Dose intensity may be an important determinant of the outcome in cancer chemotherapy, but is often limited by cumulative haematological toxicity. The availability of haematopoietic growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation has allowed the development of a new treatment strategy in which several courses of high-dose combination chemotherapy are administered for the treatment of solid tumours. PBPCs were mobilised before chemotherapy using 12 or 30 micrograms kg-1 day-1 G-CSF (Filgrastim) for 10 days, and were collected by 2-5 leucaphereses. The yields of mononuclear cells, colony-forming units and CD34-positive cells were similar at the two dose levels of Filgrastim, and the numbers of PBPCs were sufficient for rescue following multiple cycles of chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide 2.5 g m-2 for 2 days, etoposide 300 mg m-2 for 3 days and cisplatin 50 mg m-2 for 3 days) was administered sequentially for a median of three cycles (range 1-4) to ten patients. Following the 30 evaluable cycles, the median duration of leucopenia < or = 0.5 x 10(9) l-1 and < or = 1.0 x 10(9) l-1 was 7 and 8 days respectively. The median time of thrombopenia < or = 20 x 10(9) l-1 was 6 days. There was no cumulative haematological toxicity. The duration of leucopenia, but not of thrombopenia, was inversely related to the number of reinfused CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units). In the majority of patients, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity became dose limiting after three cycles of therapy. However, the average dose intensity delivered was about three times higher than in a standard regimen. The complete response rate in patients with small-cell lung cancers was 66% (95% CI 30-92%) and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 13 months and 17 months respectively. These results are encouraging and should be compared, in a randomised fashion, with standard dose chemotherapy.
The mini-BEAM regimen (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) and its modification 'Dexa-BEAM' are effective salvage protocols for relapsed Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Since many patients with relapsed lymphoma are eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue, we were interested in the suitability of these second line regimens for mobilising peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). The kinetics of PBPC were studied in 15 patients treated with Dexa-BEAM and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Leukocytes started to rise from < 0.5 nL-1 on day 18 (16-22) after Dexa-BEAM, and exceeded 10 nL-1 on day 20 (18-28). Peripheral blood CFU-GM peaked on day 21 (19-28) and declined slowly thereafter; the median leukocyte count was 18.7 nL-1 (12.2-60) on the day of CFU-GM-peak. The maximum number of CFU-GM circulating in peripheral blood was inversely correlated to the duration of leukopenia after Dexa-BEAM. Measurement of CD34+ cells with the monoclonal antibody 8G12-PE (HPCA-2) predicted the number of CFU-GM precisely in both peripheral blood and leukapheresis products (r = 0.90-0.95). Two to six leukapheresis procedures yielded 6.39 x 10(8) mononuclear cells kg-1 (1.82-13.49) containing 44.4 x 10(4) CFU-GM kg-1 (2.2-213.8). Immunophenotypical analysis revealed that the percentage of CD19+ B cells was very low in all collection products (less than 1%). Nine patients were autografted with PBPC (15.4-213.8 x 10(4) CFU-GM kg-1) after myeloablative chemotherapy and experienced rapid and sustained engraftment (Platelets > 50 nL-1 on day +13 [9-22]). We conclude that PBPC can be mobilised effectively by Dexa-BEAM plus G-CSF. An adequate timing of PBPC collection (when the leukocyte count has exceeded 10 nL-1) and evaluation of the progenitor content of the leukapheresis products with 8G12-PE will allow to minimise the number of leukaphereses.
