Background and Purpose: Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is defined by a lack of expression of the steroid hormone receptors (oestrogen and progesterone), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is characterized by distinct molecular, histological and clinical features. It is a high risk breast cancer that lacks the benefit of a specific therapy.
Our study was aimed at pathologically illustrating triple-negative breast carcinoma and at evaluating the expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) ,cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6) and Ki-67 among triple-negative breast cancer cases. Further, we aimed to probe whether triple–negative phenotype could be a surrogate marker for the basal phenotype and to correlate the expression of the basal markers (CK 5/6 and EGFR) with the clinico-pathological prognostic parameters.
Methods: The expression of EGFR, CK 5/6 and Ki-67 were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 50 triple-negative breast cancer cases.
Statistical Analysis: A statistical analysis was implemented by using the SPSS version 20.0. The Chi-square test was conducted to assess the relationship between the immunohistochemical markers and other variables. The Fischer exact test was used when the expected cell counts were less than 5.
Results: The women with triple-negative breast cancer were younger, with the adverse pathological characteristics of a high tumour grade, tumour necrosis, frequent nodal metastases and high proliferation. 37 (74%) of the 50 triple-negative breast carcinomas showed the expression of the basal markers (EGFR and /or CK 5/6). We observed a statistically significant association between the basal marker expression and the presence of tumour necrosis.
Conclusion: The triple-negative breast cancers in our population harbour adverse pathobiological features and a five marker immunohistochemical panel can be reliably used to define the basal-like cancers. The “Triple-negative” status cannot be used as a surrogate for the “basal marker expression”.
Breast cancer; Triple-negative; Basal-like; EGFR; CK 5/6
Laminin 332 (LN332) is a basally expressed extracellular matrix protein that enhances the migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. The goal of this study was to examine LN332 expression breast carcinoma. Triple negative breast carcinomas lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) expression and HER2 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, HER2, and dual silver in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were used to define the phenotype of 243 breast cancers in biopsies or arrays. Immunohistochemistry for LN332 revealed that 70 % of triple negative carcinomas stained for LN332. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p63 alone stained fewer triple negative breast carcinomas each, but the combination of LN332 and CK 5/6 or EGFR identified 92% of triple negative breast carcinoma.. Of the 163 non- triple negative cases, LN332 was expressed in only 15%. The identification of LN332 in triple negative breast carcinomas is consistent with gene profiling studies showing its expression among breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype. The observation that a pro-invasive protein such as LN332 is expressed in breast cancer suggests another mechanism by which the triple negative phenotype could be aggressive.
Laminin 332; Breast carcinoma; Basal-like phenotype; Triple negative; Immunohistochemistry; HER2 dual in situ hybridization
The aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases treated in the years 2003–2009 was performed. In 75 patients, immunohistochemistry was used as a surrogate of microarray in order to evaluate the expression of three basal markers: cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6), EGFR/HER1 and c-KIT. The basal-like (ER/PgR/HER2-negative, CK5/6positive and/or HER1-positive) and non-basal-like (ER/PgR/HER2-negative, CK5/6-negative, HER1-negative) subsets were selected. Clinical features and survivals were compared in both groups. In the group of 111 triple-negative breast cancer patients, median DFS, OS and survival from brain metastases were 20, 29 and 4 months, respectively. In 75 patients who were evaluable for basal markers, median DFS, OS and survival from brain metastases were 18, 26 and 3.2 months, respectively. In the basal-like subtype, the survival rates were 15, 26 and 3 months, respectively, and in the non-basal-like subtypes, they were 20, 30 and 2.8 months, respectively. No statistically significant differences in survivals were detected between the basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes. Factors influencing survival from brain metastases were: Karnofsky performance status (KPS), the status of extracranial disease and age. Biological markers differentiating triple-negative group into basal-like and non-basal-like subtype (CK 5/6, HER1, c-KIT) had no influence on survival. In patients with triple-negative breast cancer and brain metastases, well-known clinical, but not molecular, features correlated with survival.
