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1.  Is Therapy Necessary After Distal Biceps Tendon Repair? 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2008;3(4):316-319.
The EndoButton technique of distal biceps tendon repair provides strong biomechanical fixation. This strength of fixation may allow earlier postoperative range of motion (ROM). A retrospective review of 15 male patients undergoing single incision EndoButton repairs was used. Six subjects participated in conventional supervised postoperative rehabilitation while nine subjects were allowed unrestricted ROM after 2 weeks. Final ROM, time to full ROM, and Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores were compared. There was a significant difference for time to full ROM (p < 0.05). The mean time to full ROM was 8.67 weeks for the supervised therapy group and 4.38 weeks for the unrestricted group. There were no reruptures in either group. There were no significant differences in final ROM or DASH scores. These data suggest that unrestricted ROM results in a quicker return to full ROM without an increased risk of rerupture.
doi:10.1007/s11552-008-9129-8
PMCID: PMC2584219  PMID: 18784965
Distal biceps tendon; EndoButton; Therapy; Tendon repair
2.  Repair of acute and chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures using the EndoButton 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2010;6(1):39-46.
There are many ways to repair distal biceps tendon ruptures with no outcome studies demonstrating superiority of a specific technique. There are few studies reporting on the repair of acute and chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures using the EndoButton via an anterior single-incision approach. We report on 27 patients who underwent distal biceps tendon repair with an EndoButton. The average age was 50.1 years (range, 36–78). There were 17 acute repairs (within 4 weeks of injury), nine chronic repairs (greater than 4 weeks), and one revision of a previous acute repair. All chronic repairs were repaired without the need for graft augmentation. Patients were assessed postoperatively using the ASES elbow outcome instrument and isokinetic flexion and supination strength and endurance testing. Eight control subjects were also tested for comparison. At an average follow-up of 30.9 months, 26 of 27 patients returned to their previous employment and activity level. The average ASES elbow score was 98.2 (range, 81–100). Compared with the contralateral extremity, there was no loss of motion. Average flexion strength recovery was 101% and mean supination strength recovery was 99%. There was no significant difference in function or strength with repair of acute versus chronic ruptures. Using the EndoButton technique, acute and chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures can be repaired safely with excellent clinical results.
doi:10.1007/s11552-010-9286-4
PMCID: PMC3041875  PMID: 22379436
Distal biceps tendon ruptures; Acute; Chronic; Single incision
3.  Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures repaired using an endobutton technique: a case report 
Introduction
The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern.
Case presentation
A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a ‘pop’ on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later.
Conclusion
Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures successfully treated with a single-incision endobutton technique, which represents a valid option in managing this difficult problem.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-213
PMCID: PMC3766066  PMID: 23972255
4.  Distal biceps tendon rupture reconstruction using muscle-splitting double-incision approach 
AIM: To evaluate the clinical and functional results after repair of distal biceps tendon tears, following the Morrey’s modified double-incision approach.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with distal rupture of biceps brachii treated between 2003 and 2012 in our Orthopedic Department with muscle-splitting double-incision technique. Outcome measures included the Mayo elbow performance, the DASH questionnaire, patient’s satisfaction, elbow and forearm motion, grip strength and complications occurrence.
RESULTS: At an average 18 mo follow-up (range, 7 mo-10 years) the average Mayo elbow performance and DASH score were respectively 97.2 and 4.8. The elbow flexion range was 94%, extension was -2°, supination was 93% and pronation 96% compared with the uninjured limb. The mean grip strength, expressed as percentage of respective contralateral limb, was 83%. The average patient satisfaction rating on a Likert scale (from 0 to 10) was 9.4. The following complications were observed: 3 cases of heterotopic ossification (6.4%), one (2.1%) re-rupture of the tendon at the site of reattachment and 2 cases (4.3%) of posterior interosseous nerve palsy. No complication required further surgical treatment.
