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1.  Virtual modeling of robot-assisted manipulations in abdominal surgery 
AIM: To determine the effectiveness of using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data in preoperative planning of robot-assisted surgery.
METHODS: Fourteen patients indicated for surgery underwent MDCT using 64 and 256-slice MDCT. Before the examination, a specially constructed navigation net was placed on the patient’s anterior abdominal wall. Processing of MDCT data was performed on a Brilliance Workspace 4 (Philips). Virtual vectors that imitate robotic and assistant ports were placed on the anterior abdominal wall of the 3D model of the patient, considering the individual anatomy of the patient and the technical capabilities of robotic arms. Sites for location of the ports were directed by projection on the roentgen-positive tags of the navigation net.
RESULTS: There were no complications observed during surgery or in the post-operative period. We were able to reduce robotic arm interference during surgery. The surgical area was optimal for robotic and assistant manipulators without any need for reinstallation of the trocars.
CONCLUSION: This method allows modeling of the main steps in robot-assisted intervention, optimizing operation of the manipulator and lowering the risk of injuries to internal organs.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v4.i6.141
PMCID: PMC3400042  PMID: 22816028
Virtual modeling; Robotic surgery; Multidetector computed tomography; Abdominal surgery; Virtual surgery
2.  Port-Site Metastases After Robotic Surgery for Gynecologic Malignancy 
The rate of port site metastasis in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic malignancy is similar to the rate of port site metastasis for traditional laparoscopic surgery.
Background and Objectives:
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is increasingly used for the management of patients with gynecologic malignancies. The rate of port-site metastases in patients undergoing these procedures is unknown.
Methods:
We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospective database. A total of 220 women underwent robotic-assisted surgery from 2007 through 2011. Malignancy was detected in 145 cases, and 142 met the inclusion criteria with histologically proven cancer and robotically completed surgery. All women who underwent surgical treatment for their malignancies were followed up at the study site for oncology treatments.
Results:
There were 710 potential port sites for metastasis. We found that 2 of 142 patients each had a single port-site metastasis, for an overall rate of 1.41%, or 0.28% per trocar site. Recurrent disease was not isolated in the two patients found to have port-site metastases because both had concurrent sites of pelvic recurrence.
Conclusion:
The rate of port-site metastases in patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic malignancies is similar to the published rate in the literature for traditional laparoscopic oncology.
doi:10.4293/108680813X13693422519271
PMCID: PMC3939345
Port-site metastases; Robotics; Gynecologic oncology
3.  Robot-assisted laparoscopic transperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy and metastasectomy for melanoma: initial report of two cases 
Journal of Robotic Surgery  2010;4(2):129-132.
Robotic pelvic lymphadenectomy is a well established procedure in the urologic and gynecologic literature. To our knowledge robotic pelvic lymphadectomy for metastatic melanoma has yet to be described. Herein we present the first report of robot-assisted pelvic lymphadenectomy in malignant melanoma. After placement of six laparoscopic ports (12 mm camera, three 8-mm robotic ports, 12-mm and 5-mm assistant ports) the DaVinci S robot (Intuitive Surgical, CA, USA) was docked in standard fashion with the patient in low lithotomy. In both cases the patients had enlarged pelvic lymph nodes on computed tomography and complete excision of these masses was accomplished along with complete lymphadenectomy extending from Cooper’s ligament to just below the hypogastric artery in case 1 and to level of the bifurcation of aorta in case 2. A PK Maryland Dissector and monopolar scissors were used for dissection. Both patients were discharged on postoperative day #1. Robotic pelvic lymphadenectomy can be safely used for management of patients with metastatic melanoma involving the pelvic lymph nodes. Compared with the standard open procedure, pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic assistance is associated with excellent vision and minimum morbidity.
