To review the experience with the diagnosis and management of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT) with a subset analysis of those with atypical features.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective chart review of patients of extragonadal germ cell tumors between 2000 and 2010 was carried out.
Fifteen children aged 7 days to 15 years (median, 1.5 years) were included. Three had an antenatal diagnosis (one sacrococcygeal, one retrobulbar, one retroperitoneal tumor) and were operated in the neonatal period. The locations were distributed between the retrobulbar area (1), anterior neck-thyroid gland (1), mediastinum (4), abdominothoracic extending through the esophageal hiatus (1), retroperitoneal (4) and sacrococcygeal (4). On histological examination, five harbored immature elements while two were malignant; the latter children received postexcision adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no mortality. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years (6 months to 8 years), 14/15 have had an event-free survival. One immature mediastinal teratoma that recurred locally 7.5 years after the initial operation was excised and adjuvant chemotherapy instituted.
Extragonadal GCTs in children are uncommon and occasionally present with atypical clinical, radiological and histological features resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
Extragonadal; germ cell tumor; atypical
We previously reported a dose-finding and phase II trial of the TI-CE regimen (paclitaxel [T] plus ifosfamide [I] followed by high-dose carboplatin [C] plus etoposide [E] with stem-cell support) in germ cell tumor (GCT) patients predicted to have a poor prognosis with conventional-dose salvage therapy. We now report the efficacy of TI-CE with prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in our full data set of 107 patients.
Patients and Methods
Eligible patients had advanced GCTs with progressive disease following chemotherapy and unfavorable prognostic features (extragonadal primary site, incomplete response [IR] to first-line therapy, or relapse/IR to ifosfamide-cisplatin–based conventional-dose salvage). Univariate and multivariate analyses (MVAs) of prognostic factors were performed. The predictive ability of the Einhorn and Beyer prognostic models was assessed.
Most patients were platinum refractory and had an IR to first-line chemotherapy. There were 54 (5%) complete and eight (8%) partial responses with negative markers; 5-year DFS was 47% and OS was 52% (median follow-up, 61 months). No relapses occurred after 2 years. Five (24%) of 21 primary mediastinal nonseminomatous GCTs are continuously disease free. On MVA, primary mediastinal site (P < .001), two or more lines of prior therapy (P < .001), baseline human chorionic gonadotropin ≥ 1,000 U/L (P = .01), and lung metastases (P = .02) significantly predicted adverse DFS. Poor-risk patients did worse than good- or intermediate-risk patients according to both Beyer (P < .002) and Einhorn (P < .05) models.
TI-CE is effective salvage therapy for GCT patients with poor prognostic features. Mediastinal primary site and two or more lines of prior therapy were most predictive of adverse DFS. Beyer and Einhorn models can assist in predicting outcome.
The risk of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) is significant, and once developed IPS is potentially fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk accurately and determine prognostic factors for its development and course. Using a computerized database, all patients with HD treated with BCNU (carmustine) containing HDC and haematopoietic support at The Royal Marsden between November 1985 and March 1994 were identified. Patient characteristics, previous treatments, disease status at HDC, dose of BCNU, incidence and severity of IPS and survival were all determined and analysed. During the study period, 94 patients received HDC, of whom 26 (28%) had a first episode of IPS within a year of HDC and 23 within 6 months. The median time to presentation after HDC was 93 days (range 12-336 days). The only factors that significantly increased the risk of developing IPS on multivariate analysis were dose of BCNU (P for trend = 0.03) and female sex (P = 0.04). Of these 26 patients, 14 had complete resolution of all symptoms, three had persisting pulmonary symptoms at 6 months and the remaining nine died of IPS at a median of 74 days (19-418 days). All the patients who died from IPS had the first symptoms within 6 months of HDC and all received doses of BCNU > 475 mg m(-2) (P for trend = 0.001). For women receiving > 475 mg m(-2) the risk of death was significantly higher than for men (P = 0.035) but not for those receiving < 475 mg m(-2). Previous lung disease, persisting residual disease before HDC, previous bleomycin or previous mantle radiotherapy did not increase either the incidence of IPS or risk of a fatal outcome. We conclude that the main avoidable risk factor for fatal IPS after HDC is dose of BCNU, and this is especially true for women. If < 475 mg m(-2) is given, even patients with previous mantle radiotherapy and/or previous bleomycin have a very low risk of developing fatal lung toxicity if lung function tests are normal.
