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1.  Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe: a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome 
OBJECTIVES
Middle lobe syndrome is a well-known clinical condition. In this retrospective study, we report our experience with a similar clinicopathological condition affecting the left lower lobe.
METHODS
The data of 17 patients with atelectasis or bronchiectasis of the left lower lobe who underwent lobectomy during the period from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, radiological and surgical data were collected.
RESULTS
Seventeen patients were included in this study, only one adult male patient of 52 years and 16 children. The paediatric patients were 10 boys and 6 girls, their age ranged from 2 to 11 years, mean 6.19 ± 2.6 years. Most patients presented with recurrent respiratory infection 15/17 (88.2%). The lag time before referral to surgery ranged from 3 to 48 months, mean 17.59 ± 13.1 months. Radiological signs of bronchiectasis were found in 11 (64.7%) patients. Bronchoscopy showed patent lower lobe bronchus in all patients. The criteria for lobectomy were evidence of bronchiectasis [11 (64.71%) patients], persistent atelectasis of the lobe after bronchoscopy and intensive medical therapy for a maximum of 2 months [6 (35.29%) patients]. Histopathological examination showed bronchiectasis in 11 (64.71%) patients, fibrosing pneumonitis in 4 (23.53%) patients and peribronchial inflammation in 2 (11.76%) patients. Most patients were doing well 1 year after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS
Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe is a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome. Impaired collateral ventilation together with airway plugging with secretion is an accepted explanation. Surgical resection is indicated for bronchiectatic lobe or failure of 2-month intensive medical therapy to resolve lobar atelectasis.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs305
PMCID: PMC3445383  PMID: 22761114
Middle lobe syndrome; Atelectasis; Bronchiectasis; Lobectomy
2.  Ten Years’ Experience in Surgical Treatment of Right Middle Lobe Syndrome 
Purpose: In this study we present the clinical, radiological, pathological, bronchoscopic and surgical results of 40 patients with diagnosis of middle lobe syndrome who were referred to our thoracic surgery unit for surgical intervention in a 10 years period.
Methods: Forty patients with obstructive and non-obstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome referred to our thoracic surgery unit. Clinical data were collected from the patients’ records in a ten years period. This study evaluates diagnostic approaches and surgical treatments in right middle lobe syndrome.
Results: We studied 23 females (57.5%) and 17 males (42.5%) with a mean age of 31.7. Clinical findings were cough 95%, sputum 80% and intermittent hemoptysis in 50% of patients. Middle lobe collapse was seen in CT scan of all patients. Bronchiectasis was the most common pathologic finding (55%). Tuberculosis was not rare and was final pathology in 20% of patients. In three patients ruptured hydatid cyst was final finding. Surgery was done without mortality and with only minor complications.
Conclusion: Lobectomy of right middle lobe is a good therapeutic option in these patients. Due to high prevalence of tuberculosis and hydatid cyst in Middle Eastern countries these two must be considered as causes of middle lobe syndrome.
doi:10.5761/atcs.oa.14-00273
PMCID: PMC4904871  PMID: 25753209
Middle Lobe Syndrome; Bronchiectasis; Hydatid Cyst; Tuberculosis; Surgery
3.  Clinical study on safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in both donors and recipients 
AIM: To investigate the safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) in both donors and recipients.
METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2006, 50 cases of A-A LDLT were performed at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, consisting of 47 cases using right lobe graft without middle hepatic vein (MHV), and 3 cases using dual grafts (one case using two left lobe, 2 using one right lobe and one left lobe). The most common diagnoses were hepatitis B liver cirrosis, 30 (60%) cases; and hepatocellular carcinoma, 15 (30%) cases in adult recipients. Among them, 10 cases had the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) with a score of more than 25. Donor screening consisted of reconstruction of the hepatic blood vessels and biliary system with 3-dimension computed tomography and volumetry of whole liver and right liver volume. Various improved surgical techniques were adopted in the procedures for both donors and recipients.
RESULTS: Forty-nine right lobes and 3 left lobes (2 left lobe grafts for 1 recipient, 1 left lobe graft for 1 recipient who had received right lobe graft donated by relative living donor) were obtained from 52 living donors. The 49 right lobe grafts, without MHV, weighed 400 g-850 g (media 550 g), and the ratio of graft volume to recipient standard liver volume (GV/SLV) ranged from 31.74% to 71.68% (mean 45.35%). All donors’ remnant liver volume was over 35% of the whole liver volume. There was no donor mortality. With a follow-up of 2-52 mo (media 9 mo), among 50 adult recipients, complications occurred in 13 (26%) cases and 4 (8%) died postoperatively within 3 mo. Their 1-year actual survival rate was 92%.
CONCLUSION: When preoperative CT volumetry shows volume of remnant liver is more than 35%, the ratio of right lobe graft to recipients standard liver volume exceeding 40%, A-A LDLT using right lobe graft without MHV should be a very safe procedure for both donors and recipients, otherwise dual grafts liver transplantation should be considered.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i6.955
PMCID: PMC4065937  PMID: 17352031
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation; Middle hepatic vein; Dual grafts; Right lobe graft; Standard liver volume; Grafts; Weight; Complication
4.  Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary sequestration 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(1):31-35.
Objective
To analyze the characteristics and technical difficulties of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS) for treatment of pulmonary sequestration operation.
Methods
25 cases of c-VATS lobectomy for intrapulmonary sequestration performed between January 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed. The 25 patients included 13 (52%) males and 12 (48%) females, with a mean age of 34.7 years (range, 16-62 years). Preoperative imaging by CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction of abnormal blood vessels diagnosed 19 cases as pulmonary sequestration, misdiagnosed 1 case as pulmonary cyst syndrome, 4 cases as bronchiectasis and 1 case as benign tumor.
Results
All the patients underwent c-VATS excision, 16 in the left lower lobe, 7 in the right lower lobe, 1 in right middle lobe and 1 extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Vascular abnormality was observed intraoperative including the thoracic aorta in 20 cases, abdominal aorta in 2 cases, phrenic arteries and intercostal artery in 1 cases and thoracic aorta combined with abdominal aorta in 1 case. No conversion to open was achieved in all cases. The mean operating time was 114.2 mins (range, 78-156 mins), the mean blood loss was 228 mL (range, 50-3,000 mL), the mean duration of chest drainage was 3.2 days (range, 2-7 days) and the mean length of post-operative hospital stay was 6.6 days (range, 3-13 days). There was no mortality, without significant postoperative complications, were cured and discharged. Patients were followed up for 2-32 months, mean 21.4 months, with no recurrence.
