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1.  Paramedics beliefs and attitudes towards pre-hospital thrombolysis 
Background:
Myocardial infarction is the third leading cause of death in the developing countries. Thrombolysis as a reperfusion therapy is shown to have a great role in decreasing mortality. The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy lies in its ability to reduce the duration of occlusion by early administration. Many of the studies have supported pre-hospital thrombolysis (PHT) therapy and proven that it is beneficial in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Methodology:
Questionnaires adopted from studies of Humphrey et al., were distributed to paramedics in Saudi Red Crescent Authority and Emergency Medical Services Departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Fahad Medical City, Prince Sultan Medical Military City and Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh. A total of 7 questions were about the knowledge of risk and benefit of PHT and 12 questions were about the beliefs and attitudes of paramedics toward PHT in AMI patients.
Results:
The response rate was 87%. Nearly 72% were believed to be capable of performing PHT, 87% are confident about recording 12-lead electrocardiogram in pre-hospital settings and 77% are confident in the interpretation. 94% believe that PHT will have a significant impact on pain to needle time. 77% consider PHT to be safe for use by paramedics. 66% preferred on-line medical direction or telemedicine linked with the supervision of a physician. Regarding the knowledge part, majority gave a correct answer, but the major concern was that 43% of the paramedics overestimated direct relation of bleeding to thrombolysis therapy.
Conclusion:
Majority of paramedics in Riyadh support the principle of PHT in patients with AMI via online medical direction. They believe that they are confident in their ability to administer PHT despite the concern of authorities on their level of training, the related risks and medico-legal issues. Nevertheless, since the total duration of PHT course for paramedics is just 2 days, we consider that the procedure should be performed under expert supervision until they achieve expertise.
doi:10.4103/2229-516X.125672
PMCID: PMC3931206  PMID: 24600571
Acute myocardial infarction; attitudes; beliefs; paramedics; pre-hospital thrombolysis; questionnaire
2.  Clinical characteristics of patients with atrial fibrillation at a tertiary care hospital in the central region of Saudi Arabia 
Objective:
To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008.
Results:
Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8%) and 563 (78.1%) patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism) were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM) in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN) in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease) in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3%) patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01).
Conclusions
Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.83374
PMCID: PMC3159233  PMID: 21897916
Atrial fibrillation; clinical characteristics; central region; Saudi Arabia
3.  Prevalence and associated factors of polypharmacy among adult Saudi medical outpatients at a tertiary care center 
Objective:
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy (PP) and the associated factors in medical outpatients.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was carried out in adult medical outpatients attending internal medicine clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 1 March 2009 to 31 December 2009. PP was defined as the concomitant use of ≥5 medications daily. The number of medications being currently taken by patient was recorded. Effect of patients’ age, gender, educational level, number of prescribers, disease load and disease type on PP was assessed by multivariate analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Incorporated (SPSS Inc) Version 18.
Results:
Out of 766 patients included in the study, 683 (89%) had PP. The mean number of prescribed medications, oral pills and doses was 8.8, 9.6 and 12.1, respectively. Factors significantly associated with PP included age (≥61 years), disease load and the number of prescribers. Gender had no impact on PP while education beyond primary education significantly decreased PP. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia alone and as a cluster increased PP.
Conclusion:
We found an extremely high level of PP in medical outpatients at our tertiary care center. The impact of PP on medication compliance and control of underlying diseases in Saudi Arabia is unknown and needs to be studied at different levels of care.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.121987
PMCID: PMC3957169  PMID: 24672273
Medical; medications; outpatients; polypharmacy
4.  User acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in a Saudi Arabian hospital radiology department 
Background
Compared with the increasingly widespread use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs), knowledge concerning users’ acceptance of such systems is limited. Knowledge of acceptance is needed given the large (and growing) financial investment associated with the implementation of PACSs, and because the level of user acceptance influences the degree to which the benefits of the systems for healthcare can be realized.