The Third International Central Nervous System (CNS) Germ Cell Tumour (GCT) Symposium brought together over 100 delegates from all over the world to learn about the latest developments in these tumours and discuss future strategies for their management. Some areas of consensus were agreed upon, and controversies were discussed. Among these, the classification of GCTs and the surgical approach to their management were among the greatest areas of difference between different parts of the world. The need for radiotherapy (RT) as a part of standard first-line management for all malignant CNS GCTs was agreed, as well as the need for additional chemotherapy to maximise the cure in nongerminomatous malignant GCTs; the benefit of the addition of chemotherapy in localised germinoma to reduce the RT burden was also accepted as a good practice. The potential of biological parameters to assist the future diagnosis, treatment stratification, and disease monitoring for CNS GCTs was discussed. Such biological parameters may also represent targets for the development of novel therapies. The need for further collaboration between groups engaged in biological studies was agreed. The merits of proton beam RT were debated, and the importance of mitigating the long-term side effects of the treatment was underlined by a session on late effects.
Third International CNS GCT Symposium; central nervous system; germ cell tumour; germinoma; nongerminoma
Intracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms and vary in histological differentiation, prognosis and clinical behavior. Germinoma and mature teratoma are GCTs that have a good prognosis, while other types of GCTs, termed nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs), are tumors with an intermediate or poor prognosis. The second group of tumors requires more extensive drug and irradiation treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying the differences in incidence and prognosis of the various GCT subgroups are unclear.
We identified a distinct mRNA profile correlating with GCT histological differentiation and prognosis, and also present in this study the first miRNA profile of pediatric primary intracranial GCTs. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were downregulated in germinomas, but miR-142-5p and miR-146a were upregulated. Genes responsible for self-renewal (such as POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG and KLF4) and the immune response were abundant in germinomas, while genes associated with neuron differentiation, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (including SNAI2 (SLUG) and TWIST2) were abundant in NGMGCTs. Clear transcriptome segregation based on patient survival was observed, with malignant NGMGCTs being closest to embryonic stem cells. Chromosome copy number variations (CNVs) at cytobands 4q13.3-4q28.3 and 9p11.2-9q13 correlated with GCT malignancy and clinical risk. Six genes (BANK1, CXCL9, CXCL11, DDIT4L, ELOVL6 and HERC5) within 4q13.3-4q28.3 were more abundant in germinomas.
Our results integrate molecular profiles with clinical observations and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms causing GCT malignancy. The genes, pathways and microRNAs identified have the potential to be novel therapeutic targets.
Extragonadal localization of germ cell tumors (GCTs) is rare; to the best of our knowledge, a location in the soft tissue of the arm has never been previously reported in the literature.
We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with a primary malignant mixed non-seminomatous GCT (teratocarcinoma variety) in the right arm, treated by a combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and surgery. After 18 months of close follow-up, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases have been detected.
A combination of chemotherapy and surgery is the most appropriate treatment strategy for extragonadal GCTs, to ensure both local and systemic control.
Chemotherapy; Embryonic carcinoma; Extragonadal; Mixed germ cell tumors; Surgery; Teratoma
Of 297 patients with metastatic testicular and extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCT), bone involvement was detected clinically in 3% (7/251) of those at first presentation and in 9% (4/46) of relapsed cases. This difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence limits -2%; +14%). Concurrent systemic metastases, commonly involving lung (7/11 cases) and para-aortic lymph nodes (6/11), were present in all patients with bone disease. All affected patients had localized bone pain and lumbar spine was the most frequent site involved (9/11). Spinal cord compression occurred in two patients while a third developed progressive vertebral collapse after chemotherapy and required extensive surgical reconstruction. At median follow-up of 4 years, survival among patients presenting with bone disease (6/7) was similar to overall survival in the whole group (84%) and appeared better than in those with liver (18/26, 69%) or central nervous system (6/9) metastases at presentation. Back pain in metastatic germ cell tumours is often due to retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy but lumbar spine osseus metastases must be recognized early if severe potential complications, such as spinal cord compression, are to be avoided. In this series, bone metastases were not seen in the absence of widespread systemic disease suggesting all solitary bony lesions in GCT patients should be biopsied.