Basal-like breast cancer; Brain metastases; Cytokeratin 5/6; EGFR/HER1 receptor; Triple-negative breast cancer
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC.
Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs.
IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis.
FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA in the tumorigenesis of triple negative, basal-like FMAs. The strong similarities in clinical behavior, morphology and IHC phenotype suggest that triple negative, basal-like FMAs may be a suitable spontaneous animal model for studying novel therapeutic approaches against human basal-like TNBC.
Basal phenotype; BRCA; Feline; Mammary adenocarcinoma; Triple negative
Breast carcinomas can be classified into five subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical characteristics. Among these subtypes, basal-like breast carcinomas (BLBCs) are one of the most studied group, due to their poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalance, morphological and immunohistochemical features of BLBCs, in Turkish population.
Five hundred invasive breast carcinomas were reviewed for several morphological features and immunostained for oestrogen and progesterone receptors, c-ERB-B2, cytokeratin5/6, cytokeratin14, vimentin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Basal-like breast carcinoma was defined as a triple negative tumor with cytokeratin5/6 and/or EGFR positive.
The prevalance of BLBC was 9.6%. All medullary carcinomas and 55.6% of metaplastic carcinomas showed basal-like immunophenotype. Patients with BLBC were younger (p=0.04) and had higher-grade tumors (p<0.0001). Morphologic features associated with BLBC included increased mitosis, nuclear pleomorphism, presence of geographic and/or central necrosis, pushing margin of invasion and stromal lymphocytic response (p<0.0001). Presence of prominent nucleoli and vesicular nuclear chromatin were the cytological features correlated with basal-like phenotype (p<0.0001). On multivariate analyses, BLBCs were associated with high mitotic number (p<0.0001), the presence of vesicular chromatin (p=0.004), high tubular grade (p=0.011), lymphocytic response (p=0.031) and the absence of carcinoma insitu (p=0.039). Vimentin was positive in 53.2% of BLBCs, while cytokeratin14 was less frequently expressed (27.7%).
BLBCs have some distinctive, but not pathognomonical, morphological features. Paying attention to these features and adding cytokeratin14 and vimentin to the immunohistochemical panel can help the definitive diagnosis of BLBCs.
Basal-like breast carcinoma; Breast; Breast carcinoma; Morphology
Our study is performed to find out clinicopathlogic and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of triple negative invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), as has been demonstrated in their invasive ductal counterparts.
Materials and Methods
Retrospective analysis of variable clinicopathlogic parameters and IHC stains for androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, c-kit, galectin-3, cytokeratin 5 (CK5), CK5/6, vimentin, E-cadherin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and HER2 were performed in 117 cases of ILC.
Eight cases (6.8%) were triple negative carcinoma (TNC), which showed higher incidence of high histologic grade than non-TNC (p = 0.019). Galectin-3 was expressed with higher incidence in tumor cells of TNC (62.5%) than those of non-TNC (7.3%) (p = 0.000). In contrast, galectin-3 was expressed with higher incidence in stromal cells of non-TNC (53.2%) than those of TNC (12.5%) (p = 0.029). CK5 and CK5/6 were not expressed in all ILCs.
TNC in ILC showed distinct clinicopathologic and IHC characteristics such as higher histologic grade and increased expression of galectin-3, compared to non-TNC in ILC. TNC in ILC was less frequent and did not show CK5 and CK5/6 expression when compared to TNC in invasive ductal carcinoma.
