This study suggests that minimally invasive, laparoscopic techniques be considered for drainage of liver abscess before open exploration is performed.
Background and Objectives:
Pyogenic liver abscesses are mainly treated by percutaneous aspiration or drainage under antibiotic cover. If interventional radiology fails, surgical drainage becomes necessary. Recently, we performed laparoscopic liver abscess drainage successfully, and we aimed to focus on the topic in light of a systematic review of the literature.
A 22-year-old man was admitted with a 4.5-cm multiloculated abscess in the left lobe of the liver. The abscess did not resolve with antibiotic-alone therapy. Percutaneous aspiration was unsuccessful due to viscous and multiloculated contents. Percutaneous catheter placement was not amenable. Laparoscopic abscess drainage was preferred over open abscess drainage. We used 3 trocars, operation time was 40 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. In the mean time, we searched PubMed using the key words [(liver OR hepatic) abscess*] AND [laparoscop* OR (minimal* AND invasiv*)].
Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful, and the patient was asymptomatic after 3 months of follow-up. In the literature search, we found 53 liver abscesses (51 pyogenic and 2 amebic) that were treated by laparoscopy. Mean success rate was 90.5% (range, 85% to 100%) and conversion rate was zero.
Treatment of liver abscess is mainly percutaneous drainage. Laparoscopic drainage should be selected as an alternative before open drainage when other modalities have failed.
Liver; Abscess; Laparoscopy; Interventional radiology
Diverticulitis is a common condition occasionally complicated by abscess formation. Small abscesses may be managed by antibiotic therapy alone but larger collections require drainage, ideally by the percutaneous route. This minimally invasive approach is appealing but there is little information regarding the long-term follow-up of patients managed in this way. To address this question, we looked at a consecutive series of patients who underwent percutaneous drainage in our institution.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective study was performed of patients undergoing percutaneous drainage of a diverticular abscess from 1999–2007.
A total of 26 abscesses were identified in 16 patients. In 69% of cases, the abscess was located in the pelvis. The mean size of the abscesses was 8.5 ± 0.9 cm. Drainage was performed under CT (83%) or ultrasound guidance. The mean duration of drainage was 8 days. Fistula formation following drainage occurred in 38% of cases. Eight patients (mean age, 71 years) underwent subsequent surgical resection 9 days to 22 months (mean, 7 months) following initial presentation. Eight patients with significant co-morbid conditions were managed by percutaneous drainage only. The 1-year mortality was 20% and resulted from unrelated causes. The long-term stoma rate was 13%.
Percutaneous drainage can safely be performed in patients with a diverticular abscess. It can be used as a bridge before definitive surgery but also as a treatment option in its own right in high-risk surgical patients. We believe percutaneous drainage reduces the need for major surgery and reduces the risk of a permanent stoma.
Percutaneous; Drainage; Diverticular abscess; Stoma
Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed.
Pleural effusion; empyema; lung abscess; malignant pleural effusion; interventional radiology
Biliary drainage is a radical method to relieve cholestasis, a cause of acute cholangitis, and takes a central part in the treatment of acute cholangitis. Emergent drainage is essential for severe cases, whereas patients with moderate and mild disease should also receive drainage as soon as possible if they do not respond to conservative treatment, and their condition has not improved. Biliary drainage can be achieved via three different routes/procedures: endoscopic, percutaneous transhepatic, and open methods. The clinical value of both endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic drainage is well known. Endoscopic drainage is associated with a low morbidity rate and shorter duration of hospitalization; therefore, this approach is advocated whenever it is applicable. In endoscopic drainage, either endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or tube stent placement can be used. There is no significant difference in the success rate, effectiveness, and morbidity between the two procedures. The decision to perform endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is made based on the patient’s condition and the number and diameter of common bile duct stones. Open drainage, on the other hand, should be applied only in patients for whom endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic drainage is contraindicated or has not been successfully performed. Cholecystectomy is recommended in patients with gallbladder stones, following the resolution of acute cholangitis with medical treatment, unless the patient has poor operative risk factors or declines surgery.