Conclusions
c-VATS is feasible, effective, and safe in treatment of pulmonary sequestration. It is worthy of clinical application.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.01.01
PMCID: PMC3548003  PMID: 23372948
Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS); pulmonary sequestration; treatment
5.  Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome 
Brain  2014;138(1):80-93.
See Berg (doi:10.1093/brain/awu320) for a scientific commentary on this article.
In a long-term follow-up study of children who underwent temporal lobe surgery for treatment of epilepsy, Skirrow et al. identify no significant pre-to-post-surgery memory losses, but instead robust improvements in memory functions supported by the unoperated temporal lobe. The integrity of remaining temporal lobe structures places constraints on long-term memory outcomes.
The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5–15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection volumes and greater temporal pole integrity after left temporal surgery. Results were independent of post-surgical intellectual function and language lateralization. Our findings indicate post-surgical, hemisphere-dependent material-specific improvement in memory functions in the intact temporal lobe. However, outcome was linked to the anatomical integrity of the temporal lobe memory system, indicating that compensatory mechanisms are constrained by the amount of tissue which remains in the operated temporal lobe. Careful tailoring of resections for children undergoing epilepsy surgery may enhance long-term memory outcome.
doi:10.1093/brain/awu313
PMCID: PMC4285190  PMID: 25392199
drug-resistant epilepsy; epilepsy surgery; children; memory; hippocampus
6.  Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(5):e180.
Background
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a β-herpesvirus with 90% seroprevalence that infects and establishes latency in the central nervous system. Two HHV-6 variants are known: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Active infection or reactivation of HHV-6 in the brain is associated with neurological disorders, including epilepsy, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis. In a preliminary study, we found HHV-6B DNA in resected brain tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and have localized viral antigen to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)–positive glia in the same brain sections. We sought, first, to determine the extent of HHV-6 infection in brain material resected from MTLE and non-MTLE patients; and second, to establish in vitro primary astrocyte cultures from freshly resected brain material and determine expression of glutamate transporters.
Methods and Findings
HHV-6B infection in astrocytes and brain specimens was investigated in resected brain material from MTLE and non-MTLE patients using PCR and immunofluorescence. HHV-6B viral DNA was detected by TaqMan PCR in brain resections from 11 of 16 (69%) additional patients with MTLE and from zero of seven (0%) additional patients without MTLE. All brain regions that tested positive by HHV-6B variant-specific TaqMan PCR were positive for viral DNA by nested PCR. Primary astrocytes were isolated and cultured from seven epilepsy brain resections and astrocyte purity was defined by GFAP reactivity. HHV-6 gp116/54/64 antigen was detected in primary cultured GFAP-positive astrocytes from resected tissue that was HHV-6 DNA positive—the first demonstration of an ex vivo HHV-6–infected astrocyte culture isolated from HHV-6–positive brain material. Previous work has shown that MTLE is related to glutamate transporter dysfunction. We infected astrocyte cultures in vitro with HHV-6 and found a marked decrease in glutamate transporter EAAT-2 expression.
Conclusions
Overall, we have now detected HHV-6B in 15 of 24 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis/MTLE, in contrast to zero of 14 with other syndromes. Our results suggest a potential etiology and pathogenic mechanism for MTLE.
Steve Jacobson and colleagues report finding human herpesvirus-6B DNA in brain resections from 11 of 16 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, strengthening the evidence for a role for this virus in this condition.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Epilepsy is a common brain disorder caused by a sudden, excessive electrical discharge in a cluster of neurons—the cells that transmit electrical messages between the body and the brain. Its symptoms depend on which part of the brain is affected by this electrical firestorm and how far the disturbance spreads. When only part of the brain is affected (a partial seizure or fit), patients may see or smell strange things, recall forgotten memories, or have part of their body jerk uncontrollably. When the electrical disturbance spreads across the whole brain (a generalized seizure), there may be loss of consciousness and/or the whole body may become rigid or jerk. Epilepsy is usually controlled with anti-epileptic drugs or, in very severe focal cases, surgery to the area of the brain where the seizure starts. Although head injuries or brain tumors can trigger epilepsy, the cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown.
Why Was This Study Done?
Knowing what causes epilepsy might lead to better treatments for it. One possibility is that infections trigger epilepsy. The researchers in this study asked whether infections with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) are associated with a common type of epilepsy called mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Patients with MTLE often have extensive scarring in the hippocampus, a brain region responsible for memory that lies deep within a bigger region called the temporal lobe. Hippocampal scarring and MTLE are associated with a history of fever-induced fits, and HHV-6B infection can cause such fits in young children. Most people become infected with HHV-6B (or the closely related HHV-6A) early in life. The virus then remains latent for years within the brain and elsewhere. Given these facts and a previous investigation that showed that brain tissue from several patients with MTLE contained HHV-6B, the researchers reasoned that it was worth investigating HHV-6B as a cause of MTLE.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first looked for HHV-6B DNA in brain tissue surgically removed from patients with MTLE or another type of epilepsy. Tissue from 11 of 16 patients with MTLE (but from 0 of 7 control patients) contained HHV-6B DNA. When the researchers grew astrocytes (a type of brain cell) from some of these samples, only those from HHV-6B DNA-positive samples from patients with MTLE expressed an HHV-6-specific protein. Next, the researchers investigated in detail a patient with MTLE who had four sequential operations to control his epilepsy. This patient's hippocampus, which was removed in his first operation, contained a higher level of HHV-6B DNA than the tissues removed in later operations. After the fourth operation (which removed half of his brain and cured his epilepsy), astrocytes grown from the temporal lobe and the frontal/parietal lobe (a brain region next to the temporal lobe) but not the frontal and occipital lobes contained HHV-6B DNA and expressed a viral protein. The researchers also measured the production by these various astrocytes of a substance that moves glutamate (an amino acid that also acts as a neurotransmitter) across cell membranes—MTLE has been associated with a glutamate transporter deficiency. Consistent with this, astrocytes from the patient's temporal lobe made no glutamate transporter mRNA (mRNA is an essential precursor for protein to be produced). Finally, infection of astrocytes isolated from a patient without MTLE with HHV-6B greatly reduced expression of glutamate transporter in these astrocytes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings, together with those from the previous study, reveal that nearly two-thirds of patients with MTLE (but no patients with other forms of epilepsy) have an active HHV-6B infection in the brain region where their epilepsy originates. Overall, they provide strong support for the idea that HHV-6B infections might cause MTLE, particularly given the results obtained from the patient whose condition only improved after multiple brain operations had removed all the virally infected material. Furthermore, the demonstration that HHV-6B infection reduces glutamate transporter expression in astrocytes suggests that HHV-6B infection might cause astrocyte dysfunction. This dysfunction could lead to injury of the sensitive neurons in the hippocampus and trigger MTLE. Additional patients now need to be studied both to confirm the association between HHV-6B infection and MTLE and to discover exactly how this virus triggers epilepsy.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040180.
