Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) is one of the most extensively studied C-C chemokines in allergic inflammation. A growing body of evidence suggests that many cell types present in asthmatic airways have the capacity to generate RANTES, which directly supported the potential role of RANTES in asthma. A number of studies have evaluated the functional polymorphism -28C/G in the RANTES promoter region, which had been found to affect the transcription of the RANTES gene, in relation to asthma susceptibility. However, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. This meta-analysis on 1894 asthma cases and 1766 controls for -28C/G from 9 published case-control studies showed that the variant allele -28G was associated with significantly increased risk of asthma (GG+CG vs CC: OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.08-1.41) without any between-study heterogeneity.
In the stratified analysis by asthma type, age and ethnicity, we found that the increased asthma risk associated with -28G/C polymorphism was more evident in children (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.06-1.45), Asian group (OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.04-1.56) and African group (OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.07-2.78). These results suggest that RANTES -28G/C polymorphism may contribute to asthma development, especially in children and in Asian population. Additional well-designed large studies were required for the validation of this association.
RANTES; polymorphism; susceptibility; asthma; meta-analysis
Coronary artery inflammation is a critical process in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). The chemokine CCL5/RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted) is expressed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Functional polymorphisms of the RANTES gene can, therefore, be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We examined the association of polymorphisms in the RANTES gene with myocardial infarction in Slavonic populations of Czech and Russian origin. A total of 467 post-MI patients and 337 control subjects were genotyped for RANTES promoter G-403A (rs2107538) and intron 1.1 T/C (rs2280789) variants by PCR-SSP. Both RANTES genotypes and allele frequencies did not differ between case and control groups. Haplotype-based analysis also failed to reveal an association between MI and investigated markers. Strong linkage disequilibrium was detected between particular RANTES alleles. The data do not support an association between RANTES G-403A polymorphism and MI, as reported previously.
Numerous studies have evaluated the association between regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) gene polymorphisms (−403G/A and −28C/G) and risk of pediatric asthma. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis of the association between RANTES gene polymorphisms and pediatric asthma risk was performed in the current study. A search for published literature was conducted in the Google Scholar, PubMed and the CNKI databases (January 2000 to April 2012) and seven studies were retrieved. The associations between RANTES gene polymorphisms and pediatric asthma risk were estimated by pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a fixed- or random-effects model. Meta-analysis results revealed no significant association between the −403G/A polymorphism and risk of pediatric asthma. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no association was identified between the −403G/A polymorphism and pediatric asthma risk in Caucasian and Asian populations. In the −28C/G group, the meta-analysis indicated a significant association between the −28C/G polymorphism and pediatric asthma susceptibility among the total population (recessive model: OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04–1.72). However, when the subgroup analysis was performed by ethnicity, no significant associations were identified in Asians and Europeans. This result suggests that the −28C/G polymorphism may not be associated with pediatric asthma risk, while the observed increase in the risk of pediatric asthma may be due to racial differences. Additional large-scale studies are required to provide conclusive evidence on the effects of RANTES gene polymorphisms on the risk of pediatric asthma.
RANTES; pediatric asthma; meta-analysis; polymorphism
Inflammation has been implicated as an etiological factor in several human cancers, including prostate cancer. Allelic variants of the genes involved in inflammatory pathways are logical candidates as genetic determinants of prostate cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes that lead to increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk.
A case-control study design was used to test the association between prostate cancer risk and the polymorphisms TNF-A-308 A/G (rs 1800629), RANTES-403 G/A (rs 2107538), IL1-A-889 C/T (rs 1800587) and MCP-1 2518 G/A (rs 1024611) in 296 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and in 311 healthy controls from the same area.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer was significantly associated with TNF-A GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09–2.64) and RANTES GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–2.38). A alleles in TNF-A and RANTES influenced prostate cancer susceptibility and acted independently of each other in these subjects. No epistatic effect was found for the combination of different polymorphisms studied. Finally, no overall association was found between prostate cancer risk and IL1-A or MCP-1 polymorphisms.
Our results and previously published findings on genes associated with innate immunity support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in proinflammatory genes may be important in prostate cancer development.
