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1.  Reproductive Factors and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk in the California Teachers Study 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8135.
Background
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a malignancy etiologically linked to immunomodulatory exposures and disorders. Endogenous female sex hormones may modify immune function and influence NHL risk. Few studies have examined associations between reproductive factors, which can serve as surrogates for such hormonal exposures, and NHL risk by subtype.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Women in the California Teachers Study cohort provided detailed data in 1995–1996 on reproductive history. Follow-up through 2007 identified 574 women with incident B-cell NHL. Hazard rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations between reproductive factors and all B-cell NHL combined, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, follicular lymphomas, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias/small lymphocytic lymphomas. Pregnancy was marginally associated with lower risk of B-cell NHL (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.68–1.04). Much of the reduction in risk was observed after one full-term pregnancy relative to nulligravid women (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.54–1.06; P for trend <0.01), particularly for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (P for trend = 0.13), but not among women who had only incomplete pregnancies. Age at first full-term pregnancy was marginally inversely associated with B-cell NHL risk overall (P for trend = 0.08) and for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (P for trend = 0.056). Breast feeding was not associated with B-cell NHL risk overall or by subtype.
Conclusions
Full-term pregnancy and early age at first full-term pregnancy account for most of the observed reduction in B-cell NHL risk associated with gravidity. Pregnancy-related hormonal exposures, including prolonged and high-level exposure to progesterone during a full-term pregnancy may inhibit development of B-cell NHL.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008135
PMCID: PMC2780313  PMID: 19956586
2.  Body Size, Recreational Physical Activity, and B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk Among Women in the California Teachers Study 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2009;170(10):1231-1240.
Nutritional status and physical activity are known to alter immune function, which may be relevant to lymphomagenesis. The authors examined body size measurements and recreational physical activity in relation to risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the prospective California Teachers Study. Between 1995 and 2007, 574 women were diagnosed with incident B-cell NHL among 121,216 eligible women aged 22–84 years at cohort entry. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazards models for all B-cell NHL combined and for the 3 most common subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Height was positively associated with risk of all B-cell NHLs (for >1.70 vs. 1.61–1.65 m, relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.96) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.41). Weight and body mass index at age 18 years were positive predictors of B-cell NHL risk overall. These findings indicate that greater height, which may reflect genetics, early life immune function, infectious exposures, nutrition, or growth hormone levels, may play a role in NHL etiology. Adiposity at age 18 years may be more relevant to NHL etiology than that in later life.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwp268
PMCID: PMC2781760  PMID: 19822569
body mass index; body size; cohort studies; exercise; hip; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; waist-hip ratio
3.  Alcohol Consumption Over Time and Risk of Lymphoid Malignancies in the California Teachers Study Cohort 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;172(12):1373-1383.
Several previous studies found inverse associations between alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma. However, most studies were retrospective, and few distinguished former drinkers or infrequent drinkers from consistent nondrinkers. Therefore, the authors investigated whether history of alcohol drinking affected risks of NHL and multiple myeloma among 102,721 eligible women in the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort study in which 496 women were diagnosed with B-cell NHL and 101 were diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1995–1996 and December 31, 2007. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Risk of all types of B-cell NHL combined or multiple myeloma was not associated with self-reported past consumption of alcohol, beer, wine, or liquor at ages 18–22 years, at ages 30–35 years, or during the year before baseline. NHL subtypes were inconsistently associated with alcohol intake. However, women who were former alcohol drinkers at baseline were at elevated risk of overall B-cell NHL (rate ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.97) and follicular lymphoma (rate ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 3.28). The higher risk among former drinkers emphasizes the importance of classifying both current and past alcohol consumption and suggests that factors related to quitting drinking, rather than alcohol itself, may increase B-cell NHL risk.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwq309
PMCID: PMC3105275  PMID: 20952595
alcohol drinking; cohort studies; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; multiple myeloma
4.  Diet and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in the California Teachers Study Cohort 
American journal of epidemiology  2007;165(7):802-813.
