To describe prevalence and impact of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), data were collected over 5 months from 6 Middle Eastern countries. Patients were divided into 2 groups (with and without PAD). Out of 6705 consecutive ACS patients, PAD was reported in 177 patients. In comparison to non-PAD, PAD patients were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. They were more likely to have high Killip class, high GRACE risk score, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS) at presentation. Thrombolytics, antiplatelet use, and coronary intervention were comparable in both groups. When presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients with PAD had worse outcomes, while in NSTEACS; PAD was associated with higher rate of heart failure in comparison to non-PAD patients. In diabetics, PAD was associated with 2-fold increase in mortality when compared to non-PAD (P = 0.028). After adjustment, PAD was associated with high mortality in STEMI (adjusted OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.23–5.65, P = 0.01). Prevalence of PAD in ACS in the Gulf region is low. Patients with PAD and ACS constitute a high risk group and require more attention. PAD in patients with STEMI is an independent predictor of in-hospital death.
To determine whether revascularisation is more likely to be performed in higher‐risk patients and whether the findings are influenced by hospitals adopting more or less aggressive revascularisation strategies.
GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) is a multinational, observational cohort study. This study involved 24 189 patients enrolled at 73 hospitals with on‐site angiographic facilities.
Overall, 32.5% of patients with a non‐ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; 53.7% in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)) and 7.2% underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; 4.0% in STEMI). The cumulative rate of in‐hospital death rose correspondingly with the GRACE risk score (variables: age, Killip class, systolic blood pressure, ST segment deviation, cardiac arrest at admission, serum creatinine, raised cardiac markers, heart rate), from 1.2% in low‐risk to 3.3% in medium‐risk and 13.0% in high‐risk patients (c statistic = 0.83). PCI procedures were more likely to be performed in low‐ (40% non‐STEMI, 60% STEMI) than medium‐ (35%, 54%) or high‐risk patients (25%, 41%). No such gradient was apparent for patients undergoing CABG. These findings were seen in STEMI and non‐ST elevation ACS, in all geographical regions and irrespective of whether hospitals adopted low (4.2−33.7%, n = 7210 observations), medium (35.7−51.4%, n = 7913 observations) or high rates (52.6−77.0%, n = 8942 observations) of intervention.
A risk‐averse strategy to angiography appears to be widely adopted. Proceeding to PCI relates to referral practice and angiographic findings rather than the patient's risk status. Systematic and accurate risk stratification may allow higher‐risk patients to be selected for revascularisation procedures, in contrast to current international practice.
Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics, management and in-hospital outcomes of coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with HF in the United Arab Emirates.
The study was selected from the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE), a prospective multi-national, multicenter registry of patients hospitalized with ACS in six Middle East countries. The present analysis was focused on participants admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 and were analyzed in terms of HF (Killip class II/III and IV) on admission. Of 1691 patients (mean age: 52.6 ± 11.7 years; 210 Females, 1481 Males) with ACS, 356 (21%) had an admission diagnosis of HF (Killip class II/III and IV). HF patients were less frequently males (19.2% vs. 34.3%; P < 0.001). HF was more frequently associated with hypertension (64.3% vs. 43.9%; P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (49.4% vs. 31.8%; P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (DM) (51.1% vs. 36.2%; P < 0.001). HF was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR = 11.821; 95% CI: 5.385-25.948; P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, age, hyperlipidemia, heart rate and DM were associated with higher in-hospital HF.
HF is observed in about 1 in 5 patients with ACS in the UAE and is associated with a significant increase in in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes.
Heart failure; Acute coronary syndrome; United Arab Emirates
Objective: To document patterns of risk stratification, management practices, and outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) presenting without high risk features.
Patients: The study was based on 11 885 consecutive patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation ACS enrolled in GRACE (global registry of acute coronary events). Patients without dynamic ST segment changes, positive troponin (or other cardiac markers), or haemodynamic or arrhythmic instability were defined as being at lower risk.
Main outcome measures: Management and outcomes were compared with high risk presentations.
