The number of online databases and web-tools for gene expression analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana has increased tremendously during the last years. These resources permit the database-assisted identification of putative cis-regulatory DNA sequences, their binding proteins, and the determination of common cis-regulatory motifs in coregulated genes. DNA binding proteins may be predicted by the type of cis-regulatory motif. Further questions of combinatorial control based on the interaction of DNA binding proteins and the colocalization of cis-regulatory motifs can be addressed. The database-assisted spatial and temporal expression analysis of DNA binding proteins and their target genes may help to further refine experimental approaches. Signal transduction pathways upstream of regulated genes are not yet fully accessible in databases mainly because they need to be manually annotated. This review focuses on the use of the AthaMap and PathoPlant® databases for gene expression regulation analysis and discusses similar and complementary online databases and web-tools. Online databases are helpful for the development of working hypothesis and for designing subsequent experiments.
Bioinformatics; databases; gene expression; plants; transcription; web-server.
A common feature of plant defense responses is the transcriptional regulation of a large number of genes upon pathogen infection or treatment with pathogen elicitors. A large body of evidence suggests that plant WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant defense including transcriptional regulation of plant host genes in response to pathogen infection. However, there is only limited information about the roles of specific WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors in plant defense.
We analyzed the role of the WRKY25 transcription factor from Arabidopsis in plant defense against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. WRKY25 protein recognizes the TTGACC W-box sequences and its translational fusion with green fluorescent protein is localized to the nucleus. WRKY25 expression is responsive to general environmental stress. Analysis of stress-induced WRKY25 in the defense signaling mutants npr1, sid2, ein2 and coi1 further indicated that this gene is positively regulated by the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway and negatively regulated by the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY25 supported normal growth of a virulent strain of P. syringae but developed reduced disease symptoms after infection. By contrast, Arabidopsis constitutively overexpressing WRKY25 supported enhanced growth of P. syringae and displayed increased disease symptom severity as compared to wild-type plants. These WRKY25-overexpressing plants also displayed reduced expression of the SA-regulated PR1 gene after the pathogen infection, despite normal levels of free SA.
The nuclear localization and sequence-specific DNA-binding activity support that WRKY25 functions as a transcription factor. Based on analysis of both T-DNA insertion mutants and transgenic overexpression lines, stress-induced WRKY25 functions as a negative regulator of SA-mediated defense responses to P. syringae. This proposed role is consistent with the recent finding that WRKY25 is a substrate of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4, a repressor of SA-dependent defense responses.
The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime.
Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens.
Plant hormones play an important role in many aspects of a plant's life cycle, from the regulation of development to responses to constantly changing environmental conditions. In the past decade, the importance of hormones in plant immunity against a variety of pathogens has been uncovered. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana components of the signaling system of the plant hormone cytokinin also mediate plant immunity. We demonstrate that this involves the type-A class of Arabidopsis response regulators in a process that occurs downstream of the plant defense hormone salicylic acid and involves a host two-component phosphorelay. Moreover, we show that the levels of cytokinin are important in determining the amplitude of plant immunity, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Finally, our results indicate that salicylic acid negatively regulates cytokinin signaling, which may serve to fine-tune the effects of cytokinin in plant immunity. Given the high energy costs of defense responses and the role of cytokinins in carbon partitioning and energy allocation, we hypothesize that the mechanisms uncovered here may help regulate the levels of energy that can be allocated into defense responses, an important aspect in the biology of plants.
Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.
We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae.
Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former suppressing and the latter activating Arabidopsis defense responses.
In response to pathogen attack, grapevine synthesizes phytoalexins belonging to the family of stilbenes. Grapevine cell cultures represent a good model system for studying the basic mechanisms of plant response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Among these, modified β-cyclodextrins seem to act as true elicitors inducing strong production of the stilbene resveratrol.
The transcriptome changes of Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri grapevine cells in response to the modified β-cyclodextrin, DIMEB, were analyzed 2 and 6 h after treatment using a suppression subtractive hybridization experiment and a microarray analysis respectively. At both time points, we identified a specific set of induced genes belonging to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, including stilbenes and hydroxycinnamates, and to defence proteins such as PR proteins and chitinases. At 6 h we also observed a down-regulation of the genes involved in cell division and cell-wall loosening.