Dietary phytochemical compounds, including isoflavones and isothiocyanates, may inhibit cancer development but have not yet been examined in prospective epidemiologic studies of ovarian cancer. The authors have investigated the association between consumption of these and other nutrients and ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Among 97,275 eligible women in the California Teachers Study cohort who completed the baseline dietary assessment in 1995–1996, 280 women developed invasive or borderline ovarian cancer by December 31, 2003. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, with age as the timescale, was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals; all statistical tests were two sided. Intake of isoflavones was associated with lower risk of ovarian cancer. Compared with the risk for women who consumed less than 1 mg of total isoflavones per day, the relative risk of ovarian cancer associated with consumption of more than 3 mg/day was 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.96). Intake of isothiocyanates or foods high in isothiocyanates was not associated with ovarian cancer risk, nor was intake of macronutrients, antioxidant vitamins, or other micronutrients. Although dietary consumption of isoflavones may be associated with decreased ovarian cancer risk, most dietary factors are unlikely to play a major role in ovarian cancer development.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwk065
PMCID: PMC2093945  PMID: 17210953
antioxidants; cohort studies; diet; isoflavones; isothiocyanates; nutrition; ovarian neoplasms; women's health
5.  Oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy use and risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the California Teachers Study 
We examined oral contraceptive (OC) and menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT) use in relation to risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Women under age 85 years participating in the California Teachers Study with no history of hematopoietic cancer were followed from 1995 through 2007. 516 of 114,131 women eligible for OC use analysis and 402 of 54,758 postmenopausal women eligible for MHT use analysis developed B-cell NHL. Multivariable adjusted and stratified Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Ever versus never OC use was marginally associated with lower B-cell NHL risk, particularly among women first using OCs before age 25 years (RR=0.72, 95%CI=0.51-0.99); yet, no duration-response effect was observed. No association was observed for ever versus never MHT use among postmenopausal women (RR=1.05, 95%CI=0.83-1.33) overall, or by formulation (estrogen alone, ET, or estrogen plus progestin, EPT). Among women with no MHT use, having bilateral oophorectomy plus hysterectomy was associated with greater B-cell NHL risk than having natural menopause (RR=3.15, 95%CI=1.62-6.13). Bilateral oophorectomy plus hysterectomy was not associated with risk among women who used ET or EPT. These results indicate that exogenous hormone use does not strongly influence B-cell NHL risk.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25730
PMCID: PMC3258672  PMID: 20957632
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; oral contraceptives; menopausal hormonal therapy; hysterectomy; bilateral oophorectomy
6.  A closer look at non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma cases in a national Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus cohort: a nested case‐control study 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2007;66(12):1627-1632.
Objective
To investigate risk factors for non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and analyse NHL subtypes and characteristics in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods
A national SLE cohort identified through SLE discharge diagnoses in the Swedish hospital discharge register during 1964 to 1995 (n = 6438) was linked to the national cancer register. A nested case control study on SLE patients who developed NHL during this observation period was performed with SLE patients without malignancy as controls. Medical records from cases and controls were reviewed. Tissue specimens on which the lymphoma diagnosis was based were retrieved and reclassified according to the WHO classification. NHLs of the subtype diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were subject to additional immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against bcl‐6, CD10 and IRF‐4 for further subclassification into germinal centre (GC) or non‐GC subtypes.
Results
16 patients with SLE had NHL, and the DLBCL subtype dominated (10 cases). The 5‐year overall survival and mean age at NHL diagnosis were comparable with NHL in the general population—50% and 61 years, respectively. Cyclophosphamide or azathioprine use did not elevate lymphoma risk, but the risk was elevated if haematological or sicca symptoms, or pulmonary involvement was present in the SLE disease. Two patients had DLBCL‐GC subtype and an excellent prognosis.
Conclusions
NHL in this national SLE cohort was predominated by the aggressive DLBCL subtype. The prognosis of NHL was comparable with that of the general lymphoma population. There were no indications of treatment‐induced lymphomas. Molecular subtyping could be a helpful tool to predict prognosis also in SLE patients with DLBCL.
doi:10.1136/ard.2006.067108
PMCID: PMC2095297  PMID: 17517757
7.  Family history of haematopoietic malignancies and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk in the California Teachers Study 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;100(3):524-526.
