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1.  Is Therapy Necessary After Distal Biceps Tendon Repair? 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2008;3(4):316-319.
The EndoButton technique of distal biceps tendon repair provides strong biomechanical fixation. This strength of fixation may allow earlier postoperative range of motion (ROM). A retrospective review of 15 male patients undergoing single incision EndoButton repairs was used. Six subjects participated in conventional supervised postoperative rehabilitation while nine subjects were allowed unrestricted ROM after 2 weeks. Final ROM, time to full ROM, and Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores were compared. There was a significant difference for time to full ROM (p < 0.05). The mean time to full ROM was 8.67 weeks for the supervised therapy group and 4.38 weeks for the unrestricted group. There were no reruptures in either group. There were no significant differences in final ROM or DASH scores. These data suggest that unrestricted ROM results in a quicker return to full ROM without an increased risk of rerupture.
doi:10.1007/s11552-008-9129-8
PMCID: PMC2584219  PMID: 18784965
Distal biceps tendon; EndoButton; Therapy; Tendon repair
2.  Repair of acute and chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures using the EndoButton 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2010;6(1):39-46.
There are many ways to repair distal biceps tendon ruptures with no outcome studies demonstrating superiority of a specific technique. There are few studies reporting on the repair of acute and chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures using the EndoButton via an anterior single-incision approach. We report on 27 patients who underwent distal biceps tendon repair with an EndoButton. The average age was 50.1 years (range, 36–78). There were 17 acute repairs (within 4 weeks of injury), nine chronic repairs (greater than 4 weeks), and one revision of a previous acute repair. All chronic repairs were repaired without the need for graft augmentation. Patients were assessed postoperatively using the ASES elbow outcome instrument and isokinetic flexion and supination strength and endurance testing. Eight control subjects were also tested for comparison. At an average follow-up of 30.9 months, 26 of 27 patients returned to their previous employment and activity level. The average ASES elbow score was 98.2 (range, 81–100). Compared with the contralateral extremity, there was no loss of motion. Average flexion strength recovery was 101% and mean supination strength recovery was 99%. There was no significant difference in function or strength with repair of acute versus chronic ruptures. Using the EndoButton technique, acute and chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures can be repaired safely with excellent clinical results.
doi:10.1007/s11552-010-9286-4
PMCID: PMC3041875  PMID: 22379436
Distal biceps tendon ruptures; Acute; Chronic; Single incision
3.  Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures repaired using an endobutton technique: a case report 
Introduction
The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern.
Case presentation
A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a ‘pop’ on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later.
Conclusion
Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures successfully treated with a single-incision endobutton technique, which represents a valid option in managing this difficult problem.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-213
PMCID: PMC3766066  PMID: 23972255
4.  Fixation of Acute Distal Biceps Tendon Ruptures Using Mitek Anchors: A Retrospective Study 
Purpose of this Study:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of surgical intra-osseous fixation of the distal tendon of the ruptured biceps brachii muscle using Mitek anchors.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2005 and 2011, seven patients underwent unilateral distal biceps tendon repair using Mitek anchors. All patients were men aged between 36 and 47 years. Six patients were assessed by physical examination and use of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire.
Results:
Surgery was performed within 3 to 17 days of rupture with a mean follow-up of 35 months. Of the six fully completed DASH questionnaires, three patients had a score of 0, and three patients had scores of 5.8, 10 and 10.8, respectively (10.1 is the mean score for the general population). Transient paraesthesias in the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve region occurred in two patients and one patient experienced a transient stiffness of the elbow due to scarring of the wound. No major complicatons have occurred.
Conclusion:
The use of Mitek anchors for the re-insertion of the ruptured distal biceps tendon proved to be a safe and effective technique with excellent functional results in our series.
doi:10.2174/1874325001408010052
PMCID: PMC3988494  PMID: 24741379
Bone anchors; DASH score; distal biceps tendon ruptures; Mitek anchors; single incision technique; surgical treatment.
5.  Distal Biceps Tendon Repair: An Analysis of Timing of Surgery on Outcomes 
Journal of Athletic Training  2013;48(1):9-11.