Chemokines are important inflammatory mediators that play a crucial role in uveitis. Polymorphisms in chemokine genes can alter the expression of these genes in the inflammatory cells, which, in turn, can affect the clinical phenotype of the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify polymorphisms in chemokine genes that can predict visual outcome in patients with immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis.
This is a case-control study of 141 Caucasians with idiopathic immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis and 282 controls matched by age and ethnicity. Six polymorphisms in four genes, (MCP-1-2518A/G, RANTES-403G/A, RANTES-28C/G, CCR2 V64I, CCR5-59029G/A, and CCR5 32 bp deletion) were analyzed by sequence specific primers polymerase chain reaction.
Patients with G allele at MCP-1-2581 developed the disease at an early age as compared to patients with A allele corrected p value pc=0.003. Also patients with A allele at RANTES-403 position developed less severe disease and had better visual outcome when compared with patients with G allele (pc=0.02) Final visual acuity after 18 months was better in patients with 32 bp deletion of the CCR5 gene and in patients with the CCR2 wild-type genotype pc=0.02 and pc=0.04, respectively. Patients with the CCR2 64I allele also had a higher risk of developing an elevated intraocular pressure as compared to patients with the wild-type genotype (pc=0.007).
Though the utility for prediction of disease susceptibility of the studied polymorphisms in chemokine genes is in general not robust, we have found that polymorphisms in chemokine genes can influence the outcome of patients with idiopathic immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis. These associations require further analysis in other groups of patients.
Several lines of evidence suggest that chemokines and cytokines play an important role in the inflammatory development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of functional genetic variations of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 for systemic lupus erythematosus.
The study was conducted on 500 SLE patients and 481 ethnically matched healthy controls. Genotyping of polymorphisms in the RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 genes were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system with pre-developed TaqMan allelic discrimination assay.
No significant differences between SLE patients and healthy controls were observed when comparing genotype, allele or haplotype frequencies of the RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 polymorphisms. In addition, no evidence for association with clinical sub-features of SLE was found.
These results suggest that the tested functional variation of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 genes do not confer a relevant role in the susceptibility or severity of SLE in the Spanish population.
Asthma and atopy have a complex background which may result from the interaction of genes and environments. Interleukin (IL)-10 is known to play various roles in immune-regulating and anti-inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of the IL-10 promoter polymorphisms on susceptibility to childhood asthma.
We recruited 333 patients with atopic asthma, 55 with non-atopic asthma, and 248 normal controls. We performed a genetic association study of 3 genetic polymorphisms (IL-10–1082A>G, IL-10 –819T>C, –592A>C) of the IL-10 promoter.
There was no difference between atopic asthma, non-atopic asthma and normal controls in allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies of these IL-10 polymorphisms. However, the –1082A>G polymorphism and ATA haplotype in the IL-10 promoter gene were associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the –819T>C, –592A>C, and ATA and ACC haplotypes were also shown to be related with serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).
Our results suggest that the polymorphisms within the IL-10 promoter may have a disease-modifying effect in asthmatic airway.
Background. A positive association between genetic polymorphism and asthma may not be extrapolated from one ethnic group to another based on intra- and interethnic allelic and genotype frequencies differences.
Objective. We assessed whether polymorphisms of GST genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) are associated with asthma and atopy among Tunisian children. Methods. 112 unrelated healthy individuals and 105 asthmatic (73 atopic and 32 nonatopic) children were studied. Genotyping the polymorphisms in the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex PCR. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results.
GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of asthma (P = .002). Asthmatic children had a higher prevalence of the GSTP1Ile105 allele than the control group (43.8% and 33.5%, respectively; P = .002). Also, the presence of the GSTP1 homozygote Val/Val was less common in subjects with asthma than in control group. We have found that GSTT1 null genotype (GSTT1 *0/*0) was significantly associated with atopy (P = .008). Conclusion. Polymorphisms within genes of the GST superfamily were associated with risk of asthma and atopy in Tunisia.
