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1.  Laparoscopic Drainage of Pyogenic Liver Abscess 
This study suggests that minimally invasive, laparoscopic techniques be considered for drainage of liver abscess before open exploration is performed.
Background and Objectives:
Pyogenic liver abscesses are mainly treated by percutaneous aspiration or drainage under antibiotic cover. If interventional radiology fails, surgical drainage becomes necessary. Recently, we performed laparoscopic liver abscess drainage successfully, and we aimed to focus on the topic in light of a systematic review of the literature.
A 22-year-old man was admitted with a 4.5-cm multiloculated abscess in the left lobe of the liver. The abscess did not resolve with antibiotic-alone therapy. Percutaneous aspiration was unsuccessful due to viscous and multiloculated contents. Percutaneous catheter placement was not amenable. Laparoscopic abscess drainage was preferred over open abscess drainage. We used 3 trocars, operation time was 40 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. In the mean time, we searched PubMed using the key words [(liver OR hepatic) abscess*] AND [laparoscop* OR (minimal* AND invasiv*)].
Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful, and the patient was asymptomatic after 3 months of follow-up. In the literature search, we found 53 liver abscesses (51 pyogenic and 2 amebic) that were treated by laparoscopy. Mean success rate was 90.5% (range, 85% to 100%) and conversion rate was zero.
Treatment of liver abscess is mainly percutaneous drainage. Laparoscopic drainage should be selected as an alternative before open drainage when other modalities have failed.
PMCID: PMC3041043  PMID: 21333200
Liver; Abscess; Laparoscopy; Interventional radiology
2.  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepatic and perihepatic abscess drainage: an evolving technique 
Interventional radiology-guided percutaneous drainage of liver abscesses with concomitant use of antibiotics has been the conventional approach for the treatment of liver abscesses. Hepatic abscesses refractory or not amenable to percutaneous drainage have been treated with surgical drainage, either via laparoscopic or open laparotomy techniques. The aim of this review was to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of liver abscesses. A literature review was performed to identify the studies describing the technique. In this review article we have summarized case series or reports describing EUS-guided liver abscess drainage. The indications, techniques, endoprostheses, limitations and complications reported are discussed. A total of seven cases have been described so far in the literature which included patients with failed conventional treatment modalities. The EUS-guided drainage technique involves puncturing the abscess using endosonography to gain access, passing a guidewire followed by tract dilation and placement of an endoprosthesis for drainage. Studies have reported 100% technical and clinical success rates in selected cases. No complications were reported. EUS-guided drainage of liver abscesses can be a safe and effective alternative approach in the management of liver abscesses in selected patients.
PMCID: PMC3903087  PMID: 24587822
drainage; endoscopic ultrasound; liver abscess; management
3.  The Long-Term Results of Percutaneous Drainage of Diverticular Abscess 
Diverticulitis is a common condition occasionally complicated by abscess formation. Small abscesses may be managed by antibiotic therapy alone but larger collections require drainage, ideally by the percutaneous route. This minimally invasive approach is appealing but there is little information regarding the long-term follow-up of patients managed in this way. To address this question, we looked at a consecutive series of patients who underwent percutaneous drainage in our institution.
A retrospective study was performed of patients undergoing percutaneous drainage of a diverticular abscess from 1999–2007.
A total of 26 abscesses were identified in 16 patients. In 69% of cases, the abscess was located in the pelvis. The mean size of the abscesses was 8.5 ± 0.9 cm. Drainage was performed under CT (83%) or ultrasound guidance. The mean duration of drainage was 8 days. Fistula formation following drainage occurred in 38% of cases. Eight patients (mean age, 71 years) underwent subsequent surgical resection 9 days to 22 months (mean, 7 months) following initial presentation. Eight patients with significant co-morbid conditions were managed by percutaneous drainage only. The 1-year mortality was 20% and resulted from unrelated causes. The long-term stoma rate was 13%.
Percutaneous drainage can safely be performed in patients with a diverticular abscess. It can be used as a bridge before definitive surgery but also as a treatment option in its own right in high-risk surgical patients. We believe percutaneous drainage reduces the need for major surgery and reduces the risk of a permanent stoma.
PMCID: PMC2647190  PMID: 18492392
Percutaneous; Drainage; Diverticular abscess; Stoma
4.  A Prospective Series Case Study of Pyogenic Liver Abscess: Recent Trands in Etiology and Management 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;74(5):385-390.