Methods
A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to assess the level of acceptance of the host PACS by staff in the radiology department at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire survey of 89 PACS users was employed to obtain data regarding user characteristics, perceived usefulness (PU) (6 items), perceived ease of use (PEU) (4 items), a change construct (4 items), and a behavior (acceptance) construct (9 items). Respondents graded each item in each construct using five-point likert scales.
Results
Surveyed users reported high levels of PU (4.33/5), PEU (4.15/5), change (4.26/5), and acceptance (3.86/5). The three constructs of PU, PEU, and change explained 41 % of the variation in PACS user acceptance. PU was the most important predictor, explaining 38 % of the variation on its own. The most important single item in the explanatory constructs was that users found PACS to have improved the quality of their work in providing better patient care. Technologists had lower acceptance ratings than did clinicians/radiologists, but no influence on acceptance level was found due to gender, age, or length of experience using the PACS. Although not directly measured, there appeared to be no cultural influence on either the level of acceptance or its determinants.
Conclusions
User acceptance must be considered when an organization implements a PACS, in order to enhance its successful adoption. Health organizations should adopt a PACS that offers all required functions and which is likely to generate high PU on the part of its users, rather than a system that is easy to use. Training/familiarization programs should aim at establishing high levels of PU in all users, particularly technologists. Health organizations are advised to measure all the factors that influence the acceptance of a PACS by their staff, in order to optimize the productivity of the system and realize the potential benefits to the greatest extent possible.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-44
PMCID: PMC3423046  PMID: 22640490
5.  Unconventional therapy use among asthma patients in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2008;3(2):48-51.
OBJECTIVES:
Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews.
RESULTS:
Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (±18.7) were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5%) of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group (P = 0.029) and among those with longer duration of disease (P = 0.009). However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV1, or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%), honey (24.5%), herbs (23.5%), cautery (12%), and blackseed (10%). There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities.
CONCLUSION:
Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.39636
PMCID: PMC2700461  PMID: 19561905
Asthma; Saudi Arabia; uncontrolled asthma; unconventional therapy
6.  Students' and teachers' perceptions of clinical assessment program: A qualitative study in a PBL curriculum 
BMC Research Notes  2009;2:263.
Background
"Examinations drive students' learning." This statement refers to what is assumed to be one of the strongest relationships in education. We explored in this research how and why students differ in their approaches to learning, how assessment affects deep learning, and which barriers stand in the way of good assessment and learning in the clinical years of a Problem Based Learning (PBL) graduate entry medical curriculum.
Findings
Method: We conducted a qualitative, phenomenological study using semi-structured group interviews with students and semi-structured individual interviews with teachers and students. The transcripts were analyzed, and themes were identified.
Setting: The research was conducted at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from November 2007 to March 2008.
Results: A total of 28 students participated in 7 focus group interviews. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 12 teachers and 12 students. The analysis yielded four themes: summative assessment, formative assessment, continuous assessment of clinical attachments, and learning objectives.
Conclusions
The results of this study confirm that assessment affects students' perceptions of learning and how they learn. These effects are not uniformly positive. According to the students, the predominantly summative assessment program offers little inducement to engage in deep learning. They express a clear preference for formative assessment, which may foster a deeper approach to learning. Efforts to achieve more clinically relevant assessment with adequate balance between the various types of assessment are required. Research is needed to decide this balance.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-263
PMCID: PMC2804577  PMID: 20030842
7.  Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia 
Background
In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ≥24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ≥16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ≥19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery.
Results
The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51).
Conclusion
The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S57743
PMCID: PMC3979779
adolescent pregnancy; maternal mortality; maternal morbidity; neonatal mortality; neonatal morbidity
8.  What is the optimal blood glucose target in critically ill patients? A nested cohort study 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2011;6(4):207-211.