Rationale: Recent genetic studies have implicated integrins in asthma and atopy susceptibility. We therefore evaluated the integrin-β3 gene (ITGB3), an integrin gene within an asthma linkage peak on chromosome 17, as a candidate for susceptibility to asthma- and atopy-related phenotypes. Methods and Measurements: We genotyped and performed association tests on 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in ITGB3 in the Hutterites, a founder population, and in three outbred replication populations. Main Results: Variation in ITGB3 was strongly associated with susceptibility to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and protection from allergic sensitization to mold allergens in this population. Three independent case-control populations representing Caucasians and African Americans were used to replicate this finding, also revealing ITGB3 alleles that are associated with asthma susceptibility and protection from mold allergen sensitization. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that ITGB3 plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma and sensitization to mold allergens.
association; asthma; genetics; hypersensitivity; integrins
Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and lymphotoxin-α (LTA, also called TNF-β) have been associated with asthma and atopy in some studies. Parental smoking is a consistent risk factor for childhood asthma. Secondhand smoke and ozone both stimulate TNF production.
Our goal was to investigate whether genetic variation in TNF and LTA is associated with asthma and atopy and whether the association is modified by parental smoking in a Mexican population with high ozone exposure.
We genotyped six tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF and LTA, including functional variants, in 596 nuclear families consisting of asthmatics 4–17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests.
The A allele of the TNF-308 SNP was associated with increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–2.28], especially among children of non-smoking parents (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.19–3.55; p for interaction = 0.09). Similarly, the A allele of the TNF-238 SNP was associated with increased asthma risk among children of nonsmoking parents (RR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.14–4.30; p for interaction = 0.01). LTA SNPs were not associated with asthma. Haplotype analyses reflected the single SNP findings in magnitude and direction. TNF and LTA SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy.
Our results suggest that genetic variation in TNF may contribute to childhood asthma and that associations may be modified by parental smoking.
allergy; asthma; atopy; environmental tobacco smoke; genetic predisposition to disease; lymphotoxin-α (LTA); ozone; secondhand smoke; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)
G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility (GPRA or GPR154) was identified as an asthma and atopy candidate gene by positional cloning. Some subsequent studies suggest associations of GPRA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with asthma or atopy susceptibility. However, the associated SNPs or haplotypes vary among studies. The role of GPRA genetic variation in asthma and atopy remains unsolved. Published data on GRPA variants and asthma come exclusively from Caucasian and Asian populations. We examined whether GPRA SNPs and haplotypes are associated with asthma and atopy in a Mexican population. We genotyped and analyzed 27 GPRA SNPs in 589 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4–17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens. The 27 SNPs examined provided excellent coverage of the GPRA gene. GPRA SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with childhood asthma and the degree of atopy to aeroallergens in a Mexican population. Our review of studies of GPRA variants in relation to asthma phenotypes shows considerable heterogeneity. Accordingly, our results suggest that GPRA variants are not an important contributor to childhood asthma and atopy susceptibility in a Mexican population.
GPR154; allergy; asthma; genetic predisposition to disease; single nucleotide polymorphism
Chemokines play important roles in inflammation and antiviral action. We examined whether polymorphisms of RANTES, IP-10 and Mig affect the susceptibility to and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
We tested the polymorphisms of RANTES, IP-10 and Mig for their associations with SARS in 495 Hong Kong Chinese SARS patients and 578 controls. Then we tried to confirm the results in 356 Beijing Chinese SARS patients and 367 controls.
RANTES -28 G allele was associated with SARS susceptibility in Hong Kong Chinese (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.80, 95%CI:2.11–3.71). Individuals with RANTES -28 CG and GG genotypes had a 3.28-fold (95%CI:2.32–4.64) and 3.06-fold (95%CI:1.47–6.39) increased risk of developing SARS respectively (P < 0.0001). This -28 G allele conferred risk of death in a gene-dosage dependent manner (P = 0.014) with CG and GG individuals having a 2.12-fold (95% CI: 1.11–4.06) and 4.01-fold (95% CI: 1.30–12.4) increased risk. For the replication of RANTES data in Beijing Chinese, the -28 G allele was not associated with susceptibility to SARS. However, -28 CG (OR = 4.27, 95%CI:1.64–11.1) and GG (OR = 3.34, 95%CI:0.37–30.7) were associated with admission to intensive care units or death due to SARS (P = 0.011).
RANTES -28 G allele plays a role in the pathogenesis of SARS.
