Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range.
To test whether the altitudinal limit of tree growth is determined by carbons shortage or by a limitation in growth we investigated non structural carbohydrates and their components starch and total soluble sugars in Pinus cembra trees along an elevational gradient in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. NSC contents in needles, branches, stems, and coarse roots were measured throughout an entire growing season. At the tissue level NSC contents were not significantly more abundant in treeline trees as compared to trees at lower elevations. Along our 425 m elevational transect from the closed forest to the treeline we failed to find a stable elevational trend in the total NSC pool of entire trees and observed within season increases in the tree’s NSC pool that can be attributed to an altitudinal increase in leaf mass as needles contained the largest NSC fraction of the whole tree NSC pool. Furthermore, whole tree NSC contents were positively correlated with net photosynthetic capacity. Although our observed NSC characteristics do not support the hypothesis that tree life at their upper elevational limit is determined by an insufficient carbon balance we found no consistent confirmation for the sink limitation hypothesis.
Non structural carbohydrates; seasonal variation; elevational gradient; timberline ecotone; treeline formation; treelife limitation
Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height) are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.
Background and Aims
Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions.
In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits.
Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs.
The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level.
Growth rings; plant diversity; plant functional types; PFTs; ski slope; soil erosion; tensile strength; alpine plants
Environmental stress can accelerate the evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins and create new functions specialized for different environments, enhancing an organism's fitness to stressful environments. Pikas (order Lagomorpha), endemic, non-hibernating mammals in the modern Holarctic Region, live in cold regions at either high altitudes or high latitudes and have a maximum distribution of species diversification confined to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Variations in energy metabolism are remarkable for them living in cold environments. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in energy homeostasis.
To examine the extent of leptin variations within the Ochotona family, we cloned the entire coding sequence of pika leptin from 6 species in two regions (Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Inner Mongolia steppe in China) and the leptin sequences of plateau pikas (O. curzonia) from different altitudes on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We carried out both DNA and amino acid sequence analyses in molecular evolution and compared modeled spatial structures. Our results show that positive selection (PS) acts on pika leptin, while nine PS sites located within the functionally significant segment 85-119 of leptin and one unique motif appeared only in pika lineages-the ATP synthase α and β subunit signature site. To reveal the environmental factors affecting sequence evolution of pika leptin, relative rate test was performed in pikas from different altitudes. Stepwise multiple regression shows that temperature is significantly and negatively correlated with the rates of non-synonymous substitution (Ka) and amino acid substitution (Aa), whereas altitude does not significantly affect synonymous substitution (Ks), Ka and Aa.
Our findings support the viewpoint that adaptive evolution may occur in pika leptin, which may play important roles in pikas' ecological adaptation to extreme environmental stress. We speculate that cold, and probably not hypoxia, may be the primary environmental factor for driving adaptive evolution of pika leptin.
• Background Many plant species can modify their root architecture to enable them to forage for heterogeneously distributed nutrients in the soil. The foraging response normally involves increased proliferation of lateral roots within nutrient-rich soil patches, but much remains to be understood about the signalling mechanisms that enable roots to sense variations in the external concentrations of different mineral nutrients and to modify their patterns of growth and development accordingly.
• Scope In this review we consider different aspects of the way in which the nitrogen supply can modify root branching, focusing on Arabidopsis thaliana. Our current understanding of the mechanism of nitrate stimulation of lateral root growth and the role of the ANR1 gene are summarized. In addition, evidence supporting the possible role of auxin in regulating the systemic inhibition of early lateral root development by high rates of nitrate supply is presented. Finally, we examine recent evidence that an amino acid, l-glutamate, can act as an external signal to elicit complex changes in root growth and development.
• Conclusions It is clear that plants have evolved sophisticated pathways for sensing and responding to changes in different components of the external nitrogen supply as well as their own internal nitrogen status. We speculate on the possibility that the effects elicited by external l-glutamate represent a novel form of foraging response that could potentially enhance a plant's ability to compete with its neighbours and micro-organisms for localized sources of organic nitrogen.
