The sugarcane pathogen Xanthomonas albilineans produces a family of antibiotics and phytotoxins termed albicidins, which inhibit plant and bacterial DNA gyrase supercoiling activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (50 nM) comparable to those of coumarins and quinolones. Here we show that X. albilineans has an unusual, antibiotic-resistant DNA gyrase. The X. albilineans gyrA and gyrB genes are not clustered with previously described albicidin biosynthesis and self-protection genes. The GyrA and GyrB products differ from Escherichia coli homologues through several insertions and through changes in several amino acid residues implicated in quinolone and coumarin resistance. Reconstituted X. albilineans DNA gyrase showed 20- to 25-fold-higher resistance than E. coli DNA gyrase to albicidin and ciprofloxacin and 8-fold-higher resistance to novobiocin in the supercoiling assay. The X. albilineans DNA gyrase is unusual in showing a high degree of distributive supercoiling and little DNA relaxation activity. X. albilineans GyrA (XaA) forms a functional gyrase heterotetramer with E. coli GyrB (EcB) and can account for albicidin and quinolone resistance and low levels of relaxation activity. XaB probably contributes to both coumarin resistance and the distributive supercoiling pattern. Although XaB shows fewer apparent changes relative to EcB, the EcA·XaB hybrid relaxed DNA in the presence or absence of ATP and was unable to supercoil. A fuller understanding of structural differences between albicidin-sensitive and -resistant gyrases may provide new clues into features of the enzyme amenable to interference by novel antibiotics.
Genome studies suggest that DNA gyrase is the sole type II topoisomerase and likely the unique target of quinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the emerging importance of quinolones in the treatment of mycobacterial disease, the slow growth and high pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis have precluded direct purification of its gyrase and detailed analysis of quinolone action. To address these issues, we separately overexpressed the M. tuberculosis DNA gyrase GyrA and GyrB subunits as His-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli from pET plasmids carrying gyrA and gyrB genes. The soluble 97-kDa GyrA and 72-kDa GyrB subunits were purified by nickel chelate chromatography and shown to reconstitute an ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling activity. The drug concentration that inhibited DNA supercoiling by 50% (IC50) was measured for 22 different quinolones, and values ranged from 2 to 3 μg/ml (sparfloxacin, sitafloxacin, clinafloxacin, and gatifloxacin) to >1,000 μg/ml (pipemidic acid and nalidixic acid). By comparison, MICs measured against M. tuberculosis ranged from 0.12 μg/ml (for gatifloxacin) to 128 μg/ml (both pipemidic acid and nalidixic acid) and correlated well with the gyrase IC50s (R2 = 0.9). Quinolones promoted gyrase-mediated cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA due to stabilization of the cleavage complex, which is thought to be the lethal lesion. Surprisingly, the measured concentrations of drug inducing 50% plasmid linearization correlated less well with the MICs (R2 = 0.7). These findings suggest that the DNA supercoiling inhibition assay may be a useful screening test in identifying quinolones with promising activity against M. tuberculosis. The quinolone structure-activity relationship demonstrated here shows that C-8, the C-7 ring, the C-6 fluorine, and the N-1 cyclopropyl substituents are desirable structural features in targeting M. tuberculosis gyrase.
Novobiocin-Sepharose was prepared by coupling of novobiocin to Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B and used as an affinity adsorbent. Four novobiocin-binding proteins were isolated from crude extracts of Escherichia coli with molecular weights of 105, 92, 85 and 40 kdal. The two larger proteins were identified as the A subunit (gyrA protein) and the B subunit (gyrB protein) of DNA gyrase topoisomerase II). By this method the two gyrase components can be easily separated and purified in high yield. Although both proteins are involved in the ATP-dependent supercoiling of relaxed plasmid DNA, only the gyrB protein is required for catalyzing the cleavage of ATP. The gyrB protein ATPase activity is competitively inhibited by novobiocin and related coumarin antibiotics. ATP hydrolysis is unaffected by the addition of either gyrA protein or DNA but stimulated in the presence of both.