MedlinePlus encyclopedia page on epilepsy (in English and Spanish)
World Health Organization fact sheet on epilepsy (in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese)
US National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke epilepsy information page (in English and Spanish)
UK National Health Service Direct information for patients on epilepsy (in several languages)
Neuroscience for kids, an educational Web site prepared by Eric Chudler (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States), who also has a site that includes information on epilepsy and a list of links to epilepsy organizations (mainly in English but some sections in other languages as well)
A short scientific article on human herpes virus 6 in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040180
PMCID: PMC1880851  PMID: 17535102
7.  A case report: right upper lobectomy with middle lobe preservation after right lower lobectomy 
Few reports have described right upper and lower lobectomy with preservation of the middle lobe because of the risk of middle lobe torsion or emphysematous change. Herein we describe a successful result following lobectomy with preservation of the middle lobe for metachronous pulmonary metastasis originating from colon cancer in the right upper lobe after initial right lower lobectomy. A 69-year-old man who had undergone right lower lobectomy for pulmonary metastasis originating from colon cancer 3 years earlier was diagnosed as having suspected metachronous pulmonary metastasis in the right upper lobe. Because preoperative computed tomography (CT) indicated that the distance between the tumor and the entrance of the upper bronchus was 20 mm, it was considered difficult to achieve complete resection by a wedge resection or segmentectomy. Furthermore, preoperative CT demonstrated compensatory hypertrophy of the middle lobe and elevation of the right diaphragm, thus reducing the size of the thorax. Therefore, right upper lobectomy with middle lobe preservation was planned. The operation was performed using a totally thoracoscopic approach. Adhesion of the upper lobe to the chest wall was easily detached. As the middle lobe adhered to the chest wall, this served to prevent middle lobe torsion. The fissure between the upper and middle lobes had fused because of adhesion resulting from the initial lower lobectomy. Therefore, an ‘anterior fissureless approach’ was adopted to avoid any postoperative air leakage. There were no intraoperative problems, and the postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 6. Pathological examination of the specimen confirmed that the tumor was a metachronous pulmonary metastasis originating from the colon cancer. Four months after the operation, he had no requirement for additional oxygen support, and postoperative CT demonstrated a sufficiently expanded residual middle lobe without emphysematous change.
doi:10.1186/s40792-015-0026-4
PMCID: PMC4747960  PMID: 26943387
Right upper lobectomy; Middle lobe preservation; Right lower lobectomy; Pulmonary metastasis
8.  Transcription factor ERG is a specific and sensitive diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma 
AIM: To investigate the expression of ERG, CD34, CD31 (PECAM-1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) and factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIRAg) in the diagnosis of hepatic angiosarcoma patients.
METHODS: Patient samples were collected from January 1986 to December 2012 from the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing, China. We obtained twenty-four samples of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) that were confirmed by two pathologist. The samples were the result of three autopsy cases, eight biopsy cases and 13 patients who underwent surgical tumor removal. The HAS cases accounted for 2.23% (24/1075) of all hepatic vascular tumors at the hospital during the same time period. Patient histories including age, gender, clinical manifestations, medical treatments, laboratory tests, radiological images, histological observations and outcomes for each case were analyzed in detail. All samples were evaluated histologically with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression and localization of ERG was examined in all HAS specimens and compared to the known endothelial markers CD34, CD31 and FVIIIRAg. The endothelial markers were also evaluated in a panel of non-HAS tumors.
RESULTS: This cohort of 24 HAS cases is, to the best of our knowledge, currently the largest cohort in the world in the publicly available literature. Hepatic angiosarcoma tissue samples were obtained from 14 males and 10 females with a mean age of 50.6 years (range: 7-86 years). The patients presented with the following clinical manifestations: abdominal pain (16/24), back pain (3/24), heart palpitations (1/20), cough (1/24) or no clinical symptoms (3/24). Tumors were predominantly localized in the right hepatic lobe (15/24) or left hepatic lobe (6/24), or a diffuse growth on the right and left hepatic lobes (3/24). Eleven patients underwent surgical resection (45.8%), two patients received a liver transplant (8.3%), eight patients received interventional therapy (33.3%) and three patients received no treatment (lesions discovered at autopsy, 12.5%). Postoperative follow-up of patients revealed that 87.5% (21/24) of patients had died and three cases were not able to be tracked. In all cases, the mean survival time was 12.1 mo. While 100% of the HAS samples were positive for ERG expression, expression of the other markers was more variable. CD31 was expressed in 79.2% (19/24) of samples, CD34 was expressed in 87.5% (21/24) of samples and FVIIIRAg was expressed in 41.7% (10/24) of samples.
CONCLUSION: ERG is a more sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma in comparison to CD31, CD34 and FVIIIRAg.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i13.3672
PMCID: PMC3974537  PMID: 24707153
Liver; Angiosarcoma; ERG; Immunohistochemistry; Diagnosis
9.  Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*  
OBJECTIVE:
To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period.
METHODS:
We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up.
RESULTS:
During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed.