Context
Surgical repair of the ruptured distal biceps brachaii tendon is an effective treatment in injured patients. Timing of surgery is considered an important factor when managing these patients.
Objective
To compare our outcomes after distal biceps tendon acute (at 4 weeks or less) or chronic (greater than 4 weeks) repair.
Design
Cohort study.
Setting
Clinical practice.
Patients or Other Participants
Of 18 patients in a tertiary practice who underwent distal biceps repair, 12 and 6 underwent acute or chronic repair, respectively. The average durations from injury to surgery were 15.3 (range, 9 to 25) and 50.1 (range, 29 to 75) days for the acute and chronic groups, respectively.
Intervention(s)
Distal biceps tendon repair.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scoring, range of motion, and clinical and radiographic complications.
Results
No differences were noted between the groups in DASH scoring or range of motion. No complications occurred, and radiographic outcomes were satisfactory, without evidence of heterotopic ossification in any patients.
Conclusions
Secure repair of a distal biceps tendon injury may yield similar results, whether it is performed in the acute or chronic setting.
doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.10
PMCID: PMC3554038  PMID: 23672320
upper extremity; elbow; DASH; outcomes; chronicity
6.  Management of acute displaced midshaft clavicular fractures using Herbert cannulated screw: Technique and results in 114 patients 
Purpose:
A new and simple operative technique has been developed to provide internal fixation for midshaft clavicle fractures. This involves the use of a large fragment Herbert Screw that is entirely embedded within the bone. Screw fixation is combined with bone grafting from intramedullary reamings of the fracture fragments. The purpose of this report is to assess the outcomes following treatment of midshaft clavicular fracture using this method.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and fourteen patients with acute displaced midshaft fracture were identified between 2002 and 2007. All patients were followed until fracture union. Patients’ medical records were reviewed. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Elbow form (ASES) were posted to all patients. Outcome measures included union rate, time to union, implant removal rate, DASH, and ASES scores.
Results:
Patients’ median age was 29.5 years (interquartile range, 19-44 years). The most common injury mechanism was sports injury (28%). The median time from injury to surgery was 5 days (interquartile range, 2-9 days). Union occurred in an average of 8.8 weeks. Non-union occurred in three cases (2.6%). The re-operation rate for symptomatic hardware prominence screw was 1.7%. The median DASH score was 0.83 and the median ASES was 100 (n = 35).
Conclusions:
Intramedullary fixation using cannulated Herbert screw can be used as an effective approach for operative management of midshaft clavicular fractures. Using this method, an appropriate outcome could be achieved and a second intervention for implant removal could be avoided in great majority of cases.
Level of Evidence:
Level III
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.114227
PMCID: PMC3743031  PMID: 23960363
Acute fracture; Herbert cannulated screw; internal fixation; intramedullary; midshaft clavicle fractures; open reduction
7.  Pin and plate fixation in complex distal humerus fractures: surgical technique and results 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):839-844.
Purpose
Complex distal humerus fractures are difficult to fix by conventional methods, especially in comminuted low distal humerus fractures. We propose a technique using small diameter K-wires and a plate on the humeral shaft.
Methods
Between May 2007 and March 2009, 19 patients with poor bone quality showing comminuted or low distal humerus fractures involving the articular surface were referred to our institution and were primarily treated by this technique that we called “pin and plate fixation”. We have reviewed all the cases treated by this method.
Results
The average age was 46 years. All of the patients were followed up for a mean of 12 months and had a good range of motion (the average total arc of flexion-extension was 99°); the average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was 18 points. The Mayo Elbow Performance Index was measured and the mean score was 88 in our patients.
Conclusions
In this study, a technique has been evaluated for the treatment of complex distal humerus fractures. We recommend this technique in comminuted, osteoporotic or low distal humerus fractures in which other fixation methods seem difficult or even impossible.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1343-2
PMCID: PMC3311817  PMID: 21881883
8.  Anatomical evaluation of a cortical button for distal biceps tendon repairs 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2013;8(2):201-204.