New classes of drugs are needed to treat tuberculosis (TB) in order to combat the emergence of resistance to existing agents and shorten the duration of therapy. Targeting DNA gyrase is a clinically validated therapeutic approach using fluoroquinolone antibiotics to target the gyrase subunit A (GyrA) of the heterotetramer. Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones has driven interest in targeting the gyrase subunit B (GyrB), which has not been targeted for TB. The biological activities of two potent small-molecule inhibitors of GyrB have been characterized to validate its targeting as a therapeutic strategy for treating TB.
Materials and methods
Novobiocin and aminobenzimidazole 1 (AB-1) were tested for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv and other mycobacteria. AB-1 and novobiocin were also evaluated for their interaction with rifampicin and isoniazid as well as their potential for cytotoxicity. Finally, AB-1 was tested for in vivo efficacy in a murine model of TB.
Novobiocin and AB-1 have both been shown to be active against Mtb with MIC values of 4 and 1 mg/L, respectively. Only AB-1 exhibited time-dependent bactericidal activity against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant mycobacteria, including a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain. AB-1 had potent activity in the low oxygen recovery assay model for non-replicating persistent Mtb. Additionally, AB-1 has no interaction with isoniazid and rifampicin, and has no cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. In a murine model of TB, AB-1 significantly reduced lung cfu counts in a dose-dependent manner.
Aminobenzimidazole inhibitors of GyrB exhibit many of the characteristics required for their consideration as a potential front-line antimycobacterial therapeutic.
non-replicating bacteria; topoisomerase; benzimidazole; drug resistance; ciprofloxacin; novobiocin; non-tuberculous mycobacteria
DNA gyrase is a bacterial type II topoisomerase which couples the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to the introduction of negative supercoils into DNA. Amino acids in proximity to bound nonhydrolyzable ATP analog (AMP · PNP) or novobiocin in the gyrase B (GyrB) subunit crystal structures were examined for their roles in enzyme function and novobiocin resistance by site-directed mutagenesis. Purified Escherichia coli GyrB mutant proteins were complexed with the gyrase A subunit to form the functional A2B2 gyrase enzyme. Mutant proteins with alanine substitutions at residues E42, N46, E50, D73, R76, G77, and I78 had reduced or no detectable ATPase activity, indicating a role for these residues in ATP hydrolysis. Interestingly, GyrB proteins with P79A and K103A substitutions retained significant levels of ATPase activity yet demonstrated no DNA supercoiling activity, even with 40-fold more enzyme than the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that these amino acid side chains have a role in the coupling of the two activities. All enzymes relaxed supercoiled DNA to the same extent as the wild-type enzyme did, implying that only ATP-dependent reactions were affected. Mutant genes were examined in vivo for their abilities to complement a temperature-sensitive E. coli gyrB mutant, and the activities correlated well with the in vitro activities. We show that the known R136 novobiocin resistance mutations bestow a significant loss of inhibitor potency in the ATPase assay. Four new residues (D73, G77, I78, and T165) that, when changed to the appropriate amino acid, result in both significant levels of novobiocin resistance and maintain in vivo function were identified in E. coli.
The mechanism of action of quinolones was investigated by use of various DNA gyrases reconstituted from wild-type and mutant GyrA and GyrB proteins of Escherichia coli. The quinolone sensitivities of the DNA supercoiling activity of the gyrases were generally parallel to the quinolone susceptibilities of strains having the corresponding enzymes and depended on gyrase subunits but not on substrate DNA. [3H]Enoxacin did not bind to gyrase alone or DNA alone but bound to gyrase-DNA complexes when measured by a gel filtration method. There appeared to be two enoxacin binding phases, at low and high enoxacin concentrations, for the wild-type gyrase-DNA and type 2 GyrB (Lys-447 to Glu) mutant gyrase-DNA complexes but only one enoxacin binding phase at the concentrations used for the GyrA (Ser-83 to Leu) mutant gyrase-DNA and type 1 GyrB (Asp-426 to Asn) mutant gyrase-DNA complexes. New enoxacin binding sites appeared in the presence of enoxacin, and the enoxacin binding affinities for the sites, especially at low enoxacin concentrations, near the MICs for the strains having the corresponding gyrases, correlated well with the enoxacin sensitivities of the gyrases and the MICs. From the results obtained, we propose a quinolone pocket model as the mechanism of action of quinolones, in which quinolones exert their action through binding to a gyrase-DNA complex and the quinolone binding affinities for the complex are determined by both GyrA and GyrB subunits in concert.