AIMS:
There is an uncertainty about what constitutes an optimal level of blood glucose (BG) in critically ill patients. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal BG target for glycemic control in critically ill patients that is associated with survival benefit with the least hypoglycemia risk.
SETTING AND DESIGN:
This is a nested cohort study within a randomized control trial conducted in a tertiary care center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
METHODS:
The study was carried out in a single center to assess the effect of intensive insulin therapy [IIT; target BG 4.4-6.1 mmol/L (80-110 mg/dL)] versus conventional insulin therapy [CIT; target BG 10-11.1 mmol/L (180-200 mg/dL)] in a medical/surgical ICU. All patients were divided into six groups based on the mean daily BG levels. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association of BG and ICU mortality. We compared different outcomes below and above different BG thresholds of 0.1 mmol/L (2 mg/dL) increments using multivariate analyses.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:
Data are presented as mean ± SD or median with interquartile ranges, unless otherwise indicated. Differences between the six groups were assessed using the χ2 test. A P-value equal or less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The results were expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical analyses were carried out using the Statistical Analysis Software (SAS, release 8, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
RESULTS:
Among six groups, the ICU mortality was least in patients with BG <8.7 mmol/L (<157 mg/dL) compared with patients with BG ≥8.7 mmol/L (≥157 mg/dL) [11.5% vs. 21.5%, P = 0.002]. When analyzed using 0.1 mmol increments in average BG, we found that mortality remained unchanged by increasing thresholds of BG up to 8.0 mmol/L (144 mg/dL) and started to rise with thresholds of BG of 8.1 mmol/L (146 mg/dL) and above. The risk of hypoglycemia was the highest with a BG threshold of 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) and gradually decreased with increasing BG levels to plateau with a BG level of 7.2 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) and higher.
CONCLUSION:
Our study suggests that a BG level of 8.1 mmol/L (146 mg/dL) and below represents an optimal level in critically ill patients.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.84774
PMCID: PMC3183637  PMID: 21977065
Critically ill; hypoglycemia; insulin; intensive care; mortality; sepsis
9.  Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia 
Background
Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results
QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ≤6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02).
Conclusion
. The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S33276
PMCID: PMC3410718  PMID: 22866015
quality of life; skin disease; Saudi Arabia
10.  Cesarean section in a high-parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes 
Background
The study of the indications for cesarean section (CS) and its outcomes are useful for hospitals, clinicians, and researchers in determining strategies to lower the primary and repeat CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify the indications for CS and the incidence of adverse maternal/fetal outcomes in a tertiary care setting.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study of women (n = 4305) who gave birth by CS at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2008 to February 2011), was performed. All of the women’s medical records were reviewed by two consulting physicians to obtain the primary indications for CS and determine the maternal characteristics, type of CS (emergency or elective), and birth weight. All adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. The point and interval estimates of the odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model to identify the significant predictors of adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes.
Results
Of a total of 22,595 deliveries from 2008 to 2011, 4,305 deliveries were CS deliveries (19.05%). Two-thirds (67%) of all CS deliveries were emergency CSs, and the remaining deliveries were elective CSs (33%). Difficult labor (35.9%), fetal distress (21.9%) and breech presentation (11.6%) were the most frequent indications of emergency CS, while previous CS (54.3%), breech presentation (20.4%) and maternal request (10.1%) ranked first for elective CS. Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were diagnosed in 5.09% and 5.06% of deliveries, respectively, with a significantly higher incidence in the emergency (6.06% & 5.51% respectively) than in elective CS (3.10 & 4.16% respectively). Blood transfusion was the most frequent adverse maternal outcome (3.72%), followed by ICU admission (0.63%), HELLP (0.51%), and hysterectomy (0.30%), while IUGR (3.25%) was the most frequent adverse fetal outcome, followed by IUFD and the need for ICU admission (0.58% each). Adverse maternal outcomes were significantly predicted by high gravidity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI:1.26-6.39, p = 0.011) and preeclampsia (OR = 2.84, 95%CI:1.83-4.39, p < 0.001), while adverse fetal outcomes were predicted by: twinning (OR = 1.81, p = 0.002), hydramnios (OR = 6.70, p < 0.001), and preeclampsia (OR = 2.74, p < 0.001). Preterm delivery was a significant predictor for both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes (OR = 2.39, p < 0.001 & OR = 4.57, p < 0.001, respectively).