doi:10.1007/s11701-010-0189-8
PMCID: PMC2917550  PMID: 20730107
Robotic; Lymphadenectomy; Melanoma; Laparoscopic; Minimally-invasive surgery; Metastasis; Metastatectomy
4.  Survival Prediction Models for Estimating the Benefit of Post-Operative Radiation Therapy for Gallbladder Cancer and Lung Cancer 
The role of post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) is controversial for some cancer sites. In the absence of large randomized controlled trials, survival prediction models can help estimate the predicted benefit of PORT for specific settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of two types of prediction models for estimating the benefit of PORT for two cancer sites. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we constructed prediction models for gallbladder (GB) cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using Cox proportional hazards (CPH) and Random Survival Forests (RSF). We compared validation measures for discrimination and found that both the CPH and RSF models had comparable C-indices. For GB cancer, PORT was associated with improved survival for node positive patients, and for NSCLC, PORT was associated with a survival benefit for patients with N2 disease.
PMCID: PMC2656000  PMID: 18999217
5.  Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(Suppl 6):S641-S649.
Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of offering complete revascularization with the “best of both worlds” from surgery (internal mammary artery anastomosis in less invasive fashion) and percutaneous coronary intervention (least invasive approach).
In this article we review the indications, techniques, short and long term results, as well as current developments in totally endoscopic robotic coronary artery bypass operations.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.10.19
PMCID: PMC3831835  PMID: 24251021
Minimally invasive; robotic; coronary artery bypass surgery
6.  Robotic Mitral Valve Repair 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2005;32(2):143-146.
Robotically assisted cardiac surgery has been presented as less invasive than conventional surgery, with shortened hospital stays and faster return to daily activities. We evaluated our experience with the da Vinci robot to determine whether we could in fact demonstrate those findings.
All mitral and tricuspid valve repairs were performed by the same surgeon. Cardiopulmonary bypass was performed with femoral cannulation, antegrade cardioplegia, and transthoracic aortic cross-clamping. Multiple valve repair techniques were used, including quadrant resection, cord replacement, Alfieri leaflet coaptation, and ring annuloplasty. Access was by 2 ports and a 5-cm right anterolateral thoracotomy. All annuloplasty rings were secured using surgical clips.
From October 2003 through September 2004, 32 patients underwent robotically assisted mitral valve repair. The mean age of our population was 67.6 years (range, 43–82 years). Four patients also underwent the 1st tricuspid valve repair using the da Vinci robot in the United States. There were 3 conversions for irreparable valves, 1 stroke, and 2 deaths. The average procedure time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and aortic cross-clamp time were all reduced, when the first 20 patients were compared with the last 12. Length-of-stay also improved. One patient required early mitral valve replacement for recurrent regurgitation. Two patients required late (>3 month) mitral valve replacement for recurrent regurgitation.
We have shown that a dedicated nonacademic institute can develop a robotic cardiac surgery program and perform mitral and tricuspid valve repairs successfully. There is a several-case learning curve, and patient selection is paramount.
PMCID: PMC1163458  PMID: 16107102
Annuloplasty; mitral valve/surgery; robotics; surgery, computer-assisted; surgical procedures, minimally invasive/methods; tricuspid valve/surgery; thoracic surgery, video-assisted
7.  Long-Term Study of Port-Site Incisional Hernia After Laparoscopic Procedures 
Background:
Laparoscopic surgery is widely practiced and offers realistic benefits over conventional surgery. There is considerable variation in results between surgeons, concerning port-site complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the laparoscopic port closure technique and to explore the factors associated with port-site incisional hernia.
Methods:
Between January 2000 and January 2007, 5541 laparoscopic operations were performed by a single consultant surgeon for different indications. The ports were closed by the classical method using a J-shaped needle after release of pneumoperitoneum. The incidence of port-site incisional hernias was calculated. All patients were followed up by outpatient clinic visits and by their general practitioners.
Results:
During a 6-year period, 5541 laparoscopic operations were performed. Eight patients (0.14%) developed port-site hernia during a mean follow-up period of 43 months (range, 25 to 96) and required elective surgery to repair their hernias. No major complications or mortality was reported.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic port closure using the classical method was associated with an acceptable incidence of port-site hernia. Modification of the current methods of closure may lead to a new technique to prevent or reduce the incidence of port-site incisional hernias.