Background
The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is at risk for injury during one-incision distal biceps tendon repair using a cortical button. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximity of a cortical button to the PIN during one-incision repairs of the distal biceps tendon using human cadaveric models.
Methods
In ten cadaveric elbows the biceps tendon was identified, traced to its insertion, and transected. With the forearm supinated, a guide pin was drilled through the radial tuberosity at a 0°, perpendicular to the table. A dorsal incision was used to identify the PIN. The tendon was repaired with a cortical button, ensuring the device lay in line with the radial shaft. The distance from the device to the PIN was measured using digital calipers. This process was repeated with the guide pin aimed at 20° proximal toward the radiocapitellar joint (RCJ) and 30° distal toward the wrist. The data were compared using a Student’s paired t-test.
Results
The average distance from the device to the PIN with the straight posterior insertion was 8.94 mm, 11.86 mm with 20° proximal, and 0.55 mm with 30° distal angles. The distance between the button and the PIN was significantly greater when aiming the device 20° toward the RCJ compared to the straight insertion technique (p = 0.0061).
Conclusions
The distance between the PIN and cortical button can be significantly increased by aiming the guide pin between 0° and 20° proximal toward the RCJ and placing the device in line with the radial shaft.
doi:10.1007/s11552-013-9496-7
PMCID: PMC3652991  PMID: 24426919
Distal biceps; Anatomical study; Elbow surgery; Tendon repair; Posterior interosseous nerve
9.  Rupture of the Distal Biceps Tendon Combined with a Supinator Muscle Tear in a 51-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Radiology  2011;2011:515912.
Distal biceps tendon rupture is a relatively uncommon occurrence in the general female population, and to our knowledge, has not been reported in association with a supinator muscle tear. We report a case of 51-year-old woman who experienced sharp pain in her forearm and elbow after lifting a heavy object. History and physical examination raised suspicion for a distal biceps tendon rupture. MRI imaging determined a combined distal biceps tendon tear with a supinator muscle tear with subsequent confirmation at surgery. Surgical repair was performed for the distal biceps tendon only through a single incision approach using the Endobutton technique.
doi:10.1155/2011/515912
PMCID: PMC3350064  PMID: 22606548
10.  The Biceps Crease Interval for Diagnosing Complete Distal Biceps Tendon Ruptures 
Complete distal biceps tendon ruptures require prompt surgical management for optimal functional and aesthetic outcome. The need exists for a valid and reliable diagnostic tool to expedite surgical referral. We hypothesized complete distal biceps tendon ruptures result in an objectively measurable anatomic landmark (the distance between the antecubital crease of the elbow and the cusp of distal descent of the biceps muscle, or the biceps crease interval), as a result of proximal retraction of the musculotendinous complex. We established normal biceps crease interval values and biceps crease ratios between dominant and nondominant arms in 80 men with no history of biceps injury (average age, 43 years). The mean (± standard deviation) biceps crease interval for dominant and nondominant arms was 4.8 ± 0.6 cm. The mean biceps crease ratio was 1.0 ± 0.1. We measured the biceps crease interval and biceps crease ratio on 29 consecutive patients presenting with a possible complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Using a diagnostic threshold of a biceps crease interval greater than 6.0 cm or biceps crease ratio greater than 1.2, the biceps crease interval test had a sensitivity of 96% and a diagnostic accuracy of 93% for identifying complete distal biceps tendon ruptures, making it a valid and reliable tool for clinicians to identify cases requiring urgent surgical referral.
Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0334-0
PMCID: PMC2492996  PMID: 18551349
11.  Dislocation of the Elbow: A Retrospective Multicentre Study of 86 Patients 
The objective of this retrospective multicentre cohort study was to prospectively assess the long-term functional outcomes of simple and complex elbow dislocations.
We analysed the hospital and outpatient records of 86 patients between 01.03.1999 and 25.02.2009 with an elbow dislocation. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, all patients were re-examined at the outpatient clinic for measurement of different outcomes.