CONCLUSION: This technique allows an anatomic reattachment of distal biceps tendon at the radial tuberosity providing full functional recovery with low complication rate.
doi:10.12998/wjcc.v2.i8.357
PMCID: PMC4133426  PMID: 25133147
Distal biceps tendon; Rupture; Double incision; Complications; Clinical outcome; Trans-osseous tunnels; Morrey
5.  Fixation of Acute Distal Biceps Tendon Ruptures Using Mitek Anchors: A Retrospective Study 
Purpose of this Study:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of surgical intra-osseous fixation of the distal tendon of the ruptured biceps brachii muscle using Mitek anchors.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2005 and 2011, seven patients underwent unilateral distal biceps tendon repair using Mitek anchors. All patients were men aged between 36 and 47 years. Six patients were assessed by physical examination and use of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire.
Results:
Surgery was performed within 3 to 17 days of rupture with a mean follow-up of 35 months. Of the six fully completed DASH questionnaires, three patients had a score of 0, and three patients had scores of 5.8, 10 and 10.8, respectively (10.1 is the mean score for the general population). Transient paraesthesias in the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve region occurred in two patients and one patient experienced a transient stiffness of the elbow due to scarring of the wound. No major complicatons have occurred.
Conclusion:
The use of Mitek anchors for the re-insertion of the ruptured distal biceps tendon proved to be a safe and effective technique with excellent functional results in our series.
doi:10.2174/1874325001408010052
PMCID: PMC3988494  PMID: 24741379
Bone anchors; DASH score; distal biceps tendon ruptures; Mitek anchors; single incision technique; surgical treatment.
6.  Distal Biceps Tendon Repair: An Analysis of Timing of Surgery on Outcomes 
Journal of Athletic Training  2013;48(1):9-11.
Context
Surgical repair of the ruptured distal biceps brachaii tendon is an effective treatment in injured patients. Timing of surgery is considered an important factor when managing these patients.
Objective
To compare our outcomes after distal biceps tendon acute (at 4 weeks or less) or chronic (greater than 4 weeks) repair.
Design
Cohort study.
Setting
Clinical practice.
Patients or Other Participants
Of 18 patients in a tertiary practice who underwent distal biceps repair, 12 and 6 underwent acute or chronic repair, respectively. The average durations from injury to surgery were 15.3 (range, 9 to 25) and 50.1 (range, 29 to 75) days for the acute and chronic groups, respectively.
Intervention(s)
Distal biceps tendon repair.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scoring, range of motion, and clinical and radiographic complications.
Results
No differences were noted between the groups in DASH scoring or range of motion. No complications occurred, and radiographic outcomes were satisfactory, without evidence of heterotopic ossification in any patients.
Conclusions
Secure repair of a distal biceps tendon injury may yield similar results, whether it is performed in the acute or chronic setting.
doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.10
PMCID: PMC3554038  PMID: 23672320
upper extremity; elbow; DASH; outcomes; chronicity
7.  Clinical results of a surgical technique using endobuttons for complete tendon tear of pectoralis major muscle: report of five cases 
Background
We herein describe a surgical technique for the repair of complete tear of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon using endobuttons to strengthen initial fixation.
Methods
Five male patients (3 judo players, 1 martial arts player, and 1 body builder) were treated within 2 weeks of sustaining complete tear of the PM tendon. Average age at surgery and follow-up period were 28.4 years (range, 23-33) and 28.8 months (range, 24-36). A rectangular bone trough (about 1 × 4 cm) was created on the humerus at the insertion of the distal PM tendon. The tendon stump was introduced into this trough, and fixed to the reverse side of the humeral cortex using endobuttons and non-absorbable suture. Clinical assessment of re-tear was examined by MRI. Shoulder range of motion (ROM), outcome of treatment, and isometric power were measured at final follow-up.
Results
There were no clinical re-tears, and MRI findings also showed continuity of the PM tendon in all cases at final follow-up. Average ROM did not differ significantly between the affected and unaffected shoulders. The clinical outcomes at final follow-up were excellent (4/5 cases) or good (1/5). In addition, postoperative isometric power in horizontal flexion of the affected shoulder showed complete recovery when compared with the unaffected side.