CONCLUSIONS:
Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective.
doi:10.1590/S1806-37132013000400004
PMCID: PMC4075869  PMID: 24068262
Respiratory system abnormalities; Congenital abnormalities; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Pulmonary emphysema
10.  Nodal involvement pattern in resectable lung cancer according to tumor location 
The aim in this study was to define the pattern of lymph node metastasis according to the primary tumor location. In this retrospective cohort study, each of the operable patients diagnosed with lung cancer was grouped by tumor mass location. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer nodal chart with stations and zones, established in 2009, was used to define lymph node levels. From 2006 to 2010, 197 patients underwent a lobectomy with systematic nodal resection for primary lung cancer at Chiang Mai University Hospital. There were 123 male and 74 female patients, with ages ranging from 16– 85 years old and an average age of 61.31. Analyses of tumor location, histology type, and nodal metastasis were performed. The locations were the right upper lobe in 63 patients (31.98%), the right middle lobe in 18 patients (9.14%), the right lower lobe in 30 patients (15.23%), the left upper lobe in 55 patients (27.92%), the left lower lobe in 16 patients (8.12%), and mixed lobes (more than one lobe) in 15 patients (7.61%). The mean tumor size was 4.45 cm in diameter (range 1.2–16.5 cm). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type, which occurred in 132 cases (67.01%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma in 41 cases (20.81%), bronchiolo alveolar cell carcinoma in nine cases (4.57%), and large cell carcinoma in seven cases (3.55%). Eighteen cases (9.6%) had skip metastasis (mediastinal lymph node metastasis without hilar node metastasis). Adenocarcinoma and intratumoral lymphatic invasion were the predictors of mediastinal lymph node metastases. There were statistically significant differences between a tumor in the right upper lobe and the right lower lobe. However, there were no statistically significant differences between tumors in the other lobes. In conclusion, tumor location is not a precise predictor of the pattern of nodal metastasis. Systematic lymph node dissection is the only way to accurately determine lymph node status. Further studies are required for evaluation and conclusions.
doi:10.2147/CMAR.S30526
PMCID: PMC3379857  PMID: 22740775
lung cancer; nodal metastasis
11.  Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis: a retrospective observational study of 138 patients 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(3):228-233.
Background
We analyzed cases of bronchiectasis; its presentation, etiology, diagnosis, indications for surgery, surgical approach, and the outcome.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of 138 patients who underwent surgery for bronchiectasis.
Results
The mean age was 30.2±15.7 years. 55.8% patients were males. Symptoms were recurrent infection with cough in all patients, fetid sputum (79.7%), and hemoptysis (22.5%). The etiology was recurrent childhood infection (38.4%), pneumonia (29%), TB (9.4%), sequestration (4.3%), foreign body obstruction (4.3%), and unknown etiology (14.5%). CXR, CT scan, and bronchoscope were done for all patients. Bronchiectasis was left-sided in (55.1%) of patients. It was mainly confined to the lower lobes either alone (50.7%) or in conjunction with middle lobe or lingual (7.2%). Indications for resection were failure of conservative therapy (71.7%), hemoptysis (15.9%), destroyed lung (8%), and sequestration (4.3%). Surgery was lobectomy (81.2%), bilobectomy (8.7%), and pneumonectomy (8%). Complications occurred in 13% with no operative mortality. 84% of patients had relief of their preoperative symptoms.
Conclusions
Surgery for bronchiectasis can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality at any age for localized disease. Proper selection and preparation of the patients and complete resection of the involved sites are required for the optimum control of symptoms and better outcomes.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.04.11
PMCID: PMC3698249  PMID: 23825752
Bronchiactesis; pneumonia; TB; lobectomy; bilobectomy; pneumonectomy
12.  Isolated middle lobe atelectasis: aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the so-called middle lobe syndrome. 
Thorax  1980;35(6):449-452.
Isolated atelectasis of the middle lobe has been known for many years as the "middle lobe syndrome". Several clinical studies have shown that it may bae caused by malignant tumours. A 10-year study of 135 patients with isolated middle lobe atelectasis is presented. Fifty-eight patients (43%) had malignant tumours. Of 38 who had a thoracotomy, lung resection was possible in 25. In 20 patients regional or systemic dissemination of the tumour had been diagnosed before operation. Seventy-seven patients had benign diseases, of which 74 were non-specific infections. Bronchography was performed in 46 of these cases, and all had abnormal findings in the middle lobe, eight revealing definite bronchiectasis. In three cases tuberculosis was found. In 16 cases the benign diagnosis was established at thoracotomy. Only three patients out of 58 with malignant tumours lived more than five years. Atelectasis of the middle lobe is always a sign of potential malignancy especially in patients with a previously normal chest radiograph.
PMCID: PMC471309  PMID: 7434301
13.  AB 27. Unusual presentation of a pulmonary hamartoma 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB27.
Background
Presentation of an unusual case of pulmonary hamartoma.
Materials and methods
Clinical presentation, imaging and outcome.
Results
A male patient, 73 years old, ex-smoker, 80 pack-years, was admitted at the outpatient department, complaining of acute, intense dyspnea, right-sided and retrosternal chest pain for the past few hours and hemoptysis for the past 12 days. Medical history: chronic obstructive airway disease (FEV1: 1.72 L - 63% predicted), carotid and abdominal aortic aneurysm and two temporary ischemic vascular episodes. Chest radiograph showed elevation of the right hemidiaphragm, infiltrates at the right upper and middle lung field and traction of the trachea to the right. Due to resistant hypoxemia (pO2: 49 mmHg, pCO2: 39 mmHg, ph: 7.4 on 30 lt O2/min) he was intubated and put on mechanical ventilation. After intubation his radiograph showed complete atelectasis of the right lung. Computed tomography with i.v. contrast infusion revealed no vascular thrombi, but a thelomatous projection in the lumen of the right main bronchus, causing atelectasis to segments of all the lobes of the right lung. Bronchoscopy was performed, showing a mass occluding the right main bronchus. Two successful attempts were made for partial debulking of the mass bronchoscopically, as the initial oxygenation of the patient was difficult, with an FiO2 of 100%. With a tentative diagnosis of hamartoma, a right upper lobectomy (sleeve resection) was performed (the mass originated from the posterior segment of the upper lobe) and hamartoma was confirmed. Afterwards the patient had pump failure and required tracheostomy and prolonged mechanical ventilation with gradual amelioration. The tracheostomy was finally closed and the patient was released in excellent condition after a two-month hospital stay. Pulmonary hamartomas usually present as an asymptomatic peripheral nodule and are the commonest benign pulmonary nodules (75%). In big series endobronchial localization is less than 6%, while in another study obstructive signs were present in 14%. The present case was unusual in that it presented with respiratory failure requiring intubation, due to the position of the lesion very close to the origin of the right mainstem bronchus.