Arabidopsis thaliana; auxin; dissolved organic nitrogen; foraging; glutamate; lateral roots; MADS box transcription factor; nitrate; nitrogen; root architecture; root development; roots; signalling; Thlaspi caerulescens
Background and Aims
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the factors limiting crop production on acid soils. However, genotypic differences exist among plant species or cultivars in response to Al toxicity. This study aims to investigate genotypic differences among eight cultivars of tatary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) for Al resistance and explore the possible mechanisms of Al resistance.
Al resistance was evaluated based on relative root elongation (root elongation with Al/root elongation without Al). Root apex Al content, pectin content and exudation of root organic acids were determined and compared.
Genotypic differences among the eight cultivars were correlated with exclusion of Al from the root apex. However, there was a lack of correlation between Al exclusion and Al-induced oxalate secretion. Interestingly, cell-wall pectin content of the root apex was generally lower in Al-resistant cultivars than in Al-sensitive cultivars. Although we were unable to establish a significant correlation between Al exclusion and pectin content among the eight cultivars, a strong correlation could be established among six cultivars, in which the pectin content in the most Al-resistant cultivar ‘Chuan’ was significantly lower than that in the most Al-sensitive cultivar ‘Liuku2’. Furthermore, root apex cell-wall pectin methylesterase activity (PME) was similar in ‘Chuan’ and ‘Liuku2’ in the absence of Al, but Al treatment resulted in increased PME activity in ‘Liuku2’ compared with ‘Chuan’. Immunolocalization of pectins also showed that the two cultivars had similar amounts of either low-methyl-ester pectins or high-methyl-ester pectins in the absence of Al, but Al treatment resulted in a more significant increase of low-methyl-ester pectins and decrease of high-methyl-ester pectins in ‘Liuku2’.
Cell-wall pectin content may contribute, at least in part, to differential Al resistance among tatary buckwheat cultivars.
Aluminium resistance; cell wall; exclusion mechanism; Fagopyrum tataricum; pectin; pectin methylesterase; oxalate; toxicity
Background and Aims
This study analysed the differences in nitrogen (N), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and biomass allocation to the roots and shoots of 18 species of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs with different shoot-rooting and resprouting abilities. Root N and NSC concentrations of strict root-sprouters and species resprouting from the base of the stems were also compared.
Soluble sugars (SS), starch and N concentrations were assessed in roots and shoots. The root : shoot ratio of each species was obtained by thorough root excavations. Cross-species analyses were complemented by phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs).
Shoot-rooting species showed a preferential allocation of starch to shoots rather than roots as compared with non-shoot-rooting species. Resprouters displayed greater starch concentrations than non-sprouters in both shoots and roots. Trends were maintained after PICs analyses, but differences became weak when root-sprouters versus non-root-sprouters were compared. Within resprouters, strict root-sprouters showed greater root concentrations and a preferential allocation of starch to the roots than stem-sprouters. No differences were found in the root : shoot ratio of species with different rooting and resprouting abilities.
The shoot-rooting ability of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs seems to depend on the preferential allocation of starch and SS to shoots, though alternative C-sources such as current photosynthates may also be involved. In contrast to plants from other mediterranean areas of the world, the resprouting ability of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs is not related to a preferential allocation of N, NSC and biomass to roots.
Mediterranean dwarf shrubs; nitrogen; non-structural carbohydrates; sprouting; resprouting; disturbance response; root : shoot ratio; shoot-rooting ability; adventitious roots; allocation pattern; starch; chamaephytes
The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (AL:AR). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (AR) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (gs) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (kr) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (ψL) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (–0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (–1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately –0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by –0.15 MPa (–1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at –1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, gs of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35–20 mmol vine−1 s−1 during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (kr) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa−1 s−1 during that same time period. The changes in kr could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root segments. Thus, the manner in which drought tolerance was conveyed to the drought-sensitive clone appeared to arise from deep root proliferation during the hottest and driest part of the season, rather than through changes in xylem structure, xylem density or stomatal regulation. This information can be useful to growers on a site-specific basis in selecting rootstocks for grape clonal material (scions) grafted to them.