Regardless of improvement in cure of Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the results in treatment of advanced stage of RMS in children are still dismal. Recently, high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (HDC/APBSCT) has been tried to manage the advanced high-risk RMS patients. We investigated the effectiveness of HDC/APBSCT by reviewing the clinical records of high-risk pediatric RMS patients in single institute database. Over twenty years, 37 patients were diagnosed as RMS with high-risk at the time of first diagnosis. These patients were classified as two groups according to treatment method. The first group was HDC/APBSCT and the other was conventional multi-agent chemotherapy group. Differences of clinical results between the two groups were analyzed. The median age of patients was 5 yr, ranging from 6 months to 15 yr. The 5-yr event free survival rate (EFS) of all patients was 24.8% ± 4.8%. HDC/APBSCT group and conventional multi-agent chemotherapy group were 41.3% ± 17.8% and 16.7% ± 7.6% for 5-yr EFS, respectively (P = 0.023). There was a significant difference in the result of HDC/APBSCT between complete remission or very good partial response group and poor response group (50% ± 20.4% vs 37.5% ± 28.6%, P = 0.018). HDC/APBSCT can be a promising treatment modality in high-risk RMS patients.
Rhabdomyosarcoma; Children; Chemotherapy; Bone Marrow Transplantation
Prognosis of advanced ovarian carcinomas (AOC) remains poor with a 5-year survival of 30%. Benefit from high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in this disease has not been demonstrated to date.
To evaluate the value of HDC as consolidation treatment after surgery and platinum/taxane-based therapy, we designed a monocentric retrospective comparative study. We used a subset approach to identify parameters associated with HDC efficacy.
One hundred and three AOC patients treated with conventional chemotherapy alone (CCA) were compared to 60 patients receiving HDC plus hematopoietic stem cell support. After a median follow-up of 47.5 months there was no overall survival (OS) advantage for the HDC group in the whole population (p=0.29). Nevertheless, HDC was associated to a better outcome in young patients (≤50 years), both in term of progression-free survival (p=0.02, log-rank test) and OS (p=0.05, log-rank test). Median OS was 54.6 and 36 months in the HDC and CCA groups, respectively.
Although randomized trials failed to demonstrate any benefit for HDC in AOC patients, this study suggests that young patients may derive a substantial advantage from receiving it after the standard treatment. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm this gain and to search for the biological processes associated with this improvement.
Ovarian carcinomas; Prognosis; High dose chemotherapy; Stem cell support
Twenty-nine patients with
malignant giant-cell tumours of bone (GCT) were followed- up for
between 6 months and 18 years. Seventeen of the tumours were
primary and 12 were due to malignant degeneration of initially
benign lesions. The clinical features did not differ from those
of benign GCT, except for a higher incidence in the distal tibia
and sacrum. Anaplastic GCTs were included in the study because
their clinical and radiographic features and prognosis were no
different from those of the GCT grade III of Jaffe. Eighteen of
the tumours were grade III, and 11 were anaplastic. This
retrospective study was intended to assess the effects of
chemotherapy and surgery for malignant GCT. Three treatment
groups were selected, in which treatment was either by surgery
alone, surgery plus chemotherapy, or radiotherapy alone. – The
prognosis was poor and the 5 year tumour-free survival rate in
the series was 50%. The prognosis was the same for primary as
for secondarily malignant tumours. There was no statistical
difference in survival between malignant grade III and
anaplastic malignant tumours. The one-year survival rate for
patients treated by chemotherapy and surgery was statistically
test) than for persons treated by surgery alone. However, the
five-year survival rate and the actuarial survival curves were not
statistically different in the two groups (log rank test). –
Chemotherapy appears to be of some value in the treatment of these
malignant tumours but a larger series is required to confirm the