A structure-guided drug design approach was used to optimize a novel series of aminobenzimidazoles that inhibit the essential ATPase activities of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and that show potent activities against a variety of bacterial pathogens. Two such compounds, VRT-125853 and VRT-752586, were characterized for their target specificities and preferences in bacteria. In metabolite incorporation assays, VRT-125853 inhibited both DNA and RNA synthesis but had little effect on protein synthesis. Both compounds inhibited the maintenance of negative supercoils in plasmid DNA in Escherichia coli at the MIC. Sequencing of DNA corresponding to the GyrB and ParE ATP-binding regions in VRT-125853- and VRT-752586-resistant mutants revealed that their primary target in Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae was GyrB, whereas in Streptococcus pneumoniae it was ParE. In Enterococcus faecalis, the primary target of VRT-125853 was ParE, whereas for VRT-752586 it was GyrB. DNA transformation experiments with H. influenzae and S. aureus proved that the mutations observed in gyrB resulted in decreased susceptibilities to both compounds. Novobiocin resistance-conferring mutations in S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were found in gyrB, and these mutants showed little or no cross-resistance to VRT-125853 or VRT-752586 and vice versa. Furthermore, gyrB and parE double mutations increased the MICs of VRT-125853 and VRT-752586 significantly, providing evidence of dual targeting. Spontaneous frequencies of resistance to VRT-752586 were below detectable levels (<5.2 × 10−10) for wild-type E. faecalis but were significantly elevated for strains containing single and double target-based mutations, demonstrating that dual targeting confers low levels of resistance emergence and the maintenance of susceptibility in vitro.
Bacterial DNA gyrase is a validated target for antibacterial chemotherapy. It consists of two subunits, GyrA and GyrB, which form an A2B2 complex in the active enzyme. Sequence alignment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis GyrB with other bacterial GyrBs predicts the presence of 40 potential additional amino acids at the GyrB N-terminus. There are discrepancies between the M. tuberculosis GyrB sequences retrieved from different databases, including sequences annotated with or without the additional 40 amino acids. This has resulted in differences in the GyrB sequence numbering that has led to the reporting of previously known fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations as novel mutations.
We have expressed M. tuberculosis GyrB with and without the extra 40 amino acids in Escherichia coli and shown that both can be produced as soluble, active proteins. Supercoiling and other assays of the two proteins show no differences, suggesting that the additional 40 amino acids have no effect on the enzyme in vitro. RT-PCR analysis of M. tuberculosis mRNA shows that transcripts that could yield both the longer and shorter protein are present. However, promoter analysis showed that only the promoter elements leading to the shorter GyrB (lacking the additional 40 amino acids) had significant activity.
We conclude that the most probable translational start codon for M. tuberculosis GyrB is GTG (Val) which results in translation of a protein of 674 amino acids (74 kDa).
Gyrase; Topoisomerase; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that control the topology of DNA in all cells. DNA gyrase is unique among the topoisomerases in that it is the only enzyme that can actively supercoil DNA using the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Until recently gyrase was thought to be unique to bacteria, but has now been discovered in plants. The genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, is predicted to encode four gyrase subunits: AtGyrA, AtGyrB1, AtGyrB2 and AtGyrB3.
We found, contrary to previous data, that AtGyrB3 is not essential to the survival of A. thaliana. Bioinformatic analysis suggests AtGyrB3 is considerably shorter than other gyrase B subunits, lacking part of the ATPase domain and other key motifs found in all type II topoisomerases; but it does contain a putative DNA-binding domain. Partially purified AtGyrB3 cannot bind E. coli GyrA or support supercoiling. AtGyrB3 cannot complement an E. coli gyrB temperature-sensitive strain, whereas AtGyrB2 can. Yeast two-hybrid analysis suggests that AtGyrB3 cannot bind to AtGyrA or form a dimer.
These data strongly suggest that AtGyrB3 is not a gyrase subunit but has another unknown function. One possibility is that it is a nuclear protein with a role in meiosis in pollen.