Conclusions
Even benign pulmonary tumors may mimic an advanced lung carcinoma, so special attention is needed in the diagnostic procedures.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s027
PMCID: PMC3537420
14.  A long-term study assessing the factors influencing survival and morbidity in the surgical management of bronchiectasis 
Background
Although the prevalence of bronchiectasis decreased significantly in developed countries, in less developed and in developing countries, it still represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to present our surgical experiences, the morbidity and mortality rates and outcome of surgical treatment for bronchiectasis.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 129 patients who underwent surgical resection for bronchiectasis between April 2002 and April 2010, at Van Training and Research Hospital, Thoracic Surgery Department. Variables of age, sex, symptoms, etiology, and surgical procedures, mortality, morbidity and the result of surgical therapy were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
Mean age was 21.8 year (the eldest was 67 year, the youngest was 4 years-old). Male/female ratio was 1.86 and 75% of all patients were young population under the age of 40. Bilateral involvement was 14.7%, left/right side ratio according to localization was 2.1/1. The most common reason for bronchiectasis was recurrent infection. Surgical indications were as follows: recurrent infection (54%), hemoptysis (35%), empyema (6%), and lung abscess (5%). There was no operative mortality. Complications occurred in 29 patients and the morbidity rate was 22.4%. Complete resection was achieved in 110 (85.2%) patients. Follow-up data were obtained for 123 (95%) of the patients. One patient died during follow-up. The mean follow-up of this patient was 9 months. Mean postoperative hospitalization time was 9.15 ± 6.25 days. Significantly better results were obtained in patients who had undergone a complete resection.
Conclusions
Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality at any age. The involved bronchiectatic sites should be resected completely for the optimum control of symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-6-161
PMCID: PMC3261112  PMID: 22152759
Bronchiectasis; surgical management; morbidity
15.  Catamenial pneumothorax: a rare entity? Report of 5 cases and review of the literature 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):17-31.
Objective
Spontaneous recurrent pneumothorax during menstruation is reported as catamenial pneumothorax. It is encountered in 3-6% of spontaneous pneumothorax cases among menstruating women. The percentage among women referred for surgery is significantly higher (25-30%). Although it usually involves the right-side (85-95%) it can be left-sided or bilateral. It is associated with diaphragmatic perforations and/or thoracic endometriosis. There is pelvic endometriosis in up to 30-51% of cases. The lesions that are not always found may present as small or larger holes at the central tendon of the diaphragm, as red, blueberry, brown spots or larger nodules at the diaphragm, the visceral or parietal pleura. Lesion histology may reveal endometriosis. We present 5 cases of catamenial pneumothorax treated surgically during the last 6 years.
Patients and methods
Five women, with a mean age of 34+/-9.9 years (median 38, range, 19-45 years) presented with right-sided recurrent catamenial pneumothorax. In 3 patients diaphragmatic perforation(s) were found; perforation suturing (n=1), and diaphragmatic plication reinforced with bovine pericardial patch (n=1) were performed. All patients underwent atypical resection of upper and/or middle lobe segments of lung parenchyma that appeared abnormal (haemorrhagic/emphysematous or blebs). Four patients underwent pleurodesis and 1 patient underwent pleurectomy. Four interventions were performed through video assisted thoracoscopic surgery, while diaphragmatic plication was performed through a video assisted mini-thoracotomy. Histology did not reveal endometriosis tissue.
Results
The postoperative course was uneventful. The patients were extubated in theatre and were discharged home at a mean of 7+/-4 days (median 6 days, range, 4-14 days). Two of them received hormonal therapy [Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogue] postoperatively. At a follow-up of 14.16 patient-years (mean 2.83+/-1.08 years, range, 1.33-3.83 years) there was recurrence, 6.5 months postoperatively, in one patient that had not undergone closure of a tiny diaphragmatic hole and had not received hormonal treatment postoperatively. She was treated medically (amenorrhea for 6 months with GnRH analogue) and had no further recurrences (in 3.3 years).
Conclusions
Surgery is the treatment of choice of catamenial pneumothorax. It should aim to complete management of all lesions. The most common complication is recurrence. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment including hormonal therapy may be beneficial in high risk patients.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s006
PMCID: PMC3537379  PMID: 23304438
Catamenial pneumothorax; thoracic endometriosis; video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
16.  Electrocorticography-guided resection of temporal cavernoma: is electrocorticography warranted and does it alter the surgical approach? 
Journal of neurosurgery  2009;110(6):1179-1185.
Object
Cavernous hemangiomas associated with epilepsy present an interesting surgical dilemma in terms of whether one should perform a pure lesionectomy or tailored resection, especially in the temporal lobe given the potential for cognitive damage. This decision is often guided by electrocorticography (ECoG), despite the lack of data regarding its value in cavernoma surgery. The purpose of the present study was several-fold: first, to determine the epilepsy outcome following resection of cavernomas in all brain regions; second, to evaluate the usefulness of ECoG in guiding surgical decision making; and third, to determine the optimum surgical approach for temporal lobe cavernomas.
Methods
The authors identified from their surgical database 173 patients who had undergone resection of cavernomas. One hundred two of these patients presented with epilepsy, and 61 harbored temporal lobe cavernomas. Preoperatively, all patients were initially evaluated by an epileptologist. The mean follow-up was 37 months.
Results
Regardless of the cavernoma location, surgery resulted in an excellent seizure control rate: Engel Class I outcome in 88% of patients at 2 years postoperatively. Of 61 patients with temporal lobe cavernomas, the mesial structures were involved in 35. Among the patients with temporal lobe cavernomas, those who underwent ECoG typically had a more extensive parenchymal resection rather than a lesionectomy (p < 0.0001). The use of ECoG in cases of temporal lobe cavernomas resulted in a superior seizure-free outcome: 79% (29 patients) versus 91% (23 patients) of patients at 6 months postresection, 77% (22 patients) versus 90% (20 patients) at 1 year, and 79% (14 patients) versus 83% (18 patients) at 2 years without ECoG versus with ECoG, respectively.
Conclusions
The surgical removal of cavernomas most often leads to an excellent epilepsy outcome. In cases of temporal lobe cavernomas, the more extensive the ECoG-guided resection, the better the seizure outcome. In addition to upholding the concept of kindling, the data in this study support the use of ECoG in temporal lobe cavernoma surgery in patients presenting with epilepsy.
doi:10.3171/2008.10.JNS08722
PMCID: PMC2841509  PMID: 19216651
cavernoma; electrocorticography; epilepsy
17.  AB 3. Catamenial pneumothorax: a rare entity? Report of 5 cases and review of the literature 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB3.