Conclusions
Difficult labor and previous CS were the main indications for CS in Saudi Arabia. High gravidity was a significant predictor of adverse maternal outcomes. Encouraging Saudi women to consider embarking on fewer pregnancies could act as a safeguard against mandatory CSs for subsequent births in multigravida and grand-multigravida Saudi females. Future prospective study that addresses women with repeat CSs and their association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes is recommended.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-92
PMCID: PMC3941573  PMID: 24575731
Cesarean section; Indications; Maternal/fetal; Outcomes; Near miss; Saudi Arabia
11.  Impact of a diabetic foot care education program on lower limb amputation rate 
Background
Diabetic foot complications are a leading cause of lower extremity amputation. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Arab world, specifically in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the rate of amputation will rise significantly. A diabetic foot care program was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2002. The program was directed at health care staff and patients to increase their awareness about diabetic foot care and prevention of complications. The purpose of this study was to perform a primary evaluation of the program’s impact on the rate of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications.
Method
This pilot study was the first analysis of the diabetic foot care program and examined two groups of participants for comparison, ie, a “before” group having had diabetic foot ulcers managed between 1983, when the hospital was first established, and 2002 when the program began and an “after group” having had foot ulcers managed between 2002 and 2004, in the program’s initial phase. A total of 41 charts were randomly chosen retrospectively. A data sheet containing age, gender, medical data, and the presentation, management, and outcome of diabetic foot cases was used for the analysis.
Results
The before group contained 20 patients (17 males) and the after group contained 21 patients (16 males). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and comorbidities. The rate of amputation was 70% in the before group and 61.9% in the after group. There was a decrease in the percentage of toe amputation in the after group and an increase in the percentage of below-knee amputation in the before group. However, these changes were not significant.
Conclusion
The program, although evaluated at an early stage, has increased the awareness of both patients and health care staff about the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, and decreased the rate of lower extremity amputation. We believe that the statistical proof of its impact will be evident in the final evaluation.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S13569
PMCID: PMC2964945  PMID: 21057577
diabetic foot; prevention; complications; lower limb amputation
12.  Quality of informed consent for invasive procedures in central Saudi Arabia 
Background
Informed consent is considered the most important step in clinical interventions. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the quality of informed consent for invasive procedures with regard to consent process and information given about risks and alternative treatments, and (2) to determine patients’ attitude toward informed consent at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted of 162 adult patients in different wards after undergoing surgery or invasive procedures within 1–2 days of signing the informed consent, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Data on patients’ characteristics, type of invasive procedure, and some informed consent-related issues were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of the percentage mean score of quality of informed consent, and significance was considered at P ≤ 0.05.
Results
The quality of informed consent was generally poor (% mean score = 50.98 ± 17.49). About two-thirds of patients were told during the informed consent process that they have to sign merely as routine, 48% thought that if they refused the treatment plan they would lose the interest of the treating physician to help them, 42% thought that by saying no they would lose the good relationship with their physician, and 42.6% were not interested in having a copy of the informed consent document. Significantly higher quality was predicted when the physicians were the ones who explained the informed consent (t = 4.15, P < 0.001) and when informed consent was explained to younger patients (t = 2.754, P = 0.007). The overall attitude of the patients toward the process of informed consent was satisfactory (% mean score = 76.31 ± 7.63).