We report the first large-scale study of the molecular effects of DIMEB, a resveratrol inducer, on grapevine cell cultures. This molecule seems to mimic a defence elicitor which enhances the physical barriers of the cell, stops cell division and induces phytoalexin synthesis.
Microarray technology helped to accumulate an immense pool of data on gene expression changes in response to different environmental factors. Yet, computer- generated gene profiling using expressed sequence tags (EST) represents a valuable alternative to microarrays, which allows efficient discovery of homologous sequences in evolutionarily different species and comparison of gene sets on the whole genome scale. In this study, we used publicly available EST database derived from different plant species infected with a variety of pathogens, to generate an expression profile of homologous genes involved in defense response of a model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana.
EST-driven prediction identified 4,935 genes (16% of the total Arabidopsis genome) which, according to the origin of EST sets, were associated with defense responses in the reference genome. Profiles of defense-related genes, obtained by mapping of heterologous EST, represent putative Arabidopsis homologs of the corresponding species. Comparison of these profiles in pairs and locating common genes allowed estimating similarity between defense-related gene sets of different plant species. To experimentally support computer data, we arbitrarily selected a number of transcription factor genes (TF) detected by EST mapping. Their expression levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction during infection with yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus, a compatible virus systemically infecting Arabidopsis. We observed that 65% of the designated TF were upregulated in accordance with the EST-generated profile.
We demonstrated that heterologous EST mapping may be efficiently used to reveal genes involved in host defense responses to pathogens. Upregulated genes identified in this study substantially overlap with those previously obtained by microarrays.
At the moment, there are a number of publications describing gene expression profiling in virus-infected plants. Most of the data are limited to specific host-pathogen interactions involving a given virus and a model host plant – usually Arabidopsis thaliana. Even though several summarizing attempts have been made, a general picture of gene expression changes in susceptible virus-host interactions is lacking.
To analyze transcriptome response to virus infection, we have assembled currently available microarray data on changes in gene expression levels in compatible Arabidopsis-virus interactions. We used the mean r (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) for neighboring pairs to estimate pairwise local similarity in expression in the Arabidopsis genome.
Here we provide a functional classification of genes with altered expression levels. We also demonstrate that responsive genes may be grouped or clustered based on their co-expression pattern and chromosomal location.
In summary, we found that there is a greater variety of upregulated genes in the course of viral pathogenesis as compared to repressed genes. Distribution of the responsive genes in combined viral databases differed from that of the whole Arabidopsis genome, thus underlining a role of the specific biological processes in common mechanisms of general resistance against viruses and in physiological/cellular changes caused by infection. Using integrative platforms for the analysis of gene expression data and functional profiling, we identified overrepresented functional groups among activated and repressed genes. Each virus-host interaction is unique in terms of the genes with altered expression levels and the number of shared genes affected by all viruses is very limited. At the same time, common genes can participate in virus-, fungi- and bacteria-host interaction. According to our data, non-homologous genes that are located in close proximity to each other on the chromosomes, and whose expression profiles are modified as a result of the viral infection, occupy 12% of the genome. Among them 5% form co-expressed and co-regulated clusters.
Arabidopsis; Response to virus infection; Microarray; Co-expressed clusters
Plants have evolved a broad array of defense mechanisms involved in disease resistance. These include synthesis of phytoalexin antibiotics and proteinase inhibitors, deposition of cell wall materials, and accumulation of hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases. Resistance appears to depend on the ability of the host to recognize the pathogen rapidly and induce these defense responses in order to limit pathogen spread. Application of molecular technologies has yielded significant new information on mechanisms involved in pathogen recognition, signal transduction, and defense-related gene activation, and is leading to novel strategies for engineering enhanced disease resistance. We are using these approaches to analyze regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR), a key enzyme mediating the production of terpenoid defense compounds. This enzyme is encoded by four genes in tomato; hmg2 gene expression is specifically associated with responses to pathogen or defense elicitors. Transgenic plants containing DNA constructs that fuse the hmg2 promoter to a reporter gene have been used to analyze both tissue specificity and patterns of defense-related expression. Because this gene is rapidly induced in tissues directly surrounding the site of ingress by a variety of pathogens, it may serve as a valuable tool in engineering new disease-resistance mechanisms.