Current treatments for metastatic breast cancer are not associated with significant survival benefits despite response rates of over 50%. High-dose therapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) has been investigated, particularly in North America, and prolonged survival in up to 25% of women has been reported, but with a significant treatment-related mortality. However, in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing autologous transplantation, haematopoietic reconstruction is significantly quicker and mortality lower than with ABMT, when peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) are used. In 32 women with metastatic breast cancer, we investigated the feasibility of PBPC mobilisation with high-dose cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) after 12 weeks' infusional induction chemotherapy and the subsequent efficacy of the haematopoietic reconstitution after conditioning with melphalan and either etoposide or thiotepa. PBPC mobilisation was successful in 28/32 (88%) patients, and there was a rapid post-transplantation haematopoietic recovery: median time to neutrophils > 0.5 x 10(9) l-1 was 14 days and to platelets > 20 x 10(9) l-1 was 10 days. There was no procedure-related mortality, and the major morbidity was mucositis (WHO grade 3-4) in 18/32 patients (56%). In a patient group of which the majority had very poor prognostic features, the median survival from start of induction chemotherapy was 15 months. Thus, PBPC mobilisation and support of high-dose chemotherapy is feasible after infusional induction chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer, although the optimum drug combination has not yet been determined.
High-dose etoposide (2.0-2.4 g m(-2)) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an effective strategy to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs), although in some patients this is associated with significant toxicity. Sixty-three patients with malignancy were enrolled into this non-randomized sequential study. The majority (55/63, 87%) had received at least two prior regimens of chemotherapy, and seven patients had previously failed to mobilize following high-dose cyclophosphamide with G-CSF. Consecutive patient groups received etoposide at three dose levels [2.0 g m(-2) (n = 22), 1.8 g m(-2) (n = 20) and 1.6 g m(-2) (n = 21)] followed by daily G-CSF. Subsequent leukaphereses were assayed for CD34+ cell content, with a target total collection of 2.0 x 10(6) CD34+ cells kg(-1). Toxicity was assessed by the development of significant mucositis, the requirement for parenteral antibiotics or blood component support and rehospitalization incidence. Ten patients (16%) had less than the minimum target yield collected. Median collections in the three groups were 4.7 (2 g m(-2)), 5.7 (1.8 g m(-2)) and 6.5 (1.6 g m(-2)) x 10(6) CD34+ cells kg(-1). Five of the seven patients who had previously failed cyclophosphamide mobilization achieved more than the target yield. Rehospitalization incidence was significantly lower in patients receiving 1.6 g m(-2) etoposide than in those receiving 2.0 g m(-2) (P = 0.03). These data suggest that high-dose etoposide with G-CSF is an efficient mobilization regimen in the majority of heavily pretreated patients, including those who have previously failed on high-dose cyclophosphamide with G-CSF. An etoposide dose of 1.6 g m(-2) appears to be as effective as higher doses but less toxic.
The optimal use of mitoxantrone (NOV) in the high-dose range requires elucidation of its maximum tolerated dose with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support and the time interval needed between drug administration and PBPC reinfusion in order to avoid graft toxicity. The aims of this study were: (1) to verify the feasibility and haematological toxicity of escalating NOV up to 90 mg m(-2) with PBPC support; and (2) to verify the safeness of a short (96 h) interval between NOV administration and PBPC reinfusion. Three cohorts of ten patients with breast cancer (BC) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) received escalating doses of NOV, 60, 75 and 90 mg m(-2) plus melphalan (L-PAM), 140-180 mg m(-2), with PBPC rescue 96 h after NOV. Haematological toxicity was evaluated daily (WHO criteria). NOV plasma pharmacokinetics was also evaluated, as well as NOV cytotoxicity against PBPCs. Haematological recovery was rapid and complete at each NOV dose level without statistically significant differences, and there were no major toxicities. NOV plasma concentrations at the time of PBPC reinfusion were below the toxicity threshold against haemopoietic progenitors. It is concluded that, when adequately supported with PBPCs, NOV can be escalated up to 90 mg m(-2) with acceptable haematological toxicity. PBPCs can be safely reinfused as early as 96 h after NOV administration.