efficacy of this approach.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of thrombo-embolic events (TEE) in patients with germ-cell tumours (GCT) who receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, to compare this risk to that of a matched control group of non-GCT cancer patients, and to identify risk factors of TEE. The rate of TEE during the 6 months following the initiation of chemotherapy was assessed in 100 consecutive patients with GCT and in 100 controls with various neoplasms who were matched on sex and age, and who received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy during the same period of time at Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. Data were subsequently tested on a validation group of 77 GCT patients treated in Lyon, France. A total of 19 patients (19%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 13–28) and six patients (6%) (95% CI: 3–13) had a TEE in the GCT group and the non-GCT control group, respectively (relative risk (RR): 3.4; P<0.01). Three patients from the GCT group died of pulmonary embolism. In multivariate analysis, two factors had independent predictive value for TEE: a high body surface area (>1.9 m2) (RR: 5 (1.8–13.9)) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (RR: 6.4 (2.3–18.2)). Patients with no risk factor (n=26) and those with at least one risk factor (n=71) had a probability of having a TEE of 4% (95% CI: 1–19) and 26% (95% CI: 17–37), respectively. In the GCT validation set, 10 (13%) patients had a TEE; patients with no risk factor and those with at least one risk factor had a probability of having a TEE of 0 and 17% (95% CI: 10–29), respectively. Patients with GCT are at a higher risk for TEE than patients with non-GCT cancer while on cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This risk can be accurately predicted by serum LDH and body surface area. This predictive index may help to study prospectively the impact of thromboprophylaxis in GCT patients.
cancer of the testis; chemotherapy; cisplatin; germ-cell tumour; thrombosis
A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 patients with primary malignant germ cell tumours of the mediastinum treated with platinum-based chemotherapy between 1977 and 1990. All seven patients with pure seminoma were treated initially with chemotherapy and four of these patients received additional mediastinal radiotherapy. Only one patient relapsed; his initial therapy had included radiotherapy and single-agent carboplatin and he was successfully salvaged with combination chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 11 to 117 months (median 41 months) all seven patients with seminoma remain alive and disease free giving an overall survival of 100%. Eleven patients had malignant non seminoma; following chemotherapy eight of these had elective surgical resection of residual mediastinal masses. Complete remission was achieved in nine (82%) patients, however, one of these patients died from bleomycin pneumonitis. With a follow-up of 12 to 113 months (median 55 months) eight of 11 (73%) patients with malignant mediastinal teratoma remain alive and disease free.
In order to identify pathogenic correlates of refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antibodies against anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (ACPAs) were investigated in RA patients in whom the dysregulated immune system had been ablated by high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Six patients with refractory RA were extensively characterized in terms of levels of total immunoglobulins, RA-specific autoantibodies (ACPAs and rheumatoid factor) and antibodies against rubella, tetanus toxoid (TT) and phosphorylcholine before and after HDC plus HSCT. Additionally, the avidity of ACPAs was measured before and after treatment and compared with the avidity of TT antibodies following repeated immunizations. Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy before HDC plus HSCT, and analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In the three patients with clinically long-lasting responses to HDC plus HSCT (median 423 days), significant reductions in ACPA-IgG levels after therapy were observed (median level dropped from 215 to 34 arbitrary units/ml; P = 0.05). In contrast, stable ACPA-IgG levels were observed in three patients who relapsed shortly after HDC plus HSCT (median of 67 days). Clinical responders had ACPA-IgG of lower avidity (r = 0.75; P = 0.08) and higher degree of inflammation histologically (r = 0.73; P = 0.09). Relapse (after 38 to 530 days) in all patients was preceded by rising levels of low avidity ACPA-IgG (after 30 to 388 days), in contrast to the stable titres of high avidity TT antibodies. In conclusion, humoral autoimmune responses were differentially modulated by immunoablative therapy in patients with synovial inflammation and low avidity ACPA-IgG autoantibodies as compared with patients with high levels of high avidity ACPA-IgG. The distinct clinical disease course after immunoablative therapy based on levels and avidity of ACPA-IgG indicates that refractory RA is not a single disease entity.
We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005. We reviewed late recurrence that occurred at least 2 years after the initial disease-free status and secondary malignancies as well as oncological outcomes.