Our study aims to review the literature on the management of pyogenic liver abscess, focusing on the choice of drainage. A case series of our experience with clinicopathological correlation is presented to highlight the indication and outcome of each modality of drainage. Intravenous antibiotic is the first line, and mainstay, of treatment. Drainage is necessary for large abscesses, equal to or larger than 5 cm in size, to facilitate resolution. While percutaneous drainage is appropriate as first-line surgical treatment in most cases, open surgical drainage is prudent in cases of rupture, multiloculation, associated biliary, or intra-abdominal pathology. Percutaneous drainage may help to optimize clinical condition prior to surgery. Nevertheless, in current good clinical practices, the choice of therapy needs to be individualized according to patient’s clinical status and abscess factors. They are complementary in the management of liver abscesses.
PMCID: PMC3477416  PMID: 24082591
Pyogenic liver abscess; Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage
5.  Intra-Abscess Administration of Antibiotics Through Ultrasound–Guided Percutaneous Catheter for the Treatment of Pyogenic Liver Abscess 
Pyogenic liver abscess is a potentially life-threatening disease. The treatment of a pyogenic liver abscess usually involves ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage because of the poor penetration of the systemic administration of antibiotics inside the abscess. However, a sizable proportion of patients will necessitate surgical interventions, which involves high peri- and post-operative risks. Theoretically, the local instillation of antibiotics inside the pyogenic liver abscess fluid could achieve a high concentration of the antibiotic for a long period of time. This could be especially beneficial for time-dependent bactericidal antibiotics such as beta-lactams, because their bactericidal effectiveness depends on the amount of time that bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic. We are reporting two patients with complicated pyogenic liver abscesses, who were successfully treated with systemic antibiotics and local instillation of meropenem inside the cavities of the abscesses. These cases suggest that the local instillation of the beta-lactam antibiotics could be an effective and a safe strategy for the treatment of pyogenic liver abscesses that cannot be completely drained through an ultrasound guided percutaneous catheter.
PMCID: PMC3782937  PMID: 24086880
Hepatic abscess; Meropenem; Anti-bacterial agents; Minimal inhibitory concentration; Half life; Beta-lactam antibiotics; Safety, Effectiveness; Interventional radiology
6.  Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess 
Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed.
PMCID: PMC3140254  PMID: 22379278
Pleural effusion; empyema; lung abscess; malignant pleural effusion; interventional radiology
7.  Methods and timing of biliary drainage for acute cholangitis: Tokyo Guidelines 
Biliary drainage is a radical method to relieve cholestasis, a cause of acute cholangitis, and takes a central part in the treatment of acute cholangitis. Emergent drainage is essential for severe cases, whereas patients with moderate and mild disease should also receive drainage as soon as possible if they do not respond to conservative treatment, and their condition has not improved. Biliary drainage can be achieved via three different routes/procedures: endoscopic, percutaneous transhepatic, and open methods. The clinical value of both endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic drainage is well known. Endoscopic drainage is associated with a low morbidity rate and shorter duration of hospitalization; therefore, this approach is advocated whenever it is applicable. In endoscopic drainage, either endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or tube stent placement can be used. There is no significant difference in the success rate, effectiveness, and morbidity between the two procedures. The decision to perform endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is made based on the patient’s condition and the number and diameter of common bile duct stones. Open drainage, on the other hand, should be applied only in patients for whom endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic drainage is contraindicated or has not been successfully performed. Cholecystectomy is recommended in patients with gallbladder stones, following the resolution of acute cholangitis with medical treatment, unless the patient has poor operative risk factors or declines surgery.
PMCID: PMC2799047  PMID: 17252299
Cholangitis; Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Sphincterotomy; Guidelines
8.  Are Pyogenic Liver Abscesses Still a Surgical Concern? A Western Experience 
HPB Surgery  2012;2012:316013.