Elimination of neoplastic cells from peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) is an important issue in transplantation-based high-dose chemotherapy in non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). The capacity to reliably assess the presence of residual lymphoma cells in PBPCs is mandatory in designing this type of protocols. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of molecular rearrangements is widely used to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in NHL patients. Although concordant data can be obtained in most of the cases from peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, the relationship between these two compartments and the role of their analysis in predicting the molecular status of PBPCs is still an open issue. Here we report data about MRD analysis in BM, PB and PBPCs in a series of mantle cell and indolent NHL patients who underwent high-dose chemotherapy: discordant results were obtained comparing PB, BM and PBPC molecular data. In addition, differences were noted among these results if molecular analysis was performed using well-known rearrangements (i.e., bcl-1/IgH and bcl-2/IgH) or patient specific oligonucleotides. We conclude that neither BM nor PB are reliable in predicting the molecular status of PBPCs and that caution must be adopted in interpreting molecular data obtained using patient specific oligonucleotides.
Minimal residual disease; peripheral blood; bone marrow; peripheral blood progenitor cells
The present report describes the non-haematological toxicity and the influence of growth factor administration on haematological toxicity and haematopoietic recovery observed after high-dose carboplatin (1200 mg m(-2)), etoposide (900 mg m(-2)) and melphalan (100 mg m(-2)) (CEM) followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) in 40 patients with high-risk cancer during their first-line treatment. PBPCs were collected during the previous outpatient induction chemotherapy programme by leukaphereses. CEM administration with PBPCT was associated with low non-haematological toxicity and the only significant toxicity consisted of a reversible grade III/IV increase in liver enzymes in 32% of the patients. Haematopoietic recovery was very fast in all patients and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus EPO after PBPCT significantly reduced haematological toxicity, abrogated antibiotic administration during neutropenia and significantly reduced hospital stay and patient's hospital charge compared with patients treated with PBPCT only. None of the patients died early of CEM plus PBPCT-related complications. Low non-haematological toxicity and accelerated haematopoietic recovery renders CEM with PBPC/growth factor support an acceptable therapeutic approach in an adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting.
The morbidity of high-dose chemotherapy has been considerably reduced by the use of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell reinfusion. Most studies have used myeloid colony-stimulating factors after stem cell reinfusion, making it difficult to determine the relative contribution of each of these variables to the early recovery of blood cells. The financial implications of colony-stimulating factor use are an area of concern as dose intensification in chemosensitive malignancies is increasingly employed. We have studied 19 consecutive patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy with and without filgrastim (Amgen, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, G-CSF) after stem cell infusion to examine its effect on the kinetics of blood cell recovery, the complications of myelosuppression and the associated costs. Analysis of the two treatment groups reveals that administration of filgrastim 10 micrograms kg-1 day-1 following stem cell reinfusion does not further accelerate haemopoietic recovery, fails to reduce the incidence of neutropenic fever or antibiotic usage and significantly increases the cost of the procedure. The results of this study do not support the routine use of filgrastim after high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell reinfusion.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are the two most commonly used cytokines for mobilization of stem cells in patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy with stem cell support. Both cytokines increase the peripheral blood white blood cell count and the stem cell count but there are other differences in the stem cell products mobilized by G-CSF versus those mobilized with GM-CSF. Generally higher numbers of dendritic cells are mobilized with GM-CSF than by G-CSF. The primary objective of this randomized study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of chemotherapy plus G-CSF versus chemotherapy plus G-CSF and GM-CSF in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) who were undergoing chemo-mobilization. Secondary objectives were to determine the expression of various dendritic cell subsets in the two groups and to determine the incidence of disease progression or relapse at 12 months.
We prospectively evaluated 84 patients with relapsed NHL who were candidates for high dose therapy (HDT). All patients underwent chemo-mobilization using ifosfamide, etoposide, and rituximab. All patients were randomized in an adaptive manner to receive either G-CSF or G-CSF plus GM-CSF (G+GM) starting 24 hours after completion of chemotherapy and continuing until completion of apheresis. The stem cell yield/kg, the number of apheresis procedures needed in the two groups, and the toxicity were recorded. We also enumerated dendritic cell subsets, myeloid DCs (mDC) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDC), in apheresis products and in peripheral blood (PB) samples collected pre-chemotherapy. The data were expressed as a percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
A total of 84 patients were treated. Forty-three patients received G-CSF and 41 received G+GM. Both regimens were well tolerated. The median CD34+ cell dose collected was similar in the two groups. A total of 54 (G-CSF N = 25 and G+GM N = 29) paired samples from baseline and post-apheresis were available for analysis of dendritic cell subsets. There was no significant difference in the percentages of mDC subsets between baseline and post-apheresis collected with G-CSF or G+GM mobilization. However, there was a significant increase in the percentage of pDC subsets in the G-CSF alone when compared to the G+GM arm (P = 0.002). Furthermore, the ratio of mDC and pDC was significantly lower after mobilization with G-CSF versus G+GM (P = 0.029).