The mean range of motion was ROM 135.5°. The Mayo elbow performance index (MEPI) scored an average of 91.9 (87.5% of the patients were rated excellent or good). The average Quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (Quick- DASH) score was 9.7, the sports/music score 11.5 and work score 6.1. The Oxford function score was 75.7, Oxford pain score 75.2 and Oxford social-psychological score 73.9.
Elbow dislocation is a mild disease and generally, the outcome is excellent. Functional results might improve with early active movements.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004020076
PMCID: PMC2845787  PMID: 20352027
Elbow; elbow joint; injury; dislocations.
12.  A functional outcomes survey of elderly patients who sustained distal radius fractures 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2011;6(3):260-267.
Purpose
This study aims to examine the subjective functional outcomes of patients 70 years or older who sustained distal radius fractures through the use of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-8 Health (SF-8) surveys.
Methods
Patients at least 70 years old with a distal radius fracture between 2000 and 2004 were identified and their charts reviewed. They were contacted to answer the DASH and SF-8 surveys. The radiographic injury parameters examined were articular stepoff greater than 2 mm, dorsal tilt on the lateral radiograph, ulnar variance, and presence of an ulnar styloid fracture.
Results
Fifty-eight patients answered the DASH and SF-8 surveys. The mean age at the time of injury in the survey group was 78 years old (range 70–94 years). Mean follow-up period was 33 months (range 13–65 months). Average DASH and SF-8 scores were 22.3 (SD 22.4) and 31.5 (SD 6.9), respectively. DASH scores were inversely correlated with SF-8 scores (R = −0.65, p < 0.01). Patients who sustained an associated ulnar styloid fracture demonstrated worse DASH scores than those without an ulnar styloid fracture (presence of ulnar styloid fracture: mean DASH 26.2, no ulnar styloid fracture: mean DASH 12.9, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in functional outcome for any other radiographic parameters assessed. Males had statistically better DASH scores than the females (males: mean DASH 6.9, females: mean DASH 24.4, p = 0.003). No difference was found in functional outcome scores among different treatment groups.
Conclusion
In elderly patients with distal radius fractures, the only radiographic parameter we found that affects functional outcome is an associated ulnar styloid fracture. Additionally, females had worse functional outcomes than males.
doi:10.1007/s11552-011-9327-7
PMCID: PMC3153622  PMID: 22942849
Functional outcomes; Elderly; Distal radius fractures
13.  Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures 
Background
Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate.
Methods
180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union.
Results
The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74%) had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15%) and in 11 patients were major (6%).
Conclusion
This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-7-4
PMCID: PMC3398340  PMID: 22280557
Distal Radius; Fracture; Internal fixation: functional outcome
14.  Where to Tenodese the Biceps: Proximal or Distal? 
Background
The best location for biceps tenodesis is controversial as surgeons have begun to question whether tenodesis location affects the incidence of residual bicipital postoperative pain. An open distal tenodesis technique has been previously proposed to eliminate remaining symptoms at the bicipital groove.
Questions/purposes
We asked the following questions: (1) Does a higher tenodesis in the biceps groove result in postoperative pain? And (2) can the tenodesis location be successfully moved more distally (“suprapectoral tenodesis”) by an arthroscopic technique?
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients undergoing arthroscopic biceps tenodesis and evaluated their tenodesis location, either within the upper half of the groove (five) or in the lower half of the groove or shaft (12). Patient outcomes were assessed with visual analog scale scores for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, and Constant-Murley scores. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 28 months; range, 12–69 months).
Results
Two patients had persistent pain at 12 months; both had a tenodesis in the upper half of the groove. The overall American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Constant-Murley scores were improved at latest followup.
Conclusions
Arthroscopic suprapectoral biceps tenodesis represents a new technique for distal tenodesis. Our preliminary observations suggest a more distal tenodesis location may decrease the incidence of persistent postoperative pain at the bicipital groove, although additional research is needed to definitively state whether the proximal location is in fact more painful.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1691-z
PMCID: PMC3048262  PMID: 21107924
15.  Anatomic reconstruction of the radioulnar ligament 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2012;7(4):413-419.