Cholangitis; Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Sphincterotomy; Guidelines
Backgrounds. Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare disease whose management has shifted toward greater use of percutaneous drainage. Surgery still plays a role in treatment, but its indications are not clear. Method. We conducted a retrospective study of pyogenic abscess cases admitted to our university hospital between 1999 and 2010 and assessed the factors potentially associated with surgical treatment versus medical treatment alone. Results. In total, 103 liver abscess patients were treated at our center. The mortality was 9%. The main symptoms were fever and abdominal pain. All of the patients had CRP > 6 g/dL. Sixty-nine patients had a unique abscess. Seventeen patients were treated with antibiotics alone and 57 with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. Twenty-seven patients who were treated with percutaneous techniques required surgery, and 29 patients initially received it. Eventually, 43 patients underwent abscess surgery. The factors associated with failed medical treatment were gas-forming abscess (P = 0.006) and septic shock at the initial presentation (P = 0.008). Conclusion. Medical and percutaneous treatment constitute the standard management of liver abscess cases. Surgery remains necessary after failure of the initial treatment but should also be considered as an early intervention for cases presenting with gas-forming abscesses and septic shock and when treatment of the underlying cause is immediately required.
A review of the literature raises considerable doubt as to the advisability of surgical drainage of lung abscess as a definitive procedure. The mortality rate with use of this procedure and other hazards associated with it, must now be viewed in the light of improved methods of conservative therapy — involving the use of penicillin, bronchoscopic treatment and postural drainage—by which cure can be obtained in more than 80 per cent of cases of acute abscess and in a smaller proportion of cases of chronic abscess. Another factor to be considered is the better chance for diagnosis and effective resection of associated carcinoma when conservative treatment is employed.
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage has recently been recommended for increasing the drainage rate of endoscopically managed pancreatic fluid collections and decreasing the morbidity associated with conventional endoscopic trans-mural drainage. The type of stent used for endoscopic drainage is currently a major area of interest. A covered self expandable metallic stent (CSEMS) is an alternative to conventional drainage with plastic stents because it offers the option of providing a larger-diameter access fistula for drainage, and may increase the final success rate. One problem with CSEMS is dislodgement, so a metallic stent with flared or looped ends at both extremities may be the best option. An 85-year-old woman with severe co-morbidity was treated with percutaneous approach for a large (20 cm) pancreatic pseudocyst with corpuscolated material inside. This approach failed. The patient was transferred to our institute for EUS-guided transmural drainage. EUS confirmed a large, anechoic cyst with hyperechoic material inside. Because the cyst was large and contained mixed and corpusculated fluid, we used a metallic stent for drainage. To avoid migration of the stent and potential mucosal growth above the stent, a plastic prosthesis (7 cm, 10 Fr) with flaps at the tips was inserted inside the CSEMS. Two months later an esophagogastroduodenoscopy was done, and showed patency of the SEMS and plastic stents, which were then removed with a polypectomy snare. The patient experienced no further problems.
Pancreatic pseudocyst; Self expandable metallic stent
AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of C-reactive protein (CRP) values in determining the endpoint of antibiotic treatment for liver abscess after drainage.
METHODS: The endpoints of antibiotic treatment in 46 patients with pyogenic liver abscess after complete percutaneous drainage were assessed by performing a retrospective study. After complete percutaneous drainage, normal CRP values were considered as the endpoint in 18 patients (experimental group), and normal body temperature for at least 2 wk were considered as the endpoints in the other 28 patients (control group).
RESULTS: The duration of antibiotic treatment after complete percutaneous drainage was 15.83 ± 6.45 d and 24.25 ± 8.18 d for the experimental and the control groups, respectively (P = 0.001), being significantly shorter in the experimental group than in the control group. The recurrence rate was 0% for both groups. However, we could not obtain the follow-up data about 3 patients in the control group.
CONCLUSION: CRP values can be considered as an independent factor to determine the duration of the antibiotic treatment for pyogenic liver abscess after complete percutaneous drainage.