disease interaction; gene expression; phytoalexin
Recognition of pathogenic microorganisms triggers in plants comprehensive transcriptional reprogramming. In order to identify transcriptome-level control elements required for plant immune responses we are examining several sets of genes found by microarray experiments to be co-activated in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings infected with the oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica. Promoter motifs conserved in clusters of co-expressed genes may be involved in mediating coordinated gene activity patterns. Although numerous studies identified such conserved promoter motifs in co-expressed gene sets, reports confirming their function as regulatory elements are rare.
FORCA is a hexameric promoter motif that is conserved in clusters of Arabidopsis genes co-expressed in response to fungal or oomycete pathogens as well as defined light treatments. FORCA is generally more frequently present in Arabidopsis promoter regions than statistically expected. It constitutively interacts in a DNA-sequence specific manner with nuclear Arabidopsis proteins. These interactions are suppressed by defense-related stimuli and enhanced by prolonged exposure to constant light. Furthermore FORCA mediates constitutive reporter gene expression in transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves as well as in stably transformed Arabidopsis plants. Its responsiveness to defense-stimuli is modulated by the duration of light exposure. In plants grown under normal light conditions or constant darkness defense-related stimuli result in suppression of FORCA-mediated reporter gene expression, while in plants grown under constant light exposure, defense-induction results in enhanced FORCA-mediated expression. In addition, we found plants subjected to constant light exposure to exhibit reduced susceptibility to virulent H. parasitica.
We propose that FORCA is a regulatory cis-element that is present in a wide variety of Arabidopsis promoters. It integrates light- and defense-related signals and participates in adjusting the transcriptome to changes in environmental conditions.
When plants are under insect herbivore attack defensive measures are activated not only locally, but also in distant and systemic tissues. While insect elicitors (IE) abundant in the oral secretions of the attacking herbivore are essential in the regulation of induced defenses, little is known about their effects on systemic defense signaling in maize (Zea mays). The goal of this study was therefore to identify genetic markers that can be used to further characterize local and systemic signaling events induced by IE or mechanical wounding (MW). We selected genes for this study based on their putative involvement in signaling (allene oxide synthase), regulation of gene expression (transcription factor MYC7), and in direct defenses (ribosome inactivating protein) and analyzed their expression in different sections of the treated leaf as well as in systemic parts of the same plant. We found the most significant transcript accumulation of the selected genes after treatment with insect elicitors in those parts with increased JA levels. Additionally, treatment with IE did also induce the accumulation of MYC7 transcripts in basal parts of the treated leaf and systemically. MW, in contrast, did induce RIP and AOS only locally, but not MYC7. This local suppression of MYC7 was further studied by adding glutathione (GSH) as an electron donor to MW plants to quench putative α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, which build up to significant levels around the damage site. Indeed, GSH-treated MW plants accumulated MYC7 at the damage site and also produced more volatiles, suggesting a putative redox-regulatory element being involved in the suppression of MYC7. The results presented herein provide evidence for the specific induction of distant signaling events triggered by IE, most likely through electric signaling. Additionally, a putative role for MW-induced α, β-unsaturated carbonyls in the transcriptional regulation of defense genes was discovered.
High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis.
An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: PSCR::GFP (endodermis) and PWOX5::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution.
FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time.
This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce cell types (e.g. quiescent center cells). Lastly, a growth setup for Arabidopsis seedlings is demonstrated that enables uncomplicated treatment of the plants prior to cell sorting (e.g. for the cell type-specific analysis of biotic or abiotic stress responses). Potential supplementary uses for FACS of plant protoplasts are discussed.