Family history of haematopoietic malignancies appears to be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but whether risk varies by family member's gender is unclear. Among 121 216 women participating in the prospective California Teachers Study, NHL risk varied by type of haematopoietic malignancy and gender of the relative.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604881
PMCID: PMC2658543  PMID: 19156148
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; family history; haematopoietic malignancy; lymphoma; leukaemia
8.  Pleiotropy of Cancer Susceptibility Variants on the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: The PAGE Consortium 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e89791.
Background
Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is higher among individuals with a family history or a prior diagnosis of other cancers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested that some genetic susceptibility variants are associated with multiple complex traits (pleiotropy).
Objective
We investigated whether common risk variants identified in cancer GWAS may also increase the risk of developing NHL as the first primary cancer.
Methods
As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium, 113 cancer risk variants were analyzed in 1,441 NHL cases and 24,183 controls from three studies (BioVU, Multiethnic Cohort Study, Women's Health Initiative) for their association with the risk of overall NHL and common subtypes [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL)] using an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Study-specific results for each variant were meta-analyzed across studies.
Results
The analysis of NHL subtype-specific GWAS SNPs and overall NHL suggested a shared genetic susceptibility between FL and DLBCL, particularly involving variants in the major histocompatibility complex region (rs6457327 in 6p21.33: FL OR = 1.29, p = 0.013; DLBCL OR = 1.23, p = 0.013; NHL OR = 1.22, p = 5.9×E-05). In the pleiotropy analysis, six risk variants for other cancers were associated with NHL risk, including variants for lung (rs401681 in TERT: OR per C allele = 0.89, p = 3.7×E-03; rs4975616 in TERT: OR per A allele = 0.90, p = 0.01; rs3131379 in MSH5: OR per T allele = 1.16, p = 0.03), prostate (rs7679673 in TET2: OR per C allele = 0.89, p = 5.7×E-03; rs10993994 in MSMB: OR per T allele = 1.09, p = 0.04), and breast (rs3817198 in LSP1: OR per C allele = 1.12, p = 0.01) cancers, but none of these associations remained significant after multiple test correction.
Conclusion
This study does not support strong pleiotropic effects of non-NHL cancer risk variants in NHL etiology; however, larger studies are warranted.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089791
PMCID: PMC3943855  PMID: 24598796
9.  The Relationship between Exposure to Pesticides and the Occurrence of Lymphoid Neoplasm 
Background
The etiology of malignant lymphoma is still largely unknown. This study determines the relationship between exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of lymphoid neoplasms in Shiraz, Southern Iran.
Methods
Between 2007 and 2008, in a case control study conducted in Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran, 200 subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification were enrolled. Controls (n=200) were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and center. Subjects who were a farmer were compared with all other occupations.
Results
Out of the 200 cases that were diagnosed as lymphoid neoplasms, 100 were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 54 Hodgkin's lymphoma and 46 multiple myeloma. Seventy two percent of the NHL's were of the B-cell type, 15% of the T-cell type and the rest were not classified. Furthermore, subjects exposed to pesticides were at an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and MM, but not Hodgkin lymphoma.
Conclusion
Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and MM was highest for exposure to pesticides, among them, insecticide's risk was confirmed.
PMCID: PMC3420024  PMID: 22924112
Exposure; Pesticide; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Hodgkin lymphoma; Multiple myeloma
10.  Lymphoid malignancies in US Asians: incidence rate differences by birthplace and acculturation 
Background
Malignancies of the lymphoid cells, including non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and multiple myeloma (MM), occur at much lower rates in Asians than other racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US). It remains unclear whether these deficits are explained by genetic or environmental factors. To better understand environmental contributions, we examined incidence patterns of lymphoid malignancies among populations characterized by ethnicity, birthplace, and residential neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnic enclave status.
Methods
We obtained data regarding all Asian patients diagnosed with lymphoid malignancies between 1988 and 2004 from the California Cancer Registry and neighborhood characteristics from US Census data.