Introduction
Twenty-five patients (19 males and six females) were included in the study based on: chronic symptoms of distal radioulnar joint instability, demonstrable instability on examination, MRI evidence of radioulnar ligament deficiency, and arthroscopic findings of foveal disruption of the radioulnar ligament.
Materials and Methods
Exclusion criteria were: distal radius malunion, congenital malformation of the sigmoid notch, DRUJ arthritis, and less than 24 months minimum follow-up. Mean age was 35 years old with a mean interval from injury to surgery of 5 months. Surgery began with arthroscopic confirmation of the chronic foveal detachment followed by open reconstruction of the radioulnar ligament using the palmaris longus tendon. The specific method employed three drill tunnels corresponding to the true anatomic points of attachment of the radioulnar ligament. Patients were examined post-operatively at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months.
Results and Discussion
Final evaluation averaged 51 (±14) months following surgery. Measures obtained before and after treatment included: wrist range of motion, forearm range of motion, grip strength, examination findings of distal radioulnar joint instability, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. Pre-operative and post-operative measures were compared using the paired Student’s t test, accepting a p value of 0.05 as statistically significant. All patients healed the reconstruction without major complications and demonstrated distal radioulnar joint stability at the 6-week examination. Mean ranges of motion, in degrees, pre-/post-operative were: wrist flexion 53 (±13)/61 (±10), wrist extension 53 (±13)/62 (±15), supination 65 (±12)/74 (±7), and pronation 66 (±11)/71 (±8). Grip strengths expressed as % contralateral pre-/post-operative were: 57 (±23)/79 (±25). The differences in these measures were not found to be statistically significant. The mean pre-/post-operative DASH scores were: 62 (±16)/7 (±3). This difference was found to be statistically significant.
Conclusion
Reconstruction of the RUL with a free palmaris longus tendon graft using the truly anatomic points of original RUL attachment at both the ulna and radius restored DRUJ stability and improved DASH scores without limiting forearm or wrist motion.
doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9456-7
PMCID: PMC3508011  PMID: 24294162
DRUJ; Radioulnar ligament; Reconstruction
16.  Post-traumatic distal humerus non-union 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(5):1289-1294.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-term functional results achieved after open reduction and internal fixation of 24 distal humerus non-unions. Non-unions were extra-articular-extracapsular (11 cases), extra-articular-intracapsular (8 cases) and intra-articular (5 cases). Preoperative elbow range of motion averaged 45°. Time between original trauma and revision surgery averaged 14 months. Stabilisation methods varied according to type and location of the non-union. Follow-up averaged 46 months (range: 18–108). Elbow range of motion at last examination averaged 98°. Flexion averaged 110° and extension loss averaged 17°. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score averaged 16 points. Secondary transposition of the ulnar nerve was necessary in three cases. Sixteen patients reported no pain at last examination, seven had mild pain and one had moderate pain. Distal humerus non-unions present different characteristics; consequently, surgical treatment must be individualised for each patient. Even though they are demanding procedures, bony union and good long-term functional results were achieved.
doi:10.1007/s00264-008-0650-8
PMCID: PMC2899129  PMID: 18751978
17.  A Simple Grafting Method to Repair Irreparable Distal Biceps Tendon 
Irreparable distal biceps tendon tears typically are treated using a free tendon graft. We asked whether our new method to fix the graft—using two suture anchors—yields similar results to our previous bone canal method. We compared the two methods for strength, endurance, and clinical findings. There were two groups, the suture anchor group (Group A, seven patients) and the bone canal group operated on before suture anchors (Group B, seven patients). The patients were males with a mean age at surgery of 44.9 years. The operative delay from primary trauma to index surgery averaged 5.9 months. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 11.1 years; range, 2–23 years). The mean arc of elbow motion was 0° to 132°, pronation 83°, and supination 80°. Compared with the contralateral side, the maximal peak torque was 84% in supination and 91% in pronation, and the maximal static elbow flexion strength was 94%. The Mayo elbow score averaged 99 in Group A and 100 in Group B. There were no major differences between the two groups. Our novel modification to fix a tendon graft yields equal clinical outcomes compared with the bone canal method for treatment of irreparable distal biceps tendon injuries.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0389-y
PMCID: PMC2584289  PMID: 18636303
18.  Rupture of the Distal Biceps Tendon in a Collegiate Football Player: A Case Report 
Journal of Athletic Training  1998;33(1):62-64.