Carcinoma; lobular; triple negative breast cancer
Basal-like breast carcinoma is characterized by the expression of basal/myoepithelial markers, undifferentiated phenotype, highly aggressive behaviour and frequent triple negative status (ESR−, PR−, Her2neu−). We have previously shown that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in basal-like breast tumours and identified Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) as an EMT player and poor prognosis marker in squamous cell carcinomas. We now show that LOXL2 mRNA is overexpressed in basal-like human breast carcinomas. Breast carcinoma cell lines with basal-like phenotype show a specific cytoplasmic/perinuclear LOXL2 expression, and this subcellular distribution is significantly associated with distant metastatic incidence in basal-like breast carcinomas. LOXL2 silencing in basal-like carcinoma cells induces a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) associated with a decrease of tumourigenicity and suppression of metastatic potential. Mechanistic studies indicate that LOXL2 maintains the mesenchymal phenotype of basal-like carcinoma cells by a novel mechanism involving transcriptional downregulation of Lgl2 and claudin1 and disorganization of cell polarity and tight junction complexes. Therefore, intracellular LOXL2 is a new candidate marker of basal-like carcinomas and a target to block metastatic dissemination of this aggressive breast tumour subtype.
basal-like carcinomas; breast cancer; EMT; LOXL2; metastasis
We describe the clinicopathological and morphological features of an unusual breast carcinoma classifiable as a lipid-rich variant of ductal invasive carcinoma, with a basal-type immunohistochemical profile. Basal-type breast cancers show no hormonal receptor expression, rarely over-express HER-2 but exhibit molecular high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit positivity. Special stains and histochemistry tests were used to elucidate the nature of vescicles in the neoplastic cells. Sudan IV was performed on formalin-fixed tissue. Commercially available antibodies tested were: ER, PgR, EGFR, HER2, c-kit, high molecular weight cytokeratins. Cytoplasmic lipids were highlighted as red-orange droplets on Sudan IV staining. As for immunohistochemistry, the tumor showed no reactivity to ER, PgR and HER2 (triple negative), and diffuse and strong positivity to high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit, such as a basal-type breast carcinoma. A basaloid phenotype in a lipid-rich carcinoma has not been previously reported.
breast carcinoma; basal type; EGFR; c-kit; lipid-rich.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are known as poor outcome subtypes with a lack of targeted therapy. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the difference of prognostic significance between TNBCs and BLBCs. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prognostic features of TNBCs, in view of BLBCs and quintuple-negative breast cancers (QNBC/5NPs).
Using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical analysis, we categorized 951 primary breast cancers into four or five subtypes according to the expression of ER, PR, HER2, and basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR).
The results of this study showed that both TNBCs and BLBCs were associated with high histological and/or nuclear grades. When the TNBCs are divided into two subtypes by the presence of basal markers, the clinicopathologic characteristics of TNBCs were mainly maintained in the BLBCs. The 5-subgrouping was the better prediction model for both disease free and overall survival in breast cancers than the 4-subgrouping. After multivariate analysis of TNBCs, the BLBCs did not have a worse prognosis than the QNBC/5NPs. Interestingly, the patients with BLBCs showed significant adjuvant chemotherapy benefit. In addition, QNBC/5NPs comprised about 6~8% of breast cancers in publicly available breast cancer datasets
The QNBC/5NP subtype is a worse prognostic subgroup of TNBCs, especially in higher stage and this result may be related to adjuvant chemotherapy benefit of BLBCs, calling for caution in the identification of subgroups of patients for therapeutic classification.
Triple negative breast cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by poor patient survival and lack of targeted therapeutics. Androgen receptor has been associated with triple negative breast cancer pathogenesis, but its role in the different subtypes has not been clearly defined. We examined androgen receptor protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 678 breast cancers, including 396 triple negative cancers. Fifty matched lymph node metastases were also examined. Association of expression status with clinical (race, survival) and pathological (basal, non-basal subtype, stage, grade) features was also evaluated. In 160 triple negative breast cancers, mRNA microarray expression profiling was performed, and differences according to androgen receptor status were analyzed. In triple negative cancers the percentage of androgen receptor positive cases was lower (24.8% vs 81.6% of non-triple negative cases), especially in African American women (16.7% vs 25.5% of cancers of white women). No significant difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in primary tumors vs matched metastatic lesions. Positive androgen receptor immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with tumor grade (p<0.01) and associated with better overall patient survival (p = 0.032) in the non-basal triple negative cancer group. In the microarray study, expression of three genes (HER4, TNFSF10, CDK6) showed significant deregulation in association with androgen receptor status; eg CDK6, a novel therapeutic target in triple negative cancers, showed significantly higher expression level in androgen receptor negative cases (p<0.01). These findings confirm the prognostic impact of androgen receptor expression in non-basal triple negative breast cancers, and suggest targeting of new androgen receptor-related molecular pathways in patients with these cancers.
Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is heterogeneous and considered as an aggressive tumor. This study was to evaluate the associated classification and its correlations with prognosis and the response to chemotherapy in Chinese women. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-eight cases of invasive TNBC were involved in this study. The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), Ki67 and p53 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with patient outcome, and its implications and chemotherapy response were evaluated in four subgroups: typical medullary carcinoma (TMC), atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC), non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and other types. Results: The factors of tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node status, EGFR/CK5/6 status and p53 labeling index were different among the groups. TMC tumors had the lowest rate of relapse (5.8%), while AMC, IDC and other types were associated with an increased risk of relapse (19.1%, 26.7% and 38.2% respectively). Many factors were risk predictors of relapse for TNBC and IDC, while only positive lymph node was for AMC. For MC tumors, adjunctive chemotherapy decreased the risk of relapse in lymph node positive subgroup (36.8% and 66.7%), while not significant in lymph node negative one (8.1% and 10.0%). Conclusion: The classification based on histologic and IHC findings may be a significant improvement in predicting outcome in TNBC. The different chemotherapy response in subgroups may contribute to guiding the treatment of TNBC.
Triple negative breast cancer; typical medullary carcinoma; atypical medullary carcinoma; relapse; chemotherapy
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions. This subgroup of refractory disease tends to have aggressive clinical behavior, high frequency of metastasis and lack of response to current hormonal or targeted therapies. Despite numerous studies reporting the clinicopathological features of TNBC and its association with the basal-like phenotype in the Western population, only limited data are available in the Asian population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of TNBC and its association with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-KIT or CD117) expression in Malaysian women.
A total of 340 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2006 in Malaysia were reviewed and analyzed.
The incidence of TNBC was 12.4% (42/340). Bivariate analysis revealed that TNBC was strongly associated with a younger age, higher grade tumor and p53 expression. Further immunohistochemical analysis suggested that TNBC in Malaysian women was strongly associated with EGFR, CK5/6 and c-KIT expression with high a Ki-67 proliferation index.
In conclusion, our study confirms the association of TNBC with basal-like marker expression (EGFR, CK5/6 and c-KIT) in Malaysian women, consistent with studies in other populations.
Triple-negative breast cancers; Basal-like; EGFR; CK5/6; c-Kit
Triple-negative breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer that is clinically negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and HER2 protein. It is characterized by its unique molecular profile, aggressive behavior, distinct patterns of metastasis, and lack of targeted therapies. Although not synonymous, the majority of triple-negative breast cancers carry the “basal-like” molecular profile on gene expression arrays. The majority of BRCA1-associated breast cancers are triple-negative and basal-like; the extent to which the BRCA1 pathway contributes to the behavior of sporadic basal-like breast cancers is an area of active research. Epidemiologic studies illustrate a high prevalence of triple-negative breast cancers among younger women and those of African descent. Increasing evidence suggests that the risk factor profile differs between this subtype and the more common luminal subtypes. Although sensitive to chemotherapy, early relapse is common and a predilection for visceral metastasis, including brain metastasis, is seen. Targeted agents, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, are currently in clinical trials and hold promise in the treatment of this aggressive disease.