Drought tolerance; grape; root hydraulic conductance; root hydraulic conductivity; root water relations; stomatal conductance; Vitis vinifera
This study focuses on the analysis of polysaccharide residues from the cell walls of fruits and vegetables: tomato, potato, pumpkin, carrot and celery root. An alcohol-insoluble residue was prepared from plant material by extraction using the hot ethyl alcohol method and then cell wall fractions soluble in trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetate, sodium carbonate and alkaline solution were sequentially extracted. Infrared spectroscopy combined with Fourier transform (FT-IR) was used to evaluate differences among cell wall residues and among species after each step of sequential extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses. Additionally, pectic substances were identified using an Automated Wet Chemistry Analyser. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to FT-IR spectra in two regions: 1,800–1,200 cm−1 and 1,200–800 cm−1 in order to distinguish different components of cell wall polysaccharides. This method also allowed us the possibility of highlighting the most important wavenumbers for each type of polysaccharide: 1,740, 1,610 and 1,240 cm−1 denoting pectins or 1,370 and 1,317 cm−1 denoting hemicelluloses and cellulose, respectively.
FT-IR spectroscopy; Vegetable and fruit cell walls; Principal component analysis; Pectin; Hemicellulose
The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner Alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner Alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during the year 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to c. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations were rising in all tissues (branch, stem, root) till end of July, except in needles where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site NSC concentrations in the above ground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in above ground growth, possibly due to elevated below ground carbon demand. In conclusion our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though C-reserves were not exhausted, a sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality.
non-structural carbohydrates; Scots pine; drought; dry inner Alpine valley; carbon starvation; tree mortality
The relationships between plant carbon resources, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity in a monospecific, old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest were investigated by manipulating carbon flux by girdling. We hypothesized that disruption of the carbon supply would not affect diversity and EMF species numbers if EM fungi can be supplied by plant internal carbohydrate resources or would result in selective disappearance of EMF taxa because of differences in carbon demand of different fungi. Tree carbohydrate status, root demography, EMF colonization, and EMF taxon abundance were measured repeatedly during 1 year after girdling. Girdling did not affect root colonization but decreased EMF species richness of an estimated 79 to 90 taxa to about 40 taxa. Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius blennius, and Tomentella lapida were dominant, colonizing about 70% of the root tips, and remained unaffected by girdling. Mainly cryptic EMF species disappeared. Therefore, the Shannon-Wiener index (H′) decreased but evenness was unaffected. H′ was positively correlated with glucose, fructose, and starch concentrations of fine roots and also with the ratio of dissolved organic carbon to dissolved organic nitrogen (DOC/DON), suggesting that both H′ and DOC/DON were governed by changes in belowground carbon allocation. Our results suggest that beech maintains numerous rare EMF species by recent photosynthate. These EM fungi may constitute biological insurance for adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The preservation of taxa previously not known to colonize beech may, thus, form an important reservoir for future forest development.
Root competition is an almost ubiquitous feature of plant communities with profound effects on their structure and composition. Far beyond the traditional view that plants interact mainly through resource depletion (exploitation competition), roots are known to be able to interact with their environment using a large variety of mechanisms that may inhibit or enhance access of other roots to the resource or affect plant growth (contest interactions). However, an extensive analysis on how these contest root interactions may affect species interaction abilities is almost lacking.
In a common garden experiment with ten perennial plant species we forced pairs of plants of the same or different species to overlap their roots and analyzed how belowground contest interactions affected plant performance, biomass allocation patterns, and competitive abilities under abundant resource supply. Our results showed that net interaction outcome ranged from negative to positive, affecting total plant mass and allocation patterns. A species could be a strong competitor against one species, weaker against another one, and even facilitator to a third species. This leads to sets of species where competitive hierarchies may be clear but also to groups where such rankings are not, suggesting that intransitive root interactions may be crucial for species coexistence.
The outcome of belowground contest interactions is strongly dependent on neighbours' identity. In natural plant communities this conditional outcome may hypothetically help species to interact in non-hierarchical and intransitive networks, which in turn might promote coexistence.