Addition of GM-CSF to G-CSF to the mobilization regimen resulted in lower percentages of pDC in the apheresis products when compared to those with G-CSF alone. This shifts the mDC/pDC ratio in the apheresis grafts in favor of mDC in the combination arm. However, these differences did not seem to impact the clinical outcomes in the two groups. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00499343).
lymphoma; filgrastim; sargramostim; stem cell mobilization
We have shown that large numbers of haemopoietic progenitor cells are mobilised into the blood after filgrastim [granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)] alone and filgrastim following cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with ovarian cancer. These cells may be used to provide safe and effective haemopoietic rescue following dose-intensive chemotherapy. Using filgrastim alone (10 micrograms kg-1), the apheresis harvest contained a median CFU-GM count of 45 x 10(4) kg-1 and 2 x 10(6) kg-1 CD34+ cells. Treatment with filgrastim (5 micrograms kg-1) following cyclophosphamide (3 g m-2) resulted in a harvest containing 66 x 10(4) kg-1 CFU-GM and 2.4 x 10(6) kg-1 CD34+ cells. There was no statistically significant difference between these two mobilising regimens. We have also demonstrated that dose-intensive carboplatin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy can be delivered safely to patients with ovarian cancer when supported by peripheral blood progenitor cells and filgrastim. Carboplatin (AUC 7.5) and cyclophosphamide (900 mg m-2) given at 3 weekly intervals with progenitor cell and growth factor support was well tolerated in terms of haematological and systemic side-effects. Double the dose intensity of chemotherapy was delivered compared with our standard dose regimen when the treatment was given at 3 weekly intervals. Median dose intensity could be further escalated to 2.33 compared with our standard regimen by decreasing the interval between treatment cycles to 2 weeks. However, at this dose intensity less than a third of patients received their planned treatment on time. All the delays were due to thrombocytopenia.
Twenty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide (750 mg m(-2), day 1), epidoxorubicin (60 mg m(-2), day 1), vincristine (1.4 mg m(-2), day 1) and prednisone (100 mg m(-2), days 1-5) every 14 days. Shortening of intervals was associated with the prophylactic employment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; specifically, filgrastim) administered at a dose of 300 microg subcutaneously from day 6 to day 11. The ratio between actually delivered dose intensity and planned dose intensity was 1.0 in 18 out the 20 patients. Toxicity was acceptable; response rate and survival are in the expected range. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of acceleration of chemotherapy cycles to obtain dose intensification in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
To evaluate the use of high-dose sequential chemotherapy in a Brazilian population.
High-dose cyclophosphamide followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective and feasible therapy for refractory/relapsed lymphomas; this regimen has never before been evaluated in a Brazilian population. All patients (106 with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 77 with Hodgkin's lymphoma) submitted to this treatment between 1998 and 2006 were analyzed. Chemotherapy consisted of the sequential administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (4 or 7 g/m2) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (300 µg/day), followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell harvesting, administration of etoposide (2g/m2) and methotrexate (8 g/m2 only for Hodgkin's lymphoma) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
At diagnosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had a median age of 45 (range: 8-65) years old, 78% had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 83% had stage III/IV disease. The Hodgkin's lymphoma patients had a median age of 23 (range: 7-68) years old, 64.9% had the nodular sclerosis subtype and 65% had stage III/IV disease. Nine Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (13%) and 10 (9%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had some kind of cardiac toxicity. The overall survival, disease-free survival and progression-free survival in Hodgkin's lymphoma were 29%, 59% and 26%, respectively. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, these values were 40%, 49% and 31%, respectively. High-dose cyclophosphamide-related mortality was 10% for Hodgkin's lymphoma and 5% for non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. High-dose cyclophosphamide dosing had no impact on toxicity or survival for both groups.