Results
While incidence rates of most lymphoid malignancies were lower among Asian than white populations, only follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), and nodular sclerosis (NS) HL rates were statistically significantly lower among foreign-born than US-born Asians, with incidence rate ratios ranging from 0.34 to 0.87. Rates of CLL/SLL and NS HL were also lower among Asian women living in ethnic enclaves or lower-SES neighborhoods than those living elsewhere. Conclusions: These observations support strong roles of environmental factors in the causation of FL, CLL/SLL, and NS HL.
Impact
Studying specific lymphoid malignancies in US Asians may provide valuable insight towards understanding their environmental causes.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0038
PMCID: PMC3111874  PMID: 21493873
lymphoid malignancies; Asians; immigration; environmental causes
11.  Outcomes for lymphoid malignancies in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) as compared to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program 
Hematological oncology  2010;28(3):133-136.
INTRODUCTION
Vital statistics for the lymphoid malignancies obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program have seldom been directly compared to data from alternative national databases; while SEER is recognized as the standard, some lymphoid malignancies—especially the chronic ones—may be underreported.
METHODS
We compared the incidence, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in SEER to that in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a national cohort study of 121,700 female registered nurses, matching for age and race.
RESULTS
In over 2.5 million person-years, the incidence of HL was the same as in SEER (SIR= 1.01 [0.75, 1.26]), while the incidence of NHL, CLL and MM were slightly higher. All-cause mortality was lower for the lymphoid malignancies except for MM, which was the same; there were no differences in cause-specific mortality, except for MM (HR= 1.26 [1.07, 1.48]).
CONCLUSION
Our analysis suggests that, at least among white women, SEER is a reliable data source with respect to lymphoid malignancies.
doi:10.1002/hon.930
PMCID: PMC2946462  PMID: 19866451
hematologic malignancy; health services research; lymphoma; leukemia; myeloma
12.  Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Women: Reproductive Factors and Exogenous Hormone Use 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2008;168(3):278-288.
Few studies of reproductive hormone exposures and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have examined NHL subtypes. Associations between reproductive hormonal factors and risk of all NHL and of two predominant subtypes, diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL) (n = 233) and follicular lymphoma (n = 173), were investigated among women (n = 581) in a large, population-based, case-control study (1,591 cases, 2,515 controls). Controls (n = 836) identified by random digit dialing were frequency matched by age and county to incident NHL cases ascertained in the San Francisco Bay Area of California in 1988–1993. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. More than four pregnancies indicated a possible lower risk of all NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 1.2; p-trend = 0.06) and of DLCL (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.90; p-trend = 0.01). Exclusive use of menopausal hormone therapy for ≥5 years was associated with a reduced risk of all NHL (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.98) and of DLCL (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.85). Oral contraceptive use indicated a lower risk of all NHL (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.94), and perhaps DLCL (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.51, 1.2), and of follicular lymphoma (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.2). Results suggest that endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones confer different risks by NHL subtype and are associated with a reduced risk of DLCL in women.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwn119
PMCID: PMC2727261  PMID: 18550561
case-control studies; contraception; estrogens; hormone replacement therapy; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; menopause; pregnancy; reproduction
13.  Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Concurrent Lymphoid Malignancy 
Bone Marrow Transplantation  2011;47(6):804-809.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can be curative for both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and lymphoid malignancies. Little is known about the efficacy of allogeneic HCT in patients in whom both myeloid and lymphoid disorders are present at the time of HCT. We analyzed outcomes in 21 patients with MDS and concurrent lymphoid malignancy when undergoing allogeneic HCT. Seventeen patients had received extensive prior cytotoxic chemotherapy, including autologous HCT in seven, for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n=7), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, n=2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n=5), NHL plus HL (n=1), multiple myeloma (n=1), or T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (n=1), and had, presumably, developed MDS as a consequence of therapy. Four previously untreated patients had CLL. Nineteen patients were conditioned with high-dose (n=14) or reduced-intensity regimens (n=5), and transplanted from HLA-matched or one antigen/allele mismatched related (n=10) or unrelated (n=9) donors; two patients received HLA-haploidentical related transplants following conditioning with a modified conditioning regimen. Currently, 2 of 4 previously untreated, and 2 of 17 previously treated patients are surviving in remission of both MDS and lymphoid malignancies. However, the high non-relapse mortality among previously treated patients, even with reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, indicates that new transplant strategies need to be developed.