We determined the nucleotide sequence of a 6-kb DNA region harboring the recF, orf192, gyrB, and gyrA genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155. The amino acid sequences deduced from gyrA and gyrB displayed 89 and 86% identity, respectively, with the DNA gyrase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 67 and 65% identity, respectively, with that from Streptomyces coelicolor. An open reading frame encoding the C-terminal region of the M. smegmatis RecF polypeptide was found upstream from gyrB and was 57% identical to the open reading frame encoding the C-terminal region of the S. coelicolor RecF protein. The gene orf192 was identified between recF and gyrB and was 39% identical to orf191 found in S. coelicolor in the recF-gyrB region. The M. smegmatis DNA gyrase, which was purified by affinity chromatography on novobiocin-Sepharose, consisted of two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 98 and 80 kDa. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the B subunit confirmed GTG as the start codon in gyrB. Analysis of the supercoiling activity of the enzyme indicated that the M. smegmatis DNA gyrase was characterized by a specific activity equivalent to that of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. Inhibition of this activity by 4-quinolones was investigated by determining the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50S) of nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. The results indicated that the inhibitory activities of these drugs against the M. smegmatis DNA gyrase were markedly lower than those previously reported for the E. coli DNA gyrase. The results also suggested that the higher levels of activity of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against M. smegmatis (MICs, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml), in contrast to that of nalidixic acid (MIC, 256 micrograms/ml), could be related to the higher inhibitory activities of fluoroquinolones against the DNA gyrase from this species (IC50S, 7 to 14 micrograms/ml) compared with that of nalidixic acid (IC50, 1,400 micrograms/ml).
The type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase (GyrA/GyrB) and topoisomerase IV (ParC/ParE) are well-validated targets for antibacterial drug discovery. Because of their structural and functional homology, these enzymes are amenable to dual targeting by a single ligand. In this study, two novel benzothiazole ethyl urea-based small molecules, designated compound A and compound B, were evaluated for their biochemical, antibacterial, and pharmacokinetic properties. The two compounds inhibited the ATPase activity of GyrB and ParE with 50% inhibitory concentrations of <0.1 μg/ml. Prevention of DNA supercoiling by DNA gyrase was also observed. Both compounds potently inhibited the growth of a range of bacterial organisms, including staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Clostridium difficile, and selected Gram-negative respiratory pathogens. MIC90s against clinical isolates ranged from 0.015 μg/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae to 0.25 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. No cross-resistance with common drug resistance phenotypes was observed. In addition, no synergistic or antagonistic interactions between compound A or compound B and other antibiotics, including the topoisomerase inhibitors novobiocin and levofloxacin, were detected in checkerboard experiments. The frequencies of spontaneous resistance for S. aureus were <2.3 × 10−10 with compound A and <5.8 × 10−11 with compound B at concentrations equivalent to 8× the MICs. These values indicate a multitargeting mechanism of action. The pharmacokinetic properties of both compounds were profiled in rats. Following intravenous administration, compound B showed approximately 3-fold improvement over compound A in terms of both clearance and the area under the concentration-time curve. The measured oral bioavailability of compound B was 47.7%.
Amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to quinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have generally been found within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in the A subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrA) rather than the B subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrB). To clarify the contribution of an amino acid substitution, E540V, in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis, we expressed recombinant DNA gyrases in Escherichia coli and characterized them in vitro. Wild-type and GyrB-E540V DNA gyrases were reconstituted in vitro by mixing recombinant GyrA and GyrB. Correlation between the amino acid substitution and quinolone resistance was assessed by the ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling assay, quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assay, and DNA cleavage assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of eight quinolones against DNA gyrases bearing the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB were 2.5- to 36-fold higher than those against the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the 25% maximum DNA cleavage concentrations were 1.5- to 14-fold higher for the E540V gyrase than for the wild-type enzyme. We further demonstrated that the E540V amino acid substitution influenced the interaction between DNA gyrase and the substituent(s) at R-7, R-8, or both in quinolone structures. This is the first detailed study of the contribution of the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis.