Liver abscess; C-reactive protein; Antibiotic treatment; Drainage; Retrospective studies
Primary colonic lymphoma is rare. It comprises less than 1% of large bowel malignancies. Affected patients often present with non-specific vague symptoms with subsequent delays in diagnosis and management.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
An immuno-competent 35-year-old male presented with left iliac fossa pain, fever and constipation. Clinical examination revealed left-sided abdominal peritonism. After the initial radiological and endoscopic investigations, a provisional diagnosis of a localized perforation of a splenic flexure diverticulum was made and ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the abscess was performed. The patient failed to settle on conservative treatment and therefore exploratory laparotomy was carried out. An inflammatory phlegmon consisting of a left paracolic gutter abscess, the spleen and the splenic flexure of the colon was resected en-bloc and a primary colo-colic anastomosis was performed. His operative recovery was complicated by wound infection which was treated conservatively. The histopathology revealed colo-splenic fistula secondary to a perforated colonic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The spleen contained multiple metastatic lymphomatous deposits. He was started on chemotherapy and remained well at 5-year follow up.
Colon non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may present initially with an acute abdomen due to perforation. It mimics any acute surgical condition. Perforation and fistulaization into the spleen is very rare.
This case highlights the delay and difficulty in diagnosing primary colonic lymphoma without resorting to surgical resection.
Colon lymphoma; Perforation; Fistula; Spleen; Abdominal abscess
Portal-mesenteric vein thrombosis, pylephlebitis and liver abscesses are rare complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purpose of this case report is to relate an unusual presentation of CD in order to show how conservative treatment could be an appropriate option as a bridge to the surgery, in patients with septic thrombophlebitis and multiple liver abscesses with CD.
We report a case of a 25-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) who developed a superior mesenteric venous thrombosis, multiple liver abscesses and pylephlebitis, diagnosed through abdominal ultrasound and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. The patient was successfully treated with conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics, subcutaneous anticoagulation and percutaneous catheter drainage of liver abscesses.
We reported an unnusual case of pylephlebitis in CD. Until now this association has not been reported in adult patients at onset. We hypothesise that the infection developed as a result of mucosal disease and predisposed by corticoid therapy. Adequated management was discussed.
The objective of this case report is to describe a device that can be used as a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of drainage-resistant liver abscess. The device uses pulse lavage to fragment and evacuate the semi-solid contents of a liver abscess. The treatment of liver abscesses consists of percutaneous drainage, antibiotics and treatment of the underlying cause. This approach can be ineffective if the contents of the abscess cavity are not liquid, and in those cases open surgery is often needed. Here, we describe for the first time a new minimally invasive technique for treating persistent liver abscesses. A patient developed a liver abscess after a hepatico-jejunostomy performed as a palliative treatment for an unresectable pancreatic head carcinoma. Simple drainage by a percutaneously placed pig-tail catheter was insufficient because of inadequate removal of the contents of the abscess cavity. After dilatation of the drain tract the persistent semi-solid necrotic contents were fragmented by a pulsed lavage device, after which the abscess healed uneventfully. The application of pulsed lavage for debridement of drainage-resistant liver abscesses proved to be an effective and minimally invasive alternative to open surgery.
Patients with Crohn’s disease may develop an abdominal or pelvic abscess during the course of their illness. This process results from transmural inflammation and penetration of the bowel wall, which in turn leads to a contained perforation and subsequent abscess formation. Management of patients with Crohn’s related intra-abdominal and pelvic abscesses is challenging and requires the expertise of multiple specialties working in concert. Treatment usually consists of percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) under guidance of computed tomography in addition to antibiotics. PAD allows for drainage of infection and avoidance of a two-stage surgical procedure in most cases. It is unclear if PAD can be considered a definitive treatment without the need for future surgery. The use of immune suppressive agents such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α in this setting may be hazardous and their appropriate use is controversial. This article discusses the management of spontaneous abdominal and pelvic abscesses in Crohn’s disease.
Crohn’s disease; Abdominal abscess; Psoas abscess; Abscess; Drainage; Computed tomography; Spiral; Infection; Colorectal surgery
Colonic diverticulosis can either be asymptomatic or present with complications resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A key presentation of complicated disease is abscess formation (Hinchey type II). The natural course of this is unclear and therefore treatments range from conservative approach with antibiotics and percutaneous guided drainage (PCD) to surgery. There is no clear consensus on the exact management strategy. A Medline based literature search specifically looking at studies dealing with Hinchey type II diverticulitis and its management was carried out. For comparison, five-year retrospective data of diverticular abscesses from our institution was collected and the outcome analysed. Various studies have looked into this aspect of the disease, elaborating on the significance of the size and location of the abscesses, the role of PCD, recurrence rates and the controversies regarding the need for elective surgery. Conservative treatment with antibiotics alone is effective in a majority of cases with a role for PCD in large safely accessible abscesses. Variable recurrence rates have been reported in literature and elective surgery should be planned for selected groups of patients.