Conclusions
Satisfactory outcomes could be obtained when surgery using the endobutton technique was performed within 2 weeks after complete tear of the PM tendon. Therefore, our new technique appears promising as a useful method to treat complete tear of the PM tendon.
doi:10.1186/1758-2555-3-20
PMCID: PMC3199274  PMID: 21955511
8.  Management of acute displaced midshaft clavicular fractures using Herbert cannulated screw: Technique and results in 114 patients 
Purpose:
A new and simple operative technique has been developed to provide internal fixation for midshaft clavicle fractures. This involves the use of a large fragment Herbert Screw that is entirely embedded within the bone. Screw fixation is combined with bone grafting from intramedullary reamings of the fracture fragments. The purpose of this report is to assess the outcomes following treatment of midshaft clavicular fracture using this method.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and fourteen patients with acute displaced midshaft fracture were identified between 2002 and 2007. All patients were followed until fracture union. Patients’ medical records were reviewed. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Elbow form (ASES) were posted to all patients. Outcome measures included union rate, time to union, implant removal rate, DASH, and ASES scores.
Results:
Patients’ median age was 29.5 years (interquartile range, 19-44 years). The most common injury mechanism was sports injury (28%). The median time from injury to surgery was 5 days (interquartile range, 2-9 days). Union occurred in an average of 8.8 weeks. Non-union occurred in three cases (2.6%). The re-operation rate for symptomatic hardware prominence screw was 1.7%. The median DASH score was 0.83 and the median ASES was 100 (n = 35).
Conclusions:
Intramedullary fixation using cannulated Herbert screw can be used as an effective approach for operative management of midshaft clavicular fractures. Using this method, an appropriate outcome could be achieved and a second intervention for implant removal could be avoided in great majority of cases.
Level of Evidence:
Level III
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.114227
PMCID: PMC3743031  PMID: 23960363
Acute fracture; Herbert cannulated screw; internal fixation; intramedullary; midshaft clavicle fractures; open reduction
9.  Pin and plate fixation in complex distal humerus fractures: surgical technique and results 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):839-844.
Purpose
Complex distal humerus fractures are difficult to fix by conventional methods, especially in comminuted low distal humerus fractures. We propose a technique using small diameter K-wires and a plate on the humeral shaft.
Methods
Between May 2007 and March 2009, 19 patients with poor bone quality showing comminuted or low distal humerus fractures involving the articular surface were referred to our institution and were primarily treated by this technique that we called “pin and plate fixation”. We have reviewed all the cases treated by this method.
Results
The average age was 46 years. All of the patients were followed up for a mean of 12 months and had a good range of motion (the average total arc of flexion-extension was 99°); the average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was 18 points. The Mayo Elbow Performance Index was measured and the mean score was 88 in our patients.
Conclusions
In this study, a technique has been evaluated for the treatment of complex distal humerus fractures. We recommend this technique in comminuted, osteoporotic or low distal humerus fractures in which other fixation methods seem difficult or even impossible.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1343-2
PMCID: PMC3311817  PMID: 21881883
10.  Anatomical evaluation of a cortical button for distal biceps tendon repairs 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2013;8(2):201-204.
Background
The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is at risk for injury during one-incision distal biceps tendon repair using a cortical button. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximity of a cortical button to the PIN during one-incision repairs of the distal biceps tendon using human cadaveric models.
Methods
In ten cadaveric elbows the biceps tendon was identified, traced to its insertion, and transected. With the forearm supinated, a guide pin was drilled through the radial tuberosity at a 0°, perpendicular to the table. A dorsal incision was used to identify the PIN. The tendon was repaired with a cortical button, ensuring the device lay in line with the radial shaft. The distance from the device to the PIN was measured using digital calipers. This process was repeated with the guide pin aimed at 20° proximal toward the radiocapitellar joint (RCJ) and 30° distal toward the wrist. The data were compared using a Student’s paired t-test.
Results
The average distance from the device to the PIN with the straight posterior insertion was 8.94 mm, 11.86 mm with 20° proximal, and 0.55 mm with 30° distal angles. The distance between the button and the PIN was significantly greater when aiming the device 20° toward the RCJ compared to the straight insertion technique (p = 0.0061).