Despite a greater prevalence of poor prognostic factors, our results are comparable to the literature. The incidence of secondary neoplasias is noteworthy. Our study suggests that this approach is efficient and feasible, regardless of toxicity-related mortality.
Transplantation, autologous; Hodgkin disease/drug therapy; Lymphoma; Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage; Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
In this study we demonstrate that the hemopoietic growth factor, G-CSF successfully mobilised progenitor cell populations into the peripheral blood in a population of patients despite intensive pretreatment with chemotherapy. Administration of G-CSF increased the numbers of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) by a median of 76-fold above basal levels. Maximal levels of PBPC were observed on days 5 and 6 after G-CSF treatment. In two patients a second cycle of G-CSF mobilised PBPC to levels comparable with those seen after the first cycle of G-CSF treatment. An earlier hemopoietic cell population (pre-CFC's) was also mobilised with levels increased up to 50-fold above basal levels. Using a standard mononuclear cell leukapheresis technique the PBPC were collected extremely efficiently (essentially 100%) and could be further successfully enriched by separation using a Ficoll gradient. For patients who underwent the optimal collection protocol (i.e. leukapheresis on days 5, 6 and 7) a total of 32 +/- 6 x 10(4) GM-CFC kg-1 were collected. The ability to mobilise PBPC using G-CSF alone and to successfully and efficiently harvest these cells has important implications for the future of transplantation and high dose chemotherapy procedures.
In 29 chemotherapy-naive patients with stage II-III breast cancer, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were mobilised following fluorouracil 500 mg m-2, epirubicin 90-120 mg m-2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg m-2 (FEC) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; Filgrastim) 300 microgram s.c. daily. In all but one patient, mobilisation was successful, requiring three or fewer leucocytopheresis sessions in 26 patients; 28 patients subsequently underwent high-dose chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin 1600 mg m-2, thiotepa 480 mg m-2 and cyclophosphamide 6 g m-2 (CTC) followed by PBSC transplantation. Haemopoietic engraftment was rapid with a median time to neutrophils of 500 x 10(6) l(-1) of 9 days (range 8-10) in patients who received G-CSF after PBSC-transplantation; platelet transfusion independence was reached within a median of 10 days (range 7-16). Neutropenic fever occurred in 96% of patients. Gastrointestinal toxicity was substantial but reversible. Renal, neural or ototoxicity was not observed. Complications related to the central venous catheter were encountered in 64% of patients, with major vein thrombosis occurring in 18%. High-dose CTC-chemotherapy with PBSC-transplantation, harvested after mobilisation with FEC and G-CSF, is reasonably well tolerated without life-threatening toxicity and is a suitable high-dose strategy for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
The administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) donors causes spleen length to increase, but the duration of enlargement is not known. Eighteen healthy subjects were given 10 μg/kg of G-CSF for 5 days and a PBSC concentrate was collected by apheresis. Ultrasound scans were used to assess craniocaudal spleen length before and after G-CSF administration. Mean spleen length increased from a baseline length of 10.7 ± 1.3 cm to 12.1 ± 1.2 cm on the apheresis day (p < 0.001). Ten days after apheresis, spleen length fell to 10.5 ± 1.2 cm and did not differ from baseline levels (p = 0.57), but in 3 subjects remained 0.5 cm greater than baseline length. Increases in spleen length in PBPC donors are transient and reversible.