Results: Of 11 885 patients presenting with unstable angina or non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 4252 (36%) were regarded as being at lower risk. Functional testing for risk stratification was performed in 1163 of 4207 (28%) lower risk and 1531 of 7521 (20%) high risk patients (p < 0.0001). Coronary angiography was performed in 1930 of 4190 (46%) and 3860 of 7544 (51%), and echocardiography in 1692 of 4190 (40%) and 4348 of 7533 (58%) of lower risk and high risk patients, respectively (p < 0.0001 for both). Over one third of patients did not undergo further risk assessment with angiography or functional testing (2746 of 7437 (37%) high risk, 1499 of 4148 (36%) lower risk, not significant). Death occurring in hospital was more likely in the high risk cohort (41 of 4227 (1.0%) lower risk v 215 of 7586 (2.8%) high risk, p < 0.0001), whereas rates of recurrent angina during admission and readmission were similar in both groups (1354 of 4231 (32%) high risk, 2313 of 7587 (31%) lower risk, not significant). In the six months after discharge, death or myocardial infarction occurred in 79 of 3223 (2.5%) lower risk patients and 302 of 5451 (5.5%) high risk patients (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Globally, further risk stratification after ACS presentation is suboptimal, regardless of presenting characteristics. Although in-hospital death and myocardial infarction are uncommon, recurrent ischaemia is encountered often in both groups. It remains to be seen whether better outcomes may be achieved with wider application of risk stratification and appropriately directed management strategies.
acute coronary syndromes; risk stratification; non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; recurrent ischaemia; outcomes
In acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the optimal revascularization strategy for unprotected left main coronary disease (ULMCD) has been little studied. The objectives of the present study were to describe the practice of ULMCD revascularization in ACS patients and its evolution over an 8-year period, analyse the prognosis of this population and determine the effect of revascularization on outcome.
Methods and results
Of 43 018 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) between 2000 and 2007, 1799 had significant ULMCD and underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone (n = 514), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) alone (n = 612), or no revascularization (n = 673). Mortality was 7.7% in hospital and 14% at 6 months. Over the 8-year study, the GRACE risk score remained constant, but there was a steady shift to more PCI than CABG over time. Patients undergoing PCI presented more frequently with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), after cardiac arrest, or in cardiogenic shock; 48% of PCI patients underwent revascularization on the day of admission vs. 5.1% in the CABG group. After adjustment, revascularization was associated with an early hazard of hospital death vs. no revascularization, significant for PCI (hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62–4.18) but not for CABG (1.26, 0.72–2.22). From discharge to 6 months, both PCI (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23–0.85) and CABG (0.11, 0.04–0.28) were significantly associated with improved survival in comparison with an initial strategy of no revascularization. Coronary artery bypass graft revascularization was associated with a five-fold increase in stroke compared with the other two groups.
Unprotected left main coronary disease in ACS is associated with high mortality, especially in patients with STEMI and/or haemodynamic or arrhythmic instability. Percutaneous coronary intervention is now the most common revascularization strategy and preferred in higher risk patients. Coronary artery bypass graft is often delayed and performed in lower risk patients, leading to good 6-month survival. The two approaches therefore appear complementary.
Left main disease; Acute coronary syndrome
Current guidelines support an early invasive strategy in the management of high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Although studies in the 1990s suggested that high-risk patients received less aggressive treatment, there are limited data on the contemporary management patterns of NSTE-ACS in Canada.
To examine the in-hospital use of coronary angiography and revascularization in relation to risk among less selected patients with NSTE-ACS.
Data from the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (main GRACE and expanded GRACE2) were used. Between June 1999 and September 2007, 7131 patients from across Canada with a final diagnosis of NSTE-ACS were included the study. The study population was stratified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, based on their calculated GRACE risk score (a validated predictor of in-hospital mortality) and according to time of enrollment.
While rates of in-hospital death and reinfarction were significantly (P<0.001) greater in higher-risk patients, the in-hospital use of cardiac catheterization in low- (64.7%), intermediate- (60.3%) and high-risk (42.3%) patients showed an inverse relationship (P<0.001). This trend persisted despite the increase in the overall rates of cardiac catheterization over time (47.9% in 1999 to 2003 versus 51.6% in 2004 to 2005 versus 63.8% in 2006 to 2007; P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, intermediate-risk (adjusted OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.70 to 0.92], P=0.002) and high-risk (adjusted OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.29 to 0.48], P<0.001) patients remained less likely to undergo in-hospital cardiac catheterization.
Despite the temporal increase in the use of invasive cardiac procedures, they remain paradoxically targeted toward low-risk patients with NSTE-ACS in contemporary practice. This treatment-risk paradox needs to be further addressed to maximize the benefits of invasive therapies in Canada.