Type II DNA topoisomerases are essential enzymes that catalyze topological rearrangement of double-stranded DNA using the free energy generated by ATP hydrolysis. Bacterial DNA gyrase is a prototype of this family and is composed of two subunits (GyrA, GyrB) that form a GyrA2GyrB2 heterotetramer. The N-terminal 43-kDa fragment of GyrB (GyrB43) from E. coli comprising the ATPase and the transducer domains has been studied extensively. The dimeric fragment is competent for ATP hydrolysis and its structure in complex with the substrate analog AMPPNP is known. Here, we have determined the remaining conformational states of the enzyme along the ATP hydrolysis reaction path by solving crystal structures of GyrB43 in complex with ADP⋅BeF3, ADP⋅Pi, and ADP. Upon hydrolysis, the enzyme undergoes an obligatory 12° domain rearrangement to accommodate the 1.5 Å increase in distance between the γ- and β-phosphate of the nucleotide within the sealed binding site at the domain interface. Conserved residues from the QTK loop of the transducer domain (also part of the domain interface) couple the small structural change within the binding site with the rigid body motion. The domain reorientation is reflected in a significant 7 Å increase in the separation of the two transducer domains of the dimer that would embrace one of the DNA segments in full-length gyrase. The observed conformational change is likely to be relevant for the allosteric coordination of ATP hydrolysis with DNA binding, cleavage/re-ligation and/or strand passage.
Moxifloxacin has shown excellent activity against drug-sensitive as well as drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), thus confirming DNA gyrase as a clinically validated target for discovering novel anti-TB agents. We have identified novel inhibitors in the pyrrolamide class which kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis through inhibition of ATPase activity catalyzed by the GyrB domain of DNA gyrase. A homology model of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv GyrB domain was used for deciphering the structure-activity relationship and binding interactions of inhibitors with mycobacterial GyrB enzyme. Proposed binding interactions were later confirmed through cocrystal structure studies with the Mycobacterium smegmatis GyrB ATPase domain. The most potent compound in this series inhibited supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <5 nM, an MIC of 0.03 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and an MIC90 of <0.25 μg/ml against 99 drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The frequency of isolating spontaneous resistant mutants was ∼10−6 to 10−8, and the point mutation mapped to the M. tuberculosis GyrB domain (Ser208 Ala), thus confirming its mode of action. The best compound tested for in vivo efficacy in the mouse model showed a 1.1-log reduction in lung CFU in the acute model and a 0.7-log reduction in the chronic model. This class of GyrB inhibitors could be developed as novel anti-TB agents.
We examined the response of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 to clinafloxacin, a novel C-8-substituted fluoroquinolone which is being developed as an antipneumococcal agent. Clinafloxacin was highly active against S. pneumoniae 7785 (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml), and neither gyrA nor parC quinolone resistance mutations alone had much effect on this activity. A combination of both mutations was needed to register resistance, suggesting that both gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinafloxacin targets in vivo. The sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin MICs for the parC-gyrA mutants were 16 to 32 and 32 to 64 μg/ml, respectively, but the clinafloxacin MIC was 1 μg/ml, i.e., within clinafloxacin levels achievable in human serum. S. pneumoniae 7785 mutants could be selected stepwise with clinafloxacin at a low frequency, yielding first-, second-, third-, and fourth-step mutants for which clinafloxacin MICs were 0.25, 1, 6, and 32 to 64 μg/ml, respectively. Thus, high-level resistance to clinafloxacin required four steps. Characterization of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes by PCR, HinfI restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequence analysis revealed an invariant resistance pathway involving sequential mutations in gyrA or gyrB, in parC, in gyrA, and finally in parC or parE. No evidence was found for other resistance mechanisms. The gyrA mutations in first- and third-step mutants altered GyrA hot spots Ser-83 to Phe or Tyr (Escherichia coli coordinates) and Glu-87 to Gln or Lys; second- and fourth-step parC mutations changed equivalent hot spots Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr and Asp-83 to Ala. gyrB and parE changes produced novel alterations of GyrB Glu-474 to Lys and of Pro-454 to Ser in the ParE PLRGK motif. Difficulty in selecting first-step gyrase mutants (isolated with 0.125 [but not 0.25] μg of clinafloxacin per ml at a frequency of 5.0 × 10−10 to 8.5 × 10−10) accompanied by the small (twofold) MIC increase suggested only a modest drug preference for gyrase. Given the susceptibility of defined gyrA or parC mutants, the results suggested that clinafloxacin displays comparable if unequal targeting of gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Dual targeting and the intrinsic potency of clinafloxacin against S. pneumoniae and its first- and second-step mutants are desirable features in limiting the emergence of bacterial resistance.
