terms of whether one should perform a pure lesionectomy or tailored resection, especially in the temporal lobe given the potential for cognitive damage. This decision is often guided by electrocorticography (ECoG), despite the lack of data regarding its value in cavernoma surgery. The purpose of the present study was several-fold: first, to determine the epilepsy outcome following resection of cavernomas in all brain regions; second, to evaluate the usefulness of ECoG in guiding surgical decision making; and third, to determine the optimum surgical approach for temporal lobe cavernomas.
The authors identified from their surgical database 173 patients who had undergone resection of cavernomas. One hundred two of these patients presented with epilepsy, and 61 harbored temporal lobe cavernomas. Preoperatively, all patients were initially evaluated by an epileptologist. The mean follow-up was 37 months.
Regardless of the cavernoma location, surgery resulted in an excellent seizure control rate: Engel Class I outcome in 88% of patients at 2 years postoperatively. Of 61 patients with temporal lobe cavernomas, the mesial structures were involved in 35. Among the patients with temporal lobe cavernomas, those who underwent ECoG typically had a more extensive parenchymal resection rather than a lesionectomy (p < 0.0001). The use of ECoG in cases of temporal lobe cavernomas resulted in a superior seizure-free outcome: 79% (29 patients) versus 91% (23 patients) of patients at 6 months postresection, 77% (22 patients) versus 90% (20 patients) at 1 year, and 79% (14 patients) versus 83% (18 patients) at 2 years without ECoG versus with ECoG, respectively.
The surgical removal of cavernomas most often leads to an excellent epilepsy outcome. In cases of temporal lobe cavernomas, the more extensive the ECoG-guided resection, the better the seizure outcome. In addition to upholding the concept of kindling, the data in this study support the use of ECoG in temporal lobe cavernoma surgery in patients presenting with epilepsy.
PMCID: PMC2841509  PMID: 19216651
cavernoma; electrocorticography; epilepsy
15.  Clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma 
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare malignant neoplasm. We aimed to investigate clinicopathological features, therapies, and prognoses of eight MEC cases.
Eight patients underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary MEC between 2005 and 2012 at the Thoracic Surgical Department of West China Hospital, Sichuan, China. The clinical data, radiological manifestation, treatment strategy, pathological findings, and prognoses of all patients were analyzed retrospectively.
Among the eight cases (four males and four females), the age of patients ranged from 35 to 71 years (mean age 50.67 years). Two tumors were located in the upper lobes and three masses were located in the lower lobes. The other three lumps were located in the left main bronchus, middle segmental bronchus of the right lobe, and trachea, respectively. The characteristics of the tumors were consistent with low grade MEC (n = 6) and high grade MEC (n = 2). All of the patients were sent for oncological evaluations, and three patients with N1 or N2 disease received chemotherapy. One of the patients died from brain metastasis at 15 months. Seven of the eight patients were alive at the time of evaluation. The median survival time was 40 (range 8 to 88) months.
Mucoepidermoid tumors have to be treated by radical surgery with lymph node sampling and dissection. Patients with low grade tumors can be expected to be cured following complete resection. Careful histological typing plays a key role in prediction of late results, and further studies are needed.
PMCID: PMC3922271  PMID: 24507476
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma; Lung; Surgery; Pathological histology
16.  Analysis of clinical application of thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer 
VATS has been extensively considered as a standard method of pulmonary diagnosis and treatment of benign lung diseases. This study aimed to investigate the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy compared with conventional lobectomy via open thoracotomy in patients with clinical early stage lung cancer.
A total of 120 patients with lung cancer underwent VATS lobectomy; another 120 patients with lung cancer underwent conventional lobectomy. The clinical outcomes from these two groups were retrospectively analyzed and compared.
The numbers of patients who underwent lobectomy in the left upper lobe, left lower lobe, right upper lobe, right middle lobe, and right lower lobe were 24, 28, 40, 4, and 24 in the VATS group and 38, 20, 30, 7, and 25 in the conventional group, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between the two groups. Likewise, no statistical differences were observed in terms of duration of operation, time for postoperative extubation, complications, length of hospital stay, and number of dissected lymph nodes (VATS group: left, 5.12 ± 1.45, right, 6.84 ± 1.33; conventional group: left, 4.96 ± 1.39 mm, right, 6.91 ± 1.27; P >0.05).
Anatomical lobectomy was successfully completed by VATS lobectomy for lung cancer; the standard lymph node dissection was also achieved. This procedure also showed advantages in terms of surgical bleeding, duration, postoperative complications, indwelling time of chest tube, and short-term recurrence rate without significant differences from conventional lobectomy.