In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively. Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status. Second primary hematological neoplasms occurred in three (2.2%), although they had a long-term free of the primary disease. All died of the second primary disease.
Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible. Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence. In addition, care should be taken to watch for the development of life-threatening second primary malignant disease during long-term follow-up.
urology; urologic-med; urologic-radOncol
High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation in advanced germ cell tumour (GCT) patients is widely applied. The aims of this study were: (1) To examine the presence of alphafetoprotein (AFP) bearing tumour cells in PBSC harvests from advanced GCT patients obtained after multiple cycles of induction chemotherapy. (2) To determine whether induction chemotherapy contributed to in vivo purging of the tumour. We evaluated cryopreserved PBSC samples from 5 patients with advanced stage II/III AFP producing GCT. PBSC were separated after the first, second and third cycles of induction chemotherapy. Those samples were analysed using the nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to detect AFP mRNA. Although, in all patients, AFP mRNA was detected in PBSC samples after the first or second cycle of induction chemotherapy, but was not detected in 3 of 4 samples after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Although it is not clear whether tumour cells contaminating PBSC fraction contribute to disease relapse, PBSC harvested after at least 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy might be recommended to avoid such a possibility. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com
germ cell tumour; alphafetoprotein; peripheral blood stem cells; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) most often arise in the gonads but some develop extragonadally. The aim of this study was to examine sex- and race-specific trends in incidence and survival of gonadal (GGCTs) and extragonadal GCTs (EGCTs) in the US from 1973 to 2007. We also examined the topographic distribution of EGCTs by race and sex.
We estimated age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival rates (RSR) of GCTs using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (SEER 9 registries). GCTs and their topographic sites were identified using ICD-O morphology and topography codes.
Of 21,170 GCTs among males, 5.7% were extragonadal (whites 5.5%; blacks 16.3%). Of 2,093 GCTs among females, 39.3% were extragonadal (whites, 36.9%; blacks 51.0%). The incidence of GGCT was much higher among white (56.3/1,000,000) than black males (10.0/1,000,000) while there was no difference in incidence between white and black females (3.2/1,000,000). The rates of EGCT among men and women of both races were similar (range:1.9 – 3.4/1,000,000). The most frequent extragonadal sites were mediastinum among males and placenta among females. The 5-year RSR of testicular GCT was higher among whites (97%) than blacks (90%), as was the 5-year RSR of ovarian GCT (whites, 92%; blacks 85%). In general, the 5-year RSRs of EGCTs were lower than the 5-year RSRs of GGCTs.
The different incidence trends of GGCTs and EGCTs and distinct age-specific incidence patterns by anatomic site of EGCTs suggests that GGCTs and EGCTs may have different etiologies.
testicular neoplasms; ovarian neoplasms; incidence; time trends; germ cell tumors; extragonadal germ cell tumors
High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support has been studied in both the salvage and first-line setting in advanced germ cell tumor (GCT) patients with poor-risk features. While early studies reported significant treatment-related mortality, introduction of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, recombinant growth factors and better supportive care have decreased toxicity; and in more recent reports treatment-related deaths are observed in <3% of patients. Two to three cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide is the standard backbone for HDCT, given with or without additional agents including ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Three large randomized Phase III trials have failed to show a benefit of HDCT over conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) in the first-line treatment of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk advanced GCT, and to date the routine use of HDCT has been reserved for the salvage setting. Several prognostic models have been developed to help predict outcome of salvage HDCT, the most recent of which applies to both CDCT and HDCT in the initial salvage setting. Patients that relapse after HDCT are usually considered incurable, and additional therapy is provided with palliative intent.
chemotherapy; germ cell tumors; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplantation; testicular cancer
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) affect infants, children, and adults and are the most common cancer type in young men. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of GCTs has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. Here we report the identification of a zebrafish model of highly penetrant, heritable testicular GCT isolated as part of a forward genetic screen for cancer susceptibility genes. The mutant line develops spontaneous testicular tumors at a median age of 7 months, and pedigree analysis indicates dominant inheritance of the GCT susceptibility trait. The zebrafish model exhibits disruption of testicular tissue architecture and the accumulation of primitive, spermatogonial-like cells with loss of spermatocytic differentiation. Radiation treatment leads to apoptosis of the tumor cells and tumor regression. The GCT-susceptible line can serve as a model for understanding the mechanisms regulating germ cells in normal development and disease and as a platform investigating new therapeutic approaches for GCTs.