N-terminal modifications of the chemokine RANTES bind to C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with greater efficacy than native RANTES. Modified RANTES compounds induce rapid CCR5 internalization and much slower receptor reexpression than native RANTES, suggesting that receptor sequestration is one mode of anti-HIV activity. The rates of CCR5 internalization and reexpression were compared using the potent n-nonanoyl (NNY)-RANTES derivative and CD4+ T cells derived from donors with different CCR5 gene polymorphisms. NNY-RANTES caused even more rapid receptor internalization and slower reexpression than aminooxypentane (AOP)-RANTES. Polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions of CCR5 significantly affected the receptor reexpression rate after exposure of cells to NNY-RANTES. These observations may be relevant for understanding the protective effects of different CCR5 genotypes against HIV-1 disease progression.
A genome-wide association study identified ORM1-like 3 (orosomucoid 1-like 3, ORMDL3) as an asthma candidate gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region including ORMDL3 on chromosome 17q21 were related to childhood asthma risk and ORMDL3 expression levels in Europeans.
We examined whether polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent gasdermin-like (GSDML) gene associated with asthma in the genome-wide association study are related to childhood asthma and atopy in a Mexico City population.
We genotyped rs4378650 in ORMDL3 and rs7216389 in GSDML in 615 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4–17 years and their parents. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens.
Individuals carrying the C allele of rs4378650 or the T allele of rs7216389 had increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.73, 95% con.- dence interval (CI) 1.19–2.53, P = 0.003 for one or two copies of rs4378650 C, and RR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.12–2.38, P = 0.009 for one or two copies of rs7216389 T). Linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs was high (r2 = 0.92). Neither of the SNPs was associated with the degree of atopy. A meta-analysis of five published studies on rs7216389 in nine populations gave an odds ratio for asthma of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.35–1.54, P < 0.00001).
Our results and the meta-analysis provide evidence to confirm the finding from a recent genome-wide association study that polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent GSDML may contribute to childhood asthma.
allergy; asthma; genetic predisposition to disease; meta-analysis; single nucleotide polymorphism
Macrophage infiltration has been observed in the renal biopsy specimens of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and hyperglycemic state stimulates the renal expression of RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). Upregulation of RANTES and MCP-1 with infiltrating macrophages may play a crucial role in the development and progression of DN. Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES and its receptors were reported to be independent risk factors for DN. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the MCP-1 G-2518A, CCR2 G46295A, RANTES C-28G and G-403A in 177 diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and 184 patients without renal involvement (controls) in order to investigate the effects of these SNPs on DN in Korean patients with type 2 DM. There were no differences in the frequencies of SNPs and the distribution of haplotypes of RANTES promoter SNPs between two groups. In conclusion, there were no associations of MCP-1, CCR2 and RANTES promoter SNPs with diabetic ESRD in Korean population. Prospective studies with clearly-defined, homogenous cohorts are needed to confirm the effect of these genetic polymorphisms on DN.
Diabetic Nephropathies; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins; RANTES; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Many studies have investigated the distributions of RANTES genotypes between HIV-1 infected patients and uninfected individuals. However, no definite results have been put forward about whether the RANTES −28C/G polymorphism can affect HIV-1 susceptibility.
We performed a meta-analysis of 12 studies including 7473 subjects for whom the RANTES −28C/G polymorphism was genotyped. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to assess the association of the polymorphism with HIV-1 susceptibility. By dividing the controls into healthy controls and HIV-1 exposed but seronegative (HESN) controls, we explored the both allelic and dominant genetic models.
By using the healthy controls, we found a marginally significant association between the −28C/G polymorphism and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the allelic model (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.70–0.97). But sensitivity analysis suggested that the association was driven by one study. We further performed stratified analysis according to ethnicity. The −28G allele decreased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the allelic model among Asians (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.66–0.94). By using the HESN controls, no association between the polymorphism −28C/G and the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection was revealed in either the allelic model (OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.60–1.17) or the dominant model (OR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.54–1.10).
Our findings suggested that the RANTES −28G allele might play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection among Asians. Additional well-designed studies were required for the validation of this association.