Backgrounds. Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare disease whose management has shifted toward greater use of percutaneous drainage. Surgery still plays a role in treatment, but its indications are not clear. Method. We conducted a retrospective study of pyogenic abscess cases admitted to our university hospital between 1999 and 2010 and assessed the factors potentially associated with surgical treatment versus medical treatment alone. Results. In total, 103 liver abscess patients were treated at our center. The mortality was 9%. The main symptoms were fever and abdominal pain. All of the patients had CRP > 6 g/dL. Sixty-nine patients had a unique abscess. Seventeen patients were treated with antibiotics alone and 57 with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. Twenty-seven patients who were treated with percutaneous techniques required surgery, and 29 patients initially received it. Eventually, 43 patients underwent abscess surgery. The factors associated with failed medical treatment were gas-forming abscess (P = 0.006) and septic shock at the initial presentation (P = 0.008). Conclusion. Medical and percutaneous treatment constitute the standard management of liver abscess cases. Surgery remains necessary after failure of the initial treatment but should also be considered as an early intervention for cases presenting with gas-forming abscesses and septic shock and when treatment of the underlying cause is immediately required.
PMCID: PMC3296144  PMID: 22536008
California Medicine  1952;76(5):325-327.
A review of the literature raises considerable doubt as to the advisability of surgical drainage of lung abscess as a definitive procedure. The mortality rate with use of this procedure and other hazards associated with it, must now be viewed in the light of improved methods of conservative therapy — involving the use of penicillin, bronchoscopic treatment and postural drainage—by which cure can be obtained in more than 80 per cent of cases of acute abscess and in a smaller proportion of cases of chronic abscess. Another factor to be considered is the better chance for diagnosis and effective resection of associated carcinoma when conservative treatment is employed.
PMCID: PMC1521287  PMID: 14935878
10.  Endoscopic Drainage of Pseudocysts 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(3):222-226.
During the last decade, great progress has been made in minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. For pancreatic pseudocysts (PPCs), endoscopic drainage has become the first-line therapeutic option. Recent advances in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-related techniques have focused on EUS-guided transmural drainage, which is now replacing the conventional endoscopy-guided transmural drainage. While transmural drainage is usually performed using multiple plastic stents with or without a nasocystic drain, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are now being used with increasing frequency. In this review, we discuss some of the controversies related to the endoscopic drainage of PPCs.
PMCID: PMC4058539  PMID: 24944985
Pancreatic pseudocyst; Endoscopy; Endosonography; Drainage
11.  The Role of Imaging-Guided Percutaneous Procedures in the Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment of Pancreatic Fluid Collections 
Pancreatic fluid collections include a wide range of entities such as cystic neoplasms, both benign and malignant; vascular pathology such as pseudoaneurysms and hematomas; and a host of other entities such as pseudocysts, seromas, abscesses, and bilomas. The distinction between these entities requires correlating an often complex and overlapping clinical presentation with findings on imaging studies, typically computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. As complex as the diagnostic work-up may be, the treatment of pancreatic collections poses its own set of challenges and often requires a multidisciplinary collaboration among interventional radiologists, surgeons, and gastroenterologists. The best treatment algorithm is determined by careful review of radiologic imaging studies combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to apply therapies such as surgical resection; drainage or debridement; endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage; aspiration or biopsy; and imaging-guided percutaneous drainage, aspiration, or biopsy. This article focuses on the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of pancreatic fluid collections such as abscesses, pseudocysts, and necrosis.
PMCID: PMC3577623  PMID: 24293805
interventional radiology; pancreas; percutaneous drainage; abscess; pancreatitis
12.  Covered self expandable metallic stent with flared plastic one inside for pancreatic pseudocyst avoiding stent dislodgement 
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage has recently been recommended for increasing the drainage rate of endoscopically managed pancreatic fluid collections and decreasing the morbidity associated with conventional endoscopic trans-mural drainage. The type of stent used for endoscopic drainage is currently a major area of interest. A covered self expandable metallic stent (CSEMS) is an alternative to conventional drainage with plastic stents because it offers the option of providing a larger-diameter access fistula for drainage, and may increase the final success rate. One problem with CSEMS is dislodgement, so a metallic stent with flared or looped ends at both extremities may be the best option. An 85-year-old woman with severe co-morbidity was treated with percutaneous approach for a large (20 cm) pancreatic pseudocyst with corpuscolated material inside. This approach failed. The patient was transferred to our institute for EUS-guided transmural drainage. EUS confirmed a large, anechoic cyst with hyperechoic material inside. Because the cyst was large and contained mixed and corpusculated fluid, we used a metallic stent for drainage. To avoid migration of the stent and potential mucosal growth above the stent, a plastic prosthesis (7 cm, 10 Fr) with flaps at the tips was inserted inside the CSEMS. Two months later an esophagogastroduodenoscopy was done, and showed patency of the SEMS and plastic stents, which were then removed with a polypectomy snare. The patient experienced no further problems.