Morphologic features of tumour cells have long been validated for the clinical classification of breast cancers and are regularly used as a “gold standard” to ascertain prognostic outcome in patients. Identification of molecular markers such as expression of the receptors for estrogen (er) and progesterone (pgr) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2) has played an important role in determining targets for the development of efficacious drugs for treatment and has also offered additional predictive value for the therapeutic assessment of patients with breast cancer. More recent technical advancements in identifying several cancer-related genes have provided further opportunities to identify specific subtypes of breast cancer. Among the subtypes, tumours with triple-negative cells are identified using specific staining procedures for basal markers such as cytokeratin 5 and 6 and the absence of er, pgr, and her2 expression. Patients with triple-negative breast cancers therefore have the disadvantage of not benefiting from currently available receptor-targeted systemic therapy. Optimal conditions for the therapeutic assessment of women with triple-negative breast tumours and for the management of their disease have yet to be validated in prospective investigations. The present review discusses the differences between triple-negative breast tumours and basal-like breast tumours and also the role of mutations in the BRCA genes. Attention is also paid to treatment options available to patients with triple-negative breast tumours.
Triple-negative breast tumours; epidermal growth factor receptor; chemotherapy
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a surrogate marker for basal-like breast cancer. A recent study suggested that EGFR may be used as a target for breast cancer treatment.
A total of 706 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast were immunophenotyped, and 82 cases with EGFR protein expression were studied for EGFR gene amplification.
EGFR protein was expressed in 121 of 706 IDCs (17.1%); 5.9% were of luminal type, 25.3% of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) type, and 79.3% of basal-like tumors. EGFR gene amplification and high polysomy (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]-positive) were found in 18 of 82 cases (22.0%); 41.2% of the HER-2+, EGFR+, cytokeratin 5/6- (CK5/6-) group, 11.2% of the HER-2-, EGFR+, CK5/6- group, and 19.1% of the HER-2-, EGFR+, CK5/6+ group. FISH-positive cases were detected in 8.3% of the EGFR protein 1+ expression cases, 15.9% of 2+ expression cases, and 38.5% of 3+ expression cases. In group 2, the tumors had a high Ki-67 labeling (>60%), but the patients showed better disease-free survival than those with tumors that co-expressed HER-2 or CK5/6.
EGFR-directed therapy can be considered in breast cancer patients with EGFR protein overexpression and gene amplification, and its therapeutic implication should be determined in HER-2 type breast cancer patients.
Breast neoplasms; Receptor, epidermal growth factor; Gene amplification; Protein expression
To determine whether basal‐like phenotype and vimentin and/or laminin are related in both sporadic/familial (BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated) tumours.
230 non‐familial and 28 hereditary node‐negative invasive breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically analysed for oestrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), Ki67, p53, vimentin and laminin, using tissue microarrays. Tumours were considered to have basal‐like phenotype if they were ER negative and HER2 negative, but positive for CK5/6 and/or EGFR.
In sporadic tumours, vimentin expression was found in 77.8% cases with basal‐like phenotype and 15.5% of non‐basal cases (p<0.001). In familial cases, vimentin was expressed in 83.3% basal‐like cancers and 16.7% of non‐basal tumours (p<0.001). Vimentin expression was more frequent in BRCA1 than BRCA2 mutation carriers. Vimentin expressing tumours were associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.012) among patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and showed a trend for local recurrence or visceral but not bone metastasis (p = 0.021). Laminin expression was also related to basal‐like phenotype in both sporadic/familial cases (p<0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively), but neither with prognosis nor recurrence pattern in sporadic cancers.
Vimentin and laminin expression is associated with basal‐like phenotype in breast cancer. Expression of vimentin and laminin is characteristic of BRCA1 associated tumours. Since vimentin and laminin staining is widely used by pathologists for diagnostic purposes, thus demonstrating the robustness of their specific antibodies, the immunohistochemical evaluation of these two molecules could be used in identification of basal‐like breast tumours in both sporadic/familial cases.
vimentin; laminin; basal‐like phenotype; node‐negative breast carcinomas; immunohistochemistry
Maspin is a unique member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily and its expression is found in myoepithelial cells of normal mammary glands; therefore, it has been considered to be a myoepithelial marker. We previously reported that maspin was frequently expressed in biologically aggressive breast cancers. In turn, triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is a subtype of tumor with aggressive clinical behavior and shows frequent expression of basal markers. We hypothesized that maspin expression may be frequent and correlate with basal rather than myoepithelial markers in TN breast cancer.