Diverticulosis; Diverticular abscess; Hinchey classification; Percutaneous drainage; Recurrent diverticulitis
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
Pancreatic pseudocysts, abscesses, and walled-off pancreatic necrosis are types of pancreatic fluid collections that arise as a consequence of pancreatic injury. Pain, early satiety, biliary obstruction, and infection are all indications for drainage. Percutaneous-radiologic drainage, surgical drainage, and endoscopic drainage are the three traditional approaches to the drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. The endoscopic approach to pancreatic pseudocysts has evolved over the past thirty years and endoscopists are often capable of draining these collections. In experienced centers endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic drainage avoids complications related to percutaneous drainage and is less invasive than surgery.
Pancreatic fluid collections; Pseudocyst; Endoscopic drainage
Salmonella typhi splenic abscesses are a very rare complication of typhoid fever. Splenectomy is the standard surgical treatment for these lesions. But these days, with improvements in imaging techniques, percutaneous drainage of splenic abscesses has been demonstrated to be one of the alternative treatment in selected cases. We report the case of a 7 year-old male, who presented with Salmonella typhi in blood and urine cultures, and a 1: 320 in O titer of Widal test. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed a single splenic abscess, 3 cm in diameter. He was treated with antibiotics, but the symptoms were not relieved. Thus we performed the percutaneous drainage of the splenic abscess under ultrasound guidance. A culture of the aspirated material was positive for Salmonella typhi, and the boy's condition improved. We think that percutaneous drainage of a single lesion was an excellent alternative to surgery, particularly because our patient was young and spleen conservation was desirable.
Classically, until now, the management of cholecystitis has consisted of immediate and judicious
clinical assessment of the affected patient, interpolating into the assessment of the physical findings
and results from appropriate laboratory, x-ray, and scanning techniques (sonography and scintigraphy)
to formulate a clinical impression. Usually, after the diagnosis has been established, the patient
is subjected to a cholecystectomy, although the timing of the surgery may vary depending on the
clinical condition of the patient. Alternatives to this management (cholecystectomy, medical management)
scheme have been suggested, but these are dependent upon the clinical condition ofthe patient
and considerations of risks. Percutaneous drainage of the gallbladder or cholecystostomy is
sufficient enough to provide drainage, relieve obstruction, and the consequences of infection, i.e.,
sepsis, and prevent perforation. A contributory role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
(ERCP) in this schema has not been a consideration. An ERCP is rarely employed for therapy
(or diagnosis) when cholecystitis is suspected but it might assume a more significant role if it is considered
an efficacious alternative in specific conditions. We have had the unusual experience of managing
11 patients with cholecystitis employing ERCP and its therapeutic modalities, i.e.,
sphincterotomy, selective cannulation of the cystic duct, and relieving obstruction of that structure
by catheter displacement of an obstructing stone. Endoscopic techniques providing decompression
of the gallbladder are described, and the feasibility of utilizing endoscopic procedures for treatment
of cholecystitis will be given consideration.
This report reviews our experience with six patients with post-pneumonectomy empyema and bronchopleural fistula over a ten-year period (1969-1978) at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. The most common indications for pneumonectomy in this environment are TB-destroyed lung and suppurative diseases of the lung complicated by massive hemoptysis. Five of the six patients who developed these complications presented with life threatening hemoptysis due to lung abscess and pulmonary aspergillosis. The sixth patient presented with TB destroyed lung.
This study shows that these complications are more common following emergency pulmonary resection for suppurative lung diseases and following the removal of the right lung. We have achieved the best results with initial closed chest tube drainage followed by continuous pleural irrigation and later by Clagett procedure or open tube drainage.
