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1.  Association between regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) -28C/G polymorphism and asthma risk - A Meta-Analysis 
Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) is one of the most extensively studied C-C chemokines in allergic inflammation. A growing body of evidence suggests that many cell types present in asthmatic airways have the capacity to generate RANTES, which directly supported the potential role of RANTES in asthma. A number of studies have evaluated the functional polymorphism -28C/G in the RANTES promoter region, which had been found to affect the transcription of the RANTES gene, in relation to asthma susceptibility. However, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. This meta-analysis on 1894 asthma cases and 1766 controls for -28C/G from 9 published case-control studies showed that the variant allele -28G was associated with significantly increased risk of asthma (GG+CG vs CC: OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.08-1.41) without any between-study heterogeneity.
In the stratified analysis by asthma type, age and ethnicity, we found that the increased asthma risk associated with -28G/C polymorphism was more evident in children (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.06-1.45), Asian group (OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.04-1.56) and African group (OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.07-2.78). These results suggest that RANTES -28G/C polymorphism may contribute to asthma development, especially in children and in Asian population. Additional well-designed large studies were required for the validation of this association.
PMCID: PMC2828619  PMID: 20186291
RANTES; polymorphism; susceptibility; asthma; meta-analysis
2.  CCL5/RANTES Gene Polymorphisms in Slavonic Patients with Myocardial Infarction 
Mediators of Inflammation  2011;2011:525691.
Coronary artery inflammation is a critical process in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). The chemokine CCL5/RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted) is expressed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Functional polymorphisms of the RANTES gene can, therefore, be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We examined the association of polymorphisms in the RANTES gene with myocardial infarction in Slavonic populations of Czech and Russian origin. A total of 467 post-MI patients and 337 control subjects were genotyped for RANTES promoter G-403A (rs2107538) and intron 1.1 T/C (rs2280789) variants by PCR-SSP. Both RANTES genotypes and allele frequencies did not differ between case and control groups. Haplotype-based analysis also failed to reveal an association between MI and investigated markers. Strong linkage disequilibrium was detected between particular RANTES alleles. The data do not support an association between RANTES G-403A polymorphism and MI, as reported previously.
doi:10.1155/2011/525691
PMCID: PMC3086320  PMID: 21547257
3.  RANTES gene polymorphisms and risk of pediatric asthma: A meta-analysis 
Numerous studies have evaluated the association between regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) gene polymorphisms (−403G/A and −28C/G) and risk of pediatric asthma. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis of the association between RANTES gene polymorphisms and pediatric asthma risk was performed in the current study. A search for published literature was conducted in the Google Scholar, PubMed and the CNKI databases (January 2000 to April 2012) and seven studies were retrieved. The associations between RANTES gene polymorphisms and pediatric asthma risk were estimated by pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a fixed- or random-effects model. Meta-analysis results revealed no significant association between the −403G/A polymorphism and risk of pediatric asthma. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no association was identified between the −403G/A polymorphism and pediatric asthma risk in Caucasian and Asian populations. In the −28C/G group, the meta-analysis indicated a significant association between the −28C/G polymorphism and pediatric asthma susceptibility among the total population (recessive model: OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04–1.72). However, when the subgroup analysis was performed by ethnicity, no significant associations were identified in Asians and Europeans. This result suggests that the −28C/G polymorphism may not be associated with pediatric asthma risk, while the observed increase in the risk of pediatric asthma may be due to racial differences. Additional large-scale studies are required to provide conclusive evidence on the effects of RANTES gene polymorphisms on the risk of pediatric asthma.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.684
PMCID: PMC3493796  PMID: 23226749
RANTES; pediatric asthma; meta-analysis; polymorphism
4.  Polymorphisms of chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in idiopathic immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis 
Molecular Vision  2007;13:388-396.
Purpose
Chemokines are important inflammatory mediators that play a crucial role in uveitis. Polymorphisms in chemokine genes can alter the expression of these genes in the inflammatory cells, which, in turn, can affect the clinical phenotype of the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify polymorphisms in chemokine genes that can predict visual outcome in patients with immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis.
Methods
This is a case-control study of 141 Caucasians with idiopathic immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis and 282 controls matched by age and ethnicity. Six polymorphisms in four genes, (MCP-1-2518A/G, RANTES-403G/A, RANTES-28C/G, CCR2 V64I, CCR5-59029G/A, and CCR5 32 bp deletion) were analyzed by sequence specific primers polymerase chain reaction.