Background
Spontaneous recurrent pneumothorax during menstruation is reported as catamenial pneumothorax. It is encountered in 3-6% of spontaneous pneumothorax cases among menstruating women. The percentage among women referred for surgery is significantly higher (26-30%). Although it usually involves the right-side (85-95%) it can be left-sided or bilateral. It is associated with diaphragmatic perforations and/or thoracic endometriosis. There is pelvic endometriosis in up to 30-51% of cases. The lesions that are not always found may present as small or larger holes at the central tendon of the diaphragm, as red, blueberry, brown spots or larger nodules at the diaphragm, the visceral or parietal pleura. Lesion histology may reveal endometriosis. We present 5 cases of catamenial pneumothorax treated surgically during the last 6 years.
Patients and methods
Five women, with a mean age of 34+/-9.9 years (median 38, range, 19-45 years) presented with right-sided recurrent catamenial pneumothorax. In 3 patients diaphragmatic perforation(s) were found; perforation suturing (n=1), and diaphragmatic plication reinforced with bovine pericardial patch (n=1) were performed. All patients underwent atypical resection of upper and/or middle lobe segments of lung parenchyma that appeared abnormal (haemorrhagic/emphysematous or blebs). Four patients underwent pleurodesis. Four interventions were performed through video assisted thoracoscopic surgery, while diaphragmatic plication was performed through a video assisted mini-thoracotomy. Histology did not reveal endometriosis tissue.
Results
The postoperative course was uneventful. The patients were extubated in theatre and were discharged home at a mean of 7+/-4 days (median 6, range, 4-14 days). Two of them received hormonal therapy (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogue) postoperatively. At a follow-up of 14.6 patient-years (mean 2.83+/-1.08 years, range, 1.33-3.83 years) there was recurrence, 6.5 months postoperatively, in one patient that had not undergone closure of a tiny diaphragmatic hole and had not received hormonal treatment postoperatively. She was treated medically (amenorrhea for 6 months with GnRH analogue) and had no further recurrences (in 3.3 years).
Conclusions
Surgery is the treatment of choice of catamenial pneumothorax. It should aim to complete management of all lesions. The most common complication is recurrence. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment including hormonal therapy may be beneficial in high risk patients.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s107
PMCID: PMC3537426
18.  P38: Reoperation for recurrent thymoma: a single-center experience from Nanchang 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2015;7(Suppl 3):AB107.
Background
To analyze causes for recurrence of thymoma after primary operation, explore the relation between thymoma and myasthenia gravis, and summarize surgical treatments for recurrent thymoma.
Methods
Five cases of recurrent thymoma were re-operated. At primary operation all patients were complicated with myasthenia gravis, including one type I, one type IIa, one type IIb and two type C thymoma according to Osserman classification. Upon reoperation, none of these patients manifested with myasthenia gravis; and pyridostigmine bromide was withdrawn after 1 to 6 years since symptoms of myasthenia gravis were totally relieved. Post-operatively histological diagnosis were made according to the WHO classification (primary operation: three type B2 case, one type B3 case and one type C case; reoperation: three type B2 case and two type C case) and the Masaoka system (three IIb case and two III case in both primary operations and reoperations). Among these recurrent cases, one case recurred diffusively in the left pleura, left lung and left ribs, with one positive lymph node (1/10); one case recurred in the right chest cavity and transferred to the left inferior lobe; one case recurred in the right chest cavity and the right inferior lobe; one case recurred in the mediastinum, left upper lobe and the pericardium; yet another case recurred in the mediastinum, the right chest cavity, right upper lobe, superior vena cava and brachiocephalic vein. Reoperation was carried out in all recurrent cases. Sternotomy was performed in one patient for resection of mediastinal tumor, pneumonectomy and replacement of brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava with artificial blood vessel. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was performed in two cases, namely, resection of mediastinal tumor, part of left upper lobe, pericardium and the left phrenic nerve and resection of part of right lower lobe and tumor in the right thoracic cavity. Left posterolateral thoracotomy for resection of part of left upper lobe, pleural tumor and invaded ribs was performed in one patient. Yet one patient was procedured for left lower lobectomy through posterolateral thoracotomy and resection of the recurrent thymoma via VATS in the right thorax.
Results
One patient died of respiratory failure in the 14th postoperative day. Two patients died of multi-organ dysfunction in the 25th and 36th postoperative month, respectively. Two patients survived and pyridostigmine bromide was withdrawn after the symptoms of myasthenia gravis were totally relieved 1 to 6 years post-operatively.
Conclusions
(I) We proposed that thymoma recurs mainly in forms of recurrence in situ and seeding in the chest cavity, instead of metastasis via lymphatic pathway; (II) recurrence of thymoma is highly related to histological types and pathological characteristics; (III) symptoms of myasthenia gravis in recurrent patients are not highly related to the severity of the recurrent thymoma; (IV) reoperation must be performed thoroughly without tissue fragments reserved, thoracic irrigation in the end of procedure can help elimination of those fragments. Chemotherapy should be implemented in patients diagnosed with thymoma of pathological type B2 and C. Regular CT scan can help early diagnosis of recurrence, which should be reoperated without delay.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.AB107
PMCID: PMC4700322
Thymoma; recurrence; reoperation
19.  Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bronchial sleeve lobectomy 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2016;8(3):553-574.
Background
To explore the effectiveness of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction.
Methods
The clinical data of patients who had received VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy in our center from January 2008 to February 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.
Results
Totally 118 patients (105 men and 13 women) received the VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy. The procedures included sleeve resection of right upper lobe (n=59), right middle lobe (n=7), right lower lobe (n=8), left upper lobe (n=34), and left lower lobe (n=10). The lesions were confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma (n=68), adenocarcinoma (n=16), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=8), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=7), large cell carcinoma (n=1), carcinoids (n=5), and others (n=13; including small cell carcinoma, pleomorphic carcinoma, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor). Operations lasted 118–223 min [mean ± standard deviations (SD): 124.00±31.75 min]. The length of removed bronchus was 1.50–2.00 cm (mean ± SD: 1.75±0.26 cm). The duration of bronchial anastomosis (from the first puncture to the completion of knotting) was 15–42 min (mean ± SD: 30.20±7.97 min). The number of dissected lymph node stations (at least three mediastinal lymph node stations, including station 7) was 5–9 stations (mean ± SD: 6.50±1.18 min). The number of dissected lymph nodes was 10–46 (mean ± SD: 26.00±10.48). The intraoperative blood loss was 20–400 mL (mean ± SD: 71.00±43.95 mL), and no blood transfusion was performed. All patients were observed in intensive care unit (ICU) for 1 day. Postoperative drainage was performed for 3–8 days (mean ± SD: 5.00±1.49 days). Postoperative hospital stay was 3–8 days (mean ± SD: 5.10±2.07 days).