PMCID: PMC3015977  PMID: 19793475
Port-site incisional hernia; Pneumoperitoneum; Port closure
8.  Coronary artery bypass surgery: current practice in the United Kingdom. 
Thorax  1989;44(9):721-724.
A survey of current clinical practice was carried out among the 84 consultant cardiac surgeons currently performing coronary artery bypass surgery in the United Kingdom. The 80 surgeons who returned the questionnaire performed an estimated total of 17,100 coronary artery bypass graft operations in 1987, a mean case load of 214 operations each. Sixty two of the 80 surgeons regarded the internal mammary artery as the graft conduit of choice, and seven preferred the saphenous vein. The internal mammary artery was used in 73% of bypass grafts to the left anterior descending coronary artery but in only 4% of grafts to the circumflex and right coronary systems. Contraindications to the use of the internal mammary artery included advanced age of the patient (51 surgeons), insufficient flow through the internal mammary artery (49), and endarterectomy (35). Seventy four of the 80 surgeons considered intraoperative damage to the saphenous vein to be a possible cause of vein graft failure, but there was no agreement about how it should be reduced. All surgeons advocated pharmacological measures to enhance graft patency. Dipyridamole and aspirin constituted the most popular regimen (58 surgeons), though only 28 started dipyridamole preoperatively. Warfarin was prescribed postoperatively on occasion by 22 surgeons, but 14 of these used it only after endarterectomy.
PMCID: PMC462052  PMID: 2588208
9.  Impact of body mass index on perioperative outcomes during the learning curve for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy 
Introduction:
Previous studies of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for worse perioperative outcomes. We evaluated whether body mass index (BMI) adversely affected perioperative outcomes.
Methods:
A prospective database of 153 RARP (single surgeon) was analyzed. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; normal BMI < 25 kg/m2; and overweight as 25 to 30 kg/m2. Two separate analyses were performed: the first 50 cases (the initial learning curve) and the entire cohort of 153 RARP.
Results:
In the initial cohort of 50 cases (14 obese patients), there was no statistically significant difference with regards to operative times, port-placement times and estimated blood loss (EBL). Length of stay (LOS) was longer in the obese group (4.3 vs. 2.9 days); BMI remained an independent predictor of increased LOS on multivariate linear regression analysis (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative outcomes of leak rates, margin rates and incisional herniae. In the entire cohort, when comparing obese patients to those with a normal BMI, there was no statistically significant difference in operative times, EBL, LOS, or immediate postoperative outcomes. However, on multivariate linear regression analysis, BMI was an independent predictor of increased operative time (p = 0.007).
Conclusion:
Obese patients do not have an increased risk of blood loss, positive margins or the postoperative complications of incisional hernia and leak during the learning curve. They do, however, have slightly longer operative times; we also noted an increased LOS in our first 50 cases.
PMCID: PMC2910769  PMID: 20694101
10.  Robot-Assisted Lobectomy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in China: Initial Experience and Techniques 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2010;2(1):26-28.
Objective
To summarize our initial experience in robot-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy. Methods Five patients underwent lobectomy using da Vinci S HD Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). During the operation, we respectively made four ports over chest wall for positioning robotic endoscope, left and right robotic arms and auxiliary instruments without retracting ribs. The procedure followed sequential anatomy as complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy did, and lymph node dissection followed international standard.
Results
All patients successfully underwent complete robot-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy. Neither additional incisions nor emergent conversion to a thoracotomy happened. Frozen dissection during lobectomy showed non-small-cell lung cancer in four patients, who afterwards underwent systemic lymph node dissection, while the case left was with tuberculoma and didn't undergo lymph node dissection. Recurrent air leak occurred in one case, so chest tube was kept for drainage, and one week later, the patient was extubated due to improvement. All other patients recovered well postoperatively without obvious postoperative complications.