Paraffin-embedded 135 TN invasive ductal carcinoma tissue samples were immunohistochemically investigated using the Dako Envision+ kit and primary antibodies for maspin, basal (CK5/6, EGFR, CK14) and myoepithelial markers (p63, CD10). The correlation between maspin expression and relapse-free survival (RFS) was investigated by the log-rank test.
The positive rate for maspin was 85.9% and significantly correlated with younger age (P = 0.0015), higher histological grade (P = 0.0013), CK5/6 positivity (P < 0.0001), CK14 positivity (P = 0.0034) and the basal-like subtype defined by CK5/6, EGFR and CK14 positivity (P = 0.013). The positive rates for CK5/6, EGFR, CK14, CD10 and p63 were 59.2%, 48.9%, 34.1%, 17.8% and 12.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between maspin expression and RFS.
The positive rate for maspin is the highest among known basal and myoepithelial markers, and strongly correlates with basal markers in TN breast cancer. These results suggested that maspin could be a candidate for a therapeutic target for TN breast cancer.
Triple-negative breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer with aggressive tumor behavior and distinct disease etiology. Due to the lack of an effective targeted medicine, treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer are few and recurrence rates are high. Although various multi-gene prognostic markers have been proposed for the prediction of breast cancer outcome, most of them were proven clinically useful only for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Reliable identification of triple-negative patients with a favorable prognosis is not yet possible.
Clinicopathological information and microarray data from 157 invasive breast carcinomas were collected at National Taiwan University Hospital from 1995 to 2008. Gene expression data of 51 triple-negative and 106 luminal breast cancers were generated by oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the majority (94%) of triple-negative breast cancers were tightly clustered together carrying strong basal-like characteristics. A 45-gene prognostic signature giving 98% predictive accuracy in distant recurrence of our triple-negative patients was determined using the receiver operating characteristic analysis and leave-one-out cross validation. External validation of the prognostic signature in an independent microarray dataset of 59 early-stage triple-negative patients also obtained statistical significance (hazard ratio 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–5.06, Cox P = 0.04), outperforming five other published breast cancer prognostic signatures. The 45-gene signature identified in this study revealed that TGF-β signaling of immune/inflammatory regulation may play an important role in distant metastatic invasion of triple-negative breast cancer.
Gene expression data and recurrence information of triple-negative breast cancer were collected and analyzed in this study. A novel set of 45-gene signature was found to be statistically predictive in disease recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer. The 45-gene signature, if further validated, may be a clinically useful tool in risk assessment of distant recurrence for early-stage triple-negative patients.
Basal-like breast carcinoma (BLBC) has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. It has been suggested that tumours expressing basal markers have a more aggressive clinical behaviour. However, a molecular basis for this disease remains unclear, and it lacks currently used therapeutic targets. Therefore developing a novel treatment strategy is crucial for improving the prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p16 in patients with BLBC compared with non-BLBC.
Materials and methods:
Eighty-five cases of grade-3 invasive ductal carcinomas not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) were analyzed. Immunohistochemical stains for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p16 were performed. BLBC was defined as ER-, PR-, Her2- and CK5/6+, and/or EGFR+.
Twenty cases were categorised as BLBC versus 65 as non-basal. High mitotic count and presence of necrosis were associated with basal-like phenotype. Distant metastasis developed in 40% of cases of BLBC with frequent spread to brain and lung. p16 had significantly higher expression in the basal subgroup (80% versus 50.8%, P = 0.04). Patients with BLBCs were found to have a lower disease-free survival (DFS) rate (60% versus 70.8%, P = 0.03).
BLBC typically demonstrates a unique profile. p16 is frequently expressed in breast cancers with basal-like phenotype; this suggests that p16 may play a role in the poor prognosis of this tumour, and it may be used in the development of a targeted therapy that will result in improved patient prognostication and outcome.