Objective:
To provide health care personnel with guidelines for the management of a distal biceps tendon rupture.
Background:
Traumatic ruptures of the biceps tendon are rare, but serious, and usually involve the long head of the proximal insertion. Ruptures of the distal tendon account for only 3% of all biceps tendon ruptures. A history of tendinitis, overuse, or anabolic steroid abuse may predispose tendons to rupture. Surgical repair, followed by a comprehensive rehabilitation program, is indicated to regain full strength and range of motion in both flexion and supination.
Differential Diagnosis:
Rupture of the distal head of the biceps brachii muscle at the insertion on the radial tuberosity.
Treatment:
After the injury, the athlete continued to compete for the remainder of the collegiate football season. He then underwent surgery to repair the tendon at its insertion. Post- operatively, the athlete was immobilized in a cast and then a brace to prevent any movement of the muscle. Rehabilitation proceeded with isometric exercises and manual resistive exercises of the shoulder and wrist. At 16 weeks, the athlete was cleared for biceps curls and wrist supination. At 6 months, the athlete had regained full use of the muscle.
Uniqueness:
This is a relatively rare injury, usually occurring at the proximal tendon insertion and in those who are middle aged (30 to 50 years old). Also, the surgical intervention in this case was delayed without detrimental effects to the patient.
Conclusions:
This study shows that, while surgical intervention to repair a ruptured distal biceps tendon is necessary, appropriate conservative measures can be taken to allow surgery to be delayed without harm to the patient. The athletic trainer should be aware of how to recognize and treat this injury.
Images
PMCID: PMC1320378  PMID: 16558487
biceps brachii; upper extremity; tendinitis
19.  Validation of the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand Version of the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH-JSSH) questionnaire 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2006;11(3):248-253.
Background
The Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire is a region-specific, self-administered questionnaire, which consists of a disability/symptom (QuickDASH-DS) scale, and the same two optional modules, the work (DASH-W) and the sport/music (DASH-SM) modules, as the DASH. After the Japanese version of DASH (DASH-JSSH) was cross-culturally adapted and developed, we made the Japanese version of QuickDASH (QuickDASH-JSSH) by extracting 11 out of 30 items of the DASH-JSSH regarding disability/symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of QuickDASH-JSSH.
Methods
A series of 72 patients with upper extremity disorders completed the QuickDASH-JSSH, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. Thirty-eight of the patients were reassessed for test–retest reliability 1 or 2 weeks later. Reliability was investigated by the reproducibility and internal consistency. To analyze the validity, a principal component analysis and the correlation coefficients between the QuickDASH-JSSH and the SF-36 were obtained. The responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (SRM; mean change/SD) and effect size (mean change/SD of baseline value) after carpal tunnel release of the 17 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Results
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient in the QuickDASH-DS was 0.88. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the same was 0.82. The unidimensionality of the QuickDASH-DS was confirmed. The correlation coefficients between the QuickDASH-DS and the DASH-DS, DASH-W, or the DASH-SM were 0.92, 0.81, or 0.76, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the QuickDASH-DS score and the subscales of the SF-36 ranged from −0.29 to −0.73. The correlation coefficient between the QuickDASH-DS score and the VAS for pain was 0.52. The SRM/effect size of QuickDASH-DS was −0.54/−0.37, which indicated moderate sensitivity.
Conclusion
The Japanese version of QuickDASH has equivalent evaluation capacities to the original QuickDASH.
doi:10.1007/s00776-006-1013-1
PMCID: PMC2778693  PMID: 16721524
20.  Total Wrist Replacement: A Retrospective Comparative Study 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(2):165-172.