Quinolone resistance normally arises by mutations in the chromosomal genes for type II topoisomerases and by changes in the expression of proteins that control the accumulation of quinolones inside bacteria. A novel mechanism of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was recently reported that involves DNA gyrase protection by a pentapeptide repeat family member called Qnr. This family includes two other members, McbG and MfpA, that are also involved in resistance to gyrase inhibitors. Purified Qnr-His6 was shown to protect Escherichia coli DNA gyrase directly from inhibition by ciprofloxacin. Here we have provided a biochemical basis for the mechanism of quinolone resistance. We have shown that Qnr can bind to the gyrase holoenzyme and its respective subunits, GyrA and GyrB. The binding of Qnr to gyrase does not require the presence of the complex of enzyme, DNA, and quinolone, since binding occurred in the absence of relaxed DNA, ciprofloxacin, or ATP. We hypothesize that the formation of Qnr-gyrase complex occurs before the formation of the cleavage complex. Furthermore, there was a decrease in DNA binding by gyrase when the enzyme interacted with Qnr. Therefore, it is possible that the reaction intermediate recognized by Qnr is one early in the gyrase catalytic cycle, in which gyrase has just begun to interact with DNA. Quinolones bind later in the catalytic cycle and stabilize a ternary complex consisting of the drug, gyrase, and DNA. By lowering gyrase binding to DNA, Qnr may reduce the amount of holoenzyme-DNA targets for quinolone inhibition.
Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is noncultivable in vitro; therefore, evaluation of antibiotic activity against M. leprae relies mainly upon the mouse footpad system, which requires at least 12 months before the results become available. We have developed an in vitro assay for studying the activities of quinolones against the DNA gyrase of M. leprae. We overexpressed in Escherichia coli the M. leprae GyrA and GyrB subunits separately as His-tagged proteins by using a pET plasmid carrying the gyrA and gyrB genes. The soluble 97.5-kDa GyrA and 74.5-kDa GyrB subunits were purified by nickel chelate chromatography and were reconstituted as an enzyme with DNA supercoiling activity. Based on the drug concentrations that inhibited DNA supercoiling by 50% or that induced DNA cleavage by 25%, the 13 quinolones tested clustered into three groups. Analysis of the quinolone structure-activity relationship demonstrates that the most active quinolones against M. leprae DNA gyrase share the following structural features: a substituted carbon at position 8, a cyclopropyl substituent at N-1, a fluorine at C-6, and a substituent ring at C-7. We conclude that the assays based on DNA supercoiling inhibition and drug-induced DNA cleavage on purified M. leprae DNA gyrase are rapid, efficient, and safe methods for the screening of quinolone derivatives with potential in vivo activities against M. leprae.
We have characterized the interaction of a new class of antibiotics, simocyclinones, with bacterial DNA gyrase. Even though their structures include an aminocoumarin moiety, a key feature of novobiocin, coumermycin A1, and clorobiocin, which also target gyrase, simocyclinones behave strikingly differently from these compounds. Simocyclinone D8 is a potent inhibitor of gyrase supercoiling, with a 50% inhibitory concentration lower than that of novobiocin. However, it does not competitively inhibit the DNA-independent ATPase reaction of GyrB, which is characteristic of other aminocoumarins. Simocyclinone D8 also inhibits DNA relaxation by gyrase but does not stimulate cleavage complex formation, unlike quinolones, the other major class of gyrase inhibitors; instead, it abrogates both Ca2+- and quinolone-induced cleavage complex formation. Binding studies suggest that simocyclinone D8 interacts with the N-terminal domain of GyrA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that simocyclinones inhibit an early step of the gyrase catalytic cycle by preventing binding of the enzyme to DNA. This is a novel mechanism for a gyrase inhibitor and presents new possibilities for antibacterial drug development.
The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256 μg/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes.