doi:10.1038/bmt.2011.180
PMCID: PMC3237793  PMID: 21909142
concurrent MDS and lymphoid malignancy; conditioning regimens; secondary MDS; relapse
14.  Parents’ Ages at Birth and Risk of Adult-onset Hematologic Malignancies Among Female Teachers in California 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;171(12):1262-1269.
Although advanced parental age at one's birth has been associated with increased risk of breast and prostate cancers, few studies have examined its effect on adult-onset sporadic hematologic malignancies. The authors examined the association of parents’ ages at women's births with risk of hematologic malignancies among 110,999 eligible women aged 22–84 years recruited into the prospective California Teachers Study. Between 1995 and 2007, 819 women without a family history of hematologic malignancies were diagnosed with incident lymphoma, leukemia (primarily acute myeloid leukemia), or multiple myeloma. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Paternal age was positively associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adjustment for race and birth order (relative risk for age ≥40 vs. <25 years = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 2.13; P-trend = 0.01). Further adjustment for maternal age did not materially alter the association. By contrast, the elevated non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk associated with advanced maternal age (≥40 years) became null when paternal age was included in the statistical model. No association was observed for acute myeloid leukemia or multiple myeloma. Advanced paternal age may play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma etiology. Potential etiologic mechanisms include de novo gene mutations, aberrant paternal gene imprinting, or telomere/telomerase biology.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwq090
PMCID: PMC2915497  PMID: 20507900
cohort studies; hematologic neoplasms; leukemia, myeloid, acute; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; maternal age; paternal age
15.  Development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis: A case report and review of the literature 
Patients with autoimmune disorders seem to have an elevated risk of lymphoma, especially non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). The increased risk has been attributed to the disturbance of immune function found in these patients or to the immunosuppressive therapy used to treat the autoimmune disorders. However, little information exists about the estimated baseline risk for lymphoma in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In this case report, we describe a female patient who developed nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ten years following PBC diagnosis. Twenty five additional case reports (19 NHL and 4 Hodgkin’s disease (HD), 2 without data about NHL or Hodgkin’s disease) predominantly females were identified in the English literature. B-cell lymphoma was the most common NHL type reported but beyond that no clear predisposition for any specific lymphoma subtype was documented. PBC usually preceded lymphoma diagnosis. Fifteen cases had extranodal localization and the most common site was the liver.
PMCID: PMC3959296
PBC; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; autoimmune disorders
16.  Dietary Vitamin D and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Multiethnic Cohort 
The British journal of nutrition  2009;103(4):581-584.
This study explored the association between dietary vitamin D and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) includes more than 215,000 Caucasians, African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, and Latinos, aged 45-75. After 10 years of follow-up, 939 incident NHL cases were identified. Risk was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders. Vitamin D intake was not associated with NHL risk in the entire cohort (Ptrend=0.72 for men and Ptrend=0.83 for women), but significantly lowered disease risk in African American women (HR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90, Ptrend=0.03) and was borderline protective in African American men (HR=0.68; 95% CI: 0.39-1.19; Ptrend=0.31) when the highest to the lowest tertile was compared. In NHL subtype analyses, a 19%, 36%, and 32% lowered risk, although not significant, was observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in women, respectively. High dietary intake of vitamin D did not show a protective effect against NHL within the MEC except among African Americans, possibly because vitamin D production due to sun exposure is limited in this population.
doi:10.1017/S0007114509992029
PMCID: PMC2935689  PMID: 19781122
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; dietary vitamin D; prospective studies; ethnicity
17.  Blood Erythrocyte Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead and the Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: A Nested Case-Control Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81892.
Background
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma.
Methods
194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible.
Results
There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65).
Conclusions
This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081892
PMCID: PMC3842971  PMID: 24312375
18.  Long-Term Survival And Late Relapse In 2-Year Survivors Of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation For Hodgkin And Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 
British journal of haematology  2009;147(1):129-139.