Conclusions
The distance between the PIN and cortical button can be significantly increased by aiming the guide pin between 0° and 20° proximal toward the RCJ and placing the device in line with the radial shaft.
doi:10.1007/s11552-013-9496-7
PMCID: PMC3652991  PMID: 24426919
Distal biceps; Anatomical study; Elbow surgery; Tendon repair; Posterior interosseous nerve
11.  Clinical Outcomes After Posterior Open Elbow Arthrolysis for Posttraumatic Elbow Stiffness 
Archives of Trauma Research  2014;3(3):e21742.
Background:
Loss of motion is a well-known complication after elbow trauma and in severe cases, arthrolysis of elbow is the procedure of choice. The posterior approach might have some advantages especially in post-traumatic patients who have undergone the same surgical approach in the past.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of elbow arthrolysis through posterior approach. Moreover, we assessed the effect of operation on the patients’ quality of life.
Patients and Methods:
During a retrospective-cohort study, the medical records of 14 patients (12 men, two women) whose range of movement had been limited post-traumatically and had undergone elbow arthrolysis with posterior approach were reviewed. Before intervention, the patients had a flexion less than 100 degrees or an extension lag of 30 degrees or more. For evaluation of the final outcomes, they were invited to participate in our study and the final range of motion, visual analogue score (VAS), disability of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), Mayo elbow score (MES) and short form health survey (SF-36) scores were measured in the patients.
Results:
Mean age of the participants was 28.7 years. The interval from initial injury and arthrolysis was 16 months and the patients were followed for 14 months. The mean range of motion in patients before surgery was 35.8 degrees, which was increased to a mean of 108.9 after the surgery, indicating a 73.1 degrees improvement. The means of VAS, DASH, Mayo elbow and SF-36 scores in the patients were 1.6, 34, 68 and 43, respectively. A significant inverse correlation was found between the preoperative range of motion and final range of motion.
Conclusions:
According to our results, elbow arthrolysis through posterior approach could be an effective technique with low complications. Since the final range of motion improved significantly, it might be a valuable method in promoting the patients’ quality of life.
doi:10.5812/atr.21742
PMCID: PMC4276709  PMID: 25599069
Elbow; Stiffness; Release; DASH
12.  Rupture of the Distal Biceps Tendon Combined with a Supinator Muscle Tear in a 51-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Radiology  2011;2011:515912.
Distal biceps tendon rupture is a relatively uncommon occurrence in the general female population, and to our knowledge, has not been reported in association with a supinator muscle tear. We report a case of 51-year-old woman who experienced sharp pain in her forearm and elbow after lifting a heavy object. History and physical examination raised suspicion for a distal biceps tendon rupture. MRI imaging determined a combined distal biceps tendon tear with a supinator muscle tear with subsequent confirmation at surgery. Surgical repair was performed for the distal biceps tendon only through a single incision approach using the Endobutton technique.
doi:10.1155/2011/515912
PMCID: PMC3350064  PMID: 22606548
13.  Complications after subpectoral biceps tenodesis using a dual suture anchor technique 
Purpose:
A variety of fixation techniques for subpectoral biceps tenodeses have been described including interference screw and suture anchor fixation. Biomechanical data suggests that dual suture anchor fixation has equivalent strength compared to interference screw fixation. The purpose of the study is to determine the early complication rate after subpectoral biceps tenodesis utilizing a dual suture anchor technique.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 103 open subpectoral biceps tenodeses were performed over a 3-year period using a dual suture anchor technique. There were 72 male and 31 female shoulders. The average age at the time of tenodesis was 45.5 years. 41 patients had a minimum of 6 months clinical follow-up (range, 6 to 45 months). The tenodesis was performed for biceps tendonitis, superior labral tears, biceps tendon subluxation, biceps tendon partial tears, and revisions of prior tenodeses.
Results:
There were a total of 7 complications (7%) in the entire group. There were 4 superficial wound infections (4%). There were 2 temporary nerve palsies (2%) resulting from the interscalene block. One patient had persistent numbness of the ear and a second patient had a temporary phrenic nerve palsy resulting in respiratory dysfunction and hospital admission. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism requiring hospital admission and anticoagulation. There were no hematomas, wound dehiscences, peripheral nerve injuries, or ruptures. In the sub-group of patients with a minimum of 6 months clinical follow-up, the only complication was a single wound infection treated with oral antibiotics.