Background: CD14 functions as a multifunctional receptor for bacterial cell wall components including endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide and is likely to play a role in the polarisation of T lymphocytes into Th1 and Th2 subsets, thereby influencing the cytokine profile and subsequent IgE production in response to antigen/allergen contact in allergic phenotypes. A functional C-159T polymorphism has been described in the promoter region of the gene and has been associated with increased gene expression, atopy, and non-atopic asthma in different ethnic populations. A study was undertaken to examine the association between the C-159T polymorphism and asthma, asthma severity, and atopy in a large Australian white population.
Methods: PCR-RFLP analysis was used to characterise the C-159T polymorphism in mild (n = 264), moderate (n = 225) and severe (n = 79) asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic controls (n = 443), including atopic (n = 688) and non-atopic (n = 323) individuals. Association analyses were performed using χ2 tests.
Results: There was no association between the polymorphism and asthma (p = 0.468) or asthma severity (p = 0.727), and only a very weak association with atopy (p = 0.084). A meta-analysis of all studies conducted to date revealed similar genotypic frequencies in white ethnic populations and confirmed that there was no overall association with atopy (p = 0.52) or asthma (p = 0.23), although there was significant between study heterogeneity (p = 0.01).
Conclusions: This study confirms that there is no association between the CD14 C-159T polymorphism and asthma or asthma severity and a weak association between this polymorphism and atopy in an adult population.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results from the deregulated interaction of inflammatory cells and tissue forming cells. Beside the derangement of the epithelial cell layer, the most prominent tissue pathology of the asthmatic lung is the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) bundles, which actively contributes to airway inflammation and remodeling. ASMCs of asthma patients secrete proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10, CCL11, and RANTES which attract immune cells into the airways and may thereby initiate inflammation. None of the available asthma drugs cures the disease—only symptoms are controlled. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in psoriasis and showed promising results in phase III clinical studies in multiple sclerosis patients. In regard to asthma therapy, DMF has been anecdotally reported to reduce asthma symptoms in patients with psoriasis and asthma. Here we discuss the potential use of DMF as a novel therapy in asthma on the basis of in vitro studies of its inhibitory effect on ASMC proliferation and cytokine secretion in ASMCs.
BACKGROUND: Clinical asthma is associated with increased serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), atopy (skin prick test positivity to common aeroallergens), and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) to non-specific stimuli (positive methacholine challenge test). A region on chromosome 5q31-33 has been linked with increased total serum IgE and BHR. A study of the genetic linkage of this region with clinical asthma and atopy was therefore undertaken. METHODS: A polymorphic microsatellite marker in chromosome 5q31 (D5S399) was studied in 119 sibling pairs recruited from the general population who shared asthma, atopy, and/or BHR. Based on our population distribution of 13 different alleles, it was expected that by chance alone sibling pairs would share on average 1.24 alleles and that a significant excess would indicate genetic linkage. RESULTS: No evidence of linkage was found in 45 siblings concordant for asthma (shared alleles = 1.09, p = 0.95), in 103 sibling pairs with atopy (shared alleles = 1.18, p = 0.82), in 51 sibling pairs with BHR (shared alleles = 1.22, p = 0.62), or in 68 sibling pairs who shared atopy in the absence of BHR (shared alleles = 1.22, p = 0.61). A slight non- significant excess of shared alleles (1.44, p = 0.11) was observed in siblings who shared BHR without atopy. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of genetic linkage of chromosome 5q31 with either clinical asthma or atopy was therefore detected in the population studied. Linkage between chromosome 5q and BHR needs further investigation.
Despite the identification of 1,000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, there remains discordance between CFTR genotype and lung disease phenotype. The study of CFTR, therefore, has expanded beyond its chloride channel activity into other possible functions, such as its role as a regulator of gene expression. Findings indicate that CFTR plays a role in the expression of RANTES in airway epithelia. RANTES is a chemokine that has been implicated in the regulation of mucosal immunity and the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases. Results demonstrate that CFTR triggers RANTES expression via a mechanism that is independent of CFTR's chloride channel activity. Neither pharmacological inhibition of CFTR nor activation of alternative chloride channels, including hClC-2, modulated RANTES expression. Through the use of CFTR disease-associated and truncation mutants, experiments suggest that CFTR-mediated transcription factor activation and RANTES expression require (i) insertion of CFTR into the plasma membrane and (ii) an intact CFTR C-terminal PDZ-interacting domain. Expression of constructs encoding wild-type or dominant-negative forms of the PDZ-binding protein EBP50 suggests that EBP50 may be involved in CFTR-dependent RANTES expression. Together, these data suggest that CFTR modulates gene expression in airway epithelial cells while located in a macromolecular signaling complex at the plasma membrane.