FACS; plant protoplasts; GFP; cell type-specific; Arabidopsis thaliana; roots
The cell death which characterizes the onset of the Hypersensitive Response (HR) is a very important weapon evolved by plants to block pathogen development. By the use of numerous plant/avirulent pathogen or plant/elicitor models, we have now obtained detailed signalling pathways allowing, after pathogen or elicitor perception, the control of the expression of specific sets of genes that contribute to cell death. However, our knowledge of the molecular actors involved in this process still remains limited. This is particularly true when regarding what happen in the nucleus. We recently reported that nuclear post-translational protein modifications are major processes that control cell death. Using the tobacco / cryptogein model, we showed that type 2 histone deacetylase activities, which act as negative regulators of cell death, depend on their phosphorylation status. In the present paper, we integrated all these results to propose a model depicting the putative nuclear signalling pathways controlling the establishment of cell death in tobacco in response to the cryptogein elicitor. This model highlights the role of the nuclear protein acetylation and phosphorylation in the establishment of plant defences.
Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees.
Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection.
Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in infected peach fruits. These field studies can help to fully understand plant-pathogen interactions and to develop appropriate crop protection strategies.
Prunus persica; Microarray; Mixed infections; Response to virus; Viroids; Synergistic effect
Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway.
Hormone crosstalk; Jasmonic acid; Plant defense; Salicylic acid
In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime) and after (ISR-boost) additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance toward secondary infections. Treatment with T. hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime), resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against B. cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the B. cinerea induced defense response. Microarray results were validated for representative genes by qRT-PCR. The involvement of various defense-related pathways was confirmed by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in these pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach. Combined with additional anthocyanin analysis data these results all point to the involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in T. hamatum T382-induced ISR.
induced systemic resistance; microarrays; Arabidopsis thaliana; Trichoderma hamatum T382; Botrytis cinerea
Experimental infections of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with genomically characterized plant pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae have facilitated dissection of canonical eukaryotic defense pathways and parasite virulence factors. Plants are also attacked by herbivorous insects, and the development of an ecologically relevant genetic model herbivore that feeds on Arabidopsis will enable the parallel dissection of host defense and reciprocal resistance pathways such as those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. An ideal candidate is Scaptomyza flava, a drosophilid fly whose leafmining larvae are true herbivores that can be found in nature feeding on Arabidopsis and other crucifers. Here we describe the eukaryotic life cycle of S. flava on Arabidopsis, and use multiple approaches to characterize the response of Arabidopsis to S. flava attack. Oviposition choice tests and growth performance assays on different Arabidopsis ecotypes, defense-related mutants, and hormone and chitin-treated plants revealed significant differences in host preference and variation in larval performance across Arabidopsis accessions. The jasmonate (JA) and glucosinolate pathways in Arabidopsis are important in mediating quantitative resistance against S. flava, and priming with JA or chitin resulted in increased resistance. Expression of xenobiotic detoxification genes was reduced in S. flava larvae reared on Arabidopsis JA signaling mutants, and increased in plants pre-treated with chitin. These results and future research directions are discussed in the context of developing a genetic model system to analyze insect/plant interactions.
Arabidopsis; Drosophila; gene expression; herbivory; jasmonate; model system
Recent studies have suggested that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce nitric oxide (NO) production and defense gene expression in plants. Our current work investigated the signaling mechanism of NO and the role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) in LPS-induced innate immunity of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We have provided evidence that LPS-elicited NO generation as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities capable of maintaining the redox state could be important to protect plants against oxidative damage from pathogen attack. In addition, LPS-activated defense responses, including callose deposition and defense-related gene expression, are regulated through an NPR1-dependent signaling pathway. Our results contribute to elucidation of the signaling mechanism of NO and highlight an important role of NPR1 in modulating LPS-triggered innate immunity in plants. However, further research is necessary to clarify the cross-talk between mitochondria and NO on activating LPS-induced defense responses, and the regulatory mechanism of NO in LPS-induced innate immunity needs further improvement.
nitric oxide; lipopolysaccharides; NPR1; nitric oxide synthase; plant innate immunity; priming
Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China virus spreads together with its invasive vector, the silverleaf whitefly B biotype, which exhibits higher growth rates on infected plants. Previous studies indicate that the virus satellite gene βC1 accounts for the visible symptoms of infection and inhibits the constitutive expression of jasmonic acid (JA)—a phytohormone involved in plant defense against whiteflies—and of some JA-regulated genes. Here we present new details of the effects of on plant signaling and defense, obtained with (non-host) transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that JA induction in response to wounding was reduced in plants expressing βC1. This result implies that βC1 acts on conserved plant regulation mechanisms and might impair the entire JA defense pathway. Furthermore, transformed N. benthamiana plants exhibited elevated emissions of the volatile compound linalool, suggesting that βC1 also influences plant-derived olfactory cues available to vector and non-vector insects.
Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus; Arabidopsis thaliana; Nicotiana benthamiana; phytohormone signaling; olfactory cues
The expressions of proteins in the cell are carefully regulated by transcription factors that interact with their downstream targets in specific signal transduction cascades. Our understanding
of the regulation of functional genes responsive to stress signals is still nascent. Plants like Arabidopsis thaliana, are convenient model systems to study fundamental questions related to regulation
of the stress transcriptome in response to stress challenges. Microarray results of the Arabidopsis transcriptome indicate that several genes could be upregulated during multiple stresses, such as cold,
salinity, drought etc. Experimental biochemical validations have proved the involvement of several transcription factors could be involved in the upregulation of these stress responsive genes. In order to
follow the intricate and complicated networks of transcription factors and genes that respond to stress situations in plants, we have developed a computer algorithm that can identify key transcription factor
binding sites upstream of a gene of interest. Hidden Markov models of the transcription factor binding sites enable the identification of predicted sites upstream of plant stress genes. The search algorithm,
STIF, performs very well, with more than 90% sensitivity, when tested on experimentally validated positions of transcription factor binding sites on a dataset of 60 stress upregulated genes.
Supplementary data is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/download/stif.
transcription factor binding site prediction; gene regulation; stress genes; Arabidopsis thaliana; HMM based algorithm
One of the strategies that plants employ to defend themselves against herbivore attack is the induced production of carnivore-attracting volatiles. Using elicitors and inhibitors of different steps of the signal-transduction pathways can improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying induced plant defenses. For instance, we recently showed that application of jasmonic acid, a key hormone in the octadecanoid pathway involved in herbivore-induced defense, to Brassica oleracea affects gene expression, hormone levels, and volatile emission, as well as oviposition by herbivores and host location behavior by parasitoids. Such defense responses vary with the dose of the elicitor and with time since application. This addendum describes how the use of inhibitors, in addition to the use of elicitors like jasmonic acid, can be applied in bio-assays to investigate the role of signal-transduction pathways involved in induced plant defense. We show how inhibition of different steps of the octadecanoid pathway affects host location behavior by parasitoids.
Brassica oleracea; Cotesia glomerata; elicitor; herbivore-induced plant defense; inhibitor; jasmonic acid; octadecanoid pathway; phenidone; propyl gallate; diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA)
The plant cell cuticle serves as the first barrier protecting plants from mechanical injury and invading pathogens. The cuticle can be breached by cutinase-producing pathogens and the degradation products may activate pathogenesis signals in the invading pathogens. Cuticle degradation products may also trigger the plant’s defense responses. Botrytis cinerea is an important plant pathogen, capable of attacking and causing disease in a wide range of plant species. Arabidopsis thaliana shn1-1D is a gain-of-function mutant, which has a modified cuticular lipid composition. We used this mutant to examine the effect of altering the whole-cuticle metabolic pathway on plant responses to B. cinerea attack. Following infection with B. cinerea, the shn1-1D mutant discolored more quickly, accumulated more H2O2, and showed accelerated cell death relative to wild-type (WT) plants. Whole transcriptome analysis of B. cinerea-inoculated shn1-1D vs. WT plants revealed marked upregulation of genes associated with senescence, oxidative stress and defense responses on the one hand, and genes involved in the magnitude of defense-response control on the other. We propose that altered cutin monomer content and composition of shn1-1D plants triggers excessive reactive oxygen species accumulation and release which leads to a strong, unique and uncontrollable defense response, resulting in plant sensitivity and death.