Conclusions:
Subpectoral biceps tenodesis utilizing a dual suture anchor technique has a low early complication rate with no ruptures or deep infections. The complication rate is comparable to those previously reported for interference screw subpectoral tenodesis and should be considered as a reasonable alternative to interference screw fixation.
Level of Evidence:
Level IV-Retrospective Case Series
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.137527
PMCID: PMC4124673  PMID: 25114415
Biceps; complications; subpectoral; tenodesis Key Message: Subpectoral biceps tenodesis utilizing a dual suture anchor technique provides a low early complication rate comparable to previously reported rates for interference screw fixation. These early clinical findings are consistent with biomechanical data supporting that a dual suture anchor subpectoral technique has equivalent initial biomechanical strength compared to an interference screw.
14.  The Biceps Crease Interval for Diagnosing Complete Distal Biceps Tendon Ruptures 
Complete distal biceps tendon ruptures require prompt surgical management for optimal functional and aesthetic outcome. The need exists for a valid and reliable diagnostic tool to expedite surgical referral. We hypothesized complete distal biceps tendon ruptures result in an objectively measurable anatomic landmark (the distance between the antecubital crease of the elbow and the cusp of distal descent of the biceps muscle, or the biceps crease interval), as a result of proximal retraction of the musculotendinous complex. We established normal biceps crease interval values and biceps crease ratios between dominant and nondominant arms in 80 men with no history of biceps injury (average age, 43 years). The mean (± standard deviation) biceps crease interval for dominant and nondominant arms was 4.8 ± 0.6 cm. The mean biceps crease ratio was 1.0 ± 0.1. We measured the biceps crease interval and biceps crease ratio on 29 consecutive patients presenting with a possible complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Using a diagnostic threshold of a biceps crease interval greater than 6.0 cm or biceps crease ratio greater than 1.2, the biceps crease interval test had a sensitivity of 96% and a diagnostic accuracy of 93% for identifying complete distal biceps tendon ruptures, making it a valid and reliable tool for clinicians to identify cases requiring urgent surgical referral.
Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0334-0
PMCID: PMC2492996  PMID: 18551349
15.  Dislocation of the Elbow: A Retrospective Multicentre Study of 86 Patients 
The objective of this retrospective multicentre cohort study was to prospectively assess the long-term functional outcomes of simple and complex elbow dislocations.
We analysed the hospital and outpatient records of 86 patients between 01.03.1999 and 25.02.2009 with an elbow dislocation. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, all patients were re-examined at the outpatient clinic for measurement of different outcomes.
The mean range of motion was ROM 135.5°. The Mayo elbow performance index (MEPI) scored an average of 91.9 (87.5% of the patients were rated excellent or good). The average Quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (Quick- DASH) score was 9.7, the sports/music score 11.5 and work score 6.1. The Oxford function score was 75.7, Oxford pain score 75.2 and Oxford social-psychological score 73.9.
Elbow dislocation is a mild disease and generally, the outcome is excellent. Functional results might improve with early active movements.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004020076
PMCID: PMC2845787  PMID: 20352027
Elbow; elbow joint; injury; dislocations.
16.  A Comparison of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Alone Versus Combined Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Debridement and Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2011;3(3):184-190.
Background
This study compared the results of patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome using an ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) alone with those treated with combined arthroscopic debridement and USO.
Methods
The results of 27 wrists were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: group A (USO alone, 10 cases), group B (combined arthroscopic debridement and USO, 9 cases), and group C (arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex [TFCC] debridement alone, 8 cases). The wrist function was evaluated using the modified Mayo wrist score, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score and Chun and Palmer grading system.
Results
The modified Mayo wrist score in groups A, B, and C was 74.5 ± 8.9, 73.9 ± 11.6, and 61.3 ± 10.2, respectively (p < 0.05). The DASH score in groups A, B, and C was 15.6 ± 11.8, 19.3 ± 11.9, and 33.2 ± 8.5, respectively (p < 0.05). The average Chun and Palmer grading score in groups A and B was 85.7 ± 8.9 and 84.7 ± 6.7, respectively. The difference in the Mayo wrist score, DASH score and Chun and Palmer grading score between group A and B was not significant (p > 0.05).