PMCID: PMC4061527  PMID: 24886331
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS); Clinical early stage lung cancer; Lobectomy; Complication; Short-term recurrence rate
17.  Treatment of Non-Endemic Hepatolithiasis in a Western Country. The Role of Hepatic Resection 
The aim of this study was to assess the safety and the efficacy of hepatic resective surgery in the treatment of single lobe hepatolithiasis.
Retrospective analysis and comparison between hepatic resections in patients with hepatolithiasis (hepatolithiasis group [HG]) and liver masses (control group [CG]). Seventeen consecutive Caucasian patients with single lobe hepatolithiasis (HG) and 30 patients with liver masses without chronic liver disease and previous chemotherapy (CG), were operated during the 5-year period 2000–2005, inclusive. Major hepatic resections including 4 right hepatectomies, 10 left hepatectomies, and 3 left lateral sectionectomy in HG, and 12 right hepatectomies, 3 extended right hepatectomy, 5 left hepatectomies, 4 left lateral sectionectomy, 5 bisegmentectomy, and 1 mesohepatectomy in CG. The main outcome measures were: type and length of surgical procedures, intra- and postoperative blood losses and transfusions (packed red blood cells [PRBC] and fresh frozen plasma [FFP]), intra- and postoperative course and complications (within 30 days of the operation), length of hospitalisation, histopathology, and recurrence of hepatolithiasis.
Mean operation time was 6.21 ± 2.38 h in HG versus 7.10 ± 2.21 h in CG (P = 0.33). Mean intra-operative blood loss in CG was higher than in HG (1010 ± 550 ml versus 560 ± 459 ml; P = 0.035). The other variables considered in the two groups were not statistically different. Intra-operative transfusion were 0.50 ± 0.85 units in HG versus 1.35 ± 2.25 units of PRBC in CG (P = 0.06), and 0.66 ± 1.34 units in HG versus 0.68 ± 1.20 units of FFP in CG (P = 0.44), respectively. No cases of death were registered. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 patients (25.5%) – 5 cases (10.6%) in HG and 7 cases (14.8%) in CG (P = 0.18). Mean postoperative transfusions were 0.47 ± 1.24 units in HG versus 1.10 ± 1.18 units of PRBC in CG (P = 0.35), and 0.65 ± 1.40 units in HG versus 0.46 ± 0.82 units of FFP in CG (P = 0.25), respectively. Difference in median hospitalisation was not statistically significant (14 ± 10 days versus 12 ± 9 days; P = 0.28). Histopathology showed cholangiocarcinoma in 2 cases (11.7%). During the follow-up period (range, 5–127 months; mean, 50.4 ± 41.9 months), 1 patient had lithiasis recurrence and 1 patient died for the co-existing cholangiocarcinoma.
Hepatic resection is the treatment of choice in patients with single lobe hepatolithiasis. An early indication for surgery may reduce the mortality/morbidity rates of hepatic resection for hepatolithiasis.
PMCID: PMC1964647  PMID: 16834860
Hepatolithiasis; Resective surgery; Western country
18.  AB 46. Lost in time pulmonary metastases of renal cell carcinoma: complete surgical resection of metachronous metastases, 18 and 15 years after nephrectomy 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB46.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is resistant to most systemic treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy) having limited response to immunotherapy. Better results have been achieved with anti-angiogenic treatment, indicated in metastatic disease. Nevertheless, surgery remains the only potentially curative treatment. In metastatic disease, complete metastasectomy improves the prognosis, and surgery should be evaluated despite improved results of newer systemic treatments. One of the commonest sites of synchronous or metachronous RCC metastases is the lung. In the majority of patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, metastases occur within 5 years after initial nephrectomy. We present 2 very rare cases of surgical treatment of late multiple unilateral pulmonary metastases of clear cell RCC (ccRCC).
Patients and methods
A 77 year old woman with history of nephrectomy for ccRCC (15 years ago) and mastectomy for breast cancer (13 years ago), underwent complete metastasectomy (wedged resections) through a video-assisted right mini-thoracotomy. A 66 year old man with history of nephrectomy for ccRCC (18 years ago) underwent complete metastasectomy (right upper and middle bilobectomy and right lower lobe nodule wedged resection) through a right anterolateral thoracotomy. In both patients pulmonary nodules were revealed on thoracic imaging during investigation of other diseases. Both patients had good performance status, absence of enlarged mediastinal lymph-nodes, pleural infiltration and extrapulmonary disease. Histology revealed ccRCC metastases in 2 and 6 pulmonary nodules (respectively).