Acute coronary syndromes; Cardiac catheterization; Guidelines; Risk stratification
Controversy remains over whether the association between depression and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is confounded by incomplete adjustment for measures of known prognostic markers. We assessed whether depression was associated with the most comprehensive empirically derived index of clinical mortality predictors: the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score for predicting 6-month mortality after discharge for ACS. We also assessed whether depression remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after adjustment for the GRACE score and left ventricular dysfunction.
We prospectively surveyed 457 ACS patients (aged 25–92 years; 41% women, 13% black, and 11% Hispanic), hospitalized between May 2003 and June 2005. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a structured psychiatric interview, within one week of hospitalization.
Despite differences in individual components of the GRACE score between depressed and non-depressed participants, neither depression measure was associated with overall GRACE score. For participants with MDD, the mean (SD) GRACE score was 84 (33), compared to 92 (31) for those without MDD (p=0.09). Using Cox proportional hazardsregression analysis, MDD and depressive symptom severity each predicted mortality after controlling for GRACE score and left ventricular dysfunction (adjusted hazard ratio for MDD, 2.51; 95% CI 1.45–4.37).
Depression is not simply a marker of clinical indicators that predict all-cause mortality after ACS. This strengthens the assertion that there is something unique in the association between depression and post-ACS prognosis, independent of known prognostic markers.
depression; myocardial infarction; unstable angina; prognosis
Objective: To determine to what extent evidence based guidelines are followed in the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the UK, elsewhere in Europe, and multinationally, and what the outcomes are.
Design: Multinational, prospective, observational registry (GRACE, global registry of acute coronary events) with six months’ follow up.
Setting: Patients presenting to a cluster of hospitals. The study was designed to collect data representative of the full spectrum of ACS in specific geographic populations.
Patients: Patients admitted with a working diagnosis of unstable angina or suspected myocardial infarction (MI).
Main outcome measures: Death during hospitalisation and at six months’ follow up (adjusted for baseline risks).
Results: In ST elevation MI, reperfusion was applied more often in the UK (71%) than in Europe (65%) and multinationally (59%) (p < 0.01). However, this was almost entirely by lytic treatment, in contrast with elsewhere (primary percutaneous coronary intervention 1%, 29%, 16%, respectively). Statins were applied more frequently in the UK for all classes of patients with ACS (p < 0.0001). In contrast there was lower use of revascularisation procedures in non-ST MI (20% v 37% v 28%, respectively) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (6% v 25% v 26%, respectively). In-hospital death rates, adjusted for baseline risk, were not significantly different but six month death rates were higher in the UK for ST elevation MI (7.2% UK, 4.3% Europe, 5.3% multinationally; p < 0.0001) and non-ST elevation MI (7.5%, 6.2%, and 6.7%, respectively; p = 0.012, UK v Europe).
Conclusions: Current management of ACS in the UK more closely follows the recommendations of the National Service Framework than British or European guidelines. Differences in practice may account for the observed higher event rates in the UK after hospital discharge.
acute coronary syndromes; registry; guidelines; management; outcome
The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for Unstable Angina/Non-ST–elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk scores for in-hospital and 6-month mortality are established tools for assessing risk in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The objective of our study was to compare the discriminative abilities of the TIMI and GRACE risk scores in a broad-spectrum, unselected ACS population and to assess the relative contributions of model simplicity and model composition to any observed differences between the two scoring systems.
ACS patients admitted to the University of Michigan between 1999 and 2005 were divided into UA/NSTEMI (n = 2753) and STEMI (n = 698) subpopulations. The predictive abilities of the TIMI and GRACE scores for in-hospital and 6-month mortality were assessed by calibration and discrimination. There were 137 in-hospital deaths (4%), and among the survivors, 234 (7.4%) died by 6 months post-discharge. In the UA/NSTEMI population, the GRACE risk scores demonstrated better discrimination than the TIMI UA/NSTEMI score for in-hospital (C = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81–0.89, versus 0.54, 95% CI: 0.48–0.60; p<0.01) and 6-month (C = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.76–0.83, versus 0.56, 95% CI: 0.52–0.60; p<0.01) mortality. Among STEMI patients, the GRACE and TIMI STEMI scores demonstrated comparably excellent discrimination for in-hospital (C = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78–0.90 versus 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78–0.89; p = 0.83) and 6-month (C = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.81, versus 0.71, 95% CI: 0.64–0.79; p = 0.79) mortality. An analysis of refitted multivariate models demonstrated a marked improvement in the discriminative power of the TIMI UA/NSTEMI model with the incorporation of heart failure and hemodynamic variables. Study limitations included unaccounted for confounders inherent to observational, single institution studies with moderate sample sizes.