Conclusions
Both USO alone and combined arthroscopic TFCC debridement with USO improved the wrist function and reduced the level of pain in the patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome. USO alone may be the preferred method of treatment in patients if the torn flap of TFCC is not unstable.
doi:10.4055/cios.2011.3.3.184
PMCID: PMC3162198  PMID: 21909465
Ulnar impaction syndrome; Triangular fibrocartilage complex; Ulnar shortening osteotomy; Arthroscopic debridement
17.  Where to Tenodese the Biceps: Proximal or Distal? 
Background
The best location for biceps tenodesis is controversial as surgeons have begun to question whether tenodesis location affects the incidence of residual bicipital postoperative pain. An open distal tenodesis technique has been previously proposed to eliminate remaining symptoms at the bicipital groove.
Questions/purposes
We asked the following questions: (1) Does a higher tenodesis in the biceps groove result in postoperative pain? And (2) can the tenodesis location be successfully moved more distally (“suprapectoral tenodesis”) by an arthroscopic technique?
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients undergoing arthroscopic biceps tenodesis and evaluated their tenodesis location, either within the upper half of the groove (five) or in the lower half of the groove or shaft (12). Patient outcomes were assessed with visual analog scale scores for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, and Constant-Murley scores. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 28 months; range, 12–69 months).
Results
Two patients had persistent pain at 12 months; both had a tenodesis in the upper half of the groove. The overall American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Constant-Murley scores were improved at latest followup.
Conclusions
Arthroscopic suprapectoral biceps tenodesis represents a new technique for distal tenodesis. Our preliminary observations suggest a more distal tenodesis location may decrease the incidence of persistent postoperative pain at the bicipital groove, although additional research is needed to definitively state whether the proximal location is in fact more painful.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1691-z
PMCID: PMC3048262  PMID: 21107924
18.  Arthroscopy-assisted reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligament by Endobutton fixation for treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation 
Objective
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopy-assisted reconstruction of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament using Endobutton for treating acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation.
Methods
From March 2012 to May 2013, a total of 22 patients with fresh AC joint dislocation (Rockwood type III and type V) were treated with arthroscopy-assisted Endobutton reconstruction of the CC ligament. The regular post-operation follow-up was performed. Shoulder joint function was assessed with Constant–Murley scores. Postoperative efficacy of the surgery was evaluated using the Karlsson criterion.
Results
The 22 patients were followed postoperatively for an average of 24 months (16–31 months). Among them, 20 patients achieved good functional recovery with no pain. Two patients had slight pain in the acromion during shoulder joint motion with limited abduction at 3 months, both of whom had recovered at 6 months. Radiography confirmed anatomical reduction of the AC joint in all patients. At 1 year, the Constant–Murley scores were 93.1 ± 2.4 points on the injured side versus 94.2 ± 2.7 points on the uninjured side. The difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). Postoperative Karlsson evaluation ranked 20 patients (90.9 %) as grade A and 2 as grade B (9.1 %) at the 3-month follow-up. All patients had become grade A at 6 months. None of the patients had brachial plexus or peripheral vascular injuries.
Conclusion
Arthroscopy-assisted reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligament by Endobutton fixation is a safe, easy method for treating AC joint dislocation. It provides reliable fixation, causes little trauma, and has a fast recovery.
doi:10.1007/s00402-014-2117-2
PMCID: PMC4281352  PMID: 25421528
Arthroscopy; Endobutton; Coracoclavicular ligament; Acromioclavicular dislocation; Ligament repair
19.  A functional outcomes survey of elderly patients who sustained distal radius fractures 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2011;6(3):260-267.
Purpose
This study aims to examine the subjective functional outcomes of patients 70 years or older who sustained distal radius fractures through the use of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-8 Health (SF-8) surveys.
Methods
Patients at least 70 years old with a distal radius fracture between 2000 and 2004 were identified and their charts reviewed. They were contacted to answer the DASH and SF-8 surveys. The radiographic injury parameters examined were articular stepoff greater than 2 mm, dorsal tilt on the lateral radiograph, ulnar variance, and presence of an ulnar styloid fracture.