Conclusion
Robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is feasible with good operability, clear visual field, reliable action and its supriority of trouble free; exquisite operative skills are required to ensure a stable and safe operation; robot-assisted surgery is efficiency and patients recover well postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC3256434  PMID: 22263013
Robotics; thoracoscopy; minimally invasive; lobectomy
11.  Two-port vs. three-port laparoscopic appendicectomy: A bridge to least invasive surgery 
INTRODUCTION:
The conventional three-port technique for laparoscopic appendicectomy has proven its worth in the management of appendicular pathologies. From a cosmetic viewpoint, the umbilical and suprapubic port-sites are hidden by natural camouflages, the right Iliac fossa (RIF) port is the only visible external sign of surgery. The two-port technique avoids even this marker of abdominal invasion. In this study, we describe the technique of two-port laparoscopic appendicectomy (TPA) and compare it with conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy (CLA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
All patients studied underwent operation for acute appendicitis during a 6-month period. Data were collected prospectively for the TPA and retrospectively for the CLA. The TPA was performed with one 10 mm umbilical working port and one 5 mm suprapubic camera port. A hypodermic needle was introduced in the RIF to retract the appendix. The appendicular artery was controlled with diathermy or ultrasonic shears. The base was ligated with a loop knotted extracorporeally. CLA was performed via the conventional 10 mm umbilical, 5 mm suprapubic and 5 mm RIF ports. The appendicular stump was ligated with an endoloop or an intracorporeal knot.
RESULTS:
A total of 146 patients underwent surgery over the 6-month period for appendicitis. Out of 62 cases attempted, the TPA was successful in 51 cases, with conversion to the three-port technique in 11. The operative time, complication rates, return to work were comparable between the two groups. Patients who had TPA had a shorter postoperative stay.
CONCLUSION:
This is an initial experience with TPA. There is little difference in the operative time, postoperative stay and complications rates between this technique and the conventional three-port one. There is hence little to be lost and a likely benefit to be gained by performing the TPA although a randomised study is necessary.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.103121
PMCID: PMC3523451  PMID: 23248441
Laparoscopic appendicectomy; two-port appendicectomy; two port vs. three port
12.  Is there an optimal minimally invasive technique for left anterior descending coronary artery bypass? 
Background
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of three different minimally invasive surgical techniques for left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): Port-Access surgery (PA-CABG), minimally invasive direct CABG (MIDCAB) and off-pump totally endoscopic CABG (TECAB).
Methods
Over a decade, 160 eligible patients for elective LAD bypass were referred to one of the three techniques: 48 PA-CABG, 53 MIDCAB and 59 TECAB. In MIDCAB group, Euroscore was higher and target vessel quality was worse. In TECAB group, early patency was systematically evaluated using coronary CT scan. During follow-up (mean 2.7 ± 0.1 years, cumulated 438 years) symptom-based angiography was performed.
Results
There was no conversion from off-pump to on-pump procedure or to sternotomy approach. In TECAB group, there was one hospital cardiac death (1.7%), reoperation for bleeding was higher (8.5% vs 3.7% in MIDCAB and 2% in PA-CABG) and 3-month LAD reintervention was significantly higher (10% vs 1.8% in MIDCAB and 0% in PA-CABG). There was no difference between MIDCAB and PA-CABG groups. During follow-up, symptom-based angiography (n = 12) demonstrated a good patency of LAD bypass in all groups and 4 patients underwent a no LAD reintervention. At 3 years, there was no difference in survival; 3-year angina-free survival and reintervention-free survival were significantly lower in TECAB group (TECAB, 85 ± 12%, 88 ± 8%; MIDCAB, 100%, 98 ± 5%; PA-CABG, 94 ± 8%, 100%; respectively).
Conclusions
Our study confirmed that minimally invasive LAD grafting was safe and effective. TECAB is associated with a higher rate of early bypass failure and reintervention. MIDCAB is still the most reliable surgical technique for isolated LAD grafting and the least cost effective.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-6-37
PMCID: PMC3076235  PMID: 21439055
13.  Robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement: lessons learned from the first 102 patients 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(3):661-666.
Introduction
Surgeons’ interest in image and/or robotic guidance for spinal implant placement is increasing. This technology is continually improving and may be particularly useful in patients with challenging anatomy. Only through careful clinical evaluation can its successful applications, limitations, and areas for improvement be defined. This study evaluates the outcomes of robotic-assisted screw placement in a consecutive series of 102 patients.