The influence of various c oncentrations of K⁺, nitrogen sources, and inoculation with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated in tomato plants. Increased potassium concentration increased top and root fresh weights of intact plants and fresh weights of excised roots. Nitrate-fertilized plants weighed more than plants receiving ammonium independent of the K level in the medium. Nematode counts on roots were not affected by nutritional differences in intact or excised roots. In intact roots a high percentage of males was recorded at low K⁺ levels, whereas in excised roots the proportion of males in the population rose as the K⁺ levels increased. Inoculated intact roots accumulated K⁺ when the level of potassium supply was low; infected excised roots contained less K⁺ than did nematode-free roots.
ammonium; nitrate; nutrition; physiology; potassium
This is a comparative study of intra canal stress patterns in endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with: average sized canal diameter and wide canals reinforced with three different post systems - cast post and core, carbon fiber post, stainless steel post; restored with ceramic crown using finite element analysis (FEA). All the models were subjected to a force of 100N applied at 450 to the long axis of the tooth at the middle third of the palatal surface of the restored ceramic crown.
The FEA revealed that all the post systems showed maximum stress in the coronal and middle third of the root. Maximum stress was seen on the inner dentinal wall in case of stainless steel post followed by cast gold and carbon fiber post, both in the models without reinforcement as well as in the reinforced models.
Cast post and core; carbon fiber post; FEA; FEM; stainless steel post
Background and Aims
Studies of the plasticity of functional root traits involved in resource acquisition have focused mainly on root length without considering such ‘morphological components’ as biomass allocation, specific root length, root fineness, and tissue density that affect root length. The plasticity of the above components in response to nitrate supply was studied in each root order of two co-generic citrus rootstocks, namely the fast-growing Citrus jambhiri ‘Rough Lemon’ (RL) and the slow-growing Citrus reshni ‘Cleopatra Mandarin’ (CM).
Morphological traits of individual root orders of CM and RL, grown at different nitrate levels (NO3-N at 0·1, 0·5, 1 and 10 mm) were examined by using an image-specific analysis system.
At high nitrate levels, the root length ratio, root mass ratio and, to a lesser degree, specific root length, root fineness and tissue density of tap and 1st-order laterals in both CM and RL were reduced. In 2nd-order laterals, however, the same treatment led to increased values of each morphological trait in CM but decreased values of the same traits in RL. At low nitrate supply, CM exhibited longer tap roots whereas RL developed longer 2nd-order laterals. These effects were due to root mass ratio and, to a lesser extent, specific root length.
Biomass allocation was the main component of nitrate-induced changes in root length ratio. The 2nd-order laterals were more sensitive to nitrate availability than the tap root and 1st-order laterals. At low nitrate availability, RL displayed longer 2nd-order lateral roots and lower root plasticity than CM. This suggests a different root growth strategy among citrus rootstocks for adapting to nitrate availability: RL invests in 2nd-order laterals, the preferred zone for acquiring the nutrient, whereas CM responds with longer tap roots.
Root morphology; root orders; phenotypic plasticity; nitrate; Citrus jambhiri; Citrus reshni
Lignin is a highly abundant biopolymer synthesized by plants as a complex component of plant secondary cell walls. Efforts to utilize lignin-based bioproducts are needed.
Herein we identify and characterize the composition and pyrolytic deconstruction characteristics of high-lignin feedstocks. Feedstocks displaying the highest levels of lignin were identified as drupe endocarp biomass arising as agricultural waste from horticultural crops. By performing pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized lignin-derived deconstruction products from endocarp biomass and compared these with switchgrass. By comparing individual pyrolytic products, we document higher amounts of acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, acetone and furfural in switchgrass compared to endocarp tissue, which is consistent with high holocellulose relative to lignin. By contrast, greater yields of lignin-based pyrolytic products such as phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol arising from drupe endocarp tissue are documented.
Differences in product yield, thermal decomposition rates and molecular species distribution among the feedstocks illustrate the potential of high-lignin endocarp feedstocks to generate valuable chemicals by thermochemical deconstruction.