Results
Fifty-eight patients answered the DASH and SF-8 surveys. The mean age at the time of injury in the survey group was 78 years old (range 70–94 years). Mean follow-up period was 33 months (range 13–65 months). Average DASH and SF-8 scores were 22.3 (SD 22.4) and 31.5 (SD 6.9), respectively. DASH scores were inversely correlated with SF-8 scores (R = −0.65, p < 0.01). Patients who sustained an associated ulnar styloid fracture demonstrated worse DASH scores than those without an ulnar styloid fracture (presence of ulnar styloid fracture: mean DASH 26.2, no ulnar styloid fracture: mean DASH 12.9, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in functional outcome for any other radiographic parameters assessed. Males had statistically better DASH scores than the females (males: mean DASH 6.9, females: mean DASH 24.4, p = 0.003). No difference was found in functional outcome scores among different treatment groups.
Conclusion
In elderly patients with distal radius fractures, the only radiographic parameter we found that affects functional outcome is an associated ulnar styloid fracture. Additionally, females had worse functional outcomes than males.
doi:10.1007/s11552-011-9327-7
PMCID: PMC3153622  PMID: 22942849
Functional outcomes; Elderly; Distal radius fractures
20.  Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures 
Background
Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate.
Methods
180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union.
Results
The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74%) had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15%) and in 11 patients were major (6%).
Conclusion
This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-7-4
PMCID: PMC3398340  PMID: 22280557
Distal Radius; Fracture; Internal fixation: functional outcome
21.  Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(4):405-409.
Background
Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score.
Methods
From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score.
Results
In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p < 0.05), and DASH score was improved from 53.2 to 3.45 (p < 0.05). There were no postoperative complications such as subluxation of the tendon of the first dorsal compartment or injury to the sensory branch of the radial nerve.
Conclusions
Intracompartment ganglia and the separate septum of extensor pollicis brevis are often related to de Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity.
doi:10.4055/cios.2014.6.4.405
PMCID: PMC4233219  PMID: 25436064
De Quervain disease; Tenosynovitis; Surgery; Function; Disability evaluation
22.  Anatomic reconstruction of the radioulnar ligament 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2012;7(4):413-419.
Introduction
Twenty-five patients (19 males and six females) were included in the study based on: chronic symptoms of distal radioulnar joint instability, demonstrable instability on examination, MRI evidence of radioulnar ligament deficiency, and arthroscopic findings of foveal disruption of the radioulnar ligament.
Materials and Methods
Exclusion criteria were: distal radius malunion, congenital malformation of the sigmoid notch, DRUJ arthritis, and less than 24 months minimum follow-up. Mean age was 35 years old with a mean interval from injury to surgery of 5 months. Surgery began with arthroscopic confirmation of the chronic foveal detachment followed by open reconstruction of the radioulnar ligament using the palmaris longus tendon. The specific method employed three drill tunnels corresponding to the true anatomic points of attachment of the radioulnar ligament. Patients were examined post-operatively at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months.
Results and Discussion
Final evaluation averaged 51 (±14) months following surgery. Measures obtained before and after treatment included: wrist range of motion, forearm range of motion, grip strength, examination findings of distal radioulnar joint instability, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. Pre-operative and post-operative measures were compared using the paired Student’s t test, accepting a p value of 0.05 as statistically significant. All patients healed the reconstruction without major complications and demonstrated distal radioulnar joint stability at the 6-week examination. Mean ranges of motion, in degrees, pre-/post-operative were: wrist flexion 53 (±13)/61 (±10), wrist extension 53 (±13)/62 (±15), supination 65 (±12)/74 (±7), and pronation 66 (±11)/71 (±8). Grip strengths expressed as % contralateral pre-/post-operative were: 57 (±23)/79 (±25). The differences in these measures were not found to be statistically significant. The mean pre-/post-operative DASH scores were: 62 (±16)/7 (±3). This difference was found to be statistically significant.