Relaxation of titratable supercoils in bacterial nucleoids was measured following treatment of topA mutants with coumermycin or oxolinic acid, inhibitors of DNA gyrase. Relaxation occurred after treatment of the mutants with either inhibitor. We detected no significant difference in relaxation between topA- and topA+ strains treated with coumermycin. This finding, together with previous observations, supports the idea that relaxation caused by coumermycin probably arises from the relaxing activity of gyrase itself. The source of DNA relaxation caused by oxolinic acid was not identified. Nucleoid supercoiling can be increased by adding oxolinic acid to a strain that carries three topoisomerase mutations: delta topA, gyrB225, and gyrA (Nalr) (S. H. Manes, G. J. Pruss, and K. Drlica, J. Bacteriol. 155:420-423, 1983). We found that this increase in supercoiling requires partial sensitivity to the drug and at the delta topA and gyrA mutations. Full resistance to oxolinic acid in the presence of the delta topA, gyrB225, and gyrA mutations was conferred by an additional mutation that maps at or near gyrB.
The main mechanism of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mutation in DNA gyrase (GyrA2GyrB2), especially in gyrA. However, the discovery of unknown mutations in gyrB whose implication in FQ resistance is unclear has become more frequent. We investigated the impact on FQ susceptibility of eight gyrB mutations in M. tuberculosis clinical strains, three of which were previously identified in an FQ-resistant strain. We measured FQ MICs and also DNA gyrase inhibition by FQs in order to clarify the role of these mutations in FQ resistance. Wild-type GyrA, wild-type GyrB, and mutant GyrB subunits produced from engineered gyrB alleles by mutagenesis were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and used to reconstitute highly active gyrase complexes. MICs and DNA gyrase inhibition were determined for moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and enoxacin. We demonstrated that the eight substitutions in GyrB (D473N, P478A, R485H, S486F, A506G, A547V, G551R, and G559A), recently identified in FQ-resistant clinical strains or encountered in M. tuberculosis strains isolated in France, are not implicated in FQ resistance. These results underline that, as opposed to phenotypic FQ susceptibility testing, the DNA gyrase inhibition assay is the only way to prove the role of a DNA gyrase mutation in FQ resistance. Therefore, the use of FQ in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) patients should not be ruled out only on the basis of the presence of mutations in gyrB.
Ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 were generated by stepwise selection at increasing drug concentrations. Sequence analysis of PCR products from the strains was used to examine the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the GyrA and GyrB proteins of DNA gyrase and the analogous regions of the ParC and ParE subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV. First-step mutants exhibiting low-level resistance had no detectable changes in their topoisomerase quinolone resistance-determining regions, suggesting altered permeation or another novel resistance mechanism. Nine of 10 second-step mutants exhibited an alteration in ParC at Ser-79 to Tyr or Phe or at Ala-84 to Thr. Third- and fourth-step mutants displaying high-level ciprofloxacin resistance were found to have, in addition to the ParC alteration, a change in GyrA at residues equivalent to Escherichia coli GyrA resistance hot spots Ser-83 and Asp-87 or in GyrB at Asp-435 to Asn, equivalent to E. coli Asp-426, part of a highly conserved EGDSA motif in GyrB. No ParE changes were observed. Complementary analysis of two S. pneumoniae clinical isolates displaying low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin revealed a ParC change at Ser-79 to Phe or Arg-95 to Cys but no changes in GyrA, GyrB, or ParE. A highly resistant isolate, in addition to a ParC mutation, had a GyrA alteration at the residue equivalent to E. coli Asp-87. Thus, in both laboratory strains and clinical isolates, ParC mutations preceded those in GyrA, suggesting that topoisomerase IV is a primary topoisomerase target and gyrase is a secondary target for ciprofloxacin in S. pneumoniae.
Background: New antibacterial compounds are urgently needed; DNA gyrase is a well-validated target.
Results: Diospyrin and other naphthoquinones inhibit DNA gyrase by binding to a novel site in the B subunit.
Conclusion: Naphthoquinones are inhibitors of gyrase with a novel mechanism of action.
Significance: Naphthoquinones have potential as antibacterial compounds against TB.