We report a 50-year-old male with pseudocysts in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage. He had previously undergone ultrasonography-guided percutaneous cyst drainage for a pancreatic pseudocyst in our hospital. He was readmitted due to abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed recurrence of a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail measuring 5 cm in diameter. Since conservative treatment failed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed. There was communication between the pseudocyst and the main pancreatic duct, and pancreatic duct stenosis proximal to the pseudocyst. First, transpapillary pancreatic duct drainage was performed using a plastic stent, but the pseudocyst did not decrease in size and became infected. After removal of the stent, a pigtail type nasocystic catheter was placed in the pseudocyst via the pancreatic duct. The pseudocyst infection immediately disappeared, and the pseudocyst gradually decreased and disappeared. After removal of the nasocystic catheter, no recurrence was observed. As transpapillary drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, cyst drainage and pancreatic duct drainage have been reported. In our patient with pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail, duct drainage was ineffective and the pseudocyst was infected, whereas cyst drainage was very effective. We considered that cyst drainage by a nasocystic catheter was the first-line therapy as the transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst.
Pancreatic pseudocyst; Transpapillary drainage; Pancreatic cyst drainage; Pancreatic duct drainage; Pancreatic stent; Nasocystic catheter
Transgastric endoscopic necrosectomy has been recently introduced as the effective and alternative management of infected pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic abscess. However, up to 40% of patients who undergo endoscopic necrosectomy may need an additional percutaneous approach for subsequent peripancreatic fluid collection or non-resolution of pancreatic necrosis. This percutaneous approach may lead to persistent pancreatocutaneous fistula, which remains a serious problem and usually requires prolonged hospitalization, or even open-abdominal surgery. We describe the first case of pancreatocutaneous fistula and concomitant abdominal wall defect following transgastric endoscopic necrosectomy and percutaneous drainage, which were endoscopically closed with fibrin glue injection via the necrotic cavity.
Fibrin glue; Pancreatocutaneous fistula; Infected pancreatic necrosis; Pancreatic abscess; Endoscopic necrosectomy
Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) develop secondary to either fluid leakage or liquefaction of pancreatic necrosis following acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, surgery or abdominal trauma. Pancreatic fluid collections include acute fluid collections, acute and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts, pancreatic abscesses and pancreatic necrosis. Before the introduction of linear endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the 1990s and the subsequent development of endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage (EUS-GD) procedures, the available options for drainage in symptomatic PFCs included surgical drainage, percutaneous drainage using radiological guidance and conventional endoscopic transmural drainage. In recent years, it has gradually been recognized that, due to its lower morbidity rate compared to the surgical and percutaneous approaches, endoscopic treatment may be the preferred first-line approach for managing symptomatic PFCs. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage has the following advantages, when compared to other alternatives such as surgical, percutaneous and non-EUS-guided endoscopic drainage. EUS-GD is less invasive than surgery and therefore does not require general anesthesia. The morbidity rate is lower, recovery is faster and the costs are lower. EUS-GD can avoid local complications related to percutaneous drainage. Because the endoscope is placed adjacent to the fluid collection, it can have direct access to the fluid cavity, unlike percutaneous drainage which traverses the abdominal wall. Complications such as bleeding, inadvertent puncture of adjacent viscera, secondary infection and prolonged periods of drainage with resultant pancreatico-cutaneous fistulae may be avoided. The only difference between EUS and non-EUS drainage is the initial step, namely, gaining access to the pancreatic fluid collection. All the subsequent steps are similar, i.e., insertion of guide-wires with fluoroscopic guidance, balloon dilatation of the cystogastrostomy and insertion of transmural stents or nasocystic catheters. With the introduction of the EUS-scope equipped with a large operative channel which permits drainage of the PFCs in “one step”, EUS-GD has been increasingly carried out in many tertiary care centers and has expanded the safety and efficacy of this modality, allowing access to and drainage of overly challenging fluid collections. However, the nature of the PFCs determines the outcome of this procedure. The technique and review of current literature regarding EUS-GD of PFCs will be discussed.
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage; Pancreatic fluid collections; Pseudocysts; Pancreatic abscesses; Infected necrosis
Splenic abscess is an uncommon and life-threatening condition. Due to its nonspecific clinical picture, it remains a diagnostic challenge. Multiple radiological modalities are used for the diagnosis. In this retrospective study we analyzed 75 patients treated between 1999 and 2009. The patients were divided into three groups depending on the treatment received. Group I (n = 14) consisted of patients treated with only antibiotics, Group II (n = 19) patients were treated with percutaneous drainage and Group III (n = 42) with splenectomy. We tried to establish epidemiologic and clinical features and therapeutic options in splenic abscess. Our study suggests that percutaneous drainage is a safe and effective alternative to surgery especially in unilocular or bilocular abscesses thus allowing preservation of the spleen. It should be considered as the first line of treatment although splenectomy remains the final definitive procedure if percutaneous drainage fails.