Conclusion
The results suggest either that patients are not aware of their rights or that physician paternalism is practiced in Saudi Arabia. Cultural barriers should not be an argument to diminish the role of informed consent. Further studies should focus on how the value of autonomy can be appreciated in the Saudi culture.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S29599
PMCID: PMC3325015  PMID: 22505825
informed consent; quality; invasive procedure; Saudi Arabia
13.  Presentation, Diagnosis and Outcome of Predominantly Hepatic Wilson's Disease in Adult Saudi Patients: A Single Centre Experience 
Background/Aim:
To evaluate the clinical manifestations, diagnostic features, disease course and response to treatment among Saudi adults with predominantly hepatic Wilson's disease. A retrospective cohort study of 40 adult patients diagnosed with predominantly hepatic Wilson's disease between 1994 and 2008 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh was carried out.
Patients and Methods:
The diagnosis was based on varying combinations of clinical and laboratory evidence of liver disease, presence of Kayser Fleisher rings, low serum ceruloplasmin levels, elevated 24 hour urinary copper excretion and histopathological findings on liver biopsy.
Results:
The most frequent clinical presentation was decompensated chronic liver disease in 19 (47.5%), followed by chronic hepatitis in 15 (37.5%) and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in 5 (12.5%) patients. Eight (20%) patients with end-stage liver disease had liver transplantation, while 24 (60%) patients followed up on medical treatment for a variable period of 1-12 years showed clinical and laboratory improvement. One patient was lost early in follow up. Eight (20%) patients died during the study period, 5 with FHF, and 2 with advanced hepatic and neurological disease and one seven years after liver transplantation. Mortality rate was 100% in FHF without liver transplantation.
Conclusion:
A predominantly hepatic Wilson's disease has varied clinical presentations with decompensated chronic liver disease being the most common among adult patients. Majority of the patients show stabilization of the disease on medical treatment. FHF in Wilson's disease has a grave prognosis without liver transplantation, the later remains a definitive treatment option for decompensated cirrhotics and patients with FHF.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.101135
PMCID: PMC3500023  PMID: 23006462
Adult; Hepatic Wilson's disease; diagnosis; outcome; presentation
14.  Depression among Women with Primary Infertility attending an Infertility Clinic in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Rate, Severity, and Contributing Factors 
Background
Infertility is a severely distressing experience for many couples. Depression is considered as one of the main psychological disorders associated with infertility and it may significantly affect the life of infertile individuals, their treatment, and follow-up.
Objective
The objective of the study was to determining the prevalence and predisposing factors of depressive disorders among the infertile compared to fertile women.
Methodology
Rate of depression was explored by this cross-sectional study carried out among women attending In-Vitro Fertilization Clinic (91 infertile women) and Well Baby Clinic (94 fertile women) at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, KSA.
Self administrated questionnaire including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. Mean BDI score was measured and its relation with different variables was explored, such as age, educational level, duration of infertility, pressure from family members, miscarriages and support from husband.
Results
This study showed that 49 (53.8%) of the infertile women and 35 (37.2%) of the fertile women had depression. Mean BDI score between infertile and fertile women was significantly different (p <0.001). Infertile women were found to be more severely depressed (p =0.014). Among the infertile women, those who had pressure from family members for not getting pregnant were more depressed than those with no such pressure (P=0.001).
Conclusion
Depression is more common and severe in infertile women than fertile women. Pressure from family to get pregnant is a significant contributor to depression. Caregivers should routinely screen infertile women for depression during and after treatment for infertility and manage concomitantly.
PMCID: PMC3521829  PMID: 23267288
Depression; Infertility
15.  Prevalence of Self-reported Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Saudi Physicians: A Comparative Study 
Background
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. CVD-related mortality can be substantially reduced by modifying risk factors.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study conducted in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, we estimated and compared prevalence of self-reported risk factors for CVD among physicians and a comparative group of non-physician health workers. We postulated that prevalence of CVD risk factors would be significantly lower in physicians. Participants filled in a structured self-administered questionnaire on CVD risk factors.