The resection was deemed complete in both patients, who had uneventful postoperative courses, were discharged home on the 3rd, and 4th postoperative day and remain alive and well 1-year, and 5-months after metastasectomy (respectively).
The 5-year survival after RCC pulmonary metastasectomy varied between 21-83%. Good prognostic factors identified were: complete resection, absence of: mediastinal lymph-nodes, pleural infiltration, and extrapulmonary disease at metastasectomy, absence of positive lymph-nodes at initial nephrectomy, lower number and size, solitary (vs. multiple), metachronous (vs. synchronous) metastases, higher disease free interval. There are very few reports of very late lung metastasectomy and the long-term results are lacking. Nevertheless, complete metastasectomy performed in selected patients with resectable disease and good clinical status appears associated with low postoperative morbidity and mortality, and satisfactory short/medium-term results.
PMCID: PMC3537339
19.  Memory reorganization following anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional MRI study 
Brain  2013;136(6):1889-1900.
Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50–60% of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy but may impair memory function, typically verbal memory following left, and visual memory following right anterior temporal lobe resection. Functional reorganization can occur within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. We investigated the reorganization of memory function in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy before and after left or right anterior temporal lobe resection and the efficiency of postoperative memory networks. We studied 46 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (25/26 left hippocampal sclerosis, 16/20 right hippocampal sclerosis) before and after anterior temporal lobe resection on a 3 T General Electric magnetic resonance imaging scanner. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for words, pictures and faces, testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session, preoperatively and again 4 months after surgery. Event-related analysis revealed that patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy had greater activation in the left posterior medial temporal lobe when successfully encoding words postoperatively than preoperatively. Greater pre- than postoperative activation in the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe for encoding words correlated with better verbal memory outcome after left anterior temporal lobe resection. In contrast, greater postoperative than preoperative activation in the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe correlated with worse postoperative verbal memory performance. These postoperative effects were not observed for visual memory function after right anterior temporal lobe resection. Our findings provide evidence for effective preoperative reorganization of verbal memory function to the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe due to the underlying disease, suggesting that it is the capacity of the posterior remnant of the ipsilateral hippocampus rather than the functional reserve of the contralateral hippocampus that is important for maintaining verbal memory function after anterior temporal lobe resection. Early postoperative reorganization to ipsilateral posterior or contralateral medial temporal lobe structures does not underpin better performance. Additionally our results suggest that visual memory function in right temporal lobe epilepsy is affected differently by right anterior temporal lobe resection than verbal memory in left temporal lobe epilepsy.
PMCID: PMC3673465  PMID: 23715092
temporal lobe epilepsy; functional MRI; verbal memory; visual memory; anterior temporal lobe resection
20.  Factors associated with epileptic seizure of cavernous malformations in the central nervous system in West China 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(5):1116-1121.
Objective: To explore the factors associated with preoperative and postoperative epileptic seizure in patients with cavernous malformations (CMs).
Methods: A total of 52 consecutive patients from January 2009 to June 2011 who underwent surgical treatment in West China Hospital of Sichuan University due to CMs and confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively reviewed.Patients were divided into two groups (epilepsy-group and non-epilepsy group) according to clinical presentation. Other clinical data, treatment procedure, and follow-up information were collected. Engel classification was used to evaluate seizure outcome.
Results: Low birth weight, temporal lobe involvement and cortical lesion showed significant difference between two groups (p=0.017, 0.003 and 0.025 respectively). Cortical lesion highly increased risk for preoperative epileptic seizure (OR=10.48; 95% CI 1.61-68.23). After a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, 77.8% of epileptic patients achieved Engel class I. Temporal lobe involvement, lesion size < 2.5cm and surgery within one year of symptom onset were found associated with better seizure outcome (p=0.016, 0.012 and 0.050). Temporal lobe involvement significantly decreased the risk for postoperative epileptic seizure (OR=0.038; 95% CI 0.002-0.833). Application of ECoG made no significant difference to seizure outcome (p=0.430). Most patients need continuing medication therapy after surgery.
Conclusion: Surgical treatment of patient with CMs is satisfactory in most cases and temporal lobe involvement usually predict favourable postoperative seizure outcome whether under the monitoring of ECoG or not. Thus, epileptic patients with CMs should be considered for surgical treatment especially when cortical brain layer or temporal lobe was involved.