Purpose Total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) is an evolving procedure for the treatment of arthritis of the wrist joint. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes of three different total wrist implants.
Methods A retrospective review of the Biaxial, Universal 2, and Re-Motion total wrist arthroplasties was performed. Patients were evaluated for clinical outcome, radiographic analysis, review of complications (incidence and type), and conversion to wrist fusion. Patient function measures included: the Mayo wrist score, the Patient Related Wrist Evaluation, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score.
Results Forty-six wrist implants were performed in 39 patients. There were 36 rheumatoid and 10 posttraumatic cases. The average follow-up was 6 years (3.5 to 15). The total wrist inserted included 16 resectional arthroplasties (Biaxial) and 30 resurfacing designs (Universal 2 and Re-Motion). Nine implant failures were noted. Causes for arthroplasty failure included distal component implant loosening and wrist instability. Salvage procedures included revision TWA or wrist fusion. In successful cases, flexion and extension motion averaged 30 and 38 degrees, respectively, and grip strength improved by 3 kg. Mayo wrist scores, in successful cases, increased from 40 (preoperative) to 76 (postoperative). The Mayo wrist scores for posttraumatic conditions averaged 87 points versus 71 points for rheumatoid arthritis. The average DASH score for the two resurfacing designs were 20 and 37, and 48 for the resectional arthroplasty design.
Discussion Total wrist replacement maintains itself and provides good pain relief and functional motion in over 80% of all cases and in 97% of resurfacing implants. Better results were correlated with improved distal component fixation and minimal resection of the distal radius.
Level of Evidence Level 3 Case Control
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1326728
PMCID: PMC3658675  PMID: 24179722
arthroplasty; rheumatoid; total wrist; joint
21.  ECCENTRIC TRAINING FOR THE REHABILITATION OF A HIGH LEVEL WRESTLER WITH DISTAL BICEPS TENDINOSIS: A CASE REPORT 
Background and Purpose:
Distal biceps brachii tendinosis is a relatively uncommon clinical diagnosis seen by physical therapists. As a result, there is little evidence guiding clinical decisions regarding best practice or effective treatment options to restore individuals to their previous level of function. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of eccentric training as the primary intervention in the rehabilitation of a patient with distal biceps tendinosis.
Case Description:
A 41-year-old male electrician and collegiate wrestling coach presented to a university outpatient physical therapy clinic with a two month duration of pain in the right antecubital space which occurred when the patient was performing close-grip body weight curl ups for the first time. Sharp pain was noted in the right arm during the lowering phase of the exercise. Following the examination, distal biceps tendinosis appeared to be the likely diagnosis. The patient was educated in eccentric exercise principles and was prescribed eccentric loading exercises for the distal biceps brachii tendon in two different positions of elbow flexion.
Outcomes:
The patient was seen in physical therapy for three visits over the course of four weeks. Following eccentric training, the patient reported decreased pain, demonstrated increased right elbow flexion and forearm supination strength, was no longer tender to palpation of the distal biceps tendon and showed clinically significant improvement in QuickDASH scores.
Discussion:
Given the lack of available research on the rehabilitation of distal biceps tendinosis, eccentric training showing benefits with other upper quarter tendinoses and the positive outcomes in this case, it may be appropriate for physical therapists to employ eccentric training for patients with distal biceps tendinosis.
Level of Evidence:
5 (Single case report)
PMCID: PMC3414073  PMID: 22893861
distal biceps; eccentric exercise; tendinosis
22.  Validation of the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand version of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2005;10(4):353-359.
Background
The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a region-specific self-administered questionnaire that consists of a disability/symptom (DASH-DS) scale, and two optional modules, the work (DASH-W) and the sport/music (DASH-SM) modules. The DASH was cross-culturally adapted and developed by the Impairment Evaluation Committee, Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Japanese version of DASH (DASH-JSSH).