PMCID: PMC3329615  PMID: 22523616
Pancreatic pseudocyst; Self expandable metallic stent
13.  Clinical significance of C-reactive protein values in antibiotic treatment for pyogenic liver abscess 
AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of C-reactive protein (CRP) values in determining the endpoint of antibiotic treatment for liver abscess after drainage.
METHODS: The endpoints of antibiotic treatment in 46 patients with pyogenic liver abscess after complete percutaneous drainage were assessed by performing a retrospective study. After complete percutaneous drainage, normal CRP values were considered as the endpoint in 18 patients (experimental group), and normal body temperature for at least 2 wk were considered as the endpoints in the other 28 patients (control group).
RESULTS: The duration of antibiotic treatment after complete percutaneous drainage was 15.83 ± 6.45 d and 24.25 ± 8.18 d for the experimental and the control groups, respectively (P = 0.001), being significantly shorter in the experimental group than in the control group. The recurrence rate was 0% for both groups. However, we could not obtain the follow-up data about 3 patients in the control group.
CONCLUSION: CRP values can be considered as an independent factor to determine the duration of the antibiotic treatment for pyogenic liver abscess after complete percutaneous drainage.
PMCID: PMC2955259  PMID: 20939118
Liver abscess; C-reactive protein; Antibiotic treatment; Drainage; Retrospective studies
14.  Colonic lymphoma presenting acutely with perforated colo-splenic fistula 
Primary colonic lymphoma is rare. It comprises less than 1% of large bowel malignancies. Affected patients often present with non-specific vague symptoms with subsequent delays in diagnosis and management.
An immuno-competent 35-year-old male presented with left iliac fossa pain, fever and constipation. Clinical examination revealed left-sided abdominal peritonism. After the initial radiological and endoscopic investigations, a provisional diagnosis of a localized perforation of a splenic flexure diverticulum was made and ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the abscess was performed. The patient failed to settle on conservative treatment and therefore exploratory laparotomy was carried out. An inflammatory phlegmon consisting of a left paracolic gutter abscess, the spleen and the splenic flexure of the colon was resected en-bloc and a primary colo-colic anastomosis was performed. His operative recovery was complicated by wound infection which was treated conservatively. The histopathology revealed colo-splenic fistula secondary to a perforated colonic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The spleen contained multiple metastatic lymphomatous deposits. He was started on chemotherapy and remained well at 5-year follow up.
Colon non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may present initially with an acute abdomen due to perforation. It mimics any acute surgical condition. Perforation and fistulaization into the spleen is very rare.
This case highlights the delay and difficulty in diagnosing primary colonic lymphoma without resorting to surgical resection.
PMCID: PMC3376709  PMID: 22609704
Colon lymphoma; Perforation; Fistula; Spleen; Abdominal abscess
15.  Septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein and multiple liver abscesses in a patient with Crohn's disease at onset 
BMC Gastroenterology  2007;7:22.
Portal-mesenteric vein thrombosis, pylephlebitis and liver abscesses are rare complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purpose of this case report is to relate an unusual presentation of CD in order to show how conservative treatment could be an appropriate option as a bridge to the surgery, in patients with septic thrombophlebitis and multiple liver abscesses with CD.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 25-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) who developed a superior mesenteric venous thrombosis, multiple liver abscesses and pylephlebitis, diagnosed through abdominal ultrasound and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. The patient was successfully treated with conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics, subcutaneous anticoagulation and percutaneous catheter drainage of liver abscesses.
We reported an unnusual case of pylephlebitis in CD. Until now this association has not been reported in adult patients at onset. We hypothesise that the infection developed as a result of mucosal disease and predisposed by corticoid therapy. Adequated management was discussed.
PMCID: PMC1904453  PMID: 17565671
16.  A Case of Common Bile Duct Cancer That Completely Responded to Combination Chemotherapy of Gemcitabine and TS-1 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(3):371-376.