The GRACE scores provided superior discrimination as compared with the TIMI UA/NSTEMI score in predicting in-hospital and 6-month mortality in UA/NSTEMI patients, although the GRACE and TIMI STEMI scores performed equally well in STEMI patients. The observed discriminative deficit of the TIMI UA/NSTEMI score likely results from the omission of key risk factors rather than from the relative simplicity of the scoring system.
Objective: To determine whether creatinine clearance at the time of hospital admission is an independent predictor of hospital mortality and adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Design: A prospective multicentre observational study, GRACE (global registry of acute coronary events), of patients with the full spectrum of ACS.
Setting: Ninety four hospitals of varying size and capability in 14 countries across four continents.
Patients: 11 774 patients hospitalised with ACS, including ST and non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina.
Main outcome measures: Demographic and clinical characteristics, medication use, and in-hospital outcomes were compared for patients with creatinine clearance rates of > 60 ml/min (normal and minimally impaired renal function), 30–60 ml/min (moderate renal dysfunction), and < 30 ml/min (severe renal dysfunction).
Results: Patients with moderate or severe renal dysfunction were older, were more likely to be women, and presented to participating hospitals with more comorbidities than those with normal or minimally impaired renal function. In comparison with patients with normal or minimally impaired renal function, patients with moderate renal dysfunction were twice as likely to die (odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.55 to 2.81) and those with severe renal dysfunction almost four times more likely to die (odds ratio 3.71, 95% confidence interval 2.57 to 5.37) after adjustment for other potentially confounding variables. The risk of major bleeding episodes increased as renal function worsened.
Conclusion: In patients with ACS, creatinine clearance is an important independent predictor of hospital death and major bleeding. These data reinforce the importance of increased surveillance efforts and use of targeted intervention strategies in patients with acute coronary disease complicated by renal dysfunction.
creatinine clearance; renal dysfunction; acute coronary syndromes; prognosis
To assess the prevalence, risk factors, presenting features, and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients ≤40 years of age from Oman.
Data were analyzed from 1579 consecutive ACS patients from Oman during May, 2006 to June, 2007, as part of Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). ACS patients ≤40 years of age were compared with patients >40 years of age.
A total of 121 (7.6%) patients were ≤40 years of age with mean age of 36 ± 4 vs. 61 ± 11 years in young and old adults, respectively (P<0.001). More men were seen in the younger age group (81 vs. 60%; P<0.001). Among all the coronary risk factors, young patients had more history of smoking (47 vs. 15%; P<0.001), obesity (72 vs. 58%; P = 0.009), and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) (16 vs. 7%; P = 0.001). Both groups received aspirin, statins, thrombolytic therapy, and anticoagulants equally; however, younger patients received clopidogrel, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, β-blockers, and in-hospital coronary angiogram more. Younger patients experienced less heart failure (6 vs. 27%; P<0.001) and in-hospital mortality, especially among STEMI patients (0 vs. 10%; P = 0.037).
Young ACS patients from Oman have different risk profile. They were treated more aggressively and their outcome was better, which is similar to other populations. However, smoking, along with obesity and family history of CAD were strong risk factors in the young Omani ACS patients. There is a need for prevention programmes to control smoking and obesity epidemic by targeting young adults in the population.
Acute coronary syndrome; Oman; smoking; young adults
The impact of polyvascular disease (peripheral arterial disease [PAD] and/or cerebrovascular disease [CVD]) on long-term cardiovascular outcomes among older patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been well studied.
Non–ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) patients aged ≥65 years from the CRUSADE registry who survived to hospital discharge were linked to longitudinal data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (n=34,205). All patients were presumed to have coronary artery disease (CAD) and were classified into 4 groups: 10.7% had prior CVD (CAD+CVD group); 11.5% had prior PAD (CAD+PAD); 3.1% had prior PAD and CVD (CAD+PAD+CVD); and 74.7% had no polyvascular disease (CAD alone). Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to examine the hazard of long-term mortality and the composite of death, readmission for MI, or readmission for stroke (median follow-up 35 months, IQR 17–49) among the 4 groups.
