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1.  Purged versus non-purged peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma (COG A3973): a randomised phase 3 trial 
The lancet oncology  2013;14(10):999-1008.
Summary
Background
Myeloablative chemoradiotherapy and immunomagnetically purged autologous bone marrow transplantation has been shown to improve outcome for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Currently, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are infused after myeloablative therapy, but the effect of purging is unknown. We did a randomised study of tumour-selective PBSC purging in stem-cell transplantation for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Methods
Between March 16, 2001, and Feb 24, 2006, children and young adults (<30 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma were randomly assigned at diagnosis by a web-based system (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive either nonpurged or immunomagnetically purged PBSC. Randomisation was done in blocks stratified by International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, age, MYCN status, and International Neuroblastoma Pathology classification. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment assignment. All patients were treated with six cycles of induction chemotherapy, myeloablative consolidation, and radiation therapy to the primary tumour site plus metaiodobenzylguanidine avid metastases present before myeloablative therapy, followed by oral isotretinoin. PBSC collection was done after two induction cycles. For purging, PBSC were mixed with carbonyl iron and phagocytic cells removed with samarium cobalt magnets. Remaining cells were mixed with immunomagnetic beads prepared with five monoclonal antibodies targeting neuroblastoma cell surface antigens and attached cells were removed using samarium cobalt magnets. Patients underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation with PBSC as randomly assigned after six cycles of induction therapy. The primary endpoint was event-free survival and was analysed by intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004188.
Findings
495 patients were enrolled, of whom 486 were randomly assigned to treatment: 243 patients to receive non-purged PBSC and 243 to received purged PBSC. PBSC were collected from 229 patients from the purged group and 236 patients from the non-purged group, and 180 patients from the purged group and 192 from the non-purged group received transplant. 5-year event-free survival was 40% (95% CI 33–46) in the purged group versus 36% (30–42) in the non-purged group (p=0·77); 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 43–56) in the purged group compared with 51% (44–57) in the non-purged group (p=0·81). Toxic deaths occurred in 15 patients during induction (eight in the purged group and seven in the non-purged group) and 12 during consolidation (eight in the purged group and four in the non-purged group). The most common adverse event reported was grade 3 or worse stomatitis during both induction (87 of 242 patients in the purged group and 93 of 243 patients in the non-purged group) and consolidation (131 of 177 in the purged group vs 145 of 191 in the non-purged group). Serious adverse events during induction were grade 3 or higher decreased cardiac function (four of 242 in the purged group and five of 243 in the non-purged group) and elevated creatinine (five of 242 in the purged group and six of 243 non-purged group) and during consolidation were sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (12 of 177 in the purged group and 17 of 191 in the non-purged group), acute vascular leak (11 of 177 in the purged group and nine of 191 in the non-purged group), and decreased cardiac function (one of 177 in the purged group and four of 191 in the non-purged group).
Interpretation
Immunomagnetic purging of PBSC for autologous stem-cell transplantation did not improve outcome, perhaps because of incomplete purging or residual tumour in patients. Non-purged PBSC are acceptable for support of myeloablative therapy of high-risk neuroblastoma.
Funding
National Cancer Institute and Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation.
doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70309-7
PMCID: PMC3963485  PMID: 23890779
2.  Sequential detection of alphafetoprotein-bearing cells in blood stem cell fraction of germ cell tumour patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(8):1119-1123.
High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation in advanced germ cell tumour (GCT) patients is widely applied. The aims of this study were: (1) To examine the presence of alphafetoprotein (AFP) bearing tumour cells in PBSC harvests from advanced GCT patients obtained after multiple cycles of induction chemotherapy. (2) To determine whether induction chemotherapy contributed to in vivo purging of the tumour. We evaluated cryopreserved PBSC samples from 5 patients with advanced stage II/III AFP producing GCT. PBSC were separated after the first, second and third cycles of induction chemotherapy. Those samples were analysed using the nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to detect AFP mRNA. Although, in all patients, AFP mRNA was detected in PBSC samples after the first or second cycle of induction chemotherapy, but was not detected in 3 of 4 samples after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Although it is not clear whether tumour cells contaminating PBSC fraction contribute to disease relapse, PBSC harvested after at least 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy might be recommended to avoid such a possibility. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2050
PMCID: PMC2375162  PMID: 11710823
germ cell tumour; alphafetoprotein; peripheral blood stem cells; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
3.  Peripheral blood stem cells used to augment autologous bone marrow transplantation. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1994;70(3):237-240.
Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were used to augment autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT), aiming to hasten engraftment after high dose treatment in a group of heavily pretreated patients. PBSC were obtained by leukapheresis during the rebound after standard chemotherapy. In 11 patients aged 7-17 years, high dose chemotherapy consisted of busulphan 16 mg/kg orally with melphalan 160 mg/m2 intravenously for seven patients, and melphalan 200 mg/m2 intravenously alone for four. The median number of granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units in the reinfused PBSC was 3.42 x 10(4)/kg (3.03-18.01) and bone marrow 12.4 x 10(4)/kg (4.16-28.6). Neutrophil recovery to > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/l and platelet transfusion independence occurred at a median of 14 days (11-18) and 22 days (9-84) respectively. In five patients the early engraftment was transient with neutrophils again dropping below 0.5 x 10(9)/l then slowly recovering. There was one toxic death due to sepsis. PBSC harvesting in these children was undertaken without interrupting routine chemotherapy and without the use of bone marrow growth factors. In some patients PBSC failed to influence engraftment and the use of combined chemotherapy and growth factor priming for PBSC collection may give improved results.
PMCID: PMC1029751  PMID: 7907853
4.  Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells 
By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). Soon after their introduction in the early 1990's, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of “mobilisation” from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process – homing – are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF), or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly correlate with the apheresis yields. These are, in turn, predictive of the speed of haemopoietic recovery after transplantation, which has helped establish the adequate cell dose for transplantation. Following collection, PBSC may be transfused unmanipulated, processed to select specific cell subtypes, or stored for future use. Cryopreservation techniques allow long term storage of stem cells without significant loss of viability. Increasingly demanding calls for safety led to introduction of vapour phase storage, separate storage of infected material, and mandatory quality control measures at all stages of the cryopreservation process and subsequent thawing and transfusion. At the same time, safety of the personnel working in stem cell processing and storage laboratories is safeguarded by a set of regulations devised to minimize the risk of infection, injury or hypoxia. Requirements for quality and safety have been shaped into a number of documents and directives in Europe and USA, emphasising the importance of product traceability, reporting of adverse reactions, quality management systems (standard operating procedures, guidelines, training records, reporting mechanisms and records), requirements for cell reception, quarantine, process control, validation and storage. Establishments that collect, process and store stem cells must be accredited or licensed by appropriate national or international authorities on a regular basis. These regulatory measures have recently become law across the European Union.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.28068
PMCID: PMC3168129  PMID: 21938228
Autologous transplant; allogeneic transplant; peripheral blood stem cells; haemopoietic growth factor
5.  Peripheral blood grafts from unrelated donors are associated with increased acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease without improved survival 
Few studies have tested the benefits of using peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts versus bone marrow (BM) grafts for unrelated donor transplantation. Yet there has been a substantial change in clinical practice, with increasing numbers of adults receiving unrelated donor PBSC grafts. We compared outcomes after 331 PBSC and 586 BM transplants in adults with leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome who were followed for a median of 3 years after transplantation. PBSC recipients were less likely to have chronic myeloid leukemia and more likely to have myelodysplastic syndrome, to have poor performance scores and to be transplanted more recently. Outcomes were analyzed using Cox regression models. Rates of grades 2–4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (58% vs. 45%, p<0.001) and chronic GVHD (56% vs. 42%, p<0.001) were significantly higher with PBSC than with BM transplants. Rates of grade 3–4 acute GVHD were similar with PBSC and BM transplants. The 3-year probabilities of treatment-related mortality, leukemia recurrence, leukemia-free and overall survival were similar in the two groups with 3-year leukemia-free survival rates of 30% and 32% after transplantation of PBSC and BM, respectively. Unlike results after HLA-matched sibling donor PBSC transplants, we did not identify a survival advantage with PBSC grafts in patients receiving unrelated donor transplants for advanced leukemia. The higher rate of chronic GVHD after PBSC transplants and, consequently, more frequent late adverse events warrant extended follow up of PBSC recipients.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.08.006
PMCID: PMC2267869  PMID: 18022576
peripheral blood graft; graft-versus-host disease; unrelated donor transplant
6.  Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Support for Multiple Cycles of Dose Intensive Induction Therapy is Feasible with Little Risk of Tumor Contamination in Advanced Stage Neuroblastoma; A Report from the Childrens Oncology Group 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2010;54(4):596-602.