Common bile duct (CBD) cancer is a relatively rare malignancy that arises from the biliary epithelium and is associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of advanced metastatic CBD cancer successfully treated by chemotherapy with gemcitabine combined with S-1 (tegafur+gimeracil+oteracil). A 65-year-old male presented with pyogenic liver abscess. After antibiotic therapy and percutaneous drainage, follow-up computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced nodule in the CBD. Biopsy was performed at the CBD via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which showed adenocarcinoma. Additional CT and magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small nodules in the right hepatic lobe, which were confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma by sono-guided liver biopsy. The patient underwent combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and S-1. After nine courses of chemotherapy, the hepatic lesion disappeared radiologically. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed, and no residual tumor was found in the resected specimen. Three weeks after the operation, the patient was discharged with no complications. Through 3 months of follow-up, no sign of recurrence was observed on CT scan. Gemcitabine combined with S-1 may be a highly effective treatment for advanced cholangiocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3661972  PMID: 23710321
Cholangiocarcinoma; Gemcitabine; S-1
17.  A new interventional technique for percutaneous treatment of drainage-resistant liver abscess 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(993):e195-e197.
The objective of this case report is to describe a device that can be used as a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of drainage-resistant liver abscess. The device uses pulse lavage to fragment and evacuate the semi-solid contents of a liver abscess. The treatment of liver abscesses consists of percutaneous drainage, antibiotics and treatment of the underlying cause. This approach can be ineffective if the contents of the abscess cavity are not liquid, and in those cases open surgery is often needed. Here, we describe for the first time a new minimally invasive technique for treating persistent liver abscesses. A patient developed a liver abscess after a hepatico-jejunostomy performed as a palliative treatment for an unresectable pancreatic head carcinoma. Simple drainage by a percutaneously placed pig-tail catheter was insufficient because of inadequate removal of the contents of the abscess cavity. After dilatation of the drain tract the persistent semi-solid necrotic contents were fragmented by a pulsed lavage device, after which the abscess healed uneventfully. The application of pulsed lavage for debridement of drainage-resistant liver abscesses proved to be an effective and minimally invasive alternative to open surgery.
PMCID: PMC3473396  PMID: 20739342
18.  Management of abdominal and pelvic abscess in Crohn’s disease 
Patients with Crohn’s disease may develop an abdominal or pelvic abscess during the course of their illness. This process results from transmural inflammation and penetration of the bowel wall, which in turn leads to a contained perforation and subsequent abscess formation. Management of patients with Crohn’s related intra-abdominal and pelvic abscesses is challenging and requires the expertise of multiple specialties working in concert. Treatment usually consists of percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) under guidance of computed tomography in addition to antibiotics. PAD allows for drainage of infection and avoidance of a two-stage surgical procedure in most cases. It is unclear if PAD can be considered a definitive treatment without the need for future surgery. The use of immune suppressive agents such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α in this setting may be hazardous and their appropriate use is controversial. This article discusses the management of spontaneous abdominal and pelvic abscesses in Crohn’s disease.
PMCID: PMC3221952  PMID: 22110836
Crohn’s disease; Abdominal abscess; Psoas abscess; Abscess; Drainage; Computed tomography; Spiral; Infection; Colorectal surgery
19.  Management of Hinchey II diverticulitis 
Colonic diverticulosis can either be asymptomatic or present with complications resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A key presentation of complicated disease is abscess formation (Hinchey type II). The natural course of this is unclear and therefore treatments range from conservative approach with antibiotics and percutaneous guided drainage (PCD) to surgery. There is no clear consensus on the exact management strategy. A Medline based literature search specifically looking at studies dealing with Hinchey type II diverticulitis and its management was carried out. For comparison, five-year retrospective data of diverticular abscesses from our institution was collected and the outcome analysed. Various studies have looked into this aspect of the disease, elaborating on the significance of the size and location of the abscesses, the role of PCD, recurrence rates and the controversies regarding the need for elective surgery. Conservative treatment with antibiotics alone is effective in a majority of cases with a role for PCD in large safely accessible abscesses. Variable recurrence rates have been reported in literature and elective surgery should be planned for selected groups of patients.
PMCID: PMC2776873  PMID: 19084929
Diverticulosis; Diverticular abscess; Hinchey classification; Percutaneous drainage; Recurrent diverticulitis
20.  Endoscopic rendez-vous after damage control surgery in treatment of retroperitoneal abscess from perforated duodenal diverticulum: a techinal note and literature review 
The duodenum is the second seat of onset of diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic, but duodenal perforation with abscess may occur.
Case presentation
Woman, 83 years old, emergency hospitalised for generalized abdominal pain. On the abdominal tomography in the third portion of the duodenum a herniation and a concomitant full-thickness breach of the visceral wall was detected. The patient underwent emergency surgery. A surgical toilette of abscess was performed passing through the perforated diverticula and the Petzer’s tube drainage was placed in the duodenal lumen; the duodenostomic Petzer was endoscopically removed 4 months after the surgery.