PMCID: PMC3858921  PMID: 24353703
Cerebral cavernous malformation; Epilepsy; Neurosurgery; Risk factors
21.  Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study 
Brain  2014;137(5):1439-1453.
Temporal lobe surgery can control seizures in drug-resistant epilepsy, but its impact on working memory is poorly understood. Using functional MRI, Stretton et al. reveal improvements in working memory post-surgery, which depend upon the functional capacity of the hippocampal remnant and the functional reserve of the contralateral hippocampus.
Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50–80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investigated the impact of temporal lobe resection on the efficiency and functional anatomy of working memory networks. We studied 33 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (16 left) before, 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were also assessed in parallel. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a visuospatial working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm on these three separate occasions. Changes in activation and deactivation patterns were modelled individually and compared between groups. Changes in task performance were included as regressors of interest to assess the efficiency of changes in the networks. Left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients were impaired on preoperative measures of working memory compared to controls. Working memory performance did not decline following left or right temporal lobe resection, but improved at 3 and 12 months following left and, to a lesser extent, following right anterior temporal lobe resection. After left anterior temporal lobe resection, improved performance correlated with greater deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant and the contralateral right hippocampus. There was a failure of increased deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant at 3 months after left temporal lobe resection compared to control subjects, which had normalized 12 months after surgery. Following right anterior temporal lobe resection there was a progressive increase of activation in the right superior parietal lobe at 3 and 12 months after surgery. There was greater deactivation of the right hippocampal remnant compared to controls between 3 and 12 months after right anterior temporal lobe resection that was associated with lesser improvement in task performance. Working memory improved after anterior temporal lobe resection, particularly following left-sided resections. Postoperative working memory was reliant on the functional capacity of the hippocampal remnant and, following left resections, the functional reserve of the right hippocampus. These data suggest that working memory following temporal lobe resection is dependent on the engagement of the posterior medial temporal lobes and eloquent cortex.
PMCID: PMC3999723  PMID: 24691395
working memory; temporal lobe surgery; epilepsy; functional MRI
22.  Anesthetic complications including two cases of postoperative respiratory depression in living liver donor surgery 
Living liver donation is becoming a more common means to treat patients with liver failure because of a shortage of cadaveric organs and tissues. There is a potential for morbidity and mortality, however, in patients who donate a portion of their liver. The purpose of this study is to identify anesthetic complications and morbidity resulting from living liver donor surgery.
Patients and Methods:
The anesthetic records of all patients who donated a segment of their liver between January 1997 and January 2006 at University of Minnesota Medical Center-Fairview were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical and anesthesia time, blood loss, hospitalization length, complications, morbidity, and mortality were recorded. Data were reported as absolute values, mean ± SD, or percentage. Significance (P < 0.05) was determined using Student's paired t tests.
Seventy-four patients (34 male, 40 female, mean age = 35.5 ± 9.8 years) donated a portion of their liver and were reviewed in the study. Fifty-seven patients (77%) donated the right hepatic lobe, while 17 (23%) donated a left hepatic segment. The average surgical time for all patients was 7.8 ± 1.5 hours, the anesthesia time was 9.0 ± 1.3 hours, and the blood loss was 423 ± 253 ml. Forty-six patients (62.2%) received autologous blood either from a cell saver or at the end of surgery following acute, normovolemic hemodilution, but none required an allogenic transfusion. Two patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory depression. Both patients donated their right hepatic lobe. One required reintubation in the recovery room and remained intubated overnight. The other was extubated but required observation in the intensive care unit for a low respiratory rate. Twelve patients (16.2%) had complaints of nausea, and two reported nausea with vomiting during their hospital stay. There were four patients who developed complications related to positioning during the surgery: Two patients complained of numbness and tingling in the hands which resolved within two days, one patient reported a blister on the hand, and one patient complained of right elbow pain that resolved quickly. Postoperative hospitalization averaged 7.4 ± 1.5 days. There was no patient mortality.
Living liver donation can be performed with low morbidity. However, postoperative respiratory depression is a concern and is perhaps due to altered metabolism of administered narcotics and anesthetic agents.
PMCID: PMC3161463  PMID: 21897509
Anesthesia; complications; living liver donor surgery; respiratory depression
23.  The need to redefine non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in childhood 
Thorax  2004;59(4):324-327.
Background: Non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis has previously been reported to be rare and progressive in children living in western societies.