Methods
Data were recorded from technical notes and operative records created immediately following each surgery case, in which the robotic system was used to guide pedicle screw placement. All cases were performed at the same hospital by a single surgeon. The majority of patients had spinal deformity and/or previous spine surgery. Each planned screw placement was classified as: (1) successful/accurately placed screw using robotic guidance; (2) screw malpositioned using robot; (3) use of robot aborted and screw placed manually; (4) planned screw not placed as screw deemed non essential for construct stability. Data from each case were reviewed by two independent researchers to indentify the diagnosis, number of attempted robotic guided screw placements and the outcome of the attempted placement as well as complications or reasons for non-placement.
Results
Robotic-guided screw placement was successfully used in 95 out of 102 patients. In those 95 patients, 949 screws (87.5 % of 1,085 planned screws) were successfully implanted. Eleven screws (1.0 %) placed using the robotic system were misplaced (all presumably due to “skiving” of the drill bit or trocar off the side of the facet). Robotic guidance was aborted and 110 screws (10.1 %) were manually placed, generally due to poor registration and/or technical trajectory issues. Fifteen screws (1.4 %) were not placed after intraoperative determination that the screw was not essential for construct stability. The robot was not used as planned in seven patients, one due to severe deformity, one due to very high body mass index, one due to extremely poor bone quality, one due to registration difficulty caused by previously placed loosened hardware, one due to difficulty with platform mounting and two due to device technical issues.
Conclusion
Of the 960 screws that were implanted using the robot, 949 (98.9 %) were successfully and accurately implanted and 11 (1.1 %) were malpositioned, despite the fact that the majority of patients had significant spinal deformities and/or previous spine surgeries. “Tool skiving” was thought to be the inciting issue with the misplaced screws. Intraoperative anteroposterior and oblique fluoroscopic imaging for registration is critical and was the limiting issue in four of the seven aborted cases.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2499-1
PMCID: PMC3585630  PMID: 22975723
Pedicle screws; Robotic-assisted; Minimally invasive; Spinal surgery
14.  Effectiveness of Postgraduate Training for Learning Extraperitoneal Access for Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy 
Journal of Endourology  2011;25(8):1363-1369.
Abstract
Purpose
To determine the effectiveness of postgraduate training for learning extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (EP-RARP) and to identify any unmet training needs.
Materials and Methods
The training resources used were live surgery observations, digital video disc instruction, postgraduate courses, and literature review. Modifications to the transperitoneal (TP) setup in equipment, patient positioning, port placement, and access technique were identified. A surgeon who had previous experience with 898 TP robot-assisted radical prostatectomies (TP-RARPs) performed EP-RARP in 30 patients. We evaluated setup results, emphasizing access-related difficulties, and compared the EP cohort with a nonrandomized, concurrent TP cohort of 62 patients for short-term outcomes.
Results
The median setup time for EP was 26 minutes (range 15–65 min) for EP compared with 14 to 17 minutes for the comparable TP setup and dropping the bladder. During EP setup and dissection, peritoneal entry occurred in 37%, incorrect port spacing in 10%, epigastric vessel injury in 10%, and other minor pitfalls in 10%. No significant differences were found between EP and TP in postsetup operative times, hospital stay, complications, surgical margin status with organ-confined disease, or lymph node dissection yield. EP had significantly higher estimated blood loss (300 vs 200 mL, P=0.001) and more symptomatic lymphoceles when extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed (3/16 vs 0/47, P=0.001).
Conclusions
Using postgraduate education resources, an experienced TP-RARP surgeon successfully transitioned to EP-RARP, achieving the major objectives of safety and equivalent outcomes. We identified several minor nuances in the setup that need further refinement in future education models.
doi:10.1089/end.2011.0052
PMCID: PMC3180764  PMID: 21745117
15.  Technical Progress in Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Our Initial Experience 
Minimally Invasive Surgery  2011;2011:972647.
Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has rapidly spread throughout the world because of its low invasiveness and because it is a scarless procedure. Various surgical methods of performing SILC are present in each institute; however, it is necessary to develop a standardized procedure that we can perform safely, such as the conventional 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The SILC experiment in our institute was started by use of the commercial SILS Port and changed from a 3-port method via an umbilicus to a 2-port method to improve some problems. Although none of the conversions to conventional 4-port LC and also none of the complications such as bile duct injury occurred in each method, the 2-port method functioned best and was also economical. However, it is most important to adopt strict criteria and select the patients suitable for SILC to demonstrate SILC safety same as 4-port LC.
doi:10.1155/2011/972647
PMCID: PMC3195323  PMID: 22091367
16.  Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingoovariectomy in a Transsexual Subject without Visible Scaring 
Objective. To report on the use of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for the management of total hysterectomy (TH) with bilateral salpingoovariectomy (BSO) in a subject affected by gender identity disorder. Design. Case report. Setting. University Hospital. Patient(s). A 27-year-old affected by Gender Identity Disorder underwent a hysterectomy and BSO as part of surgical sex reassignment. Intervention(s). Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery access for TH and BSO. Main Outcome Measure(s). The procedure was performed without incident. The trocar placement was easy and safe, without inadvertent port removal. No vascular or visceral injuries, loss of pneumoperitoneum, or intraoperative port site bleeding occurred. Result(s). A detailed description of the technique of a single-site surgery for management of hysterectomy and BSO. Conclusion. Our case presents the first report of single-site surgery for surgical treatment of subjects affected by GID.
doi:10.1155/2010/845029
PMCID: PMC2929487  PMID: 20811647
17.  Establishing the Case for Minimally Invasive, Robotic-Assisted CABG in the Treatment of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease 
The heart surgery forum  2009;12(3):E147-E149.
The purpose of this review is to outline the most common objections about robotic coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), often expressed by cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, and administrators who have little direct knowledge of the procedure. The summarized objections include the high intraoperative costs of robotic versus traditional CABG, a prolonged and difficult learning curve for members of the surgical team, and concerns about compromising graft patency with this technique. Arguments for continued procedure development in robotically assisted CABG are provided.
doi:10.1532/HSF98.20091042
PMCID: PMC2794653  PMID: 19546065
18.  Single-Port Surgery: Laboratory Experience with the daVinci Single-Site Platform 
This animal study demonstrates that single-port robotic surgery using the VeSPA platform can allow the performance of technically challenging procedures within acceptable operative times and without complications or insertion of additional trocars.
Background and Objectives:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of a dedicated da Vinci single-port platform in the porcine model in the performance of gynecologic surgery.
Methods:
This pilot study was conducted in 4 female pigs. All pigs had a general anesthetic and were placed in the supine and flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a robotic single-port device was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. A data set was collected for each procedure and included port placement time, docking time, operative time, blood loss, and complications. Operative times were compared between cases and procedures by use of the Student t test.
Results:
A total of 28 surgical procedures (8 oophorectomies, 4 hysterectomies, 8 pelvic lymph node dissections, 4 aorto-caval nodal dissections, 2 bladder repairs, 1 uterine horn anastomosis, and 1 radical cystectomy) were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in operating times for symmetrical procedures among animals (P=0.3215).
Conclusions:
This animal study demonstrates that single-port robotic surgery using a dedicated single-site platform allows performing technically challenging procedures within acceptable operative times and without complications or insertion of additional trocars.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13022985132128
PMCID: PMC3148858  PMID: 21902962
Single-port surgery; Robotic single-port
19.  Initial experience of single port laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair: nearly-scarless inguinal hernia repair 
Purpose
In the early 1990's laparoscopic hernioplasty gained popularity worldwide. Thereafter, laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to improve cosmesis using single port surgery. This study aims to introduce and assess the safety and feasibility of single port laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair with a nearly-scarless umbilical incision.
Methods
Sixty three single port laparoscopic TEP hernia repairs were performed in sixty patients from June 2010 to March 2011 at Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, with the use of a glove single-port device and standard laparoscopic instruments. Demographic and clinical data, intraoperative findings, and postoperative course were reviewed.