A review of medical literature was performed and our treatment has never been described.
For the treatment of perforated duodenal diverticula a sequential two-stage non resective approach is safe and feasible in selected cases.
PMCID: PMC3723641  PMID: 23866674
Duodenum; Diverticula; Complications; Perforation; Surgical treatment
21.  Endoscopic transgastric drainage of a gastric wall abscess after endoscopic submucosal dissection 
A 63-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for further examination because of an incidental finding of early gastric cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was successfully performed for complete resection of the tumor. On the first post-ESD day, the patient suddenly complained of abdominal pain after an episode of vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed delayed perforation after ESD. The patient was conservatively treated with an intravenous proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics. On the fifth post-ESD day, CT revealed a gastric wall abscess in the gastric body. Gastroscopy revealed a gastric fistula at the edge of the post-ESD ulcer, and pus was found flowing into the stomach. An intradrainage stent and an extradrainage nasocystic catheter were successfully inserted into the abscess for endoscopic transgastric drainage. After the procedure, the clinical symptoms and laboratory test results improved quickly. Two months later, a follow-up CT scan showed no collection of pus. Consequently, the intradrainage stent was removed. Although the gastric wall abscess recurred 2 wk after stent removal, it recovered soon after endoscopic transgastric drainage. Finally, after stent removal and oral antibiotic treatment for 1 mo, no recurrence of the gastric wall abscess was found.
PMCID: PMC3921538  PMID: 24574787
Gastric wall abscess; Transgastric drainage; Delayed perforation; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Early gastric cancer
22.  Percutaneous drainage of splenic abscess in typhoid fever--a case report. 
Salmonella typhi splenic abscesses are a very rare complication of typhoid fever. Splenectomy is the standard surgical treatment for these lesions. But these days, with improvements in imaging techniques, percutaneous drainage of splenic abscesses has been demonstrated to be one of the alternative treatment in selected cases. We report the case of a 7 year-old male, who presented with Salmonella typhi in blood and urine cultures, and a 1: 320 in O titer of Widal test. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed a single splenic abscess, 3 cm in diameter. He was treated with antibiotics, but the symptoms were not relieved. Thus we performed the percutaneous drainage of the splenic abscess under ultrasound guidance. A culture of the aspirated material was positive for Salmonella typhi, and the boy's condition improved. We think that percutaneous drainage of a single lesion was an excellent alternative to surgery, particularly because our patient was young and spleen conservation was desirable.
PMCID: PMC3054123  PMID: 7598824
23.  Preoperative biliary drainage for biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas 
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
PMCID: PMC2794354  PMID: 18274841
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
24.  Endoscopic approach to pancreatic pseudocysts: An American perspective 
Pancreatic pseudocysts, abscesses, and walled-off pancreatic necrosis are types of pancreatic fluid collections that arise as a consequence of pancreatic injury. Pain, early satiety, biliary obstruction, and infection are all indications for drainage. Percutaneous-radiologic drainage, surgical drainage, and endoscopic drainage are the three traditional approaches to the drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. The endoscopic approach to pancreatic pseudocysts has evolved over the past thirty years and endoscopists are often capable of draining these collections. In experienced centers endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic drainage avoids complications related to percutaneous drainage and is less invasive than surgery.
PMCID: PMC2999065  PMID: 21160706
Pancreatic fluid collections; Pseudocyst; Endoscopic drainage
25.  Abscess of the caudate lobe of the liver, a rare disease with a challenging management: a case report 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2013;27(5):430-434.
We reported a rare case of abscess of the caudate lobe of the liver in a 60-year old man. We first tried computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous drainage of the abscess but failed to eradicate the infection. Deterioration of the general condition of the patient necessitated open surgical drainage, which resulted in cure of the abscess. The peculiar anatomical location of caudate lobe abscess introduces a great challenge for the surgeon in planning the appropriate management and paucity of patients with caudate lobe abscess has led to lack of guidelines for management. The non-operative interventional radiology approach has become the therapeutic choice for pyogenic liver abscess, but is it applicable also for caudate lobe abscess?
PMCID: PMC3783828  PMID: 24086176
caudate lobe; percutaneous drainage; open surgical drainage; pyogenic liver abscess

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