Basal-like; breast cancer; p16
Triple negative breast cancer is associated with poorer prognosis and unresponsiveness to endocrine and anti-HER2 directed agents. Despite emerging data supporting the use of polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, complete and durable responses are rare and exploration of additional targeted therapies is needed. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in triple negative breast cancer and several clinical trials are testing the role of anti-EGFR directed therapy. However, the rate of EGFR mutations is poorly defined. We, therefore, sought to characterize EGFR mutations in triple negative breast cancers.
Seventy samples were randomly chosen from a cohort of 653 triple negative breast tumours for EGFR mutation analysis. These samples were immunostained for EGFR protein expression and consisted of negatively stained and positively stained cases. DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks and polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify exon regions 18 to 21 of the EGFR gene. Direct sequencing of the purified PCR products was performed.
EGFR mutations were found in 8 of 70 samples (11.4%). Mutations were predominantly exon 19 deletions (4 of 70 samples, 5.7%), which clustered in the region spanning codons 746 to 759 within the kinase domain of EGFR. Two types of exon 19 deletions were seen: a 15 nucleotide deletion (del E746-A750) (2 of 70 samples) and a 24 nucleotide deletion (del S752 - I759) (2 of 70 samples). Other exon 19 mutations observed were the inversion of the complementary strand (1 of 70 samples). Exon 21 mutations included missense substitution, L858R (1 of 70 samples) and T847I (2 of 70 samples). Mutations observed were independent of EGFR protein expression determined by immunohistochemical staining.
This study is among the first to document the presence and estimate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in triple negative breast cancer. These findings have potential implications for the design of clinical trials involving anti-EGFR directed therapy which currently do not select for patients based on presence of activating EGFR mutations, which may hence be underpowered to detect significant benefit in unselected populations. More complete sampling of EGFR mutation status in triple negative breast cancer is needed to determine the true mutation rate.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) neither express hormone receptors, nor overexpress HER2. They are associated with poor prognosis, as defined by low five-year survival and high recurrence rates after adjuvant therapy. Overall, TNBC share striking similarities with basal-like breast cancers (BBC), so a number of studies considered them being the same. The purpose of this review is to summarise the latest findings on TNBC concerning its relation and delineation to BBC, discuss the developmental pathways involved and address clinical implications for this complex type of breast cancer.
The recent literature from PubMed and Medline databases was reviewed.
Not all TNBC are of the intrinsic BBC subtype (nonbasal (NB)-TNBC), nor are all BBC triple-negative (non-triple-negative (NTN)-BBC). There is increasing evidence that a triple-negative, basal-like breast cancer (TNBBC) subtype develops mainly through a BRCA1-related pathway. Somatic mutations that contribute to NTN-BBC and NB-TNBC development are possibly not related to this pathway, but may occur randomly due to increased genomic instability in these tumours. Several therapeutic options exist for TNBBC, which exhibited promising results in recent clinical trials. Cytotoxic therapies, e.g. combined treatment with anthracyclines or taxanes, achieved good tumour regression rates in the neo-adjuvant setting, but also showed considerable recurrence during the first 5 years after therapy. Targeted therapy options involve PARP1 and EGFR inhibition, although both approaches still need further investigation.