Method: A clinical and radiological review was undertaken of 93 children with non-CF bronchiectasis defined by high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning presenting to a tertiary paediatric respiratory centre since 1996.
Results: Cases constituted 9.6% of all new referrals. Male to female ratio was 2:1. Median age at symptom onset was 1.1 years (range 0–16) and of HRCT diagnosis was 7.2 years (1.6–18.8). The most common referral diagnosis of asthma was refuted in 39 of 45 cases. Associations were previous pneumonic illness (30%), immunocompromise (21%), obliterative bronchiolitis (9%), congenital lung abnormality (5%), chronic aspiration (3%), eosinophilic oesophagitis (2%), familial syndrome (2%), primary ciliary dyskinesia (1%), and right middle lobe syndrome (1%). 8% had two associated diagnoses and 18% were idiopathic. There was agreement between the chest radiograph and HRCT scan for diagnosis and lobe affected in only five cases (5%). A repeat HRCT scan in 18 cases at a minimum interval of 18 months showed total resolution of the changes in six, improvement in one, progression in five, and was unchanged in six.
Conclusions: Radiologically defined non-CF bronchiectasis in children is not uncommon. Diagnostic delay is a problem. The most common association is a previous pneumonia. Chest radiography is of little diagnostic value, but resolution is possible on HRCT scanning. Bronchiectasis is currently defined as a condition which is both permanent and progressive. This term is not necessarily appropriate for all paediatric patients for whom we suggest an alternative nomenclature.
PMCID: PMC1763810  PMID: 15047953
24.  Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection 
Brain  2010;133(4):1186-1199.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate the functional anatomy of cognitive processes. In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific memory impairment, typically verbal memory decline following left and visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. This study aimed to investigate reorganization of memory functions in temporal lobe epilepsy and to determine whether preoperative memory functional magnetic resonance imaging may predict memory changes following anterior temporal lobe resection. We studied 72 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (41 left) and 20 healthy controls. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for pictures, words and faces was used testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Fifty-four patients subsequently underwent left (29) or right (25) anterior temporal lobe resection. Verbal and design learning were assessed before and 4 months after surgery. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that in left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left hippocampal activation for word encoding correlated with better verbal memory. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right hippocampal activation for face encoding correlated with better visual memory. In left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left than right anterior hippocampal activation on word encoding correlated with greater verbal memory decline after left anterior temporal lobe resection, while greater left than right posterior hippocampal activation correlated with better postoperative verbal memory outcome. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right than left anterior hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation on face encoding predicted greater visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection, while greater right than left posterior hippocampal activation correlated with better visual memory outcome. Stepwise linear regression identified asymmetry of activation for encoding words and faces in the ipsilateral anterior medial temporal lobe as strongest predictors for postoperative verbal and visual memory decline. Activation asymmetry, language lateralization and performance on preoperative neuropsychological tests predicted clinically significant verbal memory decline in all patients who underwent left anterior temporal lobe resection, but were less able to predict visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperative memory functional magnetic resonance imaging was the strongest predictor of verbal and visual memory decline following anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperatively, verbal and visual memory function utilized the damaged, ipsilateral hippocampus and also the contralateral hippocampus. Memory function in the ipsilateral posterior hippocampus may contribute to better preservation of memory after surgery.
PMCID: PMC2850579  PMID: 20157009
functional MRI; verbal and visual memory; temporal lobe epilepsy; anterior temporal lobe resection
25.  Role of infection in the middle lobe syndrome in asthma. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1992;67(5):592-594.
Twenty one children with asthma aged 1.0-10.5 years (mean (SD) 3.3 (2.5) years) were admitted to the hospital to evaluate pulmonary right middle lobe or lingular collapse lasting one to 12 months (mean (SD) 4.4 (3.8) months). Seven children had mild asthma and were treated with inhaled beta 2 agonists as needed. Nine had moderate asthma treated with either sodium cromoglycate or slow release theophylline. Five had severe asthma treated with inhaled steroids. Each child underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy under local anaesthesia and a bronchoalveolar lavage. Differential cell counts of the lavage fluid revealed predominance of neutrophils in 12 patients (57%). In nine of these patients cultures grew pathogenic bacteria, mainly Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. There was no correlation between the severity of asthma and a positive bacterial culture. There was also no correlation between the duration of the right middle lobe collapse and a positive culture. We conclude that longstanding right middle lobe collapse in asthmatic children is often associated with bacterial infection.
PMCID: PMC1793699  PMID: 1599294

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