Results
The study included 200 participants (100 respondents each group). Participants in the two groups were of similar age (P = 0.46) and Body Mass Index (BMI) P = 0.11. There was no statistical difference in smoking, frequency and length of physical exercise per week (P = 0.53, 0.57, 0.47 respectively). Diet habits showed daily intake of more protein, less fat and highly processed food, and similar vegetables, fruit and carbohydrate among physicians. Health status (presence of hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, or other diseases) didn’t differ between the two groups. Physicians showed a significantly higher familial cardiovascular risk, with mothers and siblings having more dyslipidemia, but there was no significant difference in parental dyslipidemia, diabetes or hypertension.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that high awareness of CVD and associated risk factors alone is not enough to prevent their occurrence. Programs to routinely screen these risk factors and improve the lifestyle of physicians are needed.
PMCID: PMC3612413  PMID: 23559900
Cardiovascular disease; risk factors; physicians; Saudi Arabia
16.  Vitamin D status among Adult Saudi Females visiting Primary Health Care Clinics 
Background
Vitamin D plays an important role in diverse physiological functions in addition to its role in bone health. Vitamin D deficiency is very common in elderly people, but there are few reports on its prevalence in young adults.
Method
A cross-sectional study was carried out on a total of 465 young adult Saudi females aged 19 to 40 years old who were selected from primary health care centers of King Abdulaziz medical city, Riyadh, KSA. A questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors such as sunlight exposure and dietary intake. 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone biochemical parameter were measured. The cutoff values for Vitamin D were defined as follows: deficient (<25nmol/L), insufficient (25–75 nmol/L) and normal (≥ 75 nmol/L).
Result
Overall, hypovitaminosis D were identified in all participants, with a mean level of 18.34 ±8.2 nmol/L. Of all the participants, 79.1% exhibited severe vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH) D < 25 nmol/L), while 20.9% exhibited vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH) D between 25–50 nmol/L). There was a significant inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D concentrations and PTH, where secondary hyperparathyroidism was evident in 61.4% of participants with deficient vitamin D compared to 39.2% of participants with insufficient vitamin D.
Conclusion
Despite the abundant sunlight in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among young healthy Saudi females is 100%. This finding should be considered a public health problem. Case identification, health education and prevention should be encouraged.
PMCID: PMC3616941  PMID: 23580892
Vitamin D; prevalence; women; Saudi; secondary hyperparathyroidism; sunlight; dietary supplement
17.  Maternal and neonatal risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal disease: a case control study 
Objectives
To identify the prominent maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS) disease in neonates and to determine their importance by comparing them with a control group.
Setting
Neonatal unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Patients
Cases were infants <7 days of age with invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) disease diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Controls were healthy infants born in the same hospital during the same period having the same birth weight and gestational age category.
Main outcome measures
Maternal risk factors for developing EOGBS disease, feto–maternal and neonatal clinical data, their morbidities, mortalities, and length of hospital stay.
Results
A total of 99 cases and 200 controls were included. The majority of cases presented in the first 72 hours of life (62/99 [63.9%]), of which 87/99 (89.7%) had at least one clinical risk factor for the development of EOGBS disease. Mothers of neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have GBS bacteriuria (odds ratio [OR] 10.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–93.42), infection in the peripartum period (OR 8.92, CI 2.87–27.68), and temperature ≥38°C (OR 7.10, CI 2.50–20.17). GBS disease was associated with premature rupture of membranes and fetal tachycardia (P<0.01 for both). Neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have respiratory distress disease and convulsions, require tube feeding, and have longer hospital stays compared with the controls (P<0.01 for all). Stepwise multiple logistic regression has identified three risk factors that were associated with the highest tendency for the development of EOGBS disease. These were lack of antenatal attendance (OR =0.30 and CI 0.98–0.88), rupture of membranes (OR =9.62 and CI 3.1–29.4), and antibiotic use in labor (OR =0.16 and CI 0.38–0.67).