Splenic abscess; Percutaneous drainage; Splenectomy
AIM: To evaluate the influence of preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality after surgical resection for ampullary carcinoma.
METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively data for 82 patients who underwent potentially curative surgery for ampullary carcinoma between September 1993 and July 2007 at the Singapore General Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. Diagnosis of ampullary carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Thirty-five patients underwent preoperative biliary drainage (PBD group), and 47 were not drained (non-PBD group). The mode of biliary drainage was endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (n = 33) or percutaneous biliary drainage (n = 2). The following parameters were analyzed: wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, intra-abdominal or gastrointestinal bleeding, septicemia, biliary or pancreatic leakage, pancreatitis, gastroparesis, and re-operation rate. Mortality was assessed at 30 d (hospital mortality) and also long-term. The statistical endpoint of this study was patient survival after surgery.
RESULTS: The groups were well matched for demographic criteria, clinical presentation and operative characteristics, except for lower hemoglobin in the non-PBD group (10.9 ± 1.6 vs 11.8 ± 1.6 in the PBD group). Of the parameters assessing postoperative morbidity, incidence of wound infection was significantly less in the PBD than the non-PBD group [1 (2.9%) vs 12 (25.5%)]. However, the rest of the parameters did not differ significantly between the groups, i.e. sepsis [10 (28.6%) vs 14 (29.8%)], intra-abdominal bleeding [1 (2.9%) vs 5 (10.6%)], intra-abdominal abscess [1 (2.9%) vs 8 (17%)], gastrointestinal bleeding [3 (8.6%) vs 5 (10.6%)], pancreatic leakage [2 (5.7%) vs 3 (6.4%)], biliary leakage [2 (5.7%) vs 3 (6.4%)], pancreatitis [2 (5.7%) vs 2 (4.3%)], gastroparesis [6 (17.1%) vs 10 (21.3%)], need for blood transfusion [10 (28.6%) vs 17 (36.2%)] and re-operation rate [1 (2.9%) vs 5 (10.6%)]. There was no early mortality in either group. Median survival was 44 mo (95% CI: 34.2-53.8) in the PBD group and 41 mo (95% CI: 27.7-54.3; P = 0.86) in the non-PBD group.
CONCLUSION: Biliary drainage before surgery for ampullary cancer significantly reduced postoperative wound infection. Overall mortality was not influenced by preoperative drainage.
Ampullary carcinoma; Preoperative biliary drainage; Postoperative complications
Management of the biliary ducts during liver resection is one of the most important challenges for hepatobiliary surgeons. Here, we report the case of a left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma with a rare aberrant biliary duct of segment 5, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in previous literature.
A 56-year-old Asian female initially presented with intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lateral sector, left paramedian sector, and right paramedian sector. Simultaneous cholangiography from a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 8 and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 3 revealed drainage of the right lateral sectoral branch into the common hepatic duct and the aberrant drainage of segment 5 into the right lateral sectoral branch. The left hepatic duct, right paramedian sectoral duct, and the confluence of the right lateral sectoral duct were narrowed. Left hepatic trisectionectomy was successfully performed with careful dissection and division of the aberrant biliary duct of segment 5.
For safe liver resection, it is important to perform a detailed anatomic evaluation of the intrahepatic ducts, both preoperatively and intraoperatively.
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium usually causing skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompetent patients following contaminated traumatic or surgical wounds or contaminated injected medications. Disseminated infections and pulmonary infections are usually reported in immunocompromised hosts.
We describe a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with mastitis due to M. abscessus. A few days after clinical evidence of mastitis, the patient was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Subsequently, due to persistence of symptoms, a percutaneous breast biopsy was performed followed by surgical drainage. Initial cultures failed to grow micro-organisms and tissue histology showed chronic inflammatory reaction with giant cells. Several days after surgery, her symptoms recurred. Finally, M. abscessus breast infection was diagnosed and the patient was treated successfully.
Rapidly growing mycobacteria need to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic mastitis having pus discharge and who do not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics.