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1.  Diffuse optical monitoring of repeated cerebral ischemia in mice 
Optics Express  2011;19(21):20301-20315.
Occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries (bi-CCA) in mice are popular models for the investigation of transient forebrain ischemia. Currently available technologies for assessing cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation in ischemic mice have limitations. This study tests a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter for monitoring both CBF and cerebral oxygenation in mice undergoing repeated transient forebrain ischemia. Concurrent flow measurements in a mouse brain were first conducted for validation purposes; DCS measurement was found highly correlated with laser Doppler measurement (R2 = 0.94) and less susceptible to motion artifacts. With unique designs in experimental protocols and fiber-optic probes, we have demonstrated high sensitivities of DCS flow-oximeter in detecting the regional heterogeneity of CBF responses in different hemispheres and global changes of both CBF and cerebral oxygenation across two hemispheres in mice undergoing repeated 2-minute bi-CCA occlusions over 5 days. More than 75% CBF reductions were found during bi-CCA occlusions in mice, which may be considered as a threshold to determine a successful bi-CCA occlusion. With the progress of repeated 2-minute bi-CCA occlusions over days, a longitudinal decline in the magnitudes of CBF reduction was observed, indicating the brain adaptation to cerebral ischemia through the repeated preconditioning.
PMCID: PMC3495871  PMID: 21997041
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.6480) Spectroscopy, speckle
2.  Measuring tumor cycling hypoxia and angiogenesis using a side-firing fiber optic probe 
Journal of biophotonics  2012;10.1002/jbio.201200187.
Hypoxia and angiogenesis can significantly influence the efficacy of cancer therapy and the behavior of surviving tumor cells. There is a growing demand for technologies to measure tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis temporally in vivo to enable advances in drug development and optimization. This paper reports the use of frequency-domain photon migration with a side-firing probe to quantify tumor oxygenation and hemoglobin concentrations in nude rats bearing human head/neck tumors administered with carbogen gas, cycling hypoxic gas or just room air. Significant increase (with carbogen gas breathing) or decrease (with hypoxic gas breathing) in tumor oxygenation was observed. The trend in tumor oxygenation during forced cycling hypoxia (CH) followed that of the blood oxygenation measured with a pulse oximeter. Natural CH was also observed in rats under room air. The studies demonstrated the potential of the technology for longitudinal monitoring of tumor CH during tumor growth or in response to therapy.
A flat side-firing fiber optic probe based on frequency-domain photon migration can be easily and reliably attached to a tumor surface for longitudinal monitoring of tumor cycling hypoxia and angiogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3702687  PMID: 23242854
Diffuse optical spectroscopy; fiber optic sensor; tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis; cancer therapy
3.  Advanced Pulse Oximetry System for Remote Monitoring and Management 
Pulse oximetry data such as saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) and pulse rate are vital signals for early diagnosis of heart disease. Therefore, various pulse oximeters have been developed continuously. However, some of the existing pulse oximeters are not equipped with communication capabilities, and consequently, the continuous monitoring of patient health is restricted. Moreover, even though certain oximeters have been built as network models, they focus on exchanging only pulse oximetry data, and they do not provide sufficient device management functions. In this paper, we propose an advanced pulse oximetry system for remote monitoring and management. The system consists of a networked pulse oximeter and a personal monitoring server. The proposed pulse oximeter measures a patient's pulse oximetry data and transmits the data to the personal monitoring server. The personal monitoring server then analyzes the received data and displays the results to the patient. Furthermore, for device management purposes, operational errors that occur in the pulse oximeter are reported to the personal monitoring server, and the system configurations of the pulse oximeter, such as thresholds and measurement targets, are modified by the server. We verify that the proposed pulse oximetry system operates efficiently and that it is appropriate for monitoring and managing a pulse oximeter in real time.
PMCID: PMC3424223  PMID: 22933841
4.  Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements 
Biomedical Optics Express  2011;2(7):1969-1985.
In this study we evaluate the influences of optical property assumptions on near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow index measurements. The optical properties, absorption coefficient (µa) and reduced scattering coefficient (µs′), are independently varied using liquid phantoms and measured concurrently with the flow index using a hybrid optical system combining a dual-wavelength DCS flow device with a commercial frequency-domain tissue-oximeter. DCS flow indices are calculated at two wavelengths (785 and 830 nm) using measured µa and µs′ or assumed constant µa and µs′. Inaccurate µs′ assumptions resulted in much greater flow index errors than inaccurate µa. Underestimated/overestimated µs′ from −35%/+175% lead to flow index errors of +110%/−80%, whereas underestimated/overestimated µa from −40%/+150% lead to −20%/+40%, regardless of the wavelengths used. Examination of a clinical study involving human head and neck tumors indicates up to +280% flow index errors resulted from inter-patient optical property variations. These findings suggest that studies involving significant µa and µs′ changes should concurrently measure flow index and optical properties for accurate extraction of blood flow information.
PMCID: PMC3130582  PMID: 21750773
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.6480) Spectroscopy, speckle
5.  Avoiding hyperoxemia during neonatal resuscitation: time to response of different SpO2 monitors 
To assess the time to obtain reliable oxygen saturation readings by different pulse oximeters during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room or NICU.
Prospective study comparing three different pulse oximeters: Masimo Radical-7 compared simultaneously with Ohmeda Biox 3700 or with Nellcor N395, in newborn infants who required resuscitation. Members of the research team placed the sensors for each of the pulse oximeters being compared simultaneously, one sensor on each foot of the same baby. Care provided routinely, without interference by the research team. The time elapsed until a reliable SpO2 was obtained was recorded using a digital chronometer. Statistical comparisons included chi-square and student's T-test.
Thirty-two infants were enrolled; median gestational age 32 weeks. Seventeen paired measurements were made with the Radical-7 and Biox 3700; mean time to a stable reading was 20.2 ± 7 sec for the Radical-7 and 74.2 ± 12 sec for the Biox 3700 (p = 0.02). The Radical-7 and the N- 395 were paired on 15 infants; the times to obtain a stable reading were 20.9 ± 4 sec and 67.3 ± 12 sec, respectively (p = 0.03).
The time to a reliable reading obtained simultaneously in neonatal critical situations differs by the type of the pulse oximeter used, being significantly faster with Masimo Signal Extraction Technology. This may permit for better adjustments of inspired oxygen, aiding in the prevention of damage caused by unnecessary exposure to high or low oxygen.
PMCID: PMC3085071  PMID: 21091987
Neonatal Resuscitation; Newborn; Oxygen saturation
6.  A comparative study between the imaging system and the optical tracking system in proton therapy at CNAO 
Journal of Radiation Research  2013;54(Suppl 1):i129-i135.
The synergy between in-room imaging and optical tracking, in co-operation with highly accurate robotic patient handling represents a concept for patient-set-up which has been implemented at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica). In-room imaging is based on a double oblique X-ray projection system; optical tracking consists of the detection of the position of spherical markers placed directly on the patient's skin or on the immobilization devices. These markers are used as external fiducials during patient positioning and dose delivery. This study reports the results of a comparative analysis between in-room imaging and optical tracking data for patient positioning within the framework of high-precision particle therapy. Differences between the optical tracking system (OTS) and the imaging system (IS) were on average within the expected localization accuracy. On the first 633 fractions for head and neck (H&N) set-up procedures, the corrections applied by the IS, after patient positioning using the OTS only, were for the mostly sub-millimetric regarding the translations (0.4±1.1 mm) and sub-gradual regarding the rotations (0.0°±0.8°). On the first 236 fractions for pelvis localizations the amplitude of the corrections applied by the IS after preliminary optical set-up correction were moderately higher and more dispersed (translations: 1.3±2.9 mm, rotations 0.1±0.9°). Although the indication of the OTS cannot replace information provided by in-room imaging devices and 2D-3D image registration, the reported data show that OTS preliminary correction might greatly support image-based patient set-up refinement and also provide a secondary, independent verification system for patient positioning.
PMCID: PMC3700512  PMID: 23824116
IGRT; patient positioning; optical tracking system; particle therapy; head and neck; pelvis localizations
7.  Monitoring photobleaching and hemodynamic responses to HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer: a case report 
Optics express  2010;18(14):14969-14978.
We present initial results obtained during the course of a Phase I clinical trial of 2-1[hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH)-mediated photo-dynamic therapy (PDT) in a head and neck cancer patient. We quantified blood flow, oxygenation and HPPH drug photobleaching before and after therapeutic light treatment by utilizing fast, non-invasive diffuse optical methods. Our results showed that HPPH-PDT induced significant drug photobleaching, and reduction in blood flow and oxygenation suggesting significant vascular and cellular reaction. These changes were accompanied by cross-linking of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular measure for the oxidative photoreaction. These preliminary results suggest diffuse optical spectroscopies permit non-invasive monitoring of PDT in clinical settings of head and neck cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC2964147  PMID: 20639983
8.  Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings with a Mobile Phone 
We show that a mobile phone can serve as an accurate monitor for several physiological variables, based on its ability to record and analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with its optical sensor. We confirm the accuracy of measurements of breathing rate, cardiac R-R intervals, and blood oxygen saturation, by comparisons to standard methods for making such measurements (respiration belts, ECGs, and pulse-oximeters, respectively). Measurement of respiratory rate uses a previously reported algorithm developed for use with a pulse-oximeter, based on amplitude and frequency modulation sequences within the light signal. We note that this technology can also be used with recently developed algorithms for detection of atrial fibrillation or blood loss.
PMCID: PMC3476722  PMID: 21803676
non-invasive monitoring; telemonitoring; heart rate variability (HRV); breathing rate; oxygen saturation
9.  The perfusion index derived from a pulse oximeter for predicting low superior vena cava flow in very low birth weight infants 
Journal of Perinatology  2009;30(4):265-269.
Superior vena cava (SVC) flow is used as an index for evaluating systemic blood flow in neonates. Thus far, several reports have shown that low SVC flow is a risk factor for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in the preterm infant. Therefore, it is likely to be a useful index in the management of the preterm infant. The perfusion index (PI) derived from a pulse oximeter is a marker that allows noninvasive and continuous monitoring of peripheral perfusion. The objective of this paper was to determine the accuracy of the PI for detecting low SVC flow in very low birth weight infants born before 32 weeks of gestation.
Study Design:
We studied the correlation between PI and SVC flow 0 to 72 h after birth in very low birth weight infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. The best cut-off value for low SVC flow was calculated from the respective receiver-operating characteristic curves.
A positive correlation was found between the PI and SVC flow (r=0.509, P<0.001). The best cut-off value for the PI to detect low SVC flow was 0.44 (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 86.3%, positive predictive value 38.9%, negative predictive value 98.6%).
This study found that the PI was associated with SVC flow, and it was a useful index for detecting low SVC flow in very low birth weight infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Therefore, use of the PI should be evaluated in the cardiovascular management of the preterm infant.
PMCID: PMC2834357  PMID: 19907430
peripheral perfusion; preterm infant; intraventricular hemorrhage; systemic blood flow; noninvasive monitoring
10.  Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1358.
We report a novel noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter for simultaneous quantification of relative changes in tissue blood flow (rBF) and oxygenation (Δ[oxygenation]). The noncontact probe was compared against a contact probe in tissue-like phantoms and forearm muscles (n = 10), and the dynamic trends in both rBF and Δ[oxygenation] were found to be highly correlated. However, the magnitudes of Δ[oxygenation] measured by the two probes were significantly different. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments revealed that the arm curvature resulted in a significant underestimation (~−20%) for the noncontact measurements in Δ[oxygenation], but not in rBF. Other factors that may cause the residual discrepancies between the contact and noncontact measurements were discussed, and further comparisons with other established technologies are needed to identify/quantify these factors. Our research paves the way for noncontact and simultaneous monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in soft and vulnerable tissues without distorting tissue hemodynamics.
PMCID: PMC3584314  PMID: 23446991
11.  Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury 
Journal of biomedical optics  2009;14(3):034015.
We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R = 0.89, p < 0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit.
PMCID: PMC3169814  PMID: 19566308
diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS); diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS); cerebral hemodynamics; cerebral blood flow; traumatic brain injury; near—infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
12.  Reduction of motion artifact in pulse oximetry by smoothed pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution 
The pulse oximeter, a medical device capable of measuring blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), has been shown to be a valuable device for monitoring patients in critical conditions. In order to incorporate the technique into a wearable device which can be used in ambulatory settings, the influence of motion artifacts on the estimated SpO2 must be reduced. This study investigates the use of the smoothed psuedo Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) for the reduction of motion artifacts affecting pulse oximetry.
The SPWVD approach is compared with two techniques currently used in this field, i.e. the weighted moving average (WMA) and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) approaches. SpO2 and pulse rate were estimated from a photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal recorded when subject is in a resting position as well as in the act of performing four types of motions: horizontal and vertical movements of the hand, and bending and pressing motions of the finger. For each condition, 24 sets of PPG signals collected from 6 subjects, each of 30 seconds, were studied with reference to the PPG signal recorded simultaneously from the subject's other hand, which was stationary at all times.
Results and Discussion
The SPWVD approach shows significant improvement (p < 0.05), as compared to traditional approaches, when subjects bend their finger or press their finger against the sensor. In addition, the SPWVD approach also reduces the mean absolute pulse rate error significantly (p < 0.05) from 16.4 bpm and 11.2 bpm for the WMA and FFT approaches, respectively, to 5.62 bpm.
The results suggested that the SPWVD approach could potentially be used to reduce motion artifact on wearable pulse oximeters.
PMCID: PMC553999  PMID: 15737241
13.  Use of a Combined SpO2/PtcCO2 Sensor in the Delivery Room 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(8):10980-10989.
Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) are important respiratory parameters in critically ill neonates. A sensor combining a pulse oximeter with the Stow-Severinghaus electrode, required for the measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2), respectively, has been recently used in neonatal clinical practice (TOSCA500ÒRadiometer). We evaluated TOSCA usability and reliability in the delivery room (DR), throughout three different periods, on term, late-preterm, and preterm neonates. During the first period (period A), 30 healthy term neonates were simultaneously monitored with both TOSCA and a MASIMO pulse oximeter. During the second period (period B), 10 healthy late-preterm neonates were monitored with both TOSCA and a transcutaneous device measuring PtcCO2 (TINAÒ TCM3, Radiometer). During the third period (period C), 15 preterm neonates were monitored with TOSCA and MASIMO after birth, during stabilization, and during transport to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Blood gas analyses were performed to compare transcutaneous and blood gas values. TOSCA resulted easily and safely usable in the DR, allowing reliable noninvasive SaO2 estimation. Since PtcCO2 measurements with TOSCA required at least 10 min to be stable and reliable, this parameter was not useful during the early resuscitation immediately after birth. Moreover, PtcCO2 levels were less precise if compared to the conventional transcutaneous monitoring. However, PtcCO2 measurement by TOSCA was useful as trend-monitoring after stabilization and during transport to NICU.
PMCID: PMC3472870  PMID: 23112642
oxygen saturation; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; pulse oximeter; delivery room; TOSCA sensor; neonate
14.  Respiratory Physiology and the Impact of Different Modes of Ventilation on the Photoplethysmographic Waveform 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(2):2236-2254.
The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter. Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor. This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation. Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform has long been thought of as a source of artifact. The primary goal of this article is to improve the understanding of the underlying physiology responsible for the observed phenomena, thereby encouraging the utilization of this understanding to develop new methods of patient monitoring. The reader will be presented with a review of respiratory physiology followed by numerous examples of the impact of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.
PMCID: PMC3304164  PMID: 22438762
clinical monitoring; photoplethysmographic waveform; respiratory physiology; pulse oximeter waveform
15.  Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model 
A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation) induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head.
Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging.
An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis.
Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve pathogenetic alterations in the necrotic femoral head. Our pig model can be used for further femoral head osteonecrosis studies.
PMCID: PMC2842248  PMID: 20205927
Seminars in oncology  2008;35(3):236-250.
Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has revolutionized radiation treatment for head and neck cancers (HNC). When compared to the traditional techniques, IMRT has the unique ability to minimize the dose delivered to normal tissues without compromising tumor coverage. As a result, side effects from high dose radiation have decreased and patient quality of life has improved. In addition to toxicity reduction, excellent clinical outcomes have been reported for IMRT. The first part of this review will focus on clinical results of IMRT for HNC.
Tumor hypoxia or the condition of low oxygen is a key factor for tumor progression and treatment resistance. Hypoxia develops in solid tumors due to aberrant blood vessel formation, fluctuation in blood flow and increasing oxygen demands for tumor growth. Because hypoxic tumor cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation, hypoxia has been a focus of clinical research in radiation therapy for half a decade. Interest for targeting tumor hypoxia have waxed and waned as promising treatments emerged from the laboratory, only to fail in the clinics. However, with the development of new technologies, the prospect of targeting tumor hypoxia is more tangible. The second half of the review will focus on approaches for assessing tumor hypoxia and on the strategies for targeting this important microenvironmental factor in HNC.
PMCID: PMC2494523  PMID: 18544439
17.  The role of pulse oximetry in the accident and emergency department. 
Archives of Emergency Medicine  1989;6(3):211-215.
Prompt recognition and treatment of hypoxia is an important part of management in the accident and emergency (A & E) department. Until recently the only reliable method of detecting hypoxia was by estimation of the arterial blood gases (ABG). Continuous monitoring of the arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) is possible using an infra-red pulse oximeter. This study assessed the usefulness of this instrument in the A&E setting. The Sao2 was measured in 50 patients using a pulse oximeter. In 15 patients simultaneous ABG estimations were obtained. The Sao2 correlated closely with calculated values for Sao2. The use of the oximeter identified 21 patients (42%) with clinically unsuspected hypoxia. The pulse oximeter proved simple to use, accurate and a useful addition to our resuscitation equipment.
PMCID: PMC1285608  PMID: 2789585
18.  Detection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and corresponding biomarkers using Optical Spectroscopy 
1) Investigate the use of optical reflectance spectroscopy to differentiate malignant and non-malignant tissues in head and neck lesions; 2) Characterize corresponding oxygen tissue biomarkers that are associated with pathologic diagnosis
Study Design
Prospective non-randomized clinical study
Tertiary VA Medical Center
Subjects and Methods
All patients undergoing panendoscopy with biopsy for suspected head and neck cancer were eligible. Prior to taking tissue samples, the optical probe was placed at three locations to collect diffuse reflectance data. These locations were labeled “tumor”, “immediately adjacent”, and “distant normal tissue”. Biopsies were taken of each of these respective sites. The diffuse reflectance spectra were analyzed, and biomarker specific absorption data was extracted using an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm for malignant and non-malignant tissues. Histopathological analysis was performed and used as the gold standard to analyze the optical biomarker data.
21 patients with mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were identified and selected to participate in the study. Statistically significant differences in oxygen saturation (p = 0.004) and oxygenated hemoglobin (p = 0.02) were identified between malignant and non-malignant tissues.
Our study established proof of principle that optical spectroscopy can be used in the head and neck areas to detect malignant tissue. Furthermore, tissue biomarkers were correlated with a diagnosis of malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3098757  PMID: 21493201
19.  Pulse Oximetry: Evaluation of Accuracy during Outpatient General Anesthesia for Oral Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(2):53-60.
Pulse oximetry has been shown to be accurate under steady state conditions. In this study, the accuracy of four pulse oximeters are evaluated and compared during outpatient general anesthesia for third molar extractions. The oximeters evaluated are the Nellcor N-100, the Ohmeda 3700, the Novametrix model 500, and the Bird 4400 portable pulse oximeter.
Ultralight general anesthesia for oral surgery presents a unique challenge for respiratory monitoring in that patients are often not intubated and commonly experience periods of hyper- and hypoventilation. Airway obstruction, apnea, and laryngospasm may occur easily and patients often vocalize and move during surgery. Because hypoxemia is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality during anesthesia, an accurate, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of oxygenation is critical to risk management.
Twenty ASA class I and II patients underwent outpatient general anesthesia for third molar removal using nitrous oxide-oxygen, midazolam, fentanyl, and methohexital. Arterial blood samples were obtained at five-minute intervals during anesthesia, as well as any time a desaturation of >5% occurred, for measurement of arterial SaO2 with an IL282 CO-Oximeter. These values were compared with simultaneously recorded saturations observed for each pulse oximeter. A total of 122 arterial samples were obtained over a range of PaO2 from 52-323 mm Hg and observed saturations of 70-100%.
The Bird 4400 portable pulse oximeter proved to be the most accurate and reliably predicted arterial saturation under these conditions (y = 1.03x - 2.8, r = 0.85). The Novametrix model 500 pulse oximeter also demonstrated a high degree of accuracy by linear regression analysis, but displayed the lowest correlation coefficient (spread of data points) overall (y = 0.97x + 2.8, r = 0.80.) The Nellcor N-100 pulse oximeter also proved to be highly accurate. (y = 1.05x - 4.1, r = 0.84.) In contrast, regression analysis of the observed saturations obtained with the Ohmeda 3700 pulse oximeter revealed that this unit significantly underestimated arterial saturation (y = 1.20x - 19.6, r = 0.83.)
This study demonstrates that despite the rigorous conditions imposed by outpatient general anesthesia for oral surgery, three of the pulse oximeters tested were linearly accurate in predicting arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation over the range of 70-100%. The Ohmeda 3700 was found to significantly underestimate arterial saturation.
PMCID: PMC2148593  PMID: 3166346
20.  Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(1):895-904.
This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm). The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues. In our experiment, pressure pulses were generated in the arteries by an electronically controlled pump. The physical and optical parameters of the layers and the liquid in the artificial arteries were similar to those of real tissues and blood. The amplitude of the pulsating component of the light returning from the phantom tissues was measured at each artery depth mentioned above. The build-up of the in-house-developed pulse oximeter used for performing the measurements and the physical layout of the measuring head are described. The radiant flux generated by the LED on the measuring head was measured to be 1.8 mW at 910 nm. The backscattered radiant flux was measured, and found to be 0.46 nW (0.26 ppm), 0.55 nW (0.31 ppm), and 0.18 nW (0.10 ppm) for the 1.2 mm, 3.7 mm and 6.8 mm arteries, respectively. In the case of the 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm arteries, useful measurement data were not obtained owing to weak signals. We simulated the phantom with the arteries at the above-mentioned five depths and at two additional ones (2.5 mm and 5.3 mm in depth) using the Monte Carlo method. The measurement results were verified by the simulation results. We concluded that in case of 11 mm source-detector separation the arteries at a depth of about 2.5 mm generate the strongest pulse oximeter signal level in a tissue system comprising three layers of thicknesses: 1.5 mm (skin), 5.0 mm (skull), and >50 mm (brain).
PMCID: PMC3279245  PMID: 22368501
reflectance pulse oximetry; oximeter; phantom; plethysmograph; pulsatile; CW NIRS
21.  Pulse oximetry at the roadside: a study of pulse oximetry in immediate care. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;298(6675):711-713.
The measurement of tissue oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter is of proved value in the hospital setting. The development of a portable oximeter has allowed this investigation to be performed during the prehospital phase of a patient's care. Pulse oximetry was performed at the roadside in 25 patients with abnormal trauma scores and found to be of benefit in detecting and monitoring hypoxia in patients with airway obstruction, depressed respiration due to head injury, and, in particular, with closed chest injuries. There were no practical difficulties associated with the use of the instrument either at the roadside or in a moving ambulance. The portable pulse oximeter is a valuable aid in the prehospital monitoring of patients with trauma.
PMCID: PMC1836004  PMID: 2496817
22.  Optimization of Perfusion CT Protocol for Imaging of Extracranial Head and Neck Tumors 
The in vivo assessment of physiological processes associated with microcirculation in the head and neck tissue by means of perfusion computed tomography is widely used in the management of patients with head and neck tumors. However, there is no systematic consideration of the total acquisition duration and placement of the scans. A simulation study for optimizing perfusion studies of extracranial head and neck tumors, with considerations of reducing radiation dose while maintaining accuracy of the perfusion parameters, is demonstrated here. The suggested that dual-phase optimized protocols may provide reliable estimations of the permeability surface area product as well as blood flow and volume without additional radiation burden and serious patient discomfort. These optimized protocols can potentially be useful in the clinical setting of examining patients with extracranial head and neck tumors.
PMCID: PMC3043720  PMID: 18454289
Perfusion CT; blood flow; blood volume; permeability surface-area product; head and neck
23.  Use of pulse oximetry for blood pressure measurement after cardiac surgery 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1998;78(5):457-460.
Blood pressure measurement using pulse oximeter waveform change was compared with an oscillometric measurement and the gold standard, intra-arterial measurement, in children after cardiac surgery. Forty six patients were enrolled and divided into groups according to weight. Simultaneous blood pressure measurements were obtained from the arterial catheter, the oscillometric device, and the pulse oximeter. Pulse oximeter measurements were obtained with a blood pressure cuff proximal to the oximeter probe. The blood pressure measurements from the pulse oximeter method correlated better with intra-arterial measurements than those from the oscillometric device (0.77-0.96 v 0.42-0.83). The absolute differences between the pulse oximeter and intra-arterial measurements were significantly smaller than between the oscillometric and intra-arterial measurements in children less than 15.0 kg. The pulse oximeter waveform change is an accurate and reliable way to measure blood pressure in children non-invasively, and is superior to the oscillometric method for small patients.

PMCID: PMC1717578  PMID: 9659094
24.  Methaemoglobinaemia due to mephedrone (‘snow’) 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr0420102879.
Acquired methaemoglobinaemia is a serious complication caused by many oxidising drugs. It presents as cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen therapy. The case of 33-year-old male patient who presented in our department after noticing blue lips and fingers is presented. He had sniffed 1 g of ‘snow’ after buying it from a head shop. His oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter on room air at presentation was 90%, which did not improve with supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analyses showed partial pressure of oxygen 37 kPa while on supplemental oxygen and a methaemoglobin concentration greater than 25%. The patient denied using any other recreational drugs and was not on regular treatment. Therefore, a diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia due to mephedrone, which is the active ingredient of ‘snow’, was made. Treatment is with intravenous methylene blue. Our patient started to improve so methylene blue was not used and he was discharged after 8 h.
PMCID: PMC3027398  PMID: 22791577
25.  Effect of isosorbide mononitrate on the human optic nerve and choroidal circulations 
AIMS—To assess the effects of the nitric oxide donor 5-isosorbide mononitrate (ISMO) on blood flow in the optic nerve head (ON flow) and choroid (Ch flow).
METHODS—Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure ON flow and Ch flow in 12 normal subjects by aiming the laser beam at the fovea and at the temporal rim, respectively. In a double masked, randomised, crossover design, each subject received orally on separate days either 20 mg of 5-isosorbide mononitrate (ISMO) or placebo. Ch flow and ON flow were determined monocularly at baseline and 1 hour after dosing. In the last six subjects, additional measurements were obtained at 3 hours. Mean arterial blood pressure (BPm), heart rate, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were monitored, and ocular perfusion pressure (PP) was estimated.
RESULTS—No significant changes in ON flow, PP, IOP, or BPm were observed following placebo. Following ISMO, ON flow increased from baseline by 19.8% (SEM 9.3%) at 1 hour (paired t test, p= 0.058) and by 33.1% (7.5%) at 3 hours (p= 0.007). Compared with the changes following placebo, statistically significant increases in ON flow were observed both at 1 (p=0.050) and 3 hours (p=0.041) after ISMO treatment. Compared with placebo, PP decreased significantly 1 hour after ISMO dosing (p=0.039), mainly as a function of reduced BPm. A significant inverse correlation (R=−0.618; p=0.032) was observed between the percentage changes in PP and ON flow 1 hour following ISMO administration, but not after placebo. No significant change in foveal Ch flow was documented.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that, in normal subjects, ISMO increases significantly ON flow but not Ch flow. The inverse correlation observed between PP and ON flow suggests that the same mechanism(s) responsible for systemic vasodilatation and blood pressure decrease may also cause the ON flow increase.

 Keywords: choroidal circulation; isosorbide mononitrate; laser Doppler flowmetry; nitric oxide; optic nerve head circulation
PMCID: PMC1722947  PMID: 10396191

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