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; peripheral blood progenitor cells; splenomegaly; spleen
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of the use of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) on the induction of autologous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with advanced breast cancer. 14 women with stage IIIB and 36 women with stage IV breast cancer received cyclosporine (CsA) 2.5 mg kg–1 i.v. daily, d 0–28, and interferon-gamma (IFNg) 0.025 mg/m2 s.c. qod, d7–28, following PBPC-T ± bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Preceding high-dose chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide 6 g/m2 and thiotepa 800 mg/m2. Histologically proven ≥grade II cutaneous GVHD was induced in18/50 (36%) of patients and was independent of the source of haematopoietic support. In vitro studies showed that post-transplant, 76% of patients had developed auto-cytotoxicity against their own pre-transplant PHA-lymphoblasts. A significant correlation between the occurrence of GVHD ≥grade II and cytolysis was observed in the NK cell-line K562 and the T47D breast cancer cell-line. With a median follow-up of 2½ years, the overall survival (OS) is 58%, the disease-free survival (DFS) 26%, both independent of the development of GVHD and similar to what has been observed in other studies on high-dose chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. It therefore remains unclear whether the induction of autologous GVHD with the occurrence of auto-cytotoxic lymphocytes can result in an anti-tumour effect in this group of patients. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
breast cancer; autoreactive T-cells; cyclosporine; CLIP; MHC-class II; peripheral stem cells
Despite the wide use of mobilized peripheral blood (PB) progenitor cells (PBPC) for clinical transplantation the mechanism(s) underlying their mobilization and subsequent engraftment are still unknown. We compared the adhesive phenotype of CD34(+) colony-forming cells (CFC) in bone marrow (BM) and PB of normal donors before and after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 d. G-CSF-mobilized PB CFC cells adhered significantly less to BM stroma, fibronectin, and to the alpha4 beta1 binding fibronectin peptide, CS1, because of decreased expression of the alpha4 integrin. Since incubation of BM CD34(+) cells for 4 d with G-CSF at concentrations found in serum of G-CSF- treated individuals did not affect alpha4-dependent adhesion, G-CSF may not be directly responsible for the decreased alpha4-mediated adhesion of PB CFC. Culture of G-CSF-mobilized PB CD34(+) cells with cytokines at concentrations found in BM stromal cultures upregulated alpha4 expression and restored adhesion of mobilized PB CFC to stroma, fibronectin, and CS1. Adhesion of cultured, mobilized PB CFC to stroma and CS1 could not be further upregulated by the beta1 activating antibody, 8A2. This indicates acquisition of a maximally activated alpha4 beta1 integrin once PB CFC have been removed from the in vivo mobilizing milieu. Thus, decreased alpha4 expression on CD34(+) CFC in PB may be responsible for the aberrant circulation of mobilized PB CD34(+) cells. Reexpression of a maximally activated alpha4 beta1 integrin on mobilized PB CFC removed from the mobilizing in vivo milieu may contribute to the early engraftment of mobilized PBPC.
Febrile neutropenia (FN) occurs following myelosuppressive chemotherapy and is associated with morbidity, mortality, costs, and chemotherapy reductions and delays. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) stimulate neutrophil production and may reduce FN incidence when given prophylactically following chemotherapy.
A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim, filgrastim or lenograstim) in reducing FN incidence in adults undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumours or lymphoma. G-CSFs were compared with no primary G-CSF prophylaxis and with one another. Nine databases were searched in December 2009. Meta-analysis used a random effects model due to heterogeneity.
Twenty studies compared primary G-CSF prophylaxis with no primary G-CSF prophylaxis: five studies of pegfilgrastim; ten of filgrastim; and five of lenograstim. All three G-CSFs significantly reduced FN incidence, with relative risks of 0.30 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65) for pegfilgrastim, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.48 to 0.69) for filgrastim, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.88) for lenograstim. Overall, the relative risk of FN for any primary G-CSF prophylaxis versus no primary G-CSF prophylaxis was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.62). In terms of comparisons between different G-CSFs, five studies compared pegfilgrastim with filgrastim. FN incidence was significantly lower for pegfilgrastim than filgrastim, with a relative risk of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.98).
Primary prophylaxis with G-CSFs significantly reduces FN incidence in adults undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumours or lymphoma. Pegfilgrastim reduces FN incidence to a significantly greater extent than filgrastim.