Conclusion
A number of maternal risk factors were significantly associated with EOGBS disease. Taking these factors into consideration may result in preventing the occurrence of EOGBS disease, improve maternal and neonatal medical care, decrease their hospital stay, and reduce unnecessary hospital resource utilization.
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S52206
PMCID: PMC3814928  PMID: 24194650
group B streptococcus; neonatal morbidity; maternal morbidity; antenatal screening
18.  Vitamin D status among patients visiting a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a retrospective review of 3475 cases 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:159.
Background
Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in several chronic, non-communicable diseases independent of its conventional role in bone and calcium homeostasis. In this retrospective study, we determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association to several cardiometabolic indices among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Methods
A total of 3475 charts of out-patient subjects who visited KAMC from September 2009 until December 2010 were reviewed and included. Variables of interest included measurements of vitamin D status, glycemic and renal profile, as well as trace elements (calcium and phosphorous).
Results
The over-all prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the cohort studied was 78.1% in females and 72.4% in males. 25(OH) vitamin D was significantly associated with increasing age and weight (p-values < 0.0001 and 0.005, respectively). It was also positively associated with albumin, calcium and phosphorous (p-values < 0.0001, < 0.0001 and 0.0007, respectively) and negatively associated with alkaline phosphatase as well as circulating levels of PTH (p-values 0.0002 and 0.0007, respectively).
Conclusion
In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is overwhelmingly common among patients seen at KAMC regardless of the medical condition, and it is significantly associated with increasing age, weight and markers of calcium homeostasis. Findings of the present study further stress the spotlight on vitamin D deficiency epidemic in the country and region in general.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-159
PMCID: PMC3942273  PMID: 24524260
Vitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency; Saudi
19.  Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students’ study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study 
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period from November 2007 to December 2008. We conducted semi-structured focus groups interviews with students and conducted individual interviews with teachers and students to explore students’ and clinical teachers’ perceptions and interpretations of factors influencing students’ study strategies. Data collection was continued until saturation was reached. We used Atlas-ti Computer Software (Version 5.2) to analyse the data, apply the obtained themes to the whole dataset and rearrange the data according to the themes and sub-themes. Analysis of data from interviews with twenty-eight students and thirteen clinical supervisors yielded three major themes relating to factors affecting students’ study strategies: “clinical supervisors and supervision”, “stress and anxiety” and “assessment”. The three themes we identified played a role in students’ adoption of different study strategies in the “community of clinical practice”. It appeared that teachers played a key role, particularly as assessors, clinical supervisors and as a source of stress to students.
doi:10.1007/s10459-010-9271-2
PMCID: PMC3226698  PMID: 21207243
Study strategy; Assessment; Clinical supervisor; Clinical attachment; Anxiety
20.  Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis 
Oman Medical Journal  2013;28(3):191-194.
Objectives
This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine its correlation with its severity.
Methods
This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females) were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females) healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.
Results
There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI) and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006) and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015).
Conclusion
Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.
doi:10.5001/omj.2013.52
PMCID: PMC3679606  PMID: 23772285
Coronary artery disease; Hemostasis; Gensini score; Angiography total tissue factor pathway inhibitor; Free tissue factor pathway inhibitor; Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; Tissue plasminogen activator
21.  Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia 
Objective:
To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit.
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009.
Results:
Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153) had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (±3.3). There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked.
Conclusion:
Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies.
doi:10.4103/1319-1683.78631
PMCID: PMC3114611  PMID: 21694953
Association; medical students; prevalence; Riyadh; smoking
22.  Relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein with presence and severity of coronary artery disease  
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(6):1425-1429.