Summary
This study described long-term outcomes of autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) for advanced Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The study included recipients of autologous HCT for HL (N=407) and NHL (N=960) from 1990–98 who were in continuous complete remission for at least 2 years post-HCT. Median follow-up was 104 months for HL and 107 months for NHL. Overall survival at 10-years was 77% (72–82%) for HL, 78% (73–82%) for diffuse large-cell NHL, 77% (71–83%) for follicular NHL, 85% (75–93%) for lymphoblastic/Burkitt NHL, 52% (37–67%) for mantle-cell NHL and 77% (67–85%) for other NHL. On multivariate analysis, mantle-cell NHL had the highest relative-risk for late mortality (2.87 (1.70–4.87)), while the risks of death for other histologies were comparable. Relapse was the most common cause of death. Relative mortality compared to age, race and gender adjusted normal population remained significantly elevated and was 14.8 (6.3–23.3) for HL and 5.9 (3.6–8.2) for NHL at 10-years post-HCT. Recipients of autologous HCT for HL and NHL who remain in remission for at least 2-years have favorable subsequent long-term survival but remain at risk for late relapse. Compared to the general population, mortality rates continue to remain elevated at 10-years post-transplantation.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07798.x
PMCID: PMC2748179  PMID: 19573079
Hodgkin lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation; Overall survival
19.  Reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, and risk of lymphoid neoplasms among women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort 
Reasons for higher incidence of lymphoid neoplasms among men than women are unknown. Because female sex hormones have immunomodulatory effects, reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use may affect risk for lymphoid malignancies. Previous epidemiologic studies on this topic have yielded conflicting results. Within the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort, we prospectively analyzed detailed, questionnaire-derived information on menstrual and reproductive factors and use of oral contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy among 134,074 US women. Using multivariable proportional hazards regression models, we estimated relative risks (RRs) for 85 plasma cell neoplasms and 417 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) identified during follow-up from 1996-2002. We observed no statistically significant associations between plasma cell neoplasms, NHL, or the three most common NHL subtypes and age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, oral contraceptive use, or menopausal status at baseline. For menopausal hormone therapy use, overall associations between NHL and unopposed estrogen and estrogen plus progestin were null, with the potential exception of an inverse association (RR=0.49, 95% CI, 0.25-0.96) between use of unopposed estrogen and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common NHL subtype, among women with a hysterectomy. These data do not support an important role for reproductive factors or exogenous hormones in modulating lymphomagenesis.
doi:10.1002/ijc.24248
PMCID: PMC2701156  PMID: 19253366
20.  Population-based study of autoimmune conditions and the risk of specific lymphoid malignancies 
Some autoimmune conditions are associated with increased risk of lymphoid malignancies, but information on specific malignancy subtypes is limited. From the U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we selected 44,350 lymphoid malignancy cases (≥67 years) and 122,531 population-based controls. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) comparing the prevalence of autoimmune conditions in cases and controls, by lymphoid malignancy subtype, adjusted for gender, age at malignancy/selection, year of malignancy/selection, race and number of physician claims. The strongest associations observed by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rheumatoid arthritis (OR 1.4, 95%CI 1.2-1.5) and Sjögren syndrome (2.0, 1.5-2.8); T-cell lymphoma with hemolytic anemia (9.7, 4.3-22), psoriasis (3.1, 2.5-4.0), discoid lupus erythematosus (4.4, 2.3-8.4), and celiac disease (5.0, 2.4-14.); and marginal zone lymphoma with Sjögren syndrome (6.6, 4.6-9.5), systemic lupus erythematosus (2.8, 1.7-4.7), and hemolytic anemia (7.4, 3.1-18). Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with several autoimmune conditions. Multiple myeloma was associated only with pernicious anemia (1.5, 1.3-1.7). Several autoimmune conditions were associated with increased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, especially NHLs of diffuse large B-cell, marginal zone and T-cell subtypes. These results support a mechanism whereby chronic antigenic stimulation leads to lymphoid malignancy.