Results
Of the 63 hernias treated, 31 were right inguinal hernias, 26 were left inguinal hernias and 3 were both inguinal hernias. There was one conversion to conventional three port laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty. Mean operative time was 62 minutes (range, 32 to 150 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (wound seroma and urinary retension) and were successfully treated conservatively. Mean hospital stay was 2.15 days.
Conclusion
Single port laparoscopic TEP hernia repair is safe and feasible. Umbilical incision provides an excellent cosmetic outcome. Prospective randomized studies comparing single port and conventional three port laparoscopic TEP repairs with short-term outcome and long-term recurrence rate are needed for confirmation.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.5.339
PMCID: PMC3229003  PMID: 22148127
Single port; SILS; LESS; TEP; Inguinal hernia
20.  Incisional Hernia Following Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery for Renal Cell Cancer 
Objectives:
For renal cell cancer, the hand-assisted laparoscopic approach provides several advantages while maintaining equal advantages with regards to patient recovery. We offer our experience with laparoscopic hand-assisted radical nephrectomy and the incidence of ventral wall hernia.
Methods:
Between February 1999 and July 2002, we performed 50 laparoscopic hand-assisted radical nephrectomies. A midline or a muscle splitting right lower quadrant incision was used depending on the side of the tumor. Hand-port incisions were all between 7 cm and 8 cm and closed with #1 polydioxanone sulfate suture in a running fashion. Three (6%) patients developed hand-port incisional hernias. All hernias occurred in midline hand-port sites. The average body weight of those who developed an incisional hernia was 137 kg.
Although the cause of incisional hernia is multifactorial, we believe that obesity plays a significant role. The technical limitations involved in closing a short, deep ventral incision combined with the earlier return to activity of laparoscopy patients put this patient population at significant risk.
Conclusion:
We now perform an interrupted closure with nonabsorbable suture for the hand-assist incision and limited activity for 4 weeks to 6 weeks post procedure in high-risk patients. We have had no further wound hernias since adopting these changes.
PMCID: PMC3015593  PMID: 15984709
Laparoscopy; Incisional hernia; Renal cell carcinoma
21.  Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy in Gynecological Surgery 
Background:
Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized the concept of minimally invasive surgery for the last 3 decades. Robotic-assisted surgery is one of the latest innovations in the field of minimally invasive surgery. Already, many procedures have been performed in urology, cardiac surgery, and general surgery. In this article, we attempt to report our preliminary experience with robotic-assisted laparoscopy in a variety of gynecological surgeries. We sought to evaluate the role of robotic-assisted laparoscopy in gynecological surgeries.
Methods:
The study was a case series of 15 patients who underwent various gynecologic surgeries for combined laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci robot was used in each case at a tertiary referral center for laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. An umbilicus, suprapubic, and 2 lateral ports were inserted. These surgeries were performed both using laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques. The assembly and disassembly time to switch from laparoscopy to robotic-assisted surgery was measured. Subjective advantages and disadvantages of using robotic-assisted laparoscopy in gynecological surgeries were evaluated.
Results:
Fifteen patients underwent a variety of gynecologic surgeries, such as myomectomies, treatment of endometriosis, total and supracervical hysterectomy, ovarian cystectomy, sacral colpopexy, and Moskowitz procedure. The assembly time to switch from laparoscopy to robotic-assisted surgery was 18.9 minutes (range, 14 to 27), and the disassembly time was 2.1 minutes (range, 1 to 3). Robotic-assisted laparoscopy acts as a bridge between laparoscopy and laparotomy but has the disadvantage of being costly and bulky.
Conclusion:
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have advantages in providing a 3-dimensional visualization of the operative field, decreasing fatigue and tension tremor of the surgeon, and added wrist motion for improved dexterity and greater surgical precision. The disadvantages include enormous cost and added operating time for assembly and disassembly and the bulkiness of the equipment.
PMCID: PMC3015696  PMID: 17212887
da Vinci robot; Robotic-assisted laparoscopy
22.  Learning Curve of Minimally Invasive Two-Port Laparoscopic Myomectomy 
The authors report that the minimally invasive 2-port total laparoscopic myomectomy technique may be mastered after experiencing 7 operative cases.
Background and Objects:
To examine the learning curve of minimally invasive 2-port total laparoscopic myomectomy (TTLM).
