Amifostine (WR-2721), a thiol compound, has been shown to protect normal tissue from alkylating agents and cisplatin-induced toxicity without loss of anti-tumour effects. To confirm this result, we conducted a phase II randomised trial to determine if the addition of amifostine reduces the toxicity of carboplatin without loss of anti-tumour activity in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After the first course of carboplatin (600 mg m-2 i.v. infusion), 21 patients were randomised to receive three cycles of carboplatin alone (C arm) or three infusions of amifostine at 910 mg m-2 (CA arm) at 28 day intervals. The amifostine was given 20 min before and at 2 and 4 h after carboplatin. Since the 910 mg m-2 amifostine infusion led to hypotension in six patients, the dosage was reduced by 25%, to 683 mg m-2 t.i.d., in the other four patients. Amifostine was well tolerated at this dose level. Five patients in the CA arm and three in the C arm had their planned treatment discontinued owing to progressive disease (n = 3), amifostine side-effects (hypotension, sneezing and sickness, n = 4), and carboplatin-induced thrombocytopenia (n = 1). Bone marrow and renal function at study entry and after the first course of carboplatin before randomisation were similar in both treatment arms. Twenty courses of carboplatin+amifostine have been compared with 25 courses of carboplatin alone. Although there was no statistically significant difference with respect to haematological values comparing both arms, the median time to platelet recovery (> 100 x 10(9) l-1) (13.5 days vs 21 days; P = 0.04) and the need for hospitalisation for i.v. antibiotic and other supportive treatment tended to be reduced in the CA arm (0/20 vs 6/25 patient courses; P = 0.06). Response rates and median survival (14 vs 9 months) were no different, excluding tumour protection activity by amifostine. These results with a small number of patients suggest that amifostine given with carboplatin may reduce the duration of thrombocytopenia and hospitalisation.
High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support has been studied in both the salvage and first-line setting in advanced germ cell tumor (GCT) patients with poor-risk features. While early studies reported significant treatment-related mortality, introduction of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, recombinant growth factors and better supportive care have decreased toxicity; and in more recent reports treatment-related deaths are observed in <3% of patients. Two to three cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide is the standard backbone for HDCT, given with or without additional agents including ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Three large randomized Phase III trials have failed to show a benefit of HDCT over conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) in the first-line treatment of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk advanced GCT, and to date the routine use of HDCT has been reserved for the salvage setting. Several prognostic models have been developed to help predict outcome of salvage HDCT, the most recent of which applies to both CDCT and HDCT in the initial salvage setting. Patients that relapse after HDCT are usually considered incurable, and additional therapy is provided with palliative intent.
chemotherapy; germ cell tumors; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplantation; testicular cancer
To determine if amifostine is effective in reducing the toxicities associated with the administration of platinum-containing regimens in children with hepatoblastoma (HB).
Patients were enrolled on P9645 beginning in March of 1999. Stage I/II patients received treatment with 4 cycles of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil/vincristine (C5V) +/− amifostine. Patients with Stage III/IV disease were randomized to receive treatment with six cycles of either C5V +/− amifostine or carboplatin alternating with cisplatin (CC) +/− amifostine. Patients randomized to receive amifostine were given a dose of 740 mg/m2 intravenously over 15 minutes prior to each administration of a platinum agent.
Eighty-two patients were considered in a special interim analysis of the incidence of toxicity. The disease outcome for patients receiving amifostine was similar to outcome in patients who did not receive amifostine (p = 0.22). The incidence of significant hearing loss (> 40 dB) was similar for patients treated with or without amifostine: 38% (14/37) vs. 38% (17/45) (p=0.68), respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of renal or bone marrow toxicities evaluated. Patients who received amifostine had a higher incidence of hypocalcemia (5% vs. 0.5%, p=0.00006).
Amifostine in the doses and schedule used in this study failed to significantly reduce the incidence of platinum-induced toxicities in patients with HB.