Conclusion
Reconstruction of the RUL with a free palmaris longus tendon graft using the truly anatomic points of original RUL attachment at both the ulna and radius restored DRUJ stability and improved DASH scores without limiting forearm or wrist motion.
doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9456-7
PMCID: PMC3508011  PMID: 24294162
DRUJ; Radioulnar ligament; Reconstruction
23.  The application of central tension plate with sharp hook in the treatment of intra-articular olecranon fracture 
Background
Standard plate fixation can be used to treat intraarticular olecranon fractures with satisfactory functional recovery, but its use is accompanied by implant related complications. This retrospective study reports on the functional outcome of intraarticular olecranon fractures treated with a central tension plate with sharp hook.
Methods
A retrospective review of any patient with an olecranon fracture from August 2007 to December 2008 was conducted. Patients were considered for inclusion in the study if they were treated surgically with a central tension plate with sharp hook. Patients with pathological fractures or previous fractures of the proximal ulna were excluded. The quality of reduction was evaluated using postoperative imaging. The functional recoveries of the affected upper limbs were evaluated postoperatively at regular intervals using the Mayo Elbow Performance (MEP) score and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH).
Results
Twenty six patients met the study criteria and were included in analysis. There were ten Type IIA, nine Type IIB, four Type IIIA and three Type IIIB fractures according to the Mayo classification system. Thirteen patients exhibited other concomitant fractures at the time of surgery: one patient with a coronoid fracture, two with a fracture of the radial head, and ten with fractures in other bones. Postoperative radiographic assessment revealed an anatomical or nearly anatomical reduction of all olecranon fractures treated. All olecranon fractures healed at an average of 14 weeks (range, 9 to 32 weeks). The patients were followed up for 42 months (range, 32 to 54 months). The mean DASH score was 8.5 (range, 0 to 31.7). The mean MEP score was 93.6 (range, 75 to 100). Based on the MEP score, all patients achieved good or excellent outcomes. No symptomatic plate removal was performed at the time of last follow-up.
Conclusion
The central tension plate with sharp hook closely contours to the osteology of the proximal ulna. Treating intra-articular olecranon fracture with this new plate can achieve good to excellent functional outcome with a high union rate and a low incidence of hardware related complications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-308
PMCID: PMC4231343  PMID: 24161080
Olecranon; Fracture; Plate fixation; Central tension plate
24.  A Simple Grafting Method to Repair Irreparable Distal Biceps Tendon 
Irreparable distal biceps tendon tears typically are treated using a free tendon graft. We asked whether our new method to fix the graft—using two suture anchors—yields similar results to our previous bone canal method. We compared the two methods for strength, endurance, and clinical findings. There were two groups, the suture anchor group (Group A, seven patients) and the bone canal group operated on before suture anchors (Group B, seven patients). The patients were males with a mean age at surgery of 44.9 years. The operative delay from primary trauma to index surgery averaged 5.9 months. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 11.1 years; range, 2–23 years). The mean arc of elbow motion was 0° to 132°, pronation 83°, and supination 80°. Compared with the contralateral side, the maximal peak torque was 84% in supination and 91% in pronation, and the maximal static elbow flexion strength was 94%. The Mayo elbow score averaged 99 in Group A and 100 in Group B. There were no major differences between the two groups. Our novel modification to fix a tendon graft yields equal clinical outcomes compared with the bone canal method for treatment of irreparable distal biceps tendon injuries.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0389-y
PMCID: PMC2584289  PMID: 18636303
25.  Post-traumatic distal humerus non-union 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(5):1289-1294.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-term functional results achieved after open reduction and internal fixation of 24 distal humerus non-unions. Non-unions were extra-articular-extracapsular (11 cases), extra-articular-intracapsular (8 cases) and intra-articular (5 cases). Preoperative elbow range of motion averaged 45°. Time between original trauma and revision surgery averaged 14 months. Stabilisation methods varied according to type and location of the non-union. Follow-up averaged 46 months (range: 18–108). Elbow range of motion at last examination averaged 98°. Flexion averaged 110° and extension loss averaged 17°. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score averaged 16 points. Secondary transposition of the ulnar nerve was necessary in three cases. Sixteen patients reported no pain at last examination, seven had mild pain and one had moderate pain. Distal humerus non-unions present different characteristics; consequently, surgical treatment must be individualised for each patient. Even though they are demanding procedures, bony union and good long-term functional results were achieved.
doi:10.1007/s00264-008-0650-8
PMCID: PMC2899129  PMID: 18751978

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