Conclusions
VATS bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction is a safe and feasible technique.
doi:10.21037/jtd.2016.01.63
PMCID: PMC4805843  PMID: 27076954
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS); surgery; lung cancer; sleeve resection; lobectomy
20.  Risk factors for recurrence after complete resection of pathological stage N2 non-small cell lung cancer 
Thoracic Cancer  2015;6(2):166-171.
Background
Tumor recurrence is the most common cause of treatment failure, especially after complete resection of pathological stage N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics in order to identify independent risk factors for postoperative recurrence.
Methods
Between January 2001 and December 2013, 96 patients who underwent surgical resection for pathological N2 NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method to explore risk factors, while the Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess independent predictors.
Results
The median and five-year RFS rates were 15 months and 27.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significantly poorer prognosis for non-regional N2 metastasis, more than three metastatic N2 lymph nodes, multiple N2 station, and multiple N2 zone involvement. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that non-regional N2 metastasis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.857, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.061–3.249, P = 0.030) and more than three metastatic N2 lymph nodes (HR 2.555, 95% CI 1.164–5.606, P = 0.019) were independent risk factors for RFS. Additionally, the incidence of non-regional N2 metastasis was higher in patients with a primary tumor in the left lower (57.1%) or right lower lobe (48.1%), followed by left upper (31.8%), right middle (14.3%) and right upper lobe (7.7%).
Conclusion
The combination of the distribution and number of metastatic N2 lymph nodes provides a more accurate prediction for N2 NSCLC regarding recurrence. Non-regional N2 metastasis could occur with a primary tumor in any lobe, but occurs more frequently in the lower lobe.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12159
PMCID: PMC4448494  PMID: 26273354
Mediastinal lymph node; non-small cell lung cancer; recurrence; risk factors; stage N2
21.  Ex situ reimplantation technique, in central lung tumors 
Background
The parenchyma-sparing resection is most often performed in patients with impaired preoperative lung or cardiovascular function who would not be able to tolerate a pneumonectomy.
Methods
Our experience on the ex situ reimplantation procedure and the outcome of patients with lung malignancies, who underwent upper or upper-middle lobectomy, with reimplantation of the lower lobe was reported.
Results
We present 9 patients mean age 62.6+16.2 years (7 males/2 females) underwent ex situ reimplantation due to extensive lung tumor of upper lobes. The surgical technique precludes IV heparinization and then radical pneumonectomy. The entire lung was immersed in Ringer’s solution (temperature 4 degrees centigrade) and bench surgery was performed. The involved upper (or upper-middle) lobes with involved lymph nodes were resected, thus leaving the healthy lower lobe of the lung. Pneumoplegia solution, named “Papworth pneumoplegia”, was administered (1,473 mL) through catheterization of the pulmonary artery and vein stumps (ante grade and retrograde) along with 250 mL of prostaglandin E1. Re-implantation of the lower lobe was performed (I) on the right side, implantation involved the anastomosis of lower pulmonary vein in the site of the cuff of left atrium, followed by suturing the stump of the intermedius pulmonary artery to the right main pulmonary artery and finally the bronchial stumps—intermedius bronchus to the right main bronchus; (II) on the left side the pulmonary vein was anastomosed first, followed by the bronchial stumps and finally by the pulmonary artery. The graft ischemia time was 70.2+8.4 minutes ranged between 55 and 80 minutes.
Conclusions
Re-implantation or auto-transplantation should be considered as a safe option for the appropriate patient with lung cancer. The ex situ separation of the cancerous lobes is technically feasible and allows extensive pulmonary resection while minimizing the loss of pulmonary reserve. Based on our work, the major factors that play a role for the survival of initially resected and then re-implanted lung graft, are: (I) the ischemia time of the re-implanted lobe; (II) the proper use of pneumoplegia solutions, along with prostaglandin E1 and heparin; (III) the occurrence of pulmonary vein thrombosis; and (IV) the bronchial anastomosis.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.08.03
PMCID: PMC4543329  PMID: 26366395
Non-small lung cancer; re-implantation; bench surgery; auto-transplantation; ex situ
22.  Clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma 
Background
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare malignant neoplasm. We aimed to investigate clinicopathological features, therapies, and prognoses of eight MEC cases.
Methods
Eight patients underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary MEC between 2005 and 2012 at the Thoracic Surgical Department of West China Hospital, Sichuan, China. The clinical data, radiological manifestation, treatment strategy, pathological findings, and prognoses of all patients were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
Among the eight cases (four males and four females), the age of patients ranged from 35 to 71 years (mean age 50.67 years). Two tumors were located in the upper lobes and three masses were located in the lower lobes. The other three lumps were located in the left main bronchus, middle segmental bronchus of the right lobe, and trachea, respectively. The characteristics of the tumors were consistent with low grade MEC (n = 6) and high grade MEC (n = 2). All of the patients were sent for oncological evaluations, and three patients with N1 or N2 disease received chemotherapy. One of the patients died from brain metastasis at 15 months. Seven of the eight patients were alive at the time of evaluation. The median survival time was 40 (range 8 to 88) months.
Conclusion
Mucoepidermoid tumors have to be treated by radical surgery with lymph node sampling and dissection. Patients with low grade tumors can be expected to be cured following complete resection. Careful histological typing plays a key role in prediction of late results, and further studies are needed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-33
PMCID: PMC3922271  PMID: 24507476
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma; Lung; Surgery; Pathological histology
23.  Analysis of clinical application of thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer 
Background
VATS has been extensively considered as a standard method of pulmonary diagnosis and treatment of benign lung diseases. This study aimed to investigate the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy compared with conventional lobectomy via open thoracotomy in patients with clinical early stage lung cancer.