Compared with the CAD-alone group, patients with polyvascular disease had a greater comorbidity burden, were less likely to undergo revascularization, and less often received recommended discharge interventions. Three-year mortality rates increased with a greater number of arterial beds involved: 33% for CAD alone, 49% for CAD+PAD, 52% for CAD+CVD, and 59% for CAD+PAD+CVD. Relative to the CAD-alone group, patients with all 3 arterial beds involved had the highest risk of long-term mortality (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 1.49 [1.38–1.61], with a lower risk for those with CAD+CVD, 1.38 [1.31–1.44], and those with CAD+PAD, 1.29 [1.23–1.35]). Similarly, the adjusted risk of long-term composite ischemic events was highest among the CAD+PAD+CVD group.
Older NSTEMI patients with polyvascular disease have substantially higher long-term risk, such that the 3-year mortality rate is >50%. Future studies targeting greater adherance to secondary prevention strategies and novel therapies are needed to help reduce long-term cardiovascular events in this vulnerable population.
Background and Objectives
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was shown to be elevated in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to have prognostic significance in AMI patients. The aim of this study was to estimate whether the value of PTX3 could be used as a prognostic biomarker, with the global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) risk assessment tool, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Subjects and Methods
Between July 2007 and June 2008, 137 patient subjects (mean age : 61±12 years, M : F=108 : 29) with ACS who underwent coronary intervention, but did not have a prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and/or follow-up coronary angiogram, were enrolled. We estimated the all-cause mortality or death/MI, in-hospital and to 6 months, using the GRACE risk scores and compared these estimates with serum PTX3 concentrations.
The serum PTX3 concentration showed a significant increase in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) greater than the unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group (2.4±2.1 ng/mL vs. 1.3±0.9 ng/mL, p= 0.017, respectively), but did not show a significant difference between non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and the UAP group (1.9±1.4 ng/mL vs. 1.3±0.9 ng/mL, p=0.083, respectively). The serum PTX3 concentration was closely related to death/MI in-hospital (r=0.242, p=0.015) and death/MI to 6 months (r=0.224, p=0.023), respectively. The serum PTX3 concentration was not related to all-cause mortality in-hospital (r=0.112, p=0.269) and to 6 months (r=0.132, p=0.191), respectively. Among the parameters determining the GRACE risk scores, the degree of Killip class in congestive heart failure (CHF) was independently associated with the supramedian PTX3 concentration [odds ratio: 2.229 (95% confidence interval: 1.038-4.787), p=0.040].
The serum PTX3 level provides important information for the risk stratification of CHF among the parameters determining the GRACE risk scores in subjects with ACS.
Pentraxin 3; Myocardial infarction; Acute coronary syndrome; Heart failure
To assess whether gender differences exist in the clinical presentation, angiographic severity, management and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
The study comprised of 1,961 women and 8,593 men who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and were included in the Malaysian NCVD-PCI Registry from 2007–2009. Significant stenosis was defined as ≥70% stenosis in at least one of the epicardial vessels.
Women were significantly older and had significantly higher rates of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure, new onset angina and prior history of heart failure whereas smokers and past history of myocardial infarction were higher in men. In the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort, more women were in Killip class III-IV, had longer door-to-balloon time (169.5 min. vs 127.3 min, p<0.052) and significantly longer transfer time (300.4 min vs 166.3 min, p<0.039). Overall, women had significantly more left main stem (LMS) disease (1.3% vs 0.6%, p<0.003) and smaller diameter vessels (<3.0 mm: 45.5% vs 34.8%, p<0.001). In-hospital mortality rates for all PCI, STEMI, Non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina for women and men were 1.99% vs 0.98%, Odds ratio (OR): 2.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40 to 3.01), 6.19% vs 2.88%, OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.31 to 3.79), 2.90% vs 0.79%, OR: 3.75 (95% CI: 1.58 to 8.90) and 1.79% vs 0.29%, OR: 6.18 (95% CI: 0.56 to 68.83), respectively. Six-month adjusted OR for mortality for all PCI, STEMI and NSTEMI in women were 2.18 (95% CI: 0.97 to 4.90), 2.68 (95% CI: 0.37 to 19.61) and 2.66 (95% CI: 0.73 to 9.69), respectively.