Hepatoblastoma; Amifostine; Hearing; Ototoxicity
A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether administration of Amifostine with chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer could decrease the toxicity. 84 patients with small cell lung cancer of favourable prognosis (limited disease, performance status 0–1; limited disease with performance status 2 but normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase, or extensive diseas with performance status 0–1, normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase) received treatment with Ifosfamide 3 g/m2intravenously, Carboplatin (Glomerular filtration rate + 25) ×6 mg intravenously, Etoposide 50 mg orally, twice daily, for 7 days, every 3 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive amifostine 740 mg/m2immediately prior to the intravenous drugs (n = 42) or to receive chemotherapy alone (n = 42). The two groups were similar with respect to baseline prognostic factors. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of grade III or IV neutropenia or thrombocytopenia between the two groups, nor in the response rate or overall survival, for which the median was 11 months in the chemotherapy only group and 14 months in the group treated with amifostine. This study has not shown a protective effect from the use of amifostine with this regimen and there does not appear to be any effect upon the efficacy of treatment. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
small cell lung cancer; chemotherapy; myelotoxicity; chemoprotection; amifostine; survival
Preclinical and clinical evaluation of amifostine (AMI) administration in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy supports its role as a cytoprotective agent of normal tissues without loss of impairing the antitumour effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents. Since only a limited number of clinical studies has been performed using AMI in paediatric pts with malignancies we investigated the protective effect of AMI against carboplatin-induced myelotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in a paediatric group of patients. Material and results: AMI was administered in 18/28 paediatric patients with reccurent solid tumours along with ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide) chemotherapy. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in GFR was observed in the control group whereas it was maintained at pre – treatment levels in the AMI-treated group. Leukopenia and neutropenia were significantly (p<0.05) less in AMI-group. No protective effect of AMI was shown concerning thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: AMI was generally well tolerated at the dose of 740 mg/m². Side effects including nausea, vomiting, hypotension, flushing and rigors were moderate and reversible and the interruption of infusion was never required.
recurrent solid tumours; paediatric neoplasms; chemotherapy; cytoprotection; amifostine
An aggressive trimodality approach from the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network [carboplatin AUC = 6, days 1 and 22; 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 continuous infusion, days 1–42, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, days 1 and 22; 45 Gy] has resulted in remarkable pathologic response rates but notable toxicity. This trial was designed to mitigate this toxicity by starting with a lower carboplatin dose, AUC = 4, and by adding subcutaneous amifostine.
This phase II trial included patients with locally advanced, potentially resectable esophageal cancer. All were to receive the above regimen with modifications of carboplatin AUC = 4 and amifostine 500 mg subcutaneously before radiation. All were then to undergo an esophagectomy. A planned interim toxicity analysis after the first 10 patients was to determine whether the carboplatin dose should escalate to AUC = 6.
Ten patients were enrolled, and all required dose reductions/omissions during neoadjuvant therapy. One patient died from paclitaxel anaphylaxis. Six patients manifested a complete pathologic response.
With this regimen, carboplatin AUC = 4 for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer is appropriate.
Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
Extramedullary adrenal plasmacytoma (EMP) involving the adrenal glands is rarely encountered clinicaly. We report a A 47-year-old male who presented with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas. After confirming EMP, the patient received two consecutive autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) using high-dose melphalan. Following HSCT, a serial follow-up helical CT revealed a substantial decrease in the size of both adrenal masses. Serial periodic serum protein and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation showed abrogation of a previously noted monoclonal band. At 50 months follow-up the patient was alive and well. Our patient is the first with EMP to have received an autologous HSCT, which may prove to have a role in therapy due to the immunological effect of the infused donor marrow T-lymphocytes against the clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in extrammedullary sites. This case indicates that an EMP should be added to the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
Background. Dose-dependent response makes certain pediatric brain tumors appropriate targets for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue (HDCT-AHSCR). Methods. The clinical outcomes and toxicities were analyzed retrospectively for 18 consecutive patients ≤19 y/o treated with HDCT-AHSCR at UCLA (1999–2009). Results. Patients' median age was 2.3 years. Fourteen had primary and 4 recurrent tumors: 12 neural/embryonal (7 medulloblastomas, 4 primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and a pineoblastoma), 3 glial/mixed, and 3 germ cell tumors. Eight patients had initial gross-total and seven subtotal resections. HDCT mostly consisted of carboplatin and/or thiotepa ± etoposide (n = 16). Nine patients underwent a single AHSCR and nine ≥3 tandems. Three-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 60.5% ± 16 and 69.3% ± 11.5. Ten patients with pre-AHSCR complete remissions were alive/disease-free, whereas 5 of 8 with measurable disease were deceased (median followup: 2.3 yrs). Nine of 13 survivors avoided radiation. Single AHSCR regimens had greater toxicity than ≥3 AHSCR (P < .01). Conclusion. HDCT-AHSCR has a definitive, though limited role for selected pediatric brain tumors with poor prognosis and pretransplant complete/partial remissions.