The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) or standard salvage therapy was evaluated in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma (MBL) using retrospective chart review of all patients with recurrent MBL treated at Duke University Medical Center between 1995 and 2005 and who had undergone HDC with or without radiotherapy (RT) or standard salvage therapy after relapse. A total of 30 patients were diagnosed with recurrent MBL after standard RT alone or chemotherapy with RT. Nineteen patients (7 who received no RT before recurrence [group A] and 12 who received definitive RT before recurrence [group B]) underwent surgery and/or induction chemotherapy followed by HDC plus autologous stem-cell rescue. Eleven patients (group C) underwent standard salvage therapy. Six of seven group A patients also received standard RT just before or after recovery from HDC, and 5 of 12 group B patients received adjuvant palliative focal RT post-HDC. At a median follow-up of 28 months, three of seven patients in group A are alive and disease-free at ⩾34, ⩾110, and ⩾116 months, respectively, post-HDC. All patients in groups B and C have died of tumor, at a median of 35 months and 26 months from HDC and standard salvage therapy, respectively. HDC or standard salvage therapy was ineffective in our patients with recurrent MBL who had received standard RT before recurrence. The favorable impact of HDC on disease control in the two long-term survivors cannot be clearly established due to the cofounding effect of definitive RT postrecurrence.
angiogenesis; Avastin; bevacizumab; bio-markers; glioblastoma; glioma
To retrospectively analyze the clinical presentation, histology, treatment and outcomes of children with vaginal tumors who were treated at a single institution.
A retrospective review was conducted of medical records and pathologic materials of all children with vaginal tumors treated at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital between 1970 and 2009.
Eighteen patients (median age 3.7 years, range 0.1–15) were identified. Three different histologies were found: rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) (N=13), germ cell tumor (GCT) (N=3) and clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) (N=2). Bleeding or blood-tinged discharge was the most common clinical presentation (66%) followed by a protruding mass (39%). Vaginal and uterine salvage was 44.4% (8 of 18 patients). Thirteen patients (72.2%) remain disease-free with a median follow-up of 23.2 years (range, 2–39). Four patients (22.2%) died of disease progression (1 RMS, 2 GCT and 1 CCA) and 1 RMS patient died of colon cancer 12 years after the primary diagnosis had been made.
Vaginal tumors are extremely rare in the pediatric population. Early recognition of symptoms like bleeding and a protuding vaginal mass may prevent morbidity and mortality. Our findings confirm the good prognosis of vaginal RMS.
vaginal tumors; rhabdomyosarcoma; germ cell tumor; adenocarcinoma
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been commonly used for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumors (IC-GCTs). However, this treatment exhibits some adverse effects such as renal problems and hearing difficulty. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to pediatric patients with IC-GCTs from August 2004 at the Samsung Medical Center. In this study, we assessed the responses and adverse effects of carboplatin-based chemotherapy in pediatric IC-GCTs patients according to the risk group, and compared the results with those of the previous cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
We examined 35 patients (27 men and 8 women) diagnosed with IC-GCTs between August 2004 and April 2008 and received risk-adapted carboplatin-based chemotherapy at the Samsung Medical Center. Patients were divided into either low-risk (LR) or high-risk (HR) groups and a retrospective analysis was performed using information from the medical records.
Although hematological complications were common, hearing difficulties or grade 3 or 4 creatinine level elevation were not observed in patients who underwent carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The frequency of febrile neutropenia did not differ between the risk groups. The overall survival was 100% and event-free survival (EFS) was 95.7%. The EFS rate was 100% in the LR group and 90% in the HR group, respectively.
Despite their common occurrence in high-risk patients, no lethal hematological complications were associated with carboplatin-based treatment. The current carboplatin-based chemotherapy protocol is safe and effective for the treatment of pediatric patients with IC-GCTs.