biofuels; catalytic fast pyrolysis; bio-oil; lignocellulose; endocarp; bioenergy
Root climbers such as English ivy (Hedera helix) rely on specialized adventitious roots for attachment, enabling the plants to climb on a wide range of natural and artificial substrates. Despite their importance for the climbing habit, the biomechanical properties of these specialized adventitious roots compared with standard roots and their performance in the attachment to different host species or inert substrates have not been studied. Here organs and tissues involved in the attachment are characterized and their significance in regard to a broader functional and ecological aspect is discussed. Depending on the substrate, the root clusters show different types of failure modes at various frequencies, demonstrating the close interaction between the climber and its substrates. With a Young’s Modulus of 109.2 MPa, the attachment roots are relatively stiff for non-woody roots. The central cylinders of the attachment roots show a high tensile strength of 38 MPa and a very high extensibility of 34%. In host trees naturally co-distributed with English ivy, a ‘balanced’ occurrence of failure of the attachment system of the climber and the bark of the host is found, suggesting a co-evolution of climber and host. Maximum loads of root clusters normalized by the number of roots match those of individually tested attachment roots. In comparison with most subterranean roots the properties and structure of the attachment roots of English ivy show distinct differences. There exist similarities to the properties found for roots of Galium aparine, suggesting a trend in not fully self-supporting plants towards a higher extensibility.
Attachment system; biomechanics; English ivy; Hedera helix; maximum strain; root climber; substrate; tensile strength; Young’s Modulus
Although roots in dry soil layers are commonly rehydrated by internal hydraulic redistribution during the nocturnal period, patterns of tissue rehydration are poorly understood. Rates of nocturnal rehydration were examined in roots of different orders in Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’ (Northern highbush blueberry) grown in a split-pot system with one set of roots in relatively moist soil and the other set of roots in dry soil. Vaccinium is noted for a highly branched and extremely fine root system. It is hypothesized that nocturnal root tissue rehydration would be slow, especially in the distal root orders because of their greater hydraulic constraints (smaller vessel diameters and fewer number of vessels). Vaccinium root hydraulic properties delayed internal water movement. Even when water was readily available to roots in the wet soil and transpiration was minimal, it took a whole night-time period of 12 h for the distal finest roots (1st to 4th order) under dry soil conditions to reach the same water potentials as fine roots in moist soil (1st to 4th order). Even though roots under dry soil equilibrated with roots in moist soil, the equilibrium point reached before sunrise was about –1.2 MPa, indicating that tissues were not fully rehydrated. Using a single-branch root model, it was estimated that individual roots exhibiting the lowest water potentials in dry soil were 1st order roots (distal finest roots of the root system). However, considered at the branch level, root orders with the highest hydraulic resistances corresponded to the lowest orders of the permanent root system (3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots), thus indicating possible locations of hydraulic safety control in the root system of this species.
Blueberry; hydraulic redistribution; root water potential; split-pot
Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba). We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees) and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846–1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1) assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2) extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.
Background and Aims
Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment.
Gross photosynthesis was measured in two-compartment split chambers with low inorganic carbon availability in leaf compartments and variable CO2 availability (0 to >8 mmol L−1) in root compartments. Photosynthetic rates based on root-supplied CO2 were compared with maximum rates obtained at saturating leaf CO2 availability, and 14C experiments were conducted for two species to localize bottlenecks for utilization of sediment CO2.
All species except Hydrocotyle were able to use sediment CO2, however, with variable efficiency, and with the isoetid, Lobelia, as clearly the most effective and the elodeid, Ludwigia, as the least efficient. At a water column CO2 concentration in equilibrium with air, Lobelia, Lilaeopsis and Vallisneria covered >75% of their CO2 requirements by sediment uptake, and sediment CO2 contributed substantially to photosynthesis at water CO2 concentrations up to 1000 µmol L−1. For all species except Ludwigia, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves.
Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize sediment CO2, and small and medium sized elodeids with high root to shoot area in particular may benefit substantially from uptake of sediment CO2 in low alkaline lakes.
Submersed rooted plants; CO2 uptake; sediment CO2; Lobelia dortmanna; Lilaeopsis macloviana; Ludwigia repens; Vallisneria americana; Hydrocotyle verticillata
Bacterial leakage and root fractures are the most important reasons of root canal treatment failure. Due to the lack of adhesion of gutta percha to the canal walls, Resilon has been introduced as a root-filling material able to bond to the root walls. Metal posts may predispose the tooth walls to oblique and vertical fracture which usually leads to tooth loss; whereas, fiber posts may reinforce the remaining tooth structure.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Resilon and gutta-percha on the fracture resistance of root canal following restoring with quartz fiber posts.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-four maxillary incisor root canals were chemo-mechanically prepared, then randomly divided into three groups: 1-Control group (n=20), 2-Experimental group (n=20) and a negative control group (n=4). Root filled teeth were restored with quartz fiber posts and composite resin cores. Four teeth with a conservative prepared access cavities and without any further post preparation were used as a negative control group. After simulating the clinical situation, specimens were loaded in the Universal Testing Machine for compressive strength test. All data were statistically analyzed by the T-test.