The G-403A polymorphism in RANTES gene may be involved in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) through increasing RANTES-mediated leukocyte trafficking and activation. However, studies investigating the relationship between G-403A polymorphism and CAD yielded contradictory and inconclusive results. In order to shed some light on these inconsistent findings, a meta analysis was performed to clarify the role of G-403A polymorphism of RANTES gene in the susceptibility of CAD.
A systemic literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted from their inception to March 23, 2012, to retrieve related studies. In addition, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science was searched, authors of relevant studies were contacted, and reference lists of the included studies and their related citations in PubMed were reviewed for additional pertinent studies.
A total of 8 eligible studies were identified, with a total of 4252 CAD cases and 2150 controls. There was no evidence of significant association between G-403A polymorphism and CAD risk in any genetic model or pairwise comparisons (additive model: OR = 1.046, 95% CI = 0.883–1.239, I2 = 65.9%; recessive model: OR = 1.140, 95% CI = 0.774–1.678, I2 = 53.1%; dominant model: OR = 1.000, 95% CI = 0.820–1.21), I2 = 62.6%; AA vs GG: OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 0.734–1.773, I2 = 61.2%; GA vs GG: OR = 0.993, 95% CI = 0.800–1.232, I2 = 64.6%). Subgroup analysis and meta regression indicated that ethnicity and genotyping method accounted for the significant heterogeneity among studies. In the stratified analysis by ethnic group, G-403A polymorphism was found to be associated with increased CAD risk in Caucasian population whereas its protective role was observed in Asian population in some but not all comparisons.
Data from the current meta-analysis do not support the existence of a relationship between G-403A polymorphism and the development of CAD, and large sample size study employing unified genotyping method is needed to further evaluate the influence of G-403A polymorphism on susceptibility of CAD.
A recent microarray study implicated arginase I (ARG1) and arginase II (ARG2) in mouse allergic asthma models and human asthma.
To examine the association between genetic variation in ARG1 and ARG2 and childhood asthma and atopy risk.
We enrolled 433 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics 4 to 17 years and their biologic parents, from the allergy clinic of a public hospital in Mexico City between 1998 and 2003. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ARG1 and 4 SNPs of ARG2 with minor allele frequencies over 10% using the TaqMan assay.
ARG1 SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with asthma but all four ARG1 SNPs were associated with the number of positive skin tests (P = 0.007 to 0.018). Carrying two copies of minor alleles for either of two highly associated ARG2 SNPs was associated with a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR) of asthma [1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1 for arg2s1; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 for arg2s2]. The association was slightly stronger among children with a smoking parent (arg2s1 RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2 – 3.9 with a smoking parent; RR =1.2, 95% CI = 0.8–1.9 without, interaction P = 0.025). Haplotype analyses reduced the sample size but supported the single SNP results. One ARG2 SNP was related to the number of positive skin tests (P = 0.027).
Variation in arginase genes may contribute to asthma and atopy in children.
ARG1; ARG2; “genetic predisposition to disease”; SNP; “polymorphism; single nucleotide”; “respiratory hypersensitivity”; “skin tests”; asthma; “tobacco smoke pollution”; ARG1 = arginase I; ARG2 = arginase II; CI = confidence interval; D′ = Lewontin’s standardized disequilibrium coefficient; eNOS = endothelial nitric oxide synthase; IgE = immunoglobulin E; IL-13 = interleukin-13; IL-4 = interleukin-4; LD = linkage disequilibrium; NO = nitric oxide; NOS = nitric oxide synthase; r2 = squared correlation coefficient; RR = relative risk; SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism; STAT6 = signal transducer and activator of transcription 6; TDT = transmission disequilibrium test; Th2= T helper lymphocytes type 2
Previous studies demonstrated that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was being implicated in the airways inflammation and remodeling process in patients with asthma.