doi:10.1002/ijc.24287
PMCID: PMC2692814  PMID: 19365835
21.  Evaluation of HTLV-I and HCV Prevalence in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 
Objective(s): Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a lymphoproliferative malignancy in which cells undergo microscopic changes with unknown etiology, and risk factors such as age, sex, genetic and environmental factors are involved. The relationship between the presence of infectious agents and the development of lymphoproliferative diseases has been an interesting research topic. HTLV-I (Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1) predisposes the infected individulas to opportunistic neoplasms and lymphoid malignancies. HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) the etiologic agent of hepatitis C, is hepatotropic, and long-term infection with HCV can continuously stimulate and expand lymphocyte clones, resulting in further transformation and finally aggressive malignancies.
Materials and Methods: 54 tissue samples diagnosed with NHL were selected to be studied for the presence of HTLV-I and HCV viruses. DNA and RNA were extracted from samples, cDNA was synthesized and using specific primers presence of HTLV-I and HCV viruses were investigated by PCR and nested RT-PCR methods.
Results: In 10 out of 54 (18.8%) samples (7 men and 3 women), HTLV-I was present, and 4 out of 54 (7.4%) samples (3 men and one woman) were positive for HCV.
Conclusion: Based on our results, it is recommended that in patients with NHL, infection with HTLV-I and HCV viruses need to be screened.
PMCID: PMC3881248  PMID: 24470870
Human T Lymphotropic Virus; Hepatitis C virus; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
22.  Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Pakistan 
Lymphomas are classified as Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (HL; NHL); NHL being further sub-divided into B, T and Null cell categories on the basis of WHO classification. With a few exceptions worldwide, B-NHL are more common, accounting approximately 80-85% of all cases of NHL compared to T-NHL, which accounts for about 10-15% of all NHL cases. The incidence of NHL has shown a steady increase and attention is being focused on the possible causes of this increase. Epidemiologic studies indicate that environmental factors do play a role in the causation of NHL, such as drugs, pesticides, solvents, hair dyes, viruses (EBV, HTLV-1, Hepatitic C and HIV) and Helicobacter pylori. Hence many different environmental factors of risk acting on large segments of the population can contribute for increase of NHL.
PMCID: PMC3920492  PMID: 24551760
Non-Hodgkin; lymphoma; NHL; Pakistan
23.  Concurrent Infection of Hepatitis B Virus Negatively Affects the Clinical Outcome and Prognosis of Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma after Chemotherapy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69400.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hepatotropic and lymphotropic. HBV-infected individuals have an increased risk of developing malignant lymphoma, and the HBV infection rate in lymphoma patients is significantly higher than that in the general population. However, the exact mechanism and correlation between HBV infection and lymphoma onset and progression currently remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients with different HBV infection statuses. The results showed that the HBV infection rate was significantly higher in patients with B-cell type and late stage of NHL. The chemotherapy efficacy for NHL patients with chronic active HBV infection was significantly lower than that for the patients with chronic inactive HBV infection, the patients with HBV carriers and the patients without HBV infection. In addition, the NHL chemotherapy activated HBV replication and caused significant liver dysfunction, which could further reduce the chemotherapy efficacy. Through Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank analysis, we found that the HBV infection status in NHL patients was significantly correlated with the patients’ progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Compared with the patients without HBV infection (PFS: 95% CI 47.915 to 55.640; OS: 95% CI 81.324 to 86.858), the PFS and OS of the patients with chronic active HBV infection were significantly shorter (PFS: 95% CI 9.424 to 42.589, P < 0.001; OS: 95% CI 42.840 to 82.259, P = 0.006). The study demonstrated that the sustained HBV replication in patients with chronic active HBV infection could be a key factor that influences the prognosis of NHL patients after chemotherapy, and thus may provide information for designing rational clinical treatments for NHL patients with different HBV infection statuses and improve the treatment efficacy and prognosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069400
PMCID: PMC3704665  PMID: 23861969
24.  Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: results of a French case-control study 
Objectives
Investigating the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms (LN) in men.