Results
Patients with G allele at MCP-1-2581 developed the disease at an early age as compared to patients with A allele corrected p value pc=0.003. Also patients with A allele at RANTES-403 position developed less severe disease and had better visual outcome when compared with patients with G allele (pc=0.02) Final visual acuity after 18 months was better in patients with 32 bp deletion of the CCR5 gene and in patients with the CCR2 wild-type genotype pc=0.02 and pc=0.04, respectively. Patients with the CCR2 64I allele also had a higher risk of developing an elevated intraocular pressure as compared to patients with the wild-type genotype (pc=0.007).
Conclusions
Though the utility for prediction of disease susceptibility of the studied polymorphisms in chemokine genes is in general not robust, we have found that polymorphisms in chemokine genes can influence the outcome of patients with idiopathic immune-mediated posterior segment uveitis. These associations require further analysis in other groups of patients.
PMCID: PMC2642933  PMID: 17417600
5.  Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES, IL1-A, MCP-1 and TNF-A genes in patients with prostate cancer 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:382.
Background
Inflammation has been implicated as an etiological factor in several human cancers, including prostate cancer. Allelic variants of the genes involved in inflammatory pathways are logical candidates as genetic determinants of prostate cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes that lead to increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk.
Methods
A case-control study design was used to test the association between prostate cancer risk and the polymorphisms TNF-A-308 A/G (rs 1800629), RANTES-403 G/A (rs 2107538), IL1-A-889 C/T (rs 1800587) and MCP-1 2518 G/A (rs 1024611) in 296 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and in 311 healthy controls from the same area.
Results
Diagnosis of prostate cancer was significantly associated with TNF-A GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09–2.64) and RANTES GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–2.38). A alleles in TNF-A and RANTES influenced prostate cancer susceptibility and acted independently of each other in these subjects. No epistatic effect was found for the combination of different polymorphisms studied. Finally, no overall association was found between prostate cancer risk and IL1-A or MCP-1 polymorphisms.
Conclusion
Our results and previously published findings on genes associated with innate immunity support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in proinflammatory genes may be important in prostate cancer development.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-382
PMCID: PMC2626602  PMID: 19099590
6.  Association study of genetic variants of pro-inflammatory chemokine and cytokine genes in systemic lupus erythematosus 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:48.
Background
Several lines of evidence suggest that chemokines and cytokines play an important role in the inflammatory development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of functional genetic variations of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 for systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods
The study was conducted on 500 SLE patients and 481 ethnically matched healthy controls. Genotyping of polymorphisms in the RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 genes were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system with pre-developed TaqMan allelic discrimination assay.
Results
No significant differences between SLE patients and healthy controls were observed when comparing genotype, allele or haplotype frequencies of the RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 polymorphisms. In addition, no evidence for association with clinical sub-features of SLE was found.
Conclusion
These results suggest that the tested functional variation of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 genes do not confer a relevant role in the susceptibility or severity of SLE in the Spanish population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-48
PMCID: PMC1488833  PMID: 16719905
7.  520 Involvement of Il-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in the Susceptibility for Childhood Asthma 
Background
Asthma and atopy have a complex background which may result from the interaction of genes and environments. Interleukin (IL)-10 is known to play various roles in immune-regulating and anti-inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of the IL-10 promoter polymorphisms on susceptibility to childhood asthma.
Methods
We recruited 333 patients with atopic asthma, 55 with non-atopic asthma, and 248 normal controls. We performed a genetic association study of 3 genetic polymorphisms (IL-10–1082A>G, IL-10 –819T>C, –592A>C) of the IL-10 promoter.
Results
There was no difference between atopic asthma, non-atopic asthma and normal controls in allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies of these IL-10 polymorphisms. However, the –1082A>G polymorphism and ATA haplotype in the IL-10 promoter gene were associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the –819T>C, –592A>C, and ATA and ACC haplotypes were also shown to be related with serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the polymorphisms within the IL-10 promoter may have a disease-modifying effect in asthmatic airway.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000411635.55161.da
PMCID: PMC3512647
8.  Association of GST Genes Polymorphisms with Asthma in Tunisian Children 
Mediators of Inflammation  2007;2007:19564.
Background. A positive association between genetic polymorphism and asthma may not be extrapolated from one ethnic group to another based on intra- and interethnic allelic and genotype frequencies differences. Objective. We assessed whether polymorphisms of GST genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) are associated with asthma and atopy among Tunisian children. Methods. 112 unrelated healthy individuals and 105 asthmatic (73 atopic and 32 nonatopic) children were studied. Genotyping the polymorphisms in the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex PCR. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results. GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of asthma (P = .002). Asthmatic children had a higher prevalence of the GSTP1Ile105 allele than the control group (43.8% and 33.5%, respectively; P = .002). Also, the presence of the GSTP1 homozygote Val/Val was less common in subjects with asthma than in control group. We have found that GSTT1 null genotype (GSTT1 *0/*0) was significantly associated with atopy (P = .008). Conclusion. Polymorphisms within genes of the GST superfamily were associated with risk of asthma and atopy in Tunisia.
doi:10.1155/2007/19564
PMCID: PMC1852884  PMID: 17497028
9.  Donor- and Ligand-Dependent Differences in C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 Reexpression† 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(2):661-671.
N-terminal modifications of the chemokine RANTES bind to C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with greater efficacy than native RANTES. Modified RANTES compounds induce rapid CCR5 internalization and much slower receptor reexpression than native RANTES, suggesting that receptor sequestration is one mode of anti-HIV activity. The rates of CCR5 internalization and reexpression were compared using the potent n-nonanoyl (NNY)-RANTES derivative and CD4+ T cells derived from donors with different CCR5 gene polymorphisms. NNY-RANTES caused even more rapid receptor internalization and slower reexpression than aminooxypentane (AOP)-RANTES. Polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions of CCR5 significantly affected the receptor reexpression rate after exposure of cells to NNY-RANTES. These observations may be relevant for understanding the protective effects of different CCR5 genotypes against HIV-1 disease progression.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.2.661-671.2001
PMCID: PMC113963  PMID: 11134280
10.  MCP-1 and RANTES Polymorphisms in Korean Diabetic End-Stage Renal Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(4):611-615.
Macrophage infiltration has been observed in the renal biopsy specimens of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and hyperglycemic state stimulates the renal expression of RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). Upregulation of RANTES and MCP-1 with infiltrating macrophages may play a crucial role in the development and progression of DN. Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES and its receptors were reported to be independent risk factors for DN. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the MCP-1 G-2518A, CCR2 G46295A, RANTES C-28G and G-403A in 177 diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and 184 patients without renal involvement (controls) in order to investigate the effects of these SNPs on DN in Korean patients with type 2 DM. There were no differences in the frequencies of SNPs and the distribution of haplotypes of RANTES promoter SNPs between two groups. In conclusion, there were no associations of MCP-1, CCR2 and RANTES promoter SNPs with diabetic ESRD in Korean population. Prospective studies with clearly-defined, homogenous cohorts are needed to confirm the effect of these genetic polymorphisms on DN.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.4.611
PMCID: PMC2693807  PMID: 17728497
Diabetic Nephropathies; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins; RANTES; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
11.  Variation in ITGB3 Is Associated with Asthma and Sensitization to Mold Allergen in Four Populations 
Rationale: Recent genetic studies have implicated integrins in asthma and atopy susceptibility. We therefore evaluated the integrin-β3 gene (ITGB3), an integrin gene within an asthma linkage peak on chromosome 17, as a candidate for susceptibility to asthma- and atopy-related phenotypes. Methods and Measurements: We genotyped and performed association tests on 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in ITGB3 in the Hutterites, a founder population, and in three outbred replication populations. Main Results: Variation in ITGB3 was strongly associated with susceptibility to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and protection from allergic sensitization to mold allergens in this population. Three independent case-control populations representing Caucasians and African Americans were used to replicate this finding, also revealing ITGB3 alleles that are associated with asthma susceptibility and protection from mold allergen sensitization. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that ITGB3 plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma and sensitization to mold allergens.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200411-1555OC
PMCID: PMC2718448  PMID: 15817799
association; asthma; genetics; hypersensitivity; integrins
12.  Parental Smoking Modifies the Relation between Genetic Variation in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF) and Childhood Asthma 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2007;115(4):616-622.
Background
Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and lymphotoxin-α (LTA, also called TNF-β) have been associated with asthma and atopy in some studies. Parental smoking is a consistent risk factor for childhood asthma. Secondhand smoke and ozone both stimulate TNF production.
Objectives
Our goal was to investigate whether genetic variation in TNF and LTA is associated with asthma and atopy and whether the association is modified by parental smoking in a Mexican population with high ozone exposure.
Methods
We genotyped six tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF and LTA, including functional variants, in 596 nuclear families consisting of asthmatics 4–17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests.
Results
The A allele of the TNF-308 SNP was associated with increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–2.28], especially among children of non-smoking parents (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.19–3.55; p for interaction = 0.09). Similarly, the A allele of the TNF-238 SNP was associated with increased asthma risk among children of nonsmoking parents (RR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.14–4.30; p for interaction = 0.01). LTA SNPs were not associated with asthma. Haplotype analyses reflected the single SNP findings in magnitude and direction. TNF and LTA SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that genetic variation in TNF may contribute to childhood asthma and that associations may be modified by parental smoking.
doi:10.1289/ehp.9740
PMCID: PMC1852663  PMID: 17450233
allergy; asthma; atopy; environmental tobacco smoke; genetic predisposition to disease; lymphotoxin-α (LTA); ozone; secondhand smoke; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)
13.  Lack of association between genetic variation in G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility and childhood asthma and atopy 
Genes and immunity  2008;9(3):224-230.
G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility (GPRA or GPR154) was identified as an asthma and atopy candidate gene by positional cloning. Some subsequent studies suggest associations of GPRA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with asthma or atopy susceptibility. However, the associated SNPs or haplotypes vary among studies. The role of GPRA genetic variation in asthma and atopy remains unsolved. Published data on GRPA variants and asthma come exclusively from Caucasian and Asian populations. We examined whether GPRA SNPs and haplotypes are associated with asthma and atopy in a Mexican population. We genotyped and analyzed 27 GPRA SNPs in 589 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4–17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens. The 27 SNPs examined provided excellent coverage of the GPRA gene. GPRA SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with childhood asthma and the degree of atopy to aeroallergens in a Mexican population. Our review of studies of GPRA variants in relation to asthma phenotypes shows considerable heterogeneity. Accordingly, our results suggest that GPRA variants are not an important contributor to childhood asthma and atopy susceptibility in a Mexican population.
doi:10.1038/gene.2008.8
PMCID: PMC2364725  PMID: 18340359
GPR154; allergy; asthma; genetic predisposition to disease; single nucleotide polymorphism
14.  The CD14 C-159T polymorphism is not associated with asthma or asthma severity in an Australian adult population 
Thorax  2005;60(3):211-214.
Background: CD14 functions as a multifunctional receptor for bacterial cell wall components including endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide and is likely to play a role in the polarisation of T lymphocytes into Th1 and Th2 subsets, thereby influencing the cytokine profile and subsequent IgE production in response to antigen/allergen contact in allergic phenotypes. A functional C-159T polymorphism has been described in the promoter region of the gene and has been associated with increased gene expression, atopy, and non-atopic asthma in different ethnic populations. A study was undertaken to examine the association between the C-159T polymorphism and asthma, asthma severity, and atopy in a large Australian white population.
Methods: PCR-RFLP analysis was used to characterise the C-159T polymorphism in mild (n = 264), moderate (n = 225) and severe (n = 79) asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic controls (n = 443), including atopic (n = 688) and non-atopic (n = 323) individuals. Association analyses were performed using χ2 tests.
Results: There was no association between the polymorphism and asthma (p = 0.468) or asthma severity (p = 0.727), and only a very weak association with atopy (p = 0.084). A meta-analysis of all studies conducted to date revealed similar genotypic frequencies in white ethnic populations and confirmed that there was no overall association with atopy (p = 0.52) or asthma (p = 0.23), although there was significant between study heterogeneity (p = 0.01).
Conclusions: This study confirms that there is no association between the CD14 C-159T polymorphism and asthma or asthma severity and a weak association between this polymorphism and atopy in an adult population.
doi:10.1136/thx.2004.028449
PMCID: PMC1747323  PMID: 15741437
15.  Anti-Inflammatory Dimethylfumarate: A Potential New Therapy for Asthma? 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:875403.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results from the deregulated interaction of inflammatory cells and tissue forming cells. Beside the derangement of the epithelial cell layer, the most prominent tissue pathology of the asthmatic lung is the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) bundles, which actively contributes to airway inflammation and remodeling. ASMCs of asthma patients secrete proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10, CCL11, and RANTES which attract immune cells into the airways and may thereby initiate inflammation. None of the available asthma drugs cures the disease—only symptoms are controlled. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in psoriasis and showed promising results in phase III clinical studies in multiple sclerosis patients. In regard to asthma therapy, DMF has been anecdotally reported to reduce asthma symptoms in patients with psoriasis and asthma. Here we discuss the potential use of DMF as a novel therapy in asthma on the basis of in vitro studies of its inhibitory effect on ASMC proliferation and cytokine secretion in ASMCs.
doi:10.1155/2013/875403
PMCID: PMC3625606  PMID: 23606796
16.  The association of RANTES polymorphism with severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong and Beijing Chinese 
Background
Chemokines play important roles in inflammation and antiviral action. We examined whether polymorphisms of RANTES, IP-10 and Mig affect the susceptibility to and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Methods
We tested the polymorphisms of RANTES, IP-10 and Mig for their associations with SARS in 495 Hong Kong Chinese SARS patients and 578 controls. Then we tried to confirm the results in 356 Beijing Chinese SARS patients and 367 controls.
Results
RANTES -28 G allele was associated with SARS susceptibility in Hong Kong Chinese (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.80, 95%CI:2.11–3.71). Individuals with RANTES -28 CG and GG genotypes had a 3.28-fold (95%CI:2.32–4.64) and 3.06-fold (95%CI:1.47–6.39) increased risk of developing SARS respectively (P < 0.0001). This -28 G allele conferred risk of death in a gene-dosage dependent manner (P = 0.014) with CG and GG individuals having a 2.12-fold (95% CI: 1.11–4.06) and 4.01-fold (95% CI: 1.30–12.4) increased risk. For the replication of RANTES data in Beijing Chinese, the -28 G allele was not associated with susceptibility to SARS. However, -28 CG (OR = 4.27, 95%CI:1.64–11.1) and GG (OR = 3.34, 95%CI:0.37–30.7) were associated with admission to intensive care units or death due to SARS (P = 0.011).
Conclusion
RANTES -28 G allele plays a role in the pathogenesis of SARS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-50
PMCID: PMC1899505  PMID: 17540042
17.  Genetic variation in ORM1-like 3 (ORMDL3) and gasdermin-like (GSDML) and childhood asthma 
Allergy  2008;64(4):629-635.
Background
A genome-wide association study identified ORM1-like 3 (orosomucoid 1-like 3, ORMDL3) as an asthma candidate gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region including ORMDL3 on chromosome 17q21 were related to childhood asthma risk and ORMDL3 expression levels in Europeans.
Objective
We examined whether polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent gasdermin-like (GSDML) gene associated with asthma in the genome-wide association study are related to childhood asthma and atopy in a Mexico City population.
Methods
We genotyped rs4378650 in ORMDL3 and rs7216389 in GSDML in 615 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4–17 years and their parents. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens.
Results
Individuals carrying the C allele of rs4378650 or the T allele of rs7216389 had increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.73, 95% con.- dence interval (CI) 1.19–2.53, P = 0.003 for one or two copies of rs4378650 C, and RR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.12–2.38, P = 0.009 for one or two copies of rs7216389 T). Linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs was high (r2 = 0.92). Neither of the SNPs was associated with the degree of atopy. A meta-analysis of five published studies on rs7216389 in nine populations gave an odds ratio for asthma of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.35–1.54, P < 0.00001).
Conclusions
Our results and the meta-analysis provide evidence to confirm the finding from a recent genome-wide association study that polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent GSDML may contribute to childhood asthma.
doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01912.x
PMCID: PMC2697826  PMID: 19133921
allergy; asthma; genetic predisposition to disease; meta-analysis; single nucleotide polymorphism
18.  Association between Regulated upon Activation, Normal T Cells Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) -28C/G Polymorphism and Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60683.
Background
Many studies have investigated the distributions of RANTES genotypes between HIV-1 infected patients and uninfected individuals. However, no definite results have been put forward about whether the RANTES −28C/G polymorphism can affect HIV-1 susceptibility.
Methods
We performed a meta-analysis of 12 studies including 7473 subjects for whom the RANTES −28C/G polymorphism was genotyped. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to assess the association of the polymorphism with HIV-1 susceptibility. By dividing the controls into healthy controls and HIV-1 exposed but seronegative (HESN) controls, we explored the both allelic and dominant genetic models.
Results
By using the healthy controls, we found a marginally significant association between the −28C/G polymorphism and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the allelic model (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.70–0.97). But sensitivity analysis suggested that the association was driven by one study. We further performed stratified analysis according to ethnicity. The −28G allele decreased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the allelic model among Asians (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.66–0.94). By using the HESN controls, no association between the polymorphism −28C/G and the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection was revealed in either the allelic model (OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.60–1.17) or the dominant model (OR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.54–1.10).
Conclusions
Our findings suggested that the RANTES −28G allele might play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection among Asians. Additional well-designed studies were required for the validation of this association.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060683
PMCID: PMC3618220  PMID: 23577146
19.  T cell-dependent regulation of eotaxin in antigen-induced pulmonary eosinophila 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;184(4):1461-1469.
T lymphocytes have been implicated in controlling the recruitment of eosinophils into the lung in murine models of allergic asthma. The mechanism by which T cells assist in the recruitment of eosinophils to the lung in these models is not completely understood. We hypothesized that eosinophil-active chemokines might be regulated by antigen (Ag)- induced T cell activation in vivo and thereby mediate T cell-dependent eosinophil recruitment. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of an anti-CD3 mAb on Ag-induced pulmonary eosinophilia and correlated this with the expression of three eosinophil-active chemokines: eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, and RANTES. We found that Ag-induced pulmonary eosinophilia was associated with the induction of eotaxin and MIP-1 alpha, but not RANTES mRNA. Prechallenge treatment with anti-CD3 mAb inhibited eotaxin, but not MIP-1 alpha and RANTES mRNA induction, and significantly reduced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. In addition, Ag-specific antibody responses and mast cell degranulation after Ag challenge in sensitized mice were not affected by T cell elimination, and were not sufficient to induce the expression of eotaxin and cause pulmonary eosinophilia. These findings suggest that eotaxin is one of the molecular links between Ag- specific T cell activation and the recruitment of eosinophils into the airways.
PMCID: PMC2192832  PMID: 8879217
20.  Plasmodium yoelii 17XL infection up-regulates RANTES, CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5 expression, and induces ultrastructural changes in the cerebellum 
Malaria Journal  2005;4:63.
Background
Malaria afflicts 300–500 million people causing over 1 million deaths globally per year. The immunopathogenesis of malaria is mediated partly by co mplex cellular and immunomodulator interactions involving co-regulators such as cytokines and adhesion molecules. However, the role of chemokines and their receptors in malaria immunopathology remains unclear. RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-Cell Expressed and Secreted) is a chemokine involved in the generation of inflammatory infiltrates. Recent studies indicate that the degradation of cell-cell junctions, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, recruitment of leukocytes and Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes into and occlusion of microvessels relevant to malaria pathogenesis are associated with RANTES expression. Additionally, activated lymphocytes, platelets and endothelial cells release large quantities of RANTES, thus suggesting a unique role for RANTES in the generation and maintenance of the malaria-induced inflammatory response. The hypothesis of this study is that RANTES and its corresponding receptors (CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5) modulate malaria immunopathogenesis. A murine malaria model was utilized to evaluate the role of this chemokine and its receptors in malaria.
Methods
The alterations in immunomodulator gene expression in brains of Plasmodium yoelii 17XL-infected mice was analysed using cDNA microarray screening, followed by a temporal comparison of mRNA and protein expression of RANTES and its corresponding receptors by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Plasma RANTES levels was determined by ELISA and ultrastructural studies of brain sections from infected and uninfected mice was conducted.
Results
RANTES (p < 0.002), CCR1 (p < 0.036), CCR3 (p < 0.033), and CCR5 (p < 0.026) mRNA were significantly upregulated at peak parasitaemia and remained high thereafter in the experimental mouse model. RANTES protein in the brain of infected mice was upregulated (p < 0.034) compared with controls. RANTES plasma levels were significantly upregulated; two to three fold in infected mice compared with controls (p < 0.026). Some d istal microvascular endothelium in infected cerebellum appeared degraded, but remained intact in controls.
Conclusion
The upregulation of RANTES, CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 mRNA, and RANTES protein mediate inflammation and cellular degradation in the cerebellum during P. yoelii 17XL malaria.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-4-63
PMCID: PMC1343570  PMID: 16359553
21.  RANTES, MCP-1, CCR2, CCR5, CXCR1 and CXCR4 Gene Polymorphisms are not Associated with the Outcome of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Results from a Large Scale Single Ethnic Population 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(3):529-535.
Recovery from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection depends on the cellular immune responses. Chemokines and their receptors play significant roles in immune defense. This study was undertaken to investigate the association between HBV infection and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes for the chemokines and their receptors. Between March 2002 and February 2004, a total of 957 single ethnic Korean patients were enrolled into two different groups; "HBV clearance group" (n=350), who have recovered from HBV infection, and "HBV persistence group" (n=607), who were repeatedly HBsAg-positive. The HBV persistence group was subdivided into "inactive carrier" and "HBV progression group (chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis)". We assessed polymorphisms in regulated and normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) at position -403, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) at position -2518, CCR2 V64I, CCR5 -2459, CXCR1 S276T and CXCR4 I138I using single primer extension assay. Genotype distributions of the "HBV clearance versus persistence group" and "inactive carrier versus HBV progression group" were compared. On the basis of unconditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex, no statistically significant association with susceptibility to persistent HBV infection was observed with RANTES -403, MCP-1 -2518, CCR2 V64I, CCR5 -2459, CXCR1 S276T, and CXCR4 I138I polymorphisms. In addition, no association of analyzed SNPs with HBV disease progression was found.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.3.529
PMCID: PMC2693650  PMID: 17596666
Hepatitis B; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP); Chemokines; Chemokine Receptors
22.  Absence of genetic linkage of chromosome 5q31 with asthma and atopy in the general population 
Thorax  1997;52(9):816-817.
BACKGROUND: Clinical asthma is associated with increased serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), atopy (skin prick test positivity to common aeroallergens), and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) to non-specific stimuli (positive methacholine challenge test). A region on chromosome 5q31-33 has been linked with increased total serum IgE and BHR. A study of the genetic linkage of this region with clinical asthma and atopy was therefore undertaken. METHODS: A polymorphic microsatellite marker in chromosome 5q31 (D5S399) was studied in 119 sibling pairs recruited from the general population who shared asthma, atopy, and/or BHR. Based on our population distribution of 13 different alleles, it was expected that by chance alone sibling pairs would share on average 1.24 alleles and that a significant excess would indicate genetic linkage. RESULTS: No evidence of linkage was found in 45 siblings concordant for asthma (shared alleles = 1.09, p = 0.95), in 103 sibling pairs with atopy (shared alleles = 1.18, p = 0.82), in 51 sibling pairs with BHR (shared alleles = 1.22, p = 0.62), or in 68 sibling pairs who shared atopy in the absence of BHR (shared alleles = 1.22, p = 0.61). A slight non- significant excess of shared alleles (1.44, p = 0.11) was observed in siblings who shared BHR without atopy. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of genetic linkage of chromosome 5q31 with either clinical asthma or atopy was therefore detected in the population studied. Linkage between chromosome 5q and BHR needs further investigation. 



PMCID: PMC1758647  PMID: 9371215
23.  Blood cell-derived RANTES mediates cerebral microvascular dysfunction, inflammation and tissue injury following focal ischemia-reperfusion 
Background and Purpose
While chemokines have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, few studies have addressed the role of these inflammatory mediators in ischemic stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that RANTES (CCL5; regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) mediates the cerebral microvascular dysfunction, inflammation and tissue injury induced by brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R).
Methods
Following 60 minute middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R), the adhesion of leukocytes and platelets in cerebral venules, infarct volume and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were measured in wild type mice (WT), RANTES-deficient mice (RANTES−/−), WT mice transplanted with RANTES−/− bone marrow (RANTES>WT) and control bone marrow chimeras (WT>WT). The concentration of RANTES and several cytokines was also measured by ELISA and a cytometric bead array.
Results
The enhanced leukocyte and platelet adhesion, increased BBB permeability, and tissue infarction elicited in WT and WT>WT mice after MCAO/R were significantly blunted in RANTES−/− mice. Similar attenuation of the MCAO/R-induced responses were noted in RANTES>WT chimeras. While RANTES deficiency did not alter the changes in tissue cytokine levels elicited by MCAO/R, plasma concentrations IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 were all reduced.
Conclusions
These findings implicate blood cell-derived RANTES in the microvascular, inflammatory and tissue injury responses of the brain to ischemia and reperfusion.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.513150
PMCID: PMC2748665  PMID: 18635850
RANTES; cerebral infarct; platelets; cytokines; chemokines
24.  Plasma Membrane CFTR Regulates RANTES Expression via Its C-Terminal PDZ-Interacting Motif 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2003;23(2):594-606.
Despite the identification of 1,000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, there remains discordance between CFTR genotype and lung disease phenotype. The study of CFTR, therefore, has expanded beyond its chloride channel activity into other possible functions, such as its role as a regulator of gene expression. Findings indicate that CFTR plays a role in the expression of RANTES in airway epithelia. RANTES is a chemokine that has been implicated in the regulation of mucosal immunity and the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases. Results demonstrate that CFTR triggers RANTES expression via a mechanism that is independent of CFTR's chloride channel activity. Neither pharmacological inhibition of CFTR nor activation of alternative chloride channels, including hClC-2, modulated RANTES expression. Through the use of CFTR disease-associated and truncation mutants, experiments suggest that CFTR-mediated transcription factor activation and RANTES expression require (i) insertion of CFTR into the plasma membrane and (ii) an intact CFTR C-terminal PDZ-interacting domain. Expression of constructs encoding wild-type or dominant-negative forms of the PDZ-binding protein EBP50 suggests that EBP50 may be involved in CFTR-dependent RANTES expression. Together, these data suggest that CFTR modulates gene expression in airway epithelial cells while located in a macromolecular signaling complex at the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1128/MCB.23.2.594-606.2003
PMCID: PMC151526  PMID: 12509457
25.  Genetic polymorphisms in arginase I and II and childhood asthma and atopy 
Background
A recent microarray study implicated arginase I (ARG1) and arginase II (ARG2) in mouse allergic asthma models and human asthma.
Objectives
To examine the association between genetic variation in ARG1 and ARG2 and childhood asthma and atopy risk.
Methods
We enrolled 433 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics 4 to 17 years and their biologic parents, from the allergy clinic of a public hospital in Mexico City between 1998 and 2003. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ARG1 and 4 SNPs of ARG2 with minor allele frequencies over 10% using the TaqMan assay.
Results
ARG1 SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with asthma but all four ARG1 SNPs were associated with the number of positive skin tests (P = 0.007 to 0.018). Carrying two copies of minor alleles for either of two highly associated ARG2 SNPs was associated with a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR) of asthma [1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1 for arg2s1; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 for arg2s2]. The association was slightly stronger among children with a smoking parent (arg2s1 RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2 – 3.9 with a smoking parent; RR =1.2, 95% CI = 0.8–1.9 without, interaction P = 0.025). Haplotype analyses reduced the sample size but supported the single SNP results. One ARG2 SNP was related to the number of positive skin tests (P = 0.027).
Conclusions
Variation in arginase genes may contribute to asthma and atopy in children.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.09.026
PMCID: PMC1450009  PMID: 16387594
ARG1; ARG2; “genetic predisposition to disease”; SNP; “polymorphism; single nucleotide”; “respiratory hypersensitivity”; “skin tests”; asthma; “tobacco smoke pollution”; ARG1 = arginase I; ARG2 = arginase II; CI = confidence interval; D′ = Lewontin’s standardized disequilibrium coefficient; eNOS = endothelial nitric oxide synthase; IgE = immunoglobulin E; IL-13 = interleukin-13; IL-4 = interleukin-4; LD = linkage disequilibrium; NO = nitric oxide; NOS = nitric oxide synthase; r2 = squared correlation coefficient; RR = relative risk; SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism; STAT6 = signal transducer and activator of transcription 6; TDT = transmission disequilibrium test; Th2= T helper lymphocytes type 2

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