Women who underwent PCI were older with more co-morbidities. In-hospital and six-month mortality for all PCI, STEMI and NSTEMI were higher due largely to significantly more LMS disease, smaller diameter vessels, longer door-to-balloon and transfer time in women.
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
To assess gender-related differences in the presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients from Oman.
Data were analyzed from 1579 consecutive ACS patients from Oman during May 8, 2006 to June 6, 2006 and January 29, 2007 to June 29, 2007, as part of Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
In this study, 608 (39%) patients were women with mean age 62 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 13 years (p < 0.001). More women were seen in the older age groups (age <55 years: 25% vs. 43%, 55–74 years: 60% vs. 49% and >75 years: 15% vs. 8%; p < 0.001). Women had higher frequencies of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, angina, and aspirin use, but less history of smoking. Women were significantly less likely to have ischemic chest pain, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and were more likely to have dyspnea, unstable angina, ST depression and left bundle branch block. Both groups received ACS medications and cardiac catheterization equally; however, women received anticoagulants (88% vs. 79%; p < 0.001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (70% vs. 65%; p = 0.050) more and clopidogrel less (20% vs. 29%; p < 0.001). Women experienced more recurrent ischemia and heart failure but with similar in-hospital mortality (4.6% vs. 4.3%) even after adjusting for age (p = 0.500).
Women admitted with ACS were older than men, had more risk factors, presented differently with no difference in hospital mortality. This is similar to Gulf RACE study except for mortality. Women received anticoagulants/ACEIs /ARBs more but were under-treated with clopidogrel.
Gender-related differences; Women; Acute coronary syndrome; Oman
Thrombosis is regarded to be a key factor in the development of acute coronary syndromes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize, that hemostatic and rheological risk factors may be of major relevance for the incidence and the risk stratification of these patients.
In 243 patients with coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris parameters of metabolism, hemostasis, blood rheology and endogenous fibrinolysis were assessed. Patients were prospectively followed for 2 years in respect to elective revascularizations and acute coronary syndromes.
During follow-up 88 patients presented with cardiac events, 22 of those were admitted to the hospital because of acute events, 5 Patients were excluded due to non- cardiac death. Patients with clinical events were found to be more frequently diabetic and presented with a more progressed coronary atherosclerosis. Even though patients with diabetes mellitus demonstrated a comparable level of multivessel disease (71% vs. 70%) the rate of elective revascularization was higher (41% vs. 28%, p < 0.05). The results were also unfavorable for the incidence of acute cardiovascular events (18% vs. 8%, p < 0.01). In comparison to non-diabetic patients diabetics demonstrated significantly elevated levels of fibrinogen (352 ± 76 vs. 312 ± 64 mg/dl, p < 0.01), plasma viscosity (1.38 ± 0.23 vs. 1.31 ± 0.16 mPas, p < 0.01), red blood cell aggregation (13.2 ± 2.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.1 E, p < 0.05) and plasmin-activator-inhibitor (6.11 ± 3.4 vs. 4.7 ± 2.7 U/l, p < 0.05).
Pathological alterations of fibrinogen, blood rheology and plasminogen-activator-inhibtor as indicators of a procoagulant state are of major relevance for the short-term incidence of cardiac events, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and may be used to stratify patients to specific therapies.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is common in patients approaching the end-of-life (EoL), but these patients rarely receive palliative care. We compared the utility of a palliative care prognostic tool (Gold Standards Framework (GSF)) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, to help identify patients approaching EoL.
Methods and Findings
172 unselected consecutive patients with confirmed ACS admitted over an eight-week period were assessed using prognostic tools and followed up for 12 months. GSF criteria identified 40 (23%) patients suitable for EoL care while GRACE identified 32 (19%) patients with ≥10% risk of death within 6 months. Patients meeting GSF criteria were older (p = 0.006), had more comorbidities (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.2±0.9, p = 0.007), more frequent hospitalisations before (p = 0.001) and after (0.0001) their index admission, and were more likely to die during follow-up (GSF+ 20% vs GSF- 7%, p = 0.03). GRACE score was predictive of 12-month mortality (C-statistic 0.75) and this was improved by the addition of previous hospital admissions and previous history of stroke (C-statistic 0.88).