Methods
A total of 120 patients with lung cancer underwent VATS lobectomy; another 120 patients with lung cancer underwent conventional lobectomy. The clinical outcomes from these two groups were retrospectively analyzed and compared.
Results
The numbers of patients who underwent lobectomy in the left upper lobe, left lower lobe, right upper lobe, right middle lobe, and right lower lobe were 24, 28, 40, 4, and 24 in the VATS group and 38, 20, 30, 7, and 25 in the conventional group, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between the two groups. Likewise, no statistical differences were observed in terms of duration of operation, time for postoperative extubation, complications, length of hospital stay, and number of dissected lymph nodes (VATS group: left, 5.12 ± 1.45, right, 6.84 ± 1.33; conventional group: left, 4.96 ± 1.39 mm, right, 6.91 ± 1.27; P >0.05).
Conclusion
Anatomical lobectomy was successfully completed by VATS lobectomy for lung cancer; the standard lymph node dissection was also achieved. This procedure also showed advantages in terms of surgical bleeding, duration, postoperative complications, indwelling time of chest tube, and short-term recurrence rate without significant differences from conventional lobectomy.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-157
PMCID: PMC4061527  PMID: 24886331
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS); Clinical early stage lung cancer; Lobectomy; Complication; Short-term recurrence rate
24.  Treatment of Non-Endemic Hepatolithiasis in a Western Country. The Role of Hepatic Resection 
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this study was to assess the safety and the efficacy of hepatic resective surgery in the treatment of single lobe hepatolithiasis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Retrospective analysis and comparison between hepatic resections in patients with hepatolithiasis (hepatolithiasis group [HG]) and liver masses (control group [CG]). Seventeen consecutive Caucasian patients with single lobe hepatolithiasis (HG) and 30 patients with liver masses without chronic liver disease and previous chemotherapy (CG), were operated during the 5-year period 2000–2005, inclusive. Major hepatic resections including 4 right hepatectomies, 10 left hepatectomies, and 3 left lateral sectionectomy in HG, and 12 right hepatectomies, 3 extended right hepatectomy, 5 left hepatectomies, 4 left lateral sectionectomy, 5 bisegmentectomy, and 1 mesohepatectomy in CG. The main outcome measures were: type and length of surgical procedures, intra- and postoperative blood losses and transfusions (packed red blood cells [PRBC] and fresh frozen plasma [FFP]), intra- and postoperative course and complications (within 30 days of the operation), length of hospitalisation, histopathology, and recurrence of hepatolithiasis.
RESULTS
Mean operation time was 6.21 ± 2.38 h in HG versus 7.10 ± 2.21 h in CG (P = 0.33). Mean intra-operative blood loss in CG was higher than in HG (1010 ± 550 ml versus 560 ± 459 ml; P = 0.035). The other variables considered in the two groups were not statistically different. Intra-operative transfusion were 0.50 ± 0.85 units in HG versus 1.35 ± 2.25 units of PRBC in CG (P = 0.06), and 0.66 ± 1.34 units in HG versus 0.68 ± 1.20 units of FFP in CG (P = 0.44), respectively. No cases of death were registered. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 patients (25.5%) – 5 cases (10.6%) in HG and 7 cases (14.8%) in CG (P = 0.18). Mean postoperative transfusions were 0.47 ± 1.24 units in HG versus 1.10 ± 1.18 units of PRBC in CG (P = 0.35), and 0.65 ± 1.40 units in HG versus 0.46 ± 0.82 units of FFP in CG (P = 0.25), respectively. Difference in median hospitalisation was not statistically significant (14 ± 10 days versus 12 ± 9 days; P = 0.28). Histopathology showed cholangiocarcinoma in 2 cases (11.7%). During the follow-up period (range, 5–127 months; mean, 50.4 ± 41.9 months), 1 patient had lithiasis recurrence and 1 patient died for the co-existing cholangiocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS
Hepatic resection is the treatment of choice in patients with single lobe hepatolithiasis. An early indication for surgery may reduce the mortality/morbidity rates of hepatic resection for hepatolithiasis.
doi:10.1308/003588406X98711
PMCID: PMC1964647  PMID: 16834860
Hepatolithiasis; Resective surgery; Western country
25.  Feasibility of laparoscopic major hepatectomy for hepatic paragonimiasis: two case reports 
Medicine  2016;95(38):e4939.
Abstract
Background:
Though accumulated evidence proved that laparoscopic major hepatectomy was technically feasible, it remains a challenging procedure and is limited to highly specialized centers. Paragonimiasis is one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses caused by the trematode of the genus Paragonimus. Although hepatic paragonimiasis is rare, the previous studies had investigated hepatic paragonimiasis from different perspectives. However, the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic major hepatectomy for hepatic paragonimiasis have not yet been reported in the literature.
Methods:
We here present 2 cases of hepatic paragonimiasis at the deep parts of the liver with treatment by laparoscopic major hepatectomy. One case is a 32-year-old male patient who was admitted to the hospital due to upper abdominal discomfort without fever for 1 month. The clinical imaging revealed that there was a lesion about 5.9 × 3.7 cm in the boundary of right anterior lobe and right posterior lobe of the liver with rim enhancement and tract-like nonenhanced areas. The other one is a 62-year-old female patient who was referred to the hospital for 1 month of right upper abdominal pain and fever. The ultrasonography showed that there was a huge hypoechoic mass (about 10.8 × 6.3 cm) in middle lobe of the liver with tract-like nonenhanced areas. Both patients were from an endemic area of paragonimiasis and the proportion of eosinophil in the second case was increased.
Results:
The preoperative diagnosis of the first case was ambiguous and the hepatic paragonimiasis was considered for the second case. The first case underwent laparoscopic extended right posterior lobe hepatectomy and the other case underwent laparoscopic extended left hemihepatectomy. Both operations went very well and the operation times for the 2 cases were 275 minutes and 310 minutes, respectively. The 2 patients’ postoperative recovery was smooth without major postoperative complications (such as, bleeding, bile leakage, and liver failure). Moreover, the 2 patients were discharged on the 6th day and 7th day after surgery, respectively. The postoperative histopathological examination manifested hepatic paragonimiasis in both patients.
Conclusion:
This study suggests that the laparoscopic approach may be safe and technically feasible for hepatic paragonimiasis.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004939
PMCID: PMC5044919  PMID: 27661049
hepatic paragonimiasis; laparoscopic hepatectomy; feasibility

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