Although granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization is generally well tolerated by healthy donors, there is also a wide spectrum of adverse events associated with it. Among these events, rhabdomyolysis in peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors is very rare. In this paper, we present a first case of rhabdomyolysis after administration of filgrastim for PBSC mobilization.
A 6-year-old donor received 10 μg/kg/day filgrastim subcutaneously for 5 days. On the 3rd day of filgrastim, the donor complained of bone pain; a single dose of paracetamol (250 mg) was given to relieve pain. On the 4th day, she complained of bone pain, myalgia, and vomiting. On laboratory analysis, serum creatine phosphokinase was 1,095 U/l (40–226 U/l), LDH 312 U/l (100–190 U/l), aspartate aminotransferase 85 U/l (0–40 U/l), potassium 3.3 mmol/l (3.6–5.1 mmol/l). Urine myoglobin was 110 ng/ml (<5 ng/ml). Rhabdomyolysis was suspected on clinical and laboratory findings. Clinical manifestations regressed and the laboratory results returned to normal within three days after intravenously forced diuresis and potassium replacement. Stem cells were successfully harvested from peripheral blood on the 5th day of G-CSF therapy.
Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but important adverse effect of G-CSF. Allogeneic PBSC donors should be closely monitored with regard to rhabdomyolysis after G-CSF administration in the mobilization setting.
Rhabdomyolysis; Filgrastim; Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization
Myelosuppressive chemotherapy can lead to dose-limiting febrile neutropenia. Prophylactic use of recombinant human G-CSF such as daily filgrastim and once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim may reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia. This comparative study examined the effect of pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim on the risk of hospitalization.
This retrospective United States claims analysis utilized 2004–2009 data for filgrastim- and pegfilgrastim-treated patients receiving chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) or breast, lung, ovarian, or colorectal cancers. Cycles in which pegfilgrastim or filgrastim was administered within 5 days from initiation of chemotherapy (considered to represent prophylaxis) were pooled for analysis. Neutropenia-related hospitalization and other healthcare encounters were defined with a “narrow” criterion for claims with an ICD-9 code for neutropenia and with a “broad” criterion for claims with an ICD-9 code for neutropenia, fever, or infection. Odds ratios (OR) for hospitalization and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and adjusted for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Per-cycle healthcare utilization and costs were examined for cycles with pegfilgrastim or filgrastim prophylaxis.
We identified 3,535 patients receiving G-CSF prophylaxis, representing 12,056 chemotherapy cycles (11,683 pegfilgrastim, 373 filgrastim). The mean duration of filgrastim prophylaxis in the sample was 4.8 days. The mean duration of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis in the sample was 1.0 day, consistent with the recommended dosage of pegfilgrastim - a single injection once per chemotherapy cycle. Cycles with prophylactic pegfilgrastim were associated with a decreased risk of neutropenia-related hospitalization (narrow definition: OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.16–1.13; broad definition: OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.24–0.59) and all-cause hospitalization (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35–0.72) versus cycles with prophylactic filgrastim. For neutropenia-related utilization by setting of care, there were more ambulatory visits and hospitalizations per cycle associated with filgrastim prophylaxis than with pegfilgrastim prophylaxis. Mean per-cycle neutropenia-related costs were also higher with prophylactic filgrastim than with prophylactic pegfilgrastim.
In this comparative effectiveness study, pegfilgrastim prophylaxis was associated with a reduced risk of neutropenia-related or all-cause hospitalization relative to filgrastim prophylaxis.
Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may aid engraftment post high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); however, the effects of G-CSF on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), relapse, and survival are not well defined.
In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study, the effects of the G-CSF Filgrastim on neutrophil and platelet recovery, and on clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients (12–55 years) receiving an allogeneic BMT for a haematological malignancy were randomized to receive Filgrastim 5 µg/kg or placebo. Study treatment was continued until patients achieved an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥0.5 × 109/L, or until day 42.