This study has highlighted a potentially large number of ACS patients eligible for EoL care. GSF or GRACE could be used in the hospital setting to help identify these patients. GSF identifies ACS patients with more comorbidity and at increased risk of hospital readmission.
Diabetes is an important predictor of mortality patients with ACS. However, little is known about the association between diabetes and health status after ACS. The objective of this study was to examine the association between diabetes and patients' health status outcomes one year after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
This was a prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with ACS. Patients were evaluated at baseline and one year with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were ascertained during index ACS hospitalization. One year SAQ Angina Frequency, Physical Limitation, and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) scales were the primary outcomes of the study.
Of 1199 patients, 326 (37%) had diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to present with unstable angina (52% vs. 40%; p < 0.001), less likely to present with STEMI (20% vs. 31%; p < 0.001), and less likely to undergo coronary angiography (68% vs. 82%; p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, the presence of diabetes was associated with significantly more angina (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.01–1.38), cardiac-related physical limitation (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.57–3.24) and HRQoL deficits (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01–2.04) at one year.
Diabetes is associated with more angina, worse physical limitation, and worse HRQoL one year after an ACS. Future studies should assess whether health status outcomes of patients with diabetes could be improved through more aggressive ACS treatment or post-discharge surveillance and angina management.
To estimate the prevalence, predictors, and impact of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the Middle East.
Data were collected prospectively from 6,266 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and enrolled in the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE). A low HDL-C was defined as a level <40 mg/Dl (1.0 mmol/L) for males and <50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for females. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
The overall mean age of the cohort was 56±12 years and majority were males (77%). The overall prevalence of low HDL-C was 62%. During in-hospital stay and at discharge, the majority were on statin therapy (83%) while 10% were on other cholesterol lowering agents. After adjustment of demographic and clinical characteristics, the predictors for low HDL-C were higher body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes mellitus, smoking and impaired renal function. Multivariable adjustment revealed that low HDL-C was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.54; 95% CI: 1.06-2.24; p=0.022) and cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20-2.14; p=0.001).
ACS patients in the Middle East have a high prevalence of low HDL-C. Higher BMI, prior MI, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and impaired renal function were predictors of low HDL-C. Significantly higher in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were associated with low HDL-C in men but not in women.
High density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; gender; Middle East.
To evaluate the impact of increased age on outcome from a strategy of early invasive management and revascularisation in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Retrospective analysis of a national Acute Coronary Syndrome registry (ACACIA).
Multiple Australian (n=39) centres; 25% rural, 52% with onsite cardiac surgery.
Unselected consecutive patients admitted with confirmed ACS, total n=2559, median 99 per centre.
Management was at the discretion of the treating physician. Analysis of outcome based on age >75 years was compared using Cox proportional hazard with a propensity model to adjust for baseline covariates.
Main outcome measures
Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were bleeding and a composite of any vascular event or unplanned readmission.
Elderly patients were more likely to present with high-risk features yet were less likely to receive evidence-based medical therapies or receive diagnostic coronary angiography (75% vs 49%, p<0.0001) and early revascularisation (50% vs 30%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis found early revascularisation in the elderly cohort to be associated with lower 12-month mortality hazard (0.4 (0.2–0.7)) and composite outcome (0.6 (0.5–0.8)). Propensity model suggested a greater absolute benefit in elderly patients compared to others.
Following presentation with ACS, elderly patients are less likely to receive evidence-based medical therapies, to be considered for an early invasive strategy and be revascularised. Increasing age is a significant barrier to physicians when considering early revascularisation. An early invasive strategy with revascularisation when performed was associated with substantial benefit and the absolute accrued benefit appears to be higher in elderly patients.
To assess the impact of increased age on invasive management and revascularisation in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
Age is a barrier to treatment since elderly patients are less likely to receive evidence-based medical therapies and invasive management.
Invasive management when performed was associated with substantial benefit; greater absolute benefit was demonstrated in elderly patients compared to younger patients.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The strengths of this study are that the data are large volume and comprise contemporary real-world practice.
The limitations of this study are that the reasons and decisions for offering or failing to offer invasive management or evidence-based therapy are not fully recorded.
There is no randomisation process within this registry.
To develop a clinical risk prediction tool for estimating the cumulative six month risk of death and death or myocardial infarction to facilitate triage and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Prospective multinational observational study in which we used multivariable regression to develop a final predictive model, with prospective and external validation.