We explored the relationship of three polymorphisms in the VEGF gene with asthma in both case control and family studies.
We Genotyped a total of 210 children with asthma, 224 unrelated controls and 160 parents for the +936 C >T (rs3025039), −634 G > C (rs2010963) and −2549 −2567 del 18 of the VEGF promoter region. The Mutations were identified with polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the +936 C > T, and −634 G > C polymorphisms.
Of the three polymorphisms studied, a borderline association with asthma was found for the G allele in the −634 G > C polymorphism (p = 0.059). No Statistically significant differences were observed for both +936 C > T, and −2549 −2567 del 18 polymorphisms between asthmatic patients and controls, considering either allelic or genotypic frequencies. The distribution of genotypes according to the severity status revealed a significant differences for the +936 C > T, and −2549 −2567 del 18 polymorphisms. In addition, association was found with the haplotypes inferred by the three polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility.
We suggest that VEGF Gene polymorphisms can be implicated in asthma.
VEGF; polymorphisms; asthma
Understanding of adolescent-onset asthma remains limited. We sought to characterise this state and identify associated factors within a longitudinal birth cohort study.
The Isle of Wight Whole Population Birth Cohort was recruited in 1989 (N=1456) and characterised at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. “Adolescent-onset asthma” was defined as asthma at age 18 without prior history of asthma, “persistent-adolescent asthma” as asthma at both 10 and 18 and “never-asthma” as those without asthma at any assessment.
Adolescent-onset asthma accounted for 28.3% of asthma at 18-years and was of similar severity to persistent-adolescent asthma. Adolescent-onset asthmatics showed elevated bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and atopy at 10 and 18-years. BHR in this group at 10 was intermediate to that of never-asthmatics and persistent-adolescent asthma. By 18 their BHR, bronchodilator reversibility and sputum eosinophilia was greater than never-asthmatics and comparable to persistent-adolescent asthma. At 10, males who later developed adolescent-onset asthma had reduced FEV1 and FEF25–75, while females had normal lung function but then developed impaired FEV1 and FEF25–75 in parallel with adolescent asthma. Factors independently associated with adolescent-onset asthma included atopy at 10 (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.08–5.09), BHR at 10 (3.42; 1.55–7.59), rhinitis at 10 (2.35; 1.11–5.01) and paracetamol use at 18-years (1.10; 1.01–1.19).
Adolescent-onset asthma is associated with significant morbidity. Predisposing factors are atopy, rhinitis and BHR at age 10 while adolescent paracetamol use is also associated with this state. Awareness of potentially modifiable influences may offer avenues for mitigating this disease state.
Adolescence; Asthma; Atopy; Bronchial Hyper-responsiveness; Rhinitis; Paracetamol; Lung Function
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors activated by ligands of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The activation of PPARγ regulates inflammation by downregulating the production of Th2 type cytokines and eosinophil function. In addition, a range of natural substances, including arachidonate pathway metabolites such as 15-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid (15-HETE), strongly promote PPARG expression. Therefore, genetic variants of the PPARG gene may be associated with the development of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). We investigated the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PPARG gene and AIA.
Based on the results of an oral aspirin challenge, asthmatics (n=403) were categorized into two groups: those with a decrease in FEV1 of 15% or greater (AIA) or less than 15% (aspirin-tolerant asthma, ATA). We genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PPARG gene from Korean asthmatics and normal controls (n=449): +34C>G (Pro12Ala) and +82466C>T (His449His).
Logistic regression analysis showed that +82466C>T and haplotype 1 (CC) were associated with the development of aspirin hypersensitivity in asthmatics (P=0.04). The frequency of the rare allele of +82466C>T was significantly higher in AIA patients than in ATA patients in the recessive model [P=0.04, OR=3.97 (1.08-14.53)]. In addition, the frequency of PPARG haplotype 1 was significantly lower in AIA patients than in ATA patients in the dominant model (OR=0.25, P=0.04).
The +82466C>T polymorphism and haplotype 1 of the PPARG gene may be linked to increased risk for aspirin hypersensitivity in asthma.
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma; aspirin; asthma; gene; polymorphism