Methods
A series of 72 patients with upper extremity disorders completed the DASH-JSSH, the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. Thirty-eight of the patients were reassessed for test-retest reliability 1 or 2 weeks later. Reliability was investigated by reproducibility and internal consistency. To analyze the validity, a principal component analysis and correlation coefficients between the DASH-JSSH and the SF-36 were obtained. Responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (mean change/SD) and effect size (mean change/SD of baseline value) after carpal tunnel release of the 17 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Results
Cronbach’s alpha coefficients in the DASH-DS and DASH-W were 0.962 and 0.967, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the same were 0.82 and 0.85, respectively. The unidimensionality of the DASH-DS and DASH-W were confirmed. The correlations between the DASH-DS score and the subscale of the SF-36 scale ranged from −0.29 to −0.73. The correlation coefficient between the DASH-DS and the DASH-W was 0.79. The standardized response mean/effect size of DASH-DS, DASH-W, and VAS for pain were −0.48/−0.26, −0.68/−0.41, and −0.40/−0.40, respectively. DASH-DS and DASH-W were as moderately sensitive as VAS for pain.
Conclusion
The DASH-DS and DASH-W Japanese version have evaluation capacities equivalent to those of the original and other language versions of the DASH.
doi:10.1007/s00776-005-0917-5
PMCID: PMC2780667  PMID: 16075166
23.  Reconstruction of Posterior Interosseous Nerve Injury Following Biceps Tendon Repair: Case Report and Cadaveric Study 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2008;4(2):134-139.
Surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture is a technically challenging procedure that has the potential for devastating and permanently disabling complications. We report two cases of posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) injury following successful biceps tendon repair utilizing both the single-incision and two-incision approaches. We also describe our technique of posterior interosseous nerve repair using a medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve graft (MABC) and a new approach to the terminal branches of the posterior interosseous nerve that makes this reconstruction possible. Finally, we advocate consideration for identification of the posterior interosseous nerve prior to reattachment of the biceps tendon to the radial tuberosity.
doi:10.1007/s11552-008-9135-x
PMCID: PMC2686781  PMID: 18855074
Posterior interosseous nerve; Biceps tendon repair; Nerve graft; Nerve reconstruction; Radial nerve
24.  Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries 
Background:
Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury.
Materials and Methods:
We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years) in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations), surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients), and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient). In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients), intercostal nerves (2 patients), and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients). Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients), both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients), spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient), intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th) to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient).
Results:
Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC) Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170 degrees). Eight patients scored M4 power in elbow flexion and assessed as excellent results. Good results (M3+) were obtained in seven patients. Five patients had fair results (M2+ to M3).
doi:10.4103/0970-0358.59272
PMCID: PMC2845356  PMID: 20368849
Nerve transfers; root avulsions; upper brachial plexus injury
25.  Is a Silastic Radial Head Still a Reasonable Option? 
Background
The importance of the radial head to elbow function and stability is increasingly apparent. Although preservation of the native radial head is preferred, severely comminuted fractures may necessitate resection or arthroplasty. Silastic radial head arthroplasty has been condemned on the basis of several sporadic reports of silicone synovitis. However, problems of “overstuffing,” cartilage wear, and motion loss are becoming apparent with metal prostheses, indicating this also is not an ideal solution. Thus, the choices remain controversial.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether intact or reconstructed primary elbow stabilizers permit use of silastic radial head implants without fragmentation, failure, and silicone synovitis.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients with unreconstructable radial head fractures who were treated with silastic radial head arthroplasty and concomitant repair and/or reconstruction of the medial ulnar collateral ligament and/or lateral ulnar collateral ligament. Analysis included range of motion, pain, stability, and radiographic assessments; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire; and Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). The minimum followup was 16 months (average, 69.6 months; range, 16-165 months).
Results
At last followup, the mean elbow flexion was 145°, extension 11°, supination 80°, and pronation 83°. The mean MEPS score was 88.9. The mean DASH score was 11.8. There were eight reoperations, none resulting from failure of the radial head implants.
Conclusions
These results demonstrate silastic radial heads can be used with low complication rates and without evidence of synovitis when concomitant elbow ligament repair or reconstruction is performed.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1672-2
PMCID: PMC3048267  PMID: 21089001

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