Plant genomes contain several hundred defensin-like (DEFL) genes that encode short cysteine-rich proteins resembling defensins, which are well known antimicrobial polypeptides. Little is known about the expression patterns or functions of many DEFLs because most were discovered recently and hence are not well represented on standard microarrays. We designed a custom Affymetrix chip consisting of probe sets for 317 and 684 DEFLs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, respectively for cataloging DEFL expression in a variety of plant organs at different developmental stages and during symbiotic and pathogenic associations. The microarray analysis provided evidence for the transcription of 71% and 90% of the DEFLs identified in Arabidopsis and Medicago, respectively, including many of the recently annotated DEFL genes that previously lacked expression information. Both model plants contain a subset of DEFLs specifically expressed in seeds or fruits. A few DEFLs, including some plant defensins, were significantly up-regulated in Arabidopsis leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Among these, some were dependent on jasmonic acid signaling or were associated with specific types of immune responses. There were notable differences in DEFL gene expression patterns between Arabidopsis and Medicago, as the majority of Arabidopsis DEFLs were expressed in inflorescences, while only a few exhibited root-enhanced expression. By contrast, Medicago DEFLs were most prominently expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Thus, our data document salient differences in DEFL temporal and spatial expression between Arabidopsis and Medicago, suggesting distinct signaling routes and distinct roles for these proteins in the two plant species.
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) in plants are a large superfamily of proteins that are structurally similar. RLKs are involved in a diverse array of plant responses including development, growth, hormone perception and the response to pathogens. Current studies have focused attention on plant receptor-like kinases as an important class of sentinels acting in plant defense responses. RLKs have been identified that act in both broad-spectrum, elicitor-initiated defense responses and as dominant resistance (R) genes in race-specific pathogen defense. Most defense-related RLKs are of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) subclass although new data are highlighting other classes of RLKs as important players in defense responses. As our understanding of RLK structure, activation and signaling has expanded, the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the regulation of these receptors has emerged as a central theme.
plant defense; receptor-like kinase; ubiquitin; E3 ligase; disease resistance; elicitors
In Arabidopsis the stomatal defense response, a feature of the innate immunity in plants, involves oxylipin-mediated mechanisms that are independent of the phytohormone abscisic acid.
Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion and abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to regulate this process. Using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that (i) the Arabidopsis thaliana nine-specific-lipoxygenase encoding gene, LOX1, which is expressed in guard cells, is required to trigger stomatal closure in response to both bacteria and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide flg22; (ii) LOX1 participates in stomatal defense; (iii) polyunsaturated fatty acids, the LOX substrates, trigger stomatal closure; (iv) the LOX products, fatty acid hydroperoxides, or reactive electrophile oxylipins induce stomatal closure; and (v) the flg22-mediated stomatal closure is conveyed by both LOX1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and involves salicylic acid whereas the ABA-induced process depends on the protein kinases OST1, MPK9, or MPK12. Finally, we show that the oxylipin and the ABA pathways converge at the level of the anion channel SLAC1 to regulate stomatal closure. Collectively, our results demonstrate that early biotic signaling in guard cells is an ABA-independent process revealing a novel function of LOX1-dependent stomatal pathway in plant immunity.
Stomata are microscopic pores that are present in the epidermis of the aerial parts of higher plants, such as the leaves. These pores, which are flanked by a pair of cells called guard cells, regulate transpiration and the exchange of gas between leaves and the atmosphere. It is well documented that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator that controls the osmotic pressure in guard cells, allowing pore size to be adjusted in response to environmental conditions. Recently, stomata have also been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response. Indeed, upon contact with microbes, plants actively close stomata to prevent the entry of microbes and the consequent colonization of host tissue. This response is known as the stomatal defense response. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this defense response are not well understood. Using a variety of approaches, we show in this study that LOX1, a gene that encodes lipoxygenase (LOX) in guard cells, plays a major role in stomatal defense in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in LOX1 impair stomatal closure and make plants more susceptible to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We also show that several LOX-derived metabolites, the oxylipins, are potent inducers of stomatal closure. Finally, we provide evidence to show that ABA plays only a minor role in stomatal defense response, specifically by modulating this response.