Objective: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the relationship of serum inflammatory marker high sensitivity C Reactive protein (hsCRP), with the presence and severity of angiographically evaluated coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: This study was conducted at departments of physiology and cardiology, College of Medicine & King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh from August 2009 to March 2012. Eighty seven patients (57 males and 30 females) with angiographically evaluated CAD were studied. In all these patients CAD severity was assessed by Gensini scoring and vessel scoring. Control group consisted of 29 healthy subjects (17 males and 12 females). Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP).
Results: There were non-significant differences in age, weight and BMI among healthy subjects and CAD patients. Comparison of lipid profile between control and CAD patients showed that CAD patients had significantly higher TG and significantly lower HDL levels compared to control subjects. CAD patients presented with significantly higherhsCRP levels than controls. Linear regression analysis between hsCRP and CAD severity determined by Gensini scores showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.423, p=0.018). Triple vessel disease patients had significantly higher hsCRP levels than one vessel and two vessel disease, while the difference was non significant between one and two vessel disease groups.
Conclusions: These results suggest that patients with angiographically evaluated CAD have significantly higher levels of hsCRP levels compared to healthy individuals and are correlated with the presence & severity of CAD.
PMCID: PMC3905368  PMID: 24550967
High sensitivity C-reactive protein; Coronary artery disease; Gensiniscore; Vessel scores; Angiography
23.  Improving adherence to venous thromoembolism prophylaxis using multiple interventions 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2011;6(2):82-84.
OBJECTIVE:
In hospital, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) increases the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute medical illness. DVT prophylaxis is well known to be effective in preventing venous thromoembolism (VTE). However, its use remains suboptimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of quality improvement project on adherence with VTE prophylaxis guidelines and on the incidence of hospital-acquired VTEs in medical patients.
METHODS:
The study was conducted at Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization from June 2008 to August 2009. Quality improvement strategies included education of physicians, the development of a protocol, and weekly monitoring of compliance with the recommendations for VTE prophylaxis as included in the multidisciplinary rounds. A feedback was provided whenever a deviation from the protocol occurs.
RESULTS:
During the study period, a total of 560 general internal medicine patients met the criteria for VTE prophylaxis. Of those, 513 (91%) patients actually received the recommended VTE prophylaxis. The weekly compliance rate in the initial stage of the intervention was 63% (14 of 22) and increased to an overall rate of 100% (39 of 39) (P = 0.002). Hospital-acquired DVT rate was 0.8 per 1000 discharges in the preintervention period and 0.5 per 1000 discharges in the postintervention period, P = 0.51. However, there was a significant increase in the time-free period of the VTE and we had 11 months with no single DVT.
CONCLUSION:
In this study, the use of multiple interventions increased VTE prophylaxis compliance rate.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.78425
PMCID: PMC3081561  PMID: 21572697
Deep vein thrombosis; quality improvement; thromboprophylaxis; underutilization; venous thromboembolism
24.  Learning strategies of medical students in the surgery department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 
Objectives
To identify medical students’ perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS) of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM), in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods
A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify students’ perceptions of their learning in the DOS of the KAU-FoM. A questionnaire was administered to a random group of 549 medical students, to explore student perceptions of their learning strategies including methods of learning and learning resources.
Results
The majority believed that clinical session attendance is always important compared with lectures (88.9% vs 21.9%). Nevertheless, clinical sessions were selected as the third source of learning after learning from assigned textbooks and previous examination model answers. The majority (74.1%) believed that self-instruction at home is the preferred method of learning.
Conclusion
Student perspectives should be taken into consideration prior to any future reforms of curriculum. Reforms should adopt a “think globally; act locally” educational strategy based on learner needs.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S34780
PMCID: PMC3650874  PMID: 23762005
education; medical; learning; surgery; developing countries
25.  Curriculum design of emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences 
Background
The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.
Purpose
The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum.
Methods
A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation.
Results
Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery.
Conclusion
Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S28590
PMCID: PMC3650867  PMID: 23761998
emergency medical services; problem-based learning; logical model; step-by-step approach; multilayer alignment

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