Methods
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in six centres in France between 2000 and 2004. The cases were incident cases with a diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm aged 18 to 75 years. During the same period, controls of the same age and gender as the cases were recruited in the same hospital, mainly in the orthopaedic and rheumatological departments. Exposures to pesticides were evaluated through specific interviews and case-by-case expert reviews. Four hundred and ninety-one cases (244 cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), 87 of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), 104 of lymphoproliferative syndromes (LPS) and 56 of multiple myeloma (MM) cases) and 456 controls were included in the analyses. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regressions.
Results
Positive associations between HL and occupational exposure to triazole fungicides and urea herbicides were observed (OR=8.4 [2.2–32.4], 10.8 [2.4–48.1] respectively). Exposure to insecticides, fungicides and herbicides were linked to a three-fold increases in MM risk (OR=2.8 [1.2–6.5], 3.2 [1.4–7.2], 2.9 [1.3–6.5]). For LPS subtypes, associations restricted to hairy-cell leukaemia (HCL) were evidenced for exposure to organochlorine insecticides, phenoxy herbicides and triazine herbicides (OR=4.9 [1.1–21.2], 4.1 [1.1–15.5], 5.1 [1.4–19.3]), although based on small numbers. Lastly, despite the increased odds ratios for organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, carbamate fungicides and triazine herbicides, no significant associations were evidenced for NHL.
Conclusions
The results, based on case-by-case expert review of occupation-specific questionnaires, support the hypothesis that occupational pesticide exposures may be involved in HL, MM and HCL and do not rule out a role in NHL. The analyses identified specific pesticides that deserve further investigation and the findings were consistent with those of previous studies.
doi:10.1136/oem.2008.040972
PMCID: PMC2728754  PMID: 19017688
Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Case-Control Studies; Employment; statistics & numerical data; France; epidemiology; Fungicides, Industrial; toxicity; Herbicides; toxicity; Hodgkin Disease; chemically induced; epidemiology; Humans; Insecticides; toxicity; Leukemia, Hairy Cell; chemically induced; epidemiology; Lymphoma; chemically induced; epidemiology; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; chemically induced; epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Multiple Myeloma; chemically induced; epidemiology; Occupational Diseases; chemically induced; epidemiology; Occupational Exposure; adverse effects; statistics & numerical data; Pesticides; toxicity; Young Adult; occupation; pesticides; farming; lymphoma; epidemiology.
25.  Lymphoid organisation in labial salivary gland biopsies is a possible predictor for the development of malignant lymphoma in primary Sjögren's syndrome 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2011;70(8):1363-1368.
Objective
The development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) confers a high risk of mortality in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients, but the sensitivity and specificity of proposed lymphoma predictors are insufficient for practical use. The performance of lymphoid organisation in the form of germinal centre (GC)-like lesions was evaluated in labial salivary gland biopsies taken at pSS diagnosis as a potential lymphoma-predicting biomarker.
Methods
Labial salivary gland tissue biopsies available from two Swedish pSS research cohorts (n=175) were re-evaluated by light microscopy in a blind study in order to identify GC-like structures as a sign of ectopic lymphoid tissue formation and organisation. A linkage study was performed with the Swedish Cancer Registry for lymphoma identification. The risk of developing NHL in GC-positive patients in comparison with GC-negative patients was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier statistics and log-rank test. Associations between GC-like structures and clinical and/or laboratory disease markers were also determined using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests.
Results
At diagnosis, 25% of pSS patients had GC-like structures in their salivary glands. Seven of the 175 patients studied (14% GC+ and 0.8% GC−) developed NHL during 1855 patient-years at risk, with a median onset of 7 years following the initial diagnostic salivary gland biopsy. Six of the seven patients had GC-like structures at diagnosis; the remaining patient was GC negative at the time of diagnosis (p=0.001).
Conclusions
The detection of GC-like structures by light microscopy in pSS diagnostic salivary biopsies is proposed as a highly predictive and easy-to-obtain marker for NHL development. This allows for risk stratification of patients and the possibility to initiate preventive B-cell-directed therapy.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.144782
PMCID: PMC3128323  PMID: 21715359

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