Fifty-one patients (Filgrastim, N = 25; placebo, N = 26) were evaluable. Patients treated with Filgrastim had significantly faster engraftment with ANC ≥0.5 × 109/L being achieved after a median (range) of 15.0 (1.0–22.0) days vs. 19.0 (15.0–28.0) days for placebo (P< 0.0001). The incidence of GvHD was comparable for both groups. During the limited follow-up (2 years), Filgrastim had no adverse effect on mortality and possibly reduced the rate of relapse.
Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant; Filgrastim; Neutrophils; Graft-versus Host Disease; Randomized Clinical Trial; Survival
Seventy-one patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer were enrolled after informed consent in a multicentre randomized study to evaluate the use of selected peripheral blood CD34+ cells to support haematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. Patients who responded to conventional chemotherapy were mobilized with chemotherapy (mainly high-dose cyclophosphamide) and/or recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Patients who reached the threshold of 20 CD34+ cells per microl of peripheral blood underwent apheresis and were randomized at that time to receive either unmanipulated mobilized blood cells or selected CD34+ cells. For patients in the study arm, CD34+ cells were selected from aphereses using the Isolex300 device. Fifteen patients failed to mobilize peripheral blood progenitors and nine other patients were excluded for various reasons. Forty-seven eligible patients were randomized into two comparable groups. CD34+ cells were selected from aphereses in the study group. Haematopoietic recovery occurred at similar times in both groups. No side-effect related to the infusion of selected cells was observed. The frequency of epithelial tumour cells in aphereses was low (8 out of 42 evaluated patients), as determined by immunocytochemistry. We conclude that selected CD34+ cells safely support haematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy in patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer.
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is widely used to treat neutropenia during cytotoxic chemotherapy. The optimal scheduling of rhG-CSF is unknown and can hardly be tested in clinical studies due to numerous therapy parameters affecting outcome (chemotherapeutic regimen, rhG-CSF schedules, individual covariables). Motivated by biomathematical model simulations, we aim to investigate different rhG-CSF schedules in a preclinical chemotherapy mouse model.
The time course of hematotoxicity was studied in CD-1 mice after cyclophosphamide (CP) administration. Filgrastim was applied concomitantly in a 2 × 3-factorial design of two dosing options (2 × 20 μg and 4 × 10 μg) and three timing options (directly, one, and two days after CP). Alternatively, a single dose of 40 μg pegfilgrastim was applied at the three timing options. The resulting cytopenia was compared among the schedules.
Dosing and timing had a significant influence on the effectiveness of filgrastim schedules whereas for pegfilgrastim the timing effect was irrelevant. The best filgrastim and pegfilgrastim schedules exhibited equivalent toxicity. Monocytes dynamics performed analogously to granulocytes. All schedules showed roughly the same lymphotoxicity.
We conclude that effectiveness of filgrastim application depends heavily on its scheduling during chemotherapy. There is an optimum of timing. Dose splitting is better than concentrated applications. Effectiveness of pegfilgrastim is less dependent on timing.
rhG-CSF; chemotherapy toxicity; mice; cyclophosphamide; cytopenia; neutropenia
The combination of filgrastim (G-CSF) and plerixafor is currently approved for mobilizing peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma undergoing autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, chemotherapy and G-CSF-based mobilization remains a widely used strategy for peripheral blood progenitor cell collection. In this paper we describe our experience from two North American transplant centers in a series of patients who received salvage plerixafor while failing chemotherapy and G-CSF mobilization. Patients received a median of two doses of plerixafor salvage upon failure to mobilize adequate number of peripheral blood progenitor cells at neutrophil recovery. The use of plerixafor was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and 3.9-fold increase in total CD34+ cell yield. All patients were able to collect ≥2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg with this approach. These results were more pronounced in patients with a higher CD34+ cell count at the time of the first plerixafor dose. Interestingly, peripheral blood white blood cell count was not shown to correlate with a response to plerixafor. Our results provide safety and efficacy data for the use of plerixafor in patients who are destined to fail chemomobilization.