Methods:
TTLM was performed by using only umbilicus and left inguinal ports, for 30 patients at our university affiliated hospital between May 2009 and February 2010. The times required for each of the 5 surgical phases of the early and late cases performed by the same surgeon were compared by using a DVD time counter.
Results:
The mean surgical time was 82.5±5.2 minutes, blood loss was 42.1±7.5mL, and weight of specimen was 65.3±13.3g. The eighth case was the first in which the surgical time fell below the overall mean surgical time. Comparison of the mean time of each phase between the 7 early and the subsequent (late) cases revealed significant differences in the times required for suturing.
Conclusions:
Although this was a feasibility study, the results suggest that this technique can be mastered after 7 cases.
Learning curve, Suturing.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13291597716267
PMCID: PMC3407431  PMID: 22906339
Laparoscopic myomectomy; Single port; Two-port; Flexible scope
23.  Outcomes of a Single-Port Laparoscopic Appendectomy Using a Glove Port With a Percutaneous Organ-Holding Device and Commercially-Available Multichannel Single-Port Device 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(1):42-46.
Purpose
A laparoscopic appendectomy is now commonly performed. The push in recent years toward reducing the number of ports required to perform this surgery has led to the development of a single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SPA). We compared postoperative pain after an SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device (group 1) with that of an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single-port device (group 2).
Methods
Between March 2010 and July 2011, a retrospective study was conducted of a total of 77 patients who underwent an SPA by three surgeons at department of surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center. Thirty-eight patients received an SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device. The other 39 patients received an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single port (Octo-Port or SILS Port). Operative details and postoperative outcomes were collected and evaluated.
Results
There were no differences in the mean operative times, times to pass gas, postoperative hospital stays, or cosmetic satisfaction scores between the two groups. The pain score in the first 24 hours after surgery was higher in group 2 than group 1 patients (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the trocar used in group 2 was more expensive than that used in group 1.
Conclusion
An SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device was associated with a lower pain score during the first 24 hours after surgery because of the shorter fascia incision length and a cheaper cost than an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single-port device.
doi:10.3393/ac.2014.30.1.42
PMCID: PMC3953169  PMID: 24639970
Single port; Percutaneous organ-holding device; Laparoscopic appendectomy
24.  The use of the 1 mm laparoscope to assist in port insertion in pelvic oncological surgery 
Background
A 1 mm minilaparoscope (Lifeline Biotechnoligies, Florida, USA) was assessed for aiding port site insertions.
Methods
Ten consecutive patients having laparoscopic procedures in a gynaecological oncology unit were included. Minilaparoscopy was feasible in all cases and was used to insert the umbilical port under direct vision in all patients. In one case, a thick band of abdominal adhesions was identified and a further lateral port site was inserted to aid their dissection.
Results
The minilaparoscope correctly identified all 10 patients with peritoneal disease and identified all patients who were suitable for debulking procedures.
Conclusion
Minilaparoscopy with the 1 mm endoscope appears to be safe and accurate and we feel that it has a place in helping the surgeon identify adhesions and peritoneal disease as well as assisting further port site insertion safely and with minimal complications.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-3-9
PMCID: PMC1483823  PMID: 16584567
25.  Navigating the Difficult Robotic Assisted Pyeloplasty 
ISRN Urology  2012;2012:291235.
Pyeloplasty is the gold standard therapy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Robotic assisted pyeloplasty has been widely adopted by urologists with and without prior laparoscopic pyeloplasty experience. However, difficult situations encountered during robotic assisted pyeloplasty can significantly add to the difficulty of the operation. This paper provides tips for patient positioning, port placement, robot docking, and intraoperative dissection and repair in patients with the difficult situations of obesity, large floppy liver, difficult to reflect colon (transmesenteric pyeloplasty), crossing vessels, large calculi, and previous attempts at ureteropelvic junction repair. Techniques presented in this paper may aid in the successful completion of robotic assisted pyeloplasty in the face of the difficult situations noted above.
doi:10.5402/2012/291235
PMCID: PMC3503323  PMID: 23213571

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