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1.  High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation for advanced testicular cancer 
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy  2011;11(7):1091-1103.
High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support has been studied in both the salvage and first-line setting in advanced germ cell tumor (GCT) patients with poor-risk features. While early studies reported significant treatment-related mortality, introduction of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, recombinant growth factors and better supportive care have decreased toxicity; and in more recent reports treatment-related deaths are observed in <3% of patients. Two to three cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide is the standard backbone for HDCT, given with or without additional agents including ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Three large randomized Phase III trials have failed to show a benefit of HDCT over conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) in the first-line treatment of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk advanced GCT, and to date the routine use of HDCT has been reserved for the salvage setting. Several prognostic models have been developed to help predict outcome of salvage HDCT, the most recent of which applies to both CDCT and HDCT in the initial salvage setting. Patients that relapse after HDCT are usually considered incurable, and additional therapy is provided with palliative intent.
doi:10.1586/era.10.231
PMCID: PMC3253700  PMID: 21806332
chemotherapy; germ cell tumors; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplantation; testicular cancer
2.  Carboplatin combined with amifostine, a bone marrow protectant, in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised phase II study. 
British Journal of Cancer  1995;72(6):1551-1555.
Amifostine (WR-2721), a thiol compound, has been shown to protect normal tissue from alkylating agents and cisplatin-induced toxicity without loss of anti-tumour effects. To confirm this result, we conducted a phase II randomised trial to determine if the addition of amifostine reduces the toxicity of carboplatin without loss of anti-tumour activity in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After the first course of carboplatin (600 mg m-2 i.v. infusion), 21 patients were randomised to receive three cycles of carboplatin alone (C arm) or three infusions of amifostine at 910 mg m-2 (CA arm) at 28 day intervals. The amifostine was given 20 min before and at 2 and 4 h after carboplatin. Since the 910 mg m-2 amifostine infusion led to hypotension in six patients, the dosage was reduced by 25%, to 683 mg m-2 t.i.d., in the other four patients. Amifostine was well tolerated at this dose level. Five patients in the CA arm and three in the C arm had their planned treatment discontinued owing to progressive disease (n = 3), amifostine side-effects (hypotension, sneezing and sickness, n = 4), and carboplatin-induced thrombocytopenia (n = 1). Bone marrow and renal function at study entry and after the first course of carboplatin before randomisation were similar in both treatment arms. Twenty courses of carboplatin+amifostine have been compared with 25 courses of carboplatin alone. Although there was no statistically significant difference with respect to haematological values comparing both arms, the median time to platelet recovery (> 100 x 10(9) l-1) (13.5 days vs 21 days; P = 0.04) and the need for hospitalisation for i.v. antibiotic and other supportive treatment tended to be reduced in the CA arm (0/20 vs 6/25 patient courses; P = 0.06). Response rates and median survival (14 vs 9 months) were no different, excluding tumour protection activity by amifostine. These results with a small number of patients suggest that amifostine given with carboplatin may reduce the duration of thrombocytopenia and hospitalisation.
PMCID: PMC2034079  PMID: 8519676
3.  Amifostine does not prevent platinum-induced hearing loss associated with the treatment of children with hepatoblastoma. A report of the Intergroup Hepatoblastoma Study P9645 as a part of the Children's Oncology Group 
Cancer  2009;115(24):5828-5835.
Background
To determine if amifostine is effective in reducing the toxicities associated with the administration of platinum-containing regimens in children with hepatoblastoma (HB).
Methods
Patients were enrolled on P9645 beginning in March of 1999. Stage I/II patients received treatment with 4 cycles of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil/vincristine (C5V) +/− amifostine. Patients with Stage III/IV disease were randomized to receive treatment with six cycles of either C5V +/− amifostine or carboplatin alternating with cisplatin (CC) +/− amifostine. Patients randomized to receive amifostine were given a dose of 740 mg/m2 intravenously over 15 minutes prior to each administration of a platinum agent.
Results
Eighty-two patients were considered in a special interim analysis of the incidence of toxicity. The disease outcome for patients receiving amifostine was similar to outcome in patients who did not receive amifostine (p = 0.22). The incidence of significant hearing loss (> 40 dB) was similar for patients treated with or without amifostine: 38% (14/37) vs. 38% (17/45) (p=0.68), respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of renal or bone marrow toxicities evaluated. Patients who received amifostine had a higher incidence of hypocalcemia (5% vs. 0.5%, p=0.00006).
Conclusion
Amifostine in the doses and schedule used in this study failed to significantly reduce the incidence of platinum-induced toxicities in patients with HB.
doi:10.1002/cncr.24667
PMCID: PMC2795100  PMID: 19813275
Hepatoblastoma; Amifostine; Hearing; Ototoxicity
4.  A randomized trial of amifostine as a cytoprotective agent in patients receiving chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;84(1):19-24.
A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether administration of Amifostine with chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer could decrease the toxicity. 84 patients with small cell lung cancer of favourable prognosis (limited disease, performance status 0–1; limited disease with performance status 2 but normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase, or extensive diseas with performance status 0–1, normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase) received treatment with Ifosfamide 3 g/m2intravenously, Carboplatin (Glomerular filtration rate + 25) ×6 mg intravenously, Etoposide 50 mg orally, twice daily, for 7 days, every 3 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive amifostine 740 mg/m2immediately prior to the intravenous drugs (n = 42) or to receive chemotherapy alone (n = 42). The two groups were similar with respect to baseline prognostic factors. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of grade III or IV neutropenia or thrombocytopenia between the two groups, nor in the response rate or overall survival, for which the median was 11 months in the chemotherapy only group and 14 months in the group treated with amifostine. This study has not shown a protective effect from the use of amifostine with this regimen and there does not appear to be any effect upon the efficacy of treatment. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2000.1539
PMCID: PMC2363622  PMID: 11139307
small cell lung cancer; chemotherapy; myelotoxicity; chemoprotection; amifostine; survival
5.  Efficacy of Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Patients Over 1 Year of Age with Stage 4 Neuroblastoma: The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Experience Over 6 Years (2000-2005) 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(5):691-697.
The efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was investigated in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Patients over 1 yr of age who were newly diagnosed with stage 4 neuroblastoma from January 2000 to December 2005 were enrolled in The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology registry. All patients who were assigned to receive HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the efficacy of single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Seventy and 71 patients were assigned to receive single or tandem HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis. Fifty-seven and 59 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR as scheduled. Twenty-four and 38 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group remained event free with a median follow-up of 56 (24-88) months. When the survival rate was analyzed according to intent-to-treat at diagnosis, the probability of the 5-yr event-free survival±95% confidence intervals was higher in the tandem HDCT group than in the single HDCT group (51.2±12.4% vs. 31.3±11.5%, P=0.030). The results of the present study demonstrate that the tandem HDCT/ASCR strategy is significantly better than the single HDCT/ASCR strategy for improved survival in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.5.691
PMCID: PMC2858826  PMID: 20436703
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Transplantation, Autologous
6.  Efficacy of High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Medulloblastoma: A Report on The Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1160-1166.
The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1160
PMCID: PMC2908784  PMID: 20676326
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
7.  Autologous bone marrow transplanation for extramedullary plasmacytoma presenting as adrenal incidentaloma 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2009;29(3):219-222.
Extramedullary adrenal plasmacytoma (EMP) involving the adrenal glands is rarely encountered clinicaly. We report a A 47-year-old male who presented with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas. After confirming EMP, the patient received two consecutive autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) using high-dose melphalan. Following HSCT, a serial follow-up helical CT revealed a substantial decrease in the size of both adrenal masses. Serial periodic serum protein and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation showed abrogation of a previously noted monoclonal band. At 50 months follow-up the patient was alive and well. Our patient is the first with EMP to have received an autologous HSCT, which may prove to have a role in therapy due to the immunological effect of the infused donor marrow T-lymphocytes against the clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in extrammedullary sites. This case indicates that an EMP should be added to the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.51785
PMCID: PMC2813653  PMID: 19448366
8.  Results of a planned interim toxicity analysis with trimodality therapy, including carboplatin AUC = 4, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, amifostine, and radiation for locally advanced esophageal cancer: preliminary analyses and treatment recommendations from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group 
Purpose
An aggressive trimodality approach from the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network [carboplatin AUC = 6, days 1 and 22; 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 continuous infusion, days 1–42, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, days 1 and 22; 45 Gy] has resulted in remarkable pathologic response rates but notable toxicity. This trial was designed to mitigate this toxicity by starting with a lower carboplatin dose, AUC = 4, and by adding subcutaneous amifostine.
Methods
This phase II trial included patients with locally advanced, potentially resectable esophageal cancer. All were to receive the above regimen with modifications of carboplatin AUC = 4 and amifostine 500 mg subcutaneously before radiation. All were then to undergo an esophagectomy. A planned interim toxicity analysis after the first 10 patients was to determine whether the carboplatin dose should escalate to AUC = 6.
Results
Ten patients were enrolled, and all required dose reductions/omissions during neoadjuvant therapy. One patient died from paclitaxel anaphylaxis. Six patients manifested a complete pathologic response.
Conclusion
With this regimen, carboplatin AUC = 4 for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer is appropriate.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-1-9
PMCID: PMC529465  PMID: 15533252
9.  Consolidative high-dose chemotherapy after conventional-dose chemotherapy as first salvage treatment for male patients with metastatic germ cell tumours 
Introduction:
Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
Methods:
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
Results:
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
Conclusions:
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.11233
PMCID: PMC3328550  PMID: 22511417
10.  High-Dose Chemotherapy with Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Rescue for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients: A Single Institution Experience from UCLA 
Journal of Transplantation  2011;2011:740673.
Background. Dose-dependent response makes certain pediatric brain tumors appropriate targets for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue (HDCT-AHSCR). Methods. The clinical outcomes and toxicities were analyzed retrospectively for 18 consecutive patients ≤19 y/o treated with HDCT-AHSCR at UCLA (1999–2009). Results. Patients' median age was 2.3 years. Fourteen had primary and 4 recurrent tumors: 12 neural/embryonal (7 medulloblastomas, 4 primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and a pineoblastoma), 3 glial/mixed, and 3 germ cell tumors. Eight patients had initial gross-total and seven subtotal resections. HDCT mostly consisted of carboplatin and/or thiotepa ± etoposide (n = 16). Nine patients underwent a single AHSCR and nine ≥3 tandems. Three-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 60.5% ± 16 and 69.3% ± 11.5. Ten patients with pre-AHSCR complete remissions were alive/disease-free, whereas 5 of 8 with measurable disease were deceased (median followup: 2.3 yrs). Nine of 13 survivors avoided radiation. Single AHSCR regimens had greater toxicity than ≥3 AHSCR (P < .01). Conclusion. HDCT-AHSCR has a definitive, though limited role for selected pediatric brain tumors with poor prognosis and pretransplant complete/partial remissions.
doi:10.1155/2011/740673
PMCID: PMC3087896  PMID: 21559259
11.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):120-126.
Background
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Methods
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
Results
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Conclusion
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.2.120
PMCID: PMC2983022  PMID: 21120191
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children
12.  Use of amifostine in the treatment of recurrent solid tumours in children 
Hippokratia  2007;11(1):25-29.
Preclinical and clinical evaluation of amifostine (AMI) administration in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy supports its role as a cytoprotective agent of normal tissues without loss of impairing the antitumour effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents. Since only a limited number of clinical studies has been performed using AMI in paediatric pts with malignancies we investigated the protective effect of AMI against carboplatin-induced myelotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in a paediatric group of patients. Material and results: AMI was administered in 18/28 paediatric patients with reccurent solid tumours along with ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide) chemotherapy. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in GFR was observed in the control group whereas it was maintained at pre – treatment levels in the AMI-treated group. Leukopenia and neutropenia were significantly (p<0.05) less in AMI-group. No protective effect of AMI was shown concerning thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: AMI was generally well tolerated at the dose of 740 mg/m². Side effects including nausea, vomiting, hypotension, flushing and rigors were moderate and reversible and the interruption of infusion was never required.
PMCID: PMC2464265  PMID: 19582173
recurrent solid tumours; paediatric neoplasms; chemotherapy; cytoprotection; amifostine
13.  Impact of dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide and carboplatin as concurrent chemoradiotherapy agents for nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma 
Molecular and Clinical Oncology  2013;1(4):680-684.
The nasal type of extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a rare aggressive lymphoma with poor prognosis. The reported 5-year overall survival for patients with localized nasal NKTCL treated with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone (CHOP) is <50%. Dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide and carboplatin (DeVIC) chemotherapy was designed as a salvage chemotherapeutic regimen for aggressive lymphoma, comprising multidrug resistance (MDR) non-related agents and etoposide, which is considered to be effective against nasal NKTCL. An experimental chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is currently being designed using DeVIC as the concurrent chemotherapeutic regimen for nasal NKTCL. The aim of this study was to examine the initial outcome of this treatment and evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility. Six patients (age range, 29–82 years; median age, 68 years) were treated with CRT using DeVIC between April, 2004 and February, 2010. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 11–80 months). All patients were administered 3–6 cycles of full-dose DeVIC regimen. The chemotherapy was administered concurrently with radiotherapy (RT) and was repeated every 3 weeks. RT was performed using 4-MV X-ray and the prescription dose was 46–50 Gy/23–25 fx (median, 50 Gy). After treatment, all patients were followed up at our hospital. A complete remission was achieved in 5 patients (83%) at 1 month after treatment. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 100%. No severe adverse effect (grade ≥3) was reported. In conclusion, the initial results of the experimental CRT with DeVIC for this type of aggressive lymphoma were very encouraging. Further investigation is required on concurrent CRT with 50 Gy/25 fx and 3 cycles of DeVIC comprising non-MDR agents and etoposide for nasal NKTCL.
doi:10.3892/mco.2013.123
PMCID: PMC3916130  PMID: 24649228
carboplatin; chemoradiotherapy; dexamethasone; etoposide; extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma; ifosfamide
14.  High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Patients with High-risk Stage 3 Neuroblastoma: 10-Year Experience at a Single Center 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(4):660-667.
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was applied to improve the prognosis of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma. From January 1997 to December 2006, 28 patients were newly diagnosed as stage 3 neuroblastoma. Nine of 11 patients with N-myc amplification and 5 of 17 patients without N-myc amplification (poor response in 2 patients, persistent residual tumor in 2 and relapse in 1) underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Patients without high-risk features received conventional treatment modalities only. While 8 of 9 patients underwent single HDCT/ASCR and the remaining one patient underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the early study period, all 5 patients underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the late period. Toxicities associated with HDCT/ASCR were tolerable and there was no treatment-related mortality. While the tumor relapsed in two of eight patients in single HDCT/ASCR group, all six patients in tandem HDCT/ASCR group remained relapse free. The 5-yr event-free survival (EFS) from diagnosis, in patients with N-myc amplification, was 71.6±14.0%. In addition, 12 of 14 patients who underwent HDCT/ASCR remained event free resulting in an 85.1±9.7% 5-yr EFS after the first HDCT/ASCR. The present study demonstrates that HDCT/ASCR may improve the survival of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.4.660
PMCID: PMC2719186  PMID: 19654949
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Rescue; Prognosis; N-myc
15.  High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;68(3):594-598.
Twenty-one patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (six with extreme burden disease at presentation in whom partial remission had been achieved with initial induction therapy, and 15 with recurrent disease after induction therapy) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The first six received etoposide 3.0 g m-2, ifosfamide 6.0 g m-2 and carboplatin 1.2 g m-2 (Regimen 1), and the subsequent 15 received etoposide 2.4 g m2 (continuous infusion), cyclophosphamide 7.2 g m-2 and carboplatin 0.8 g m-2 (Regimen 2) followed by infusion of previously stored autologous marrow. Regimen 1 was associated with considerable renal toxicity and mucositis, whereas Regimen 2 was relatively well tolerated. Two patients died as a consequence of the treatment: one of candidemia and one of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Only one of 17 patients who were autografted in or approaching marker remission subsequently developed disease progression (event-free survival 82%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55% to 94%), whereas all four patients who had progressive disease at autografting subsequently developed further disease progression and died. Fourteen patients remain well and free of disease 0.5 to 6.5 years (median 3.3) post-BMT (event-free survival 67%, 95% CI 43% to 83%). A strategy of prompt reinduction followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous BMT at the first sign of failure of standard therapy may allow cure to be a realistic expectation.
PMCID: PMC1968411  PMID: 8394733
16.  OUTCOME OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION AS SALVAGE THERAPY FOR HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA IN ADOLESENCE AND YOUNG ADULTS AT A SINGLE INSTITUTION 
Leukemia & lymphoma  2010;51(4):664-670.
For patients with relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma, high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue may improve survival over chemotherapy alone. We assessed outcomes of HDCT-SCT in 37 consecutive adolescent and young adult patients with relapsed HL whose malignancy was categorized based on sensitivity to chemotherapy. We determined whether current outcomes supported the use of HDCT-SCT in all of our patients or just those patients with lower risk characteristics such as chemosensitivity. With a median follow up of 6.5 years, the 2 year overall survival was 89% (95% CI: 62%–97%) for the chemo-sensitive patients (n=21). Whereas for patients with resistant disease (n=16) OS was 53% (95%CI: 25%–74%). Both autologous and allogeneic transplants were well tolerated, with 100 day treatment related mortality under 10%. Our data show encouraging outcomes for patients with chemosensitive relapsed HL who receives HSCT and supports the value of the procedure even when the disease is chemoresistant.
doi:10.3109/10428190903580410
PMCID: PMC2932472  PMID: 20367182
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Stem Cell Transplant; Salvage Therapy
17.  Double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma: a pilot study in a single center. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(4):537-543.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
PMCID: PMC3054907  PMID: 12172052
18.  Immunotherapy with low-dose recombinant interleukin 2 after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in neuroblastoma. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;78(4):528-533.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a phase I-II trial whether low doses of recombinant human interleukin 2 (rHuIL-2) over a prolonged period of time are safe and effective in eradicating or controlling minimal residual disease in children with neuroblastoma given high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). From January 1992 to July 1996, 17 consecutive patients, with either stage IV or relapsed neuroblastoma, were enrolled. Patients received rHuIL-2 after a median time interval (min-max) of 105 days (56-153) after HDCT and ASCT. The protocol consisted of 2 'priming' courses of rHuIL-2 at escalating doses administered intravenously at 72-h intervals, followed by 'maintenance' with 11 monthly and six bimonthly boosting 5-day courses administered subcutaneously on an outpatient basis. At April 1997, 7 out of the 17 patients had completed the treatment schedule, four had discontinued treatment because of toxicity and four because of relapse; the remaining two patients are still on treatment, having completed 15 courses. Expansion of T lymphocytes, together with an increase in both natural killer cells and in activated T lymphocytes was evidenced. After a median (min-max) follow-up time of 30 (16-64) months, 12 out of 17 patients are alive and well. Two patients relapsed and died 14 and 35 months after transplant. Three patients are alive after having relapsed at 41, 21 and 13 months. The actuarial 2-year event-free survival and overall survival are 67% and 92% respectively. Intermittent administration of low doses of rHuIL-2 given for a long period of time is well tolerated and seems capable of controlling minimal residual disease after HDCT and ASCT in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
PMCID: PMC2063104  PMID: 9716039
19.  High-Dose Chemotherapy Followed by Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation as a First-Line Therapy for High-Risk Primary Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33388.
Background and Objectives
Several trials have generated conflicting results about the results of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT) for primary breast cancer. This meta-analysis summarizes the available evidence from all suitable studies.
Design and Methods
Prospective, randomized trials with HDCT as a first-line therapy for primary breast cancer were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest for our analysis was survival (disease-free survival and overall survival); secondary endpoints included treatment-related mortality (TRM) and second (non-breast) cancers. We used a median age of 47, a PR positive rate of 50% and a premenopausal rate of 70% as cutoff values to complete the subgroup analyses, which were pre-planned according to the prepared protocol.
Results
Fourteen trials with 5747 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. Compared with non-HDCT, non-significant second (non-breast) cancers (RR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.82–1.98) and higher TRM (RR = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.32–8.86) were associated with HDCT for primary breast cancer. A significant DFS benefit of HDCT was documented (HR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79–0.99). No difference in OS (overall survival) was found when the studies were pooled (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82–1.00, p = 0.062). In subgroup analysis, age and hormone receptor status had a significant interaction with prolonged DFS and OS.
Conclusions
HDCT has a benefit on DFS and OS compared to SDC in some special patients with high-risk primary breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033388
PMCID: PMC3299795  PMID: 22428041
20.  A Phase I/II Study of a 72-h Continuous Infusion of Etoposide in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma 
Sarcoma  1997;1(3-4):149-154.
Purpose. The study was performed to assess the antitumour activity and toxicity of a 72-h continuous infusion of single-agent etoposide as second-line treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS), following reports of substantial activity using this schedule of etoposide administration as first-line treatment in combination with ifosfamide.
Patients/method. This was an open phase I/II trial performed at a single institution in patients with metastatic or locally advanced STS who had failed first-line treatment with doxorubicin + ifosfamide combination chemotherapy or, less commonly, single-agent treatment with doxorubicin or ifosfamide. Etoposide was given as a continuous intravenous infusion over 72 h. The starting dose level was 200 mg m-2 day-1 × 3 escalating in 10% steps in cohorts of three patients until dose-limiting toxicity was encountered.
Results. Seventeen patients were treated, median age 47 years (range 26–71 years). No responses were seen in 16 assessable patients despite etoposide levels in the cotoxic range. The steady-state plasma concentration exceeded 8 μg ml−1 in all patients and in patients treated at ≥ 600 mg m −2 the mean steady-state level was 14.4 μg ml −1. The median event-free survival was 6 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.31–8.69) and the overall survival 16 weeks (95% CI 9.28–22.72). The maximum tolerated dose in this pretreated patient group was 200 mg mm-2 day-1 × 3. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression.
Discussion. Etoposide given by 72-h infusion is inactive as second-line chemotherapy in STS. It is associated with significant toxicity when given in these doses, in this patient group.
doi:10.1080/13577149778236
PMCID: PMC2395367  PMID: 18521217
21.  A randomised study of carboplatin vs sequential ifosfamide/carboplatin for patients with FIGO stage III epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The London Gynaecologic Oncology Group. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;68(6):1190-1194.
In a study designed to compare response rates of patients with stage III epithelial ovarian carcinoma to ifosfamide and carboplatin, 152 patients were randomised to receive either sequential therapy with three cycles of ifosfamide followed by three cycles of carboplatin, or to six cycles of single agent carboplatin. Ifosfamide was given every 3 weeks in a dose of 5 gm m-2 as a 24 h infusion with mesna, 1 gm m-2 by i.v. bolus prior to ifosfamide, 3 gm m-2 with ifosfamide, and 1 gm m-2 as an 8 h infusion after ifosfamide. Carboplatin was given in a dose of 400 mg m-2 by short i.v. infusion every 4 weeks. Sixty-eight evaluable patients were randomised to sequential ifosfamide/carboplatin, and 67 to single agent carboplatin. Median follow-up is 36 months (range 5.5-82.3). After three cycles of treatment two patients in the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm achieved complete remission (CR), and 12 partial remission (PR) for an overall response rate of 29%, whereas in the carboplatin arm ten patients achieved CR, and 23 PR, for an overall response rate of 63% (P = 0.0008). Seven of 15 patients with progressive disease, and nine of 20 patients with stable disease at the initial response evaluation, following three cycles of ifosfamide, subsequently responded to carboplatin therapy so that the final response rate to the complete regimen was 65% for the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm, compared to 71% for the carboplatin arm (NS). For the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm, median recurrence free survival and overall survival were 14.1 months and 18.7 months. Corresponding figures for the carboplatin arm were 14.5 months and 21.5 months (NS). Both treatments were generally well tolerated. However 47% of patients in the ifosfamide/carboplatin arm developed alopecia sufficient to require a wig, compared to only 2% in the carboplatin arm. Ifosfamide is clearly less effective, and more toxic than carboplatin. Ifosfamide failures can however be effectively salvaged by subsequent carboplatin treatment. Ifosfamide cannot be recommended for single agent therapy in ovarian carcinoma, however the combination of carboplatin plus ifosfamide might be a suitable treatment to be tested in a future randomised study against carboplatin alone.
PMCID: PMC1968655  PMID: 8260372
22.  Alterations in p53 predict response to preoperative high dose chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer 
Molecular Pathology  2003;56(5):286-292.
Aims: To evaluate the usefulness of molecular markers in predicting histopathological and clinical response to preoperative high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Methods: In a phase II trial, 25 patients with metastatic gastric cancer received preoperative tandem HDCT consisting of etoposide, cisplatin, and mitomycin, followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation to achieve surgical resectability. Samples before and after treatment, from normal and tumour tissue, were characterised histopathologically, and both p53 and BAX expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded samples from normal and tumour tissue were microdissected, and the extracted DNA was preamplified using improved primer extension preamplification polymerase chain reaction. Detection of microsatellite instability (MSI) or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was performed using markers for p53, BAX, BAT25, BAT26, D2S123, D17S250, and APC. Exons 5–9 of the p53 gene were sequenced directly on ABI 373.
Results: Four parameters were significantly associated with response to chemotherapy and prolonged overall survival: positive p53 immunostaining, positive p53 mutation status before chemotherapy, strong histological regression induced by preoperative HDCT, and surgical treatment. Patients’s sex or age, tumour location or stage, lymph node status, Lauren classification, MSI, or LOH did not influence duration of survival significantly in this high risk population.
Conclusion: Positive p53 immunostaining and p53 mutation status in pretreatment tumour biopsies might be useful molecular predictors of response and prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated by preoperative HDCT.
PMCID: PMC1187340  PMID: 14514923
gastric cancer; preoperative high dose chemotherapy; molecular parameters; histological regression; p53
23.  Triple-negative breast cancer: multipronged approach, single-arm pilot phase II study 
Cancer Medicine  2012;1(1):89-95.
Anthracyclines (A) and taxanes (T) are standard first-line chemotherapy agents for patients with advanced breast cancer. Platinum analogues have also shown activity in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) histology, but clinical data are limited. Here we report the long-term follow-up of a phase II study on TNBC treated with a combined modality therapy, including induction with AT, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) with concurrent radiation therapy, and a dose-dense consolidation chemotherapy (HDCT) with carboplatin (CBDCA), ifosfamide (IFX), etoposide (VP-16). Patients' median age was 44 years, with 73% premenopausal. Epirubicin 75 mg/m2 and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 were administered to 70 patients with TNBC: as neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy to 12 and 58 patients, respectively. Postoperative radiation therapy, 5000 cGy, was delivered, synchronous with triweekly CMF. After radiation therapy, two courses of HDCT with CBDCA, IFX, VP-16, were given, with hematological growth factors. After a median follow-up of 81 months, all patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. Most important toxicity were grade 3 skin reaction and grade 4 hematological in 3% and 31% of patients, respectively. Pathological complete response was observed in 25% of patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy. Treatment failures were as follows: eight visceral, four contralateral breast cancer, four locoregional, and one leukemia. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival rate were 78% and 91%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy, followed by chemoradiation therapy and HDCT, provides a prolonged disease-free period and a significant increase in overall survival in TNBC, with an acceptable toxicity profile.
doi:10.1002/cam4.3
PMCID: PMC3544434  PMID: 23342258
Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy; high-dose chemotherapy; platinum analogues; triple-negative breast cancer
24.  Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Young Children with Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Central Nervous System 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(2):135-140.
The feasibility and effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) were evaluated in children younger than 3 yr of age with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Tandem HDCT/autoSCT was administered following six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered if the tumor relapsed or progressed, otherwise, it was administered after 3 yr of age. Tumors relapsed or progressed during induction chemotherapy in 5 of 9 patients enrolled; 3 of these 5 received tandem HDCT/autoSCT as a salvage treatment. One patient died from sepsis during induction chemotherapy. The remaining 3 patients proceeded to tandem HDCT/autoSCT; however, 2 of these patients showed tumor relapse/progression after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. All 7 relapses/progressions occurred at primary sites even in patients with leptomeningeal seeding. Toxicities during tandem HDCT/autoSCT were manageable. A total of 5 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 20 (range 16-70) months from diagnosis. Four of 5 patients who received RT after relapse/progression are alive. The probability of overall survival at 3 yr from diagnosis was 53.3% ± 17.3%. Our tandem HDCT/autoSCT is feasible; however, early administration of RT prior to tandem HDCT/autoSCT should be considered to improve the outcome after tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.2.135
PMCID: PMC3271285  PMID: 22323859
Rhabdoid Tumor; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Stem Cell Transplantation; Radiotherapy; Child
25.  5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron--an effective outpatient antiemetic in cancer treatment. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1990;65(8):822-825.
Thirty children aged 2-16 years with malignant tumours who were receiving chemotherapy were treated with the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. Each received a single intravenous dose (5 mg/m2) followed by oral doses (2-4 mg depending on surface area) every eight hours for five days. Chemotherapy regimens comprised: carboplatin alone, carboplatin plus etoposide, cisplatin plus etoposide; adriamycin (doxorubicin) plus cyclophosphamide, or ifosfamide. Twelve patients received ondansetron with their first course of chemotherapy and the other patients were poor responders to previous antiemetic treatment. Efficacy was assessed by a questionnaire documenting the incidence of vomiting and severity of nausea. In a 24 hour period after starting chemotherapy a complete or major response (less than two vomiting episodes) was achieved in 87% of children. Although ondansetron was effective for early antiemesis after cisplatin or ifosfamide, delayed vomiting, retching, or nausea reduced responses to 50% and 20%, respectively. We conclude that in children ondansetron is an effective, well tolerated, oral antiemetic enabling simple administration in the outpatient setting. In the present schedule it was of limited efficacy against cisplatin or ifosfamide induced emesis.
PMCID: PMC1792498  PMID: 2144721

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