The mean compressive strengths for group 1 was 535.8 ± 155.23 N and 645.93 ± 182.98N for group 2, which were statistically significant (p-value= 0.047).
Root canals filled with Resilon were significantly more resistant than that of gutta-percha, following restoration with quartz fiber posts.
Resilon; Quartz Fiber Post; Root Fracture Resistance
Lateral root development is an important morphogenetic process in plants, which allows the modulation root architecture and substantially determines the plant's efficiency for water and nutrient uptake. Postembryonic root development is under the control of both endogenous developmental programs and environmental stimuli. Nutrient availability plays a major role among environmental signals that modulate root development. Phosphate (Pi) limitation is a constraint for plant growth in many natural and agricultural ecosystems. Plants posses Pi-sensing mechanisms that enable them to respond and adapt to conditions of limited Pi supply, including increased formation and growth of lateral roots. Root developmental modifications are mainly mediated by the plant hormone auxin. Recently we showed that the alteration of root system architecture under Pi-starvation may be mediated by modifications in auxin sensitivity in root cells via a mechanism involving the TIR1 auxin receptor. In this addendum, we provide additional novel evidence indicating that the low Pi pathway involves changes in cell cycle gene expression. It was found that Pi deprivation increases the expression of CDKA, E2Fa, Dp-E2F and CyCD3. In particular, E2Fa, Dp-E2F and CyCD3 genes were specifically upregulated by auxin in Pi-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings that were treated with the auxin transport inhibitor NPA, indicating that cell cycle modulation by low Pi signaling is independent of auxin transport and dependent on auxin sensitivity in the root.
phosphate signaling; auxin transport; auxin sensitivity; roots
Background and Aims
Fine root decomposition is an important determinant of nutrient and carbon cycling in grasslands; however, little is known about the factors controlling root decomposition among species. Our aim was to investigate whether interspecific variation in the potential decomposition rate of fine roots could be accounted for by root chemical and morphological traits, life history and taxonomic affiliation. We also investigated the co-ordinated variation in root and leaf traits and potential decomposition rates.
We analysed potential decomposition rates and the chemical and morphological traits of fine roots on 18 Mediterranean herbaceous species grown in controlled conditions. The results were compared with those obtained for leaves in a previous study conducted on similar species.
Differences in the potential decomposition rates of fine roots between species were accounted for by root chemical composition, but not by morphological traits. The root potential decomposition rate varied with taxonomy, but not with life history. Poaceae, with high cellulose concentration and low concentrations of soluble compounds and phosphorus, decomposed more slowly than Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Patterns of root traits, including decomposition rate, mirrored those of leaf traits, resulting in a similar species clustering.
The highly co-ordinated variation of roots and leaves in terms of traits and potential decomposition rate suggests that changes in the functional composition of communities in response to anthropogenic changes will strongly affect biogeochemical cycles at the ecosystem level.
Above-ground–below-ground interaction; chemical composition; interspecific variation; leaf decomposition; life history; Mediterranean species; morphology; plant functional traits; taxonomic families; root decomposition
On the search for sparingly available nutrients, plants may alter their root architecture to improve soil exploration. So far, the examples for root system modifications induced by a heterogeneous availability of nutrients have been reported for the macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P). In an attempt to extend this type of knowledge to other nutrients, we recently provided evidence that Arabidopsis roots are able to sense a local availability of the micronutrient iron (Fe) and to respond with lateral root elongation into the Fe-containing patch. This specific root response was caused by enhanced elongation of cells leaving the root meristem and was dependent on an AUX1-mediated auxin accumulation in the lateral root apices. In this report, we compare mechanisms underlying this response with those known for other nutrients and show that a substantial genotypic variation exists among accessions of A. thaliana in the responsiveness of lateral roots toward localized Fe supplies.
AUX1; auxin; iron sensing; lateral root development; natural variation; root architecture