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children
The efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was investigated in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Patients over 1 yr of age who were newly diagnosed with stage 4 neuroblastoma from January 2000 to December 2005 were enrolled in The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology registry. All patients who were assigned to receive HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the efficacy of single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Seventy and 71 patients were assigned to receive single or tandem HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis. Fifty-seven and 59 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR as scheduled. Twenty-four and 38 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group remained event free with a median follow-up of 56 (24-88) months. When the survival rate was analyzed according to intent-to-treat at diagnosis, the probability of the 5-yr event-free survival±95% confidence intervals was higher in the tandem HDCT group than in the single HDCT group (51.2±12.4% vs. 31.3±11.5%, P=0.030). The results of the present study demonstrate that the tandem HDCT/ASCR strategy is significantly better than the single HDCT/ASCR strategy for improved survival in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Transplantation, Autologous
In a study designed to compare response rates of patients with stage III epithelial ovarian carcinoma to ifosfamide and carboplatin, 152 patients were randomised to receive either sequential therapy with three cycles of ifosfamide followed by three cycles of carboplatin, or to six cycles of single agent carboplatin. Ifosfamide was given every 3 weeks in a dose of 5 gm m-2 as a 24 h infusion with mesna, 1 gm m-2 by i.v. bolus prior to ifosfamide, 3 gm m-2 with ifosfamide, and 1 gm m-2 as an 8 h infusion after ifosfamide. Carboplatin was given in a dose of 400 mg m-2 by short i.v. infusion every 4 weeks. Sixty-eight evaluable patients were randomised to sequential ifosfamide/carboplatin, and 67 to single agent carboplatin. Median follow-up is 36 months (range 5.5-82.3). After three cycles of treatment two patients in the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm achieved complete remission (CR), and 12 partial remission (PR) for an overall response rate of 29%, whereas in the carboplatin arm ten patients achieved CR, and 23 PR, for an overall response rate of 63% (P = 0.0008). Seven of 15 patients with progressive disease, and nine of 20 patients with stable disease at the initial response evaluation, following three cycles of ifosfamide, subsequently responded to carboplatin therapy so that the final response rate to the complete regimen was 65% for the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm, compared to 71% for the carboplatin arm (NS). For the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm, median recurrence free survival and overall survival were 14.1 months and 18.7 months. Corresponding figures for the carboplatin arm were 14.5 months and 21.5 months (NS). Both treatments were generally well tolerated. However 47% of patients in the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm developed alopecia sufficient to require a wig, compared to only 2% in the carboplatin arm. Ifosfamide is clearly less effective, and more toxic than carboplatin. Ifosfamide failures can however be effectively salvaged by subsequent carboplatin treatment. Ifosfamide cannot be recommended for single agent therapy in ovarian carcinoma, however the combination of carboplatin plus ifosfamide might be a suitable treatment to be tested in a future randomised study against carboplatin alone.
Purpose. The study was performed to assess the antitumour activity and toxicity of a 72-h continuous infusion of
single-agent etoposide as second-line treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS),
following reports of substantial activity using this schedule of etoposide administration as first-line treatment in
combination with ifosfamide.
Patients/method. This was an open phase I/II trial performed at a single institution in
patients with metastatic or locally
advanced STS who had failed first-line treatment with doxorubicin + ifosfamide combination chemotherapy or, less
commonly, single-agent treatment with doxorubicin or ifosfamide. Etoposide was given as a continuous intravenous
infusion over 72 h. The starting dose level was
200 mg m-2
day-1 × 3 escalating in 10% steps in cohorts of three patients
until dose-limiting toxicity was encountered.
Results. Seventeen patients were treated, median age 47 years (range 26–71 years). No responses were seen in 16
assessable patients despite etoposide levels in the cotoxic range. The steady-state plasma concentration exceeded
8 μg ml−1 in all patients and in patients treated at ≥ 600 mg m −2
the mean steady-state level was 14.4 μg ml −1. The
median event-free survival was 6 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.31–8.69) and the overall survival 16 weeks (95%
CI 9.28–22.72). The maximum tolerated dose in this pretreated patient group was 200 mg mm-2
day-1 × 3. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression.
Discussion. Etoposide given by 72-h infusion is inactive as second-line chemotherapy in STS.
It is associated with significant toxicity when given in these doses, in this patient group.
Anthracyclines (A) and taxanes (T) are standard first-line chemotherapy agents for patients with advanced breast cancer. Platinum analogues have also shown activity in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) histology, but clinical data are limited. Here we report the long-term follow-up of a phase II study on TNBC treated with a combined modality therapy, including induction with AT, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) with concurrent radiation therapy, and a dose-dense consolidation chemotherapy (HDCT) with carboplatin (CBDCA), ifosfamide (IFX), etoposide (VP-16). Patients' median age was 44 years, with 73% premenopausal. Epirubicin 75 mg/m2 and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 were administered to 70 patients with TNBC: as neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy to 12 and 58 patients, respectively. Postoperative radiation therapy, 5000 cGy, was delivered, synchronous with triweekly CMF. After radiation therapy, two courses of HDCT with CBDCA, IFX, VP-16, were given, with hematological growth factors. After a median follow-up of 81 months, all patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. Most important toxicity were grade 3 skin reaction and grade 4 hematological in 3% and 31% of patients, respectively. Pathological complete response was observed in 25% of patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy. Treatment failures were as follows: eight visceral, four contralateral breast cancer, four locoregional, and one leukemia. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival rate were 78% and 91%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy, followed by chemoradiation therapy and HDCT, provides a prolonged disease-free period and a significant increase in overall survival in TNBC, with an acceptable toxicity profile.
Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy; high-dose chemotherapy; platinum analogues; triple-negative breast cancer
Twenty-one patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (six with extreme burden disease at presentation in whom partial remission had been achieved with initial induction therapy, and 15 with recurrent disease after induction therapy) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The first six received etoposide 3.0 g m-2, ifosfamide 6.0 g m-2 and carboplatin 1.2 g m-2 (Regimen 1), and the subsequent 15 received etoposide 2.4 g m2 (continuous infusion), cyclophosphamide 7.2 g m-2 and carboplatin 0.8 g m-2 (Regimen 2) followed by infusion of previously stored autologous marrow. Regimen 1 was associated with considerable renal toxicity and mucositis, whereas Regimen 2 was relatively well tolerated. Two patients died as a consequence of the treatment: one of candidemia and one of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Only one of 17 patients who were autografted in or approaching marker remission subsequently developed disease progression (event-free survival 82%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55% to 94%), whereas all four patients who had progressive disease at autografting subsequently developed further disease progression and died. Fourteen patients remain well and free of disease 0.5 to 6.5 years (median 3.3) post-BMT (event-free survival 67%, 95% CI 43% to 83%). A strategy of prompt reinduction followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous BMT at the first sign of failure of standard therapy may allow cure to be a realistic expectation.
The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Thirty children aged 2-16 years with malignant tumours who were receiving chemotherapy were treated with the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. Each received a single intravenous dose (5 mg/m2) followed by oral doses (2-4 mg depending on surface area) every eight hours for five days. Chemotherapy regimens comprised: carboplatin alone, carboplatin plus etoposide, cisplatin plus etoposide; adriamycin (doxorubicin) plus cyclophosphamide, or ifosfamide. Twelve patients received ondansetron with their first course of chemotherapy and the other patients were poor responders to previous antiemetic treatment. Efficacy was assessed by a questionnaire documenting the incidence of vomiting and severity of nausea. In a 24 hour period after starting chemotherapy a complete or major response (less than two vomiting episodes) was achieved in 87% of children. Although ondansetron was effective for early antiemesis after cisplatin or ifosfamide, delayed vomiting, retching, or nausea reduced responses to 50% and 20%, respectively. We conclude that in children ondansetron is an effective, well tolerated, oral antiemetic enabling simple administration in the outpatient setting. In the present schedule it was of limited efficacy against cisplatin or ifosfamide induced emesis.
We evaluated the protective ability of amifostine on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived colony-forming unit (CFU) and PB CD34+ cells which were previously exposed in vitro to etoposide, carboplatin, doxorubicin and taxotere. Amifostine pretreatment protected PBMC-derived CFU from the toxic effect of etoposide, carboplatin and taxotere. A significant detrimental effect was exerted by amifostine on the growth of doxorubicin-treated PBMC-derived CFU. Liquid cultures of PB CD34+ cells reproduced faithfully the effects observed on growth of PBMC-derived CFU and confirmed amifostine chemoprotection against etoposide and carboplatin with its detrimental effect on doxorubicin-treated progenitors. Combining the data of viable cell count, cytometric estimation of apoptosis, cell cycle and viable cell replication rate, we found that amifostine protects from etoposide and carboplatin toxicity mainly through a mechanism of cell rescue. Conversely, the detrimental effect of amifostine on the growth of doxorubicin-treated PB CD34+ cells is apparently due to an increased G2/M arrest. In conclusion, amifostine protects haematopoietic progenitors from etoposide, carboplatin and taxotere. Progenitor rescue is the mechanism through which amifostine reduced etoposide and carboplatin toxicity.
Amifostine is a pharmaceutical agent that is used clinically to counteract the side-effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It acts as a free radical scavenger that protects against harmful DNA cross-linking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of amifostine on the development of skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) mice exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB).
Twenty-five XP mice were equally divided into five groups. Group 1 (control) received no amifostine and no UVB exposure. Group 2 also received no amifostine, but was exposed to UVB at a dose of 200 mJ/cm2 every other day. The remaining groups were subjected to the same irradiation, but were given amifostine at a dose of 50 mg/kg (group 3), 100 mg/kg (group 4), or 200 mg/kg (group 5) immediately prior to each exposure.
No tumours were seen in the control group. The animals in group 2 (no amifostine) developed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at 3.5–4.5 months (mean 3.9 months). Groups 3 and 4 (low- and medium-dose amifostine) developed SCC at 4.0–7.0 months (mean 5.3 months), representing a statistically significant delay in tumour presentation (p = 0.04). An even greater delay was seen in group 5 (high-dose amifostine), which developed SCC at 7.0–9.0 months (mean 8.5 months, p < 0.001 versus groups 3 and 4). Ocular keratitis developed in all animals except the unexposed controls and the high-dose treatment group.
Treatment with amifostine significantly delays the onset of skin cancer and prevents ocular keratitis in UVB-exposed XP mice.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a phase I-II trial whether low doses of recombinant human interleukin 2 (rHuIL-2) over a prolonged period of time are safe and effective in eradicating or controlling minimal residual disease in children with neuroblastoma given high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). From January 1992 to July 1996, 17 consecutive patients, with either stage IV or relapsed neuroblastoma, were enrolled. Patients received rHuIL-2 after a median time interval (min-max) of 105 days (56-153) after HDCT and ASCT. The protocol consisted of 2 'priming' courses of rHuIL-2 at escalating doses administered intravenously at 72-h intervals, followed by 'maintenance' with 11 monthly and six bimonthly boosting 5-day courses administered subcutaneously on an outpatient basis. At April 1997, 7 out of the 17 patients had completed the treatment schedule, four had discontinued treatment because of toxicity and four because of relapse; the remaining two patients are still on treatment, having completed 15 courses. Expansion of T lymphocytes, together with an increase in both natural killer cells and in activated T lymphocytes was evidenced. After a median (min-max) follow-up time of 30 (16-64) months, 12 out of 17 patients are alive and well. Two patients relapsed and died 14 and 35 months after transplant. Three patients are alive after having relapsed at 41, 21 and 13 months. The actuarial 2-year event-free survival and overall survival are 67% and 92% respectively. Intermittent administration of low doses of rHuIL-2 given for a long period of time is well tolerated and seems capable of controlling minimal residual disease after HDCT and ASCT in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
One hundred and fifty-nine previously untreated patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), who were not eligible for intensive chemotherapy, were entered into a randomised study of intravenous (i.v.) doxorubicin and ifosfamide (with mesna) and oral etoposide. The i.v. drugs were given either by bolus therapy or by a continuous infusion (CI) pump over 7 days via a central venous line. Therapy was given for 6 weeks only. On weeks 1, 3 and 5 IV doxorubicin 35 mg m-2 was given with 5 days of oral etoposide 100 mg m-2 daily. On weeks 2, 4 and 6 IV ifosfamide 5 g m-2 was given with equidose mesna. The overall median survival was 25 weeks for patients in the bolus arm and 30 weeks for the CI therapy (P = 0.45). The overall response rate was 64% (18% complete response-CR) and 69% (30% CR) respectively (P = 0.13). The median WHO score for haematological toxicity was 4 for bolus therapy and 3 for CI therapy (P = 0.0007). Despite a trend for less supportive care for patients on CI therapy there were no significant differences in the use of i.v. antibodies and blood or platelet transfusions. There were fewer treatment delays due to myelotoxicity in the CI arm (P = 0.04). The median WHO score for non-haematological toxicity was 2 in both treatment groups. There was significantly less nausea (P = 0.037) but more mucositis (P = 0.01) in the CI arm. Weekly chemotherapy using CI treatment was as effective as bolus therapy. It was well accepted by patients. The assessment of quality of life in a subgroup of patients showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety and depression for both groups of patients during therapy.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and WR1065 in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma, to assess the influence of patient covariates, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and genetic polymorphisms, on amifostine and WR1065 pharmacokinetic parameters.
We assessed the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and WR1065 in 33 children who received amifostine (1 min infusion, 600 mg/m2) just prior to the start of and 3 hours into a 6-hour cisplatin infusion. Serial blood samples were collected after doses 1 (0 hr) and 2 (3 hr) of course 1. Amifostine and WR1065 were quantitated by HPLC with electrochemical detection. A pharmacokinetic model was simultaneously fit to amifostine and WR1065 plasma or whole blood concentration-versus-time data. The influence of demographic, biochemical, and pharmacogenetic covariates on amifostine and WR1065 disposition was evaluated.
Body surface area was the primary size-based covariate for amifostine pharmacokinetics explaining 53% and 56% of interindividual variability in plasma and whole blood amifostine clearance, respectively. The population predicted values for amifostine clearance, volume, and apparent WR1065 clearance from the plasma data were: 107 L/hr/m2, 5.53 L/m2, and 30.6 L/hr/m2. The population predicted values for amifostine clearance, volume, and apparent WR1065 clearance from whole blood data were 136 L/hr/m2, 7.23 L/m2, and 12.5 L/hr/m2.
These results support using body surface area for calculating doses of amifostine in children. Similar to data in adults, amifostine and WR1065 are rapidly cleared from plasma and whole blood in children.
Pharmacokinetics; pediatrics; amifostine; pharmacogenetics; WR1065
Aims: To evaluate the usefulness of molecular markers in predicting histopathological and clinical response to preoperative high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Methods: In a phase II trial, 25 patients with metastatic gastric cancer received preoperative tandem HDCT consisting of etoposide, cisplatin, and mitomycin, followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation to achieve surgical resectability. Samples before and after treatment, from normal and tumour tissue, were characterised histopathologically, and both p53 and BAX expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded samples from normal and tumour tissue were microdissected, and the extracted DNA was preamplified using improved primer extension preamplification polymerase chain reaction. Detection of microsatellite instability (MSI) or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was performed using markers for p53, BAX, BAT25, BAT26, D2S123, D17S250, and APC. Exons 5–9 of the p53 gene were sequenced directly on ABI 373.
Results: Four parameters were significantly associated with response to chemotherapy and prolonged overall survival: positive p53 immunostaining, positive p53 mutation status before chemotherapy, strong histological regression induced by preoperative HDCT, and surgical treatment. Patients’s sex or age, tumour location or stage, lymph node status, Lauren classification, MSI, or LOH did not influence duration of survival significantly in this high risk population.
Conclusion: Positive p53 immunostaining and p53 mutation status in pretreatment tumour biopsies might be useful molecular predictors of response and prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated by preoperative HDCT.
gastric cancer; preoperative high dose chemotherapy; molecular parameters; histological regression; p53
For patients with relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma, high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue may improve survival over chemotherapy alone. We assessed outcomes of HDCT-SCT in 37 consecutive adolescent and young adult patients with relapsed HL whose malignancy was categorized based on sensitivity to chemotherapy. We determined whether current outcomes supported the use of HDCT-SCT in all of our patients or just those patients with lower risk characteristics such as chemosensitivity. With a median follow up of 6.5 years, the 2 year overall survival was 89% (95% CI: 62%–97%) for the chemo-sensitive patients (n=21). Whereas for patients with resistant disease (n=16) OS was 53% (95%CI: 25%–74%). Both autologous and allogeneic transplants were well tolerated, with 100 day treatment related mortality under 10%. Our data show encouraging outcomes for patients with chemosensitive relapsed HL who receives HSCT and supports the value of the procedure even when the disease is chemoresistant.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Stem Cell Transplant; Salvage Therapy