Ninety four hospitals in 14 countries in Europe, North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand.
43 810 patients (21 688 in derivation set; 22 122 in validation set) presenting with acute coronary syndrome with or without ST segment elevation enrolled in the global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) study between April 1999 and September 2005.
Main outcome measures
Death and myocardial infarction.
1989 patients died in hospital, 1466 died between discharge and six month follow-up, and 2793 sustained a new non-fatal myocardial infarction. Nine factors independently predicted death and the combined end point of death or myocardial infarction in the period from admission to six months after discharge: age, development (or history) of heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, systolic blood pressure, Killip class, initial serum creatinine concentration, elevated initial cardiac markers, cardiac arrest on admission, and ST segment deviation. The simplified model was robust, with prospectively validated C-statistics of 0.81 for predicting death and 0.73 for death or myocardial infarction from admission to six months after discharge. The external applicability of the model was validated in the dataset from GUSTO IIb (global use of strategies to open occluded coronary arteries).
This risk prediction tool uses readily identifiable variables to provide robust prediction of the cumulative six month risk of death or myocardial infarction. It is a rapid and widely applicable method for assessing cardiovascular risk to complement clinical assessment and can guide patient triage and management across the spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Background and Objectives:
Hyperglycemia in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. We evaluated the relationship between admitting (nonfasting) blood glucose and in-hospital mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with ACS in Oman.
Patients and Methods:
Data were analyzed from 1551 consecutive patients admitted to 15 hospitals throughout Oman, with the final diagnosis of ACS during May 8, 2006 to June 6, 2006 and January 29, 2007 to June 29, 2007, as part of Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events. Admitting blood glucose was divided into four groups, namely, euglycemia (≤7 mmol/l), mild hyperglycemia (>7-<9 mmol/l), moderate hyperglycemia (≥9-<11 - mmol/l), and severe hyperglycemia (≥11 mmol/l).
Of all, 38% (n = 584) and 62% (n = 967) of the patients were documented with and without a history of DM, respectively. Nondiabetic patients with severe hyperglycemia were associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with those with euglycemia (13.1 vs 1.52%; P<0.001), mild hyperglycemia (13.1 vs 3.62%; P = 0.003), and even moderate hyperglycemia (13.1 vs 4.17%; P = 0.034). Even after multivariate adjustment, severe hyperglycemia was still associated with higher in-hospital mortality when compared with both euglycemia (odds ratio [OR], 6.3; P<0.001) and mild hyperglycemia (OR, 3.43; P = 0.011). No significant relationship was noted between admitting blood glucose and in-hospital mortality among diabetic ACS patients even after multivariable adjustment (all P values >0.05).
Admission hyperglycemia is common in ACS patients from Oman and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality among those patients with previously unreported DM.
Acute coronary syndrome; admission hyperglycemia; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; in-hospital mortality
Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), a major regulator of the Wnt pathway, plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. However, no study has evaluated the association of DKK-1 and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated this association and whether the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) hospital-discharge risk score predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) can be improved by adding the DKK-1 value.
We enrolled 291 patients (46 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and 245 with non-ST elevated ACS [NSTE-ACS]) who were divided into groups by tertiles of baseline plasma DKK-1 level measured by ELISA. The GRACE risk score was calculated and predictive value alone and together with DKK-1 and/or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level were assessed, respectively.
Compared with patients with NSTE-ACS, those with STEMI had higher plasma DKK-1 level at baseline (P = 0.006). Plasma DKK-1 level was correlated with hs-CRP level (r = 0.295, P<0.001) and was greater with high than intermediate or low GRACE scores (P = 0.002 and P<0.001, respectively). We found 44 (15.1%) MACEs during a median 2-year follow-up. DKK-1 levels were higher for patients with than without events (P<0.001). The rate of MACE increased with increasing DKK-1 level (P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GRACE score with MACE was 0.524 and improved to 0.791 with the addition of hs-CRP level, 0.775 with the addition of DKK-1 level and 0.847 with both values added.
DKK-1 is an independent predictor of long-term MACE of patients with ACS. The long-term predictive ability of post-discharge GRACE score may be enhanced by adding DKK-1 level.
Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients.
Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008–2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001), more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001), and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001) and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001) and heart failure (HF) (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001). Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities.
Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.