Tuberculosis and other bacterial diseases represent a significant threat to human health. The DNA topoisomerases are excellent targets for chemotherapy, and DNA gyrase in particular is a well-validated target for antibacterial agents. Naphthoquinones (e.g. diospyrin and 7-methyljuglone) have been shown to have therapeutic potential, particularly against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have found that these compounds are inhibitors of the supercoiling reaction catalyzed by M. tuberculosis gyrase and other gyrases. Our evidence strongly suggests that the compounds bind to the N-terminal domain of GyrB, which contains the ATPase active site, but are not competitive inhibitors of the ATPase reaction. We propose that naphthoquinones bind to GyrB at a novel site close to the ATPase site. This novel mode of action could be exploited to develop new antibacterial agents.
Antibiotics; Antibiotic Action; DNA Gyrase; DNA Topoisomerase; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis; Diospyrin; Naphthoquinones
Quinazoline-2,4-diones, such as PD 0305970, are new DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) inhibitors with potent activity against gram-positive pathogens, including quinolone-resistant isolates. The mechanistic basis of dione activity vis-à-vis quinolones is not understood. We present evidence for Streptococcus pneumoniae gyrase and topo IV that PD 0305970 and quinolones interact differently with the enzyme breakage-reunion and Toprim domains, DNA, and Mg2+-four components that are juxtaposed in the topoisomerase cleavage complex to effect DNA scission. First, PD 0305970 targets primarily gyrase in Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, unlike quinolones, which select predominantly for gyrA (or topo IV parC) mutations in the breakage-reunion domain, unusually the dione selected for novel mutants with alterations that map to a region of the Toprim domain of GyrB (R456H and E474A or E474D) or ParE (D435H and E475A). This “dione resistance-determining region” overlaps the GyrB quinolone resistance-determining region and the region that binds essential Mg2+ ions, each function involving conserved EGDSA and PLRGK motifs. Second, dione-resistant gyrase and topo IV were inhibited by ciprofloxacin, whereas quinolone-resistant enzymes (GyrA S81F and ParC S79F) remained susceptible to PD 0305970. Third, dione-promoted DNA cleavage by gyrase occurred at a distinct repertoire of sites, implying that structural differences with quinolones are sensed at the DNA level. Fourth, unlike the situation with quinolones, the Mg2+ chelator EDTA did not reverse dione-induced gyrase cleavage nor did the dione promote Mg2+-dependent DNA unwinding. It appears that PD 0305970 interacts uniquely to stabilize the cleavage complex of gyrase/topo IV perhaps via an altered orientation directed by the bidentate 3-amino-2,4-dione moiety.
Mutations in DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV genes are frequently encountered in quinolone-resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To investigate the mechanism of their effects at the molecular and cellular levels, we have used an Escherichia coli system to overexpress S. pneumoniae gyrase gyrA and topoisomerase IV parC genes encoding respective Ser81Phe and Ser79Phe mutations, two changes widely associated with quinolone resistance. Nickel chelate chromatography yielded highly purified mutant His-tagged proteins that, in the presence of the corresponding GyrB and ParE subunits, reconstituted gyrase and topoisomerase IV complexes with wild-type specific activities. In enzyme inhibition or DNA cleavage assays, these mutant enzyme complexes were at least 8- to 16-fold less responsive to both sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cipr) phenotype was silent in a sparfloxacin-resistant (Spxr) S. pneumoniae gyrA (Ser81Phe) strain expressing a demonstrably wild-type topoisomerase IV, whereas Spxr was silent in a Cipr parC (Ser79Phe) strain. These epistatic effects provide strong support for a model in which quinolones kill S. pneumoniae by acting not as enzyme inhibitors but as cellular poisons, with sparfloxacin killing preferentially through gyrase and ciprofloxacin through topoisomerase IV. By immunoblotting using subunit-specific antisera, intracellular GyrA/GyrB levels were a modest threefold higher than those of ParC/ParE, most likely insufficient to allow selective drug action by counterbalancing the 20- to 40-fold preference for cleavable-complex formation through topoisomerase IV observed in vitro. To reconcile these results, we suggest that drug-dependent differences in the efficiency by which ternary complexes are formed, processed, or repaired in S. pneumoniae may be key factors determining the killing pathway.