Intracranial germ cell tumor; Carboplatin; Adverse effects
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is commonly used in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Several trials report the role of ASCT for high risk patients. We evaluated the results and the prognostic factors influencing the therapeutic effects on the patients who were treated with high dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the data of 40 cases with NHL who underwent ASCT after HDC. Twenty-four patients had high-risk disease, 12 cases sensitive relapse, and two cases resistant relapse or primary refractory each. The median age of patients was 34 years (range, 14-58 years). The median follow-up duration from transplantation was 16 months (range, 0.6-94 months). Estimated overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years were 40% and 30%, respectively. Poor prognostic factors for survival included older age (≥ 45 years), poor performance status in all patient analysis, and a longer interval between first complete remission and transplantation in high risk patients. In high risk NHL patients, transplantation should be done early after first complete remission to overcome chemo-resistance.
Transplantation; autologous; stem cells; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin
We present a case of leptomeningeal metastases in a 30-year-old man with an extragonadal germ cell tumor. The patient was referred to our hospital for treatment of an occipital brain metastasis. This lesion was resected, followed by whole brain radiotherapy and further chemotherapy, and a temporary complete remission was achieved. However, leptomeningeal recurrence developed, and despite salvage chemotherapy, the patient died of disease. Although multidisciplinary treatment is given to treat brain metastases of germ cell tumors, the patients’ prognosis has been unsatisfactory. The identification of a standard/effective treatment is required.
leptomeningeal metastasis; brain metastasis; germ cell tumor; surgery; chemotherapy
The benefit of consolidation high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) for high-risk primary breast cancer is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of consolidation HDC with cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin (CTCb) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in resected breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes.
Materials and Methods
Between December 1994 and April 2000, 22 patients were enrolled. All patients received 2 to 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for breast cancer. The HDC regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide 1,500 mg/m2/day, thiotepa 125 mg/m2/day and carboplatin 200 mg/m2/day intravenous for 4 consecutive days.
With a median follow-up of 58 months, 11 patients recurred and died. The median disease-free survival (DFS) and median overall survival (OS) were 49 and 69 months, respectively. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 50% and 58%, respectively. The 12 patients with 10 to 18 involved nodes had better 5-year DFS (67%) and OS (75%) than 10 patients with more than 18 involved nodes (30% and 38%, respectively). The most common grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity was diarrhea, which occurred in 5 patients (23%). No treatment-related death was observed.
Consolidation HDC with CTCb followed by ASCT for resected breast cancer with more than 10 positive nodes had an acceptable toxicity but does not show promising survival.
Breast Neoplasms; Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation; Cyclophosphamide; Thiotepa; Carboplatin; Consolidation
In order to predict whether tumor markers assist in the histopathologic diagnosis of germ cell tumors (GCTs), we analyzed the correlation of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (bHCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples at baseline and subsequent follow-up examinations.
A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with intracranial GCTs between July 1985 and February 2011 at our institution was conducted to review clinical, surgical, radiological, laboratory and histopathologic data.
Of 67 patients eligible for the study, 42 had germinomas and 25 non germinomatous GCTs. At baseline, serum and CSF AFP agreed in 97.9% of patients (Cohen’s Kappa 0.93). Baseline bHCG samples agreed in only 72.5% of patients (Cohen’s Kappa 0.46). In most cases, values were higher in serum for AFP and in CSF for bHCG. ROC curves estimated from logistic regression model indicated that CSF and serum samples had almost equal diagnostic utility, and the DeLong test showed that the difference in area under curves was not statistically significant. During follow-up (185 paired CSF and serum values from 43 patients), 90.3% of AFP values correlated between CSF and serum (Cohen’s Kappa 0.22, showing fair agreement). For bHCG, 96.2% of values agreed in serum and CSF (Cohen’s Kappa 0.61).
In some patients, intracranial GCTs can be diagnosed based solely upon positive serum AFP values. In addition, marker values from serum only may be sufficient to predict tumor relapse at interval follow-up examinations.
germ cell tumors; tumor markers; beta human chorionic gonadotropin; alpha-fetoprotein; correlation of markers; diagnostic utility