TNBC and BBC are not the same disease entity. The TNBBC subtype shows the largest homogeneity in terms of tumour development, prognosis and clinical intervention options.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); Basal-like breast cancer (BBC); BRCA1; Adjuvant treatment; Patient outcome
Of the estimated 1 million cases of breast cancer diagnosed annually worldwide, it is estimated that over 170,000 will harbor the triple-negative (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/HER2–negative) phenotype. Most, though not all, triple-negative breast cancers will be basal-like on gene expression micorarrays. The basal-like molecular subtype exhibits a unique molecular profile and set of risk factors, aggressive and early pattern of metastasis, limited treatment options, and poor prognosis. Large population-based studies have identified a higher proportion of triple-negative breast tumors among premenopausal African American women, and a suggestion that increased parity, younger age at first-term pregnancy, shorter duration of breast feeding, and elevated hip-to-waist ratio might be particular risk factors. When BRCA1 mutation carriers develop breast cancer, it is usually basal-like; given the central role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, this could have profound therapeutic implications. When diagnosed, triple-negative breast cancers illustrate preferential relapse in visceral organs, including the central nervous system. Although initial response to chemotherapy might be more profound, relapse is early and common among triple-negative breast cancers compared with luminal breast cancers. The armamentarium of “targeted therapeutics” for triple-negative breast cancer is evolving and includes strategies to inhibit angiogenesis, epidermal growth factor receptor, and other kinases. Finally, the positive association between triple-negative breast cancer and BRCA mutations makes inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase–1 an attractive therapeutic strategy that is in active study.
Basal-like breast cancer; BRCA1; BSI-201; Cetuximab; Cytokeratin 5/6; PARP1
Metastatic breast cancer cannot be treated successfully. Currently, the targeted therapies for metastatic disease are limited to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptor antagonists. Understanding the mechanisms of breast cancer growth and metastasis is therefore crucial for the development of new intervention strategies. Here, we show that FER kinase (FER) controls migration and metastasis of invasive human breast cancer cell lines by regulating α6- and β1-integrin-dependent adhesion. Conversely, the overexpression of FER in non-metastatic breast cancer cells induces pro-invasive features. FER drives anoikis resistance, regulates tumour growth and is necessary for metastasis in a mouse model of human breast cancer. In human invasive breast cancer, high FER expression is an independent prognostic factor that correlates with high-grade basal/triple-negative tumours and worse overall survival, especially in lymph node-negative patients. These findings establish FER as a promising target for the prevention and inhibition of metastatic breast cancer.
breast cancer; cell adhesion; cell migration; FER kinase; metastasis
The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling molecules and its involvement in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A total of 123 cases of paraffin blocks, including 83 cases of primary breast carcinoma, 30 cases of mammary hyperplasia and 10 cases of normal breast tissue, were immunohistochemically analyzed for Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Patched-1 (PTCH1), Smoothened (SMO) and glioma-associated oncogene homoglog 1 (GLI1) expression. The expression of SMO and GLI1 in TNBC was significantly increased in comparison to non-triple-negative breast cancer (nTNBC). GLI1 expression manifested an inverse association with the estrogen receptor. The levels of GLI1 expression were increased in lymph node-positive cases. The expression of SHH and SMO was increased in high histological grades. Furthermore, the expression of SMO and GLI1 was correlated with superior tumor stage. The expression of SHH, SMO and GLI1 was significantly increased in breast cancer and mammary hyperplasia. PTCH1 expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer compared to mammary hyperplasia and normal breast tissue. For the first time, clinical evidence has been provided in support of significant roles of Hh signaling in TNBC. Hh signaling is involved in breast ductal changes and malignant transformation. Measures to inhibit Hh activity may improve the prognosis of TNBC patients.
There is a paucity of data regarding molecular subtypes of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (pDCIS). We evaluated the expression of ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, and p53 and DNA ploidy in 118 pDCIS and 100 invasive breast carcinomas (IBCAs) by routine IHC and classified them according to molecular subtypes. Quantification of biomarkers and DNA ploidy was performed by image analysis. Expression of ER, PR, and high ki67 was more frequent in pDCIS compared to IBCA. High-grade tumors had lower ER and PR expression, high Ki67, overexpression of HER2 and p53, and DNA aneuploidy. Luminal A and HER2 subtypes were more common in pDCIS, and triple negative was more prevalent in IBCA. In both groups, HER2 and triple negative subtypes were characterized by high ki67, overexpression of p53, and DNA aneuploidy compared to luminal subtypes. Molecular subtypes of IBCA are distinct from those of pDCIS. Invasion is characterized by change in phenotype in some tumors.