Background
Poor outcome in Stage 4 neuroblastoma may be improved with increased dose intensity of therapy. We investigated the feasibility of sequential collection and infusion of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) as hematopoietic support for non-myeloablative dose intensive induction chemotherapy given every 21-28 days.
Methods
Twenty-two children with Stage 4 neuroblastoma (≥ 1yr of age) received 2 cycles of high dose cyclophosphamide (4 gm/m2), doxorubicin (75mg/m2) and vincristine (2mg/m2) followed by 3 cycles of interpatient dose escalating carboplatin (dose level 0 = 800 mg/m2; dose level 1 = 1000 mg/m2), high dose cyclophosphamide (4 gm/m2) and etoposide (600 mg/m2). PBSC were harvested following cycle 2, 3, and 4 in Cohort 1 and infused after each subsequent cycle. In Cohort 2, PBSC were harvested after cycle 2 and split into 3 aliquots for infusion. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and ability to administer cycles within 28 days was assessed.
Results
Sufficient PBSC (≥ 2 × 106 CD34 cells/kg per infusion) were collected from 17/21 eligible patients with minimal toxicity and no detectable neuroblastoma cells by immunocytology. Carboplatin at 1000 mg/m2 resulted in DLT of delayed platelet recovery > 28 days in 4/8 patients. Despite de-escalation to 800 mg/m2, platelet DLT occurred in 4/7 Cohort 1 and 3/7 Cohort 2 patients.
Conclusion
As defined in this protocol, doses of carboplatin were not tolerable with the PBSC dose administered. However, it was feasible to collect sufficient PBSC from small neuroblastoma patients to use as hematopoietic support with minimal risk of tumor contamination and toxicity.
doi:10.1002/pbc.22344
PMCID: PMC2905158  PMID: 20049927
neuroblastoma; peripheral blood stem cell support; dose intensity; carboplatin
7.  High-dose sequential epirubicin and cyclophosphamide with peripheral blood stem cell support for advanced breast cancer: results of a phase II study 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(9):1240-1246.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a high-dose intensity and high-dose density multicycle epirubicin and cyclophosphamide regimen with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and haematopoietic growth factor (G-CSF) support in advanced breast cancer patients. From August 1994 to September 1999, 56 breast cancer patients (8 stage IIIB and 48 stage IV) received 205 courses of cyclophosphamide 3 g m−2and epirubicin 100 mg m−2every 14 days. G-CSF 5 μg kg−1day−1was administered from day 3 to neutrophil recovery. 4 courses were planned. PBSC were collected after course 1, and reinfused after courses 3 and 4, with ≥ 2 × 106CD34+ PBSC kg−1required for each reinfusion. 48 patients (86%) received all 4 planned courses. Early withdrawal was consecutive to infectious complications (n= 4), severe asthenia (n= 3), haemorrhagic cystitis (n= 1). A median number of 10.8 × 106CD34+ PBSC kg−1(range, 3–80) was harvested with 1 or 2 apheresis in 48 patients (94%). Median relative dose intensity was 91.3% (range, 72–102%). Grade 4 neutrophil toxicity was observed in 100% of patients. Febrile neutropenia was observed in 40% of courses (median duration 2 days). Red blood cells and platelets had to be transfused in 54% and 27% of courses, respectively. There were no toxic deaths. Objective response rate was 69% in stage IV patients (31/45 evaluable pts), with a 16% complete response rate. Their median progression-free and overall survivals were 22.5 and 37 months, respectively. This epirubicine-containing high-dose regimen appeared feasible, albeit with high toxicity. Time-related progression parameters exceed commonly reported ones. Controlled studies of upfront sequential high-dose chemotherapy are still needed to evaluate its real benefit. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2069
PMCID: PMC2375253  PMID: 11720455
breast cancer; advanced; chemotherapy; high-dose
8.  Pilot Induction Regimen Incorporating Pharmacokinetically Guided Topotecan for Treatment of Newly Diagnosed High-Risk Neuroblastoma: A Children's Oncology Group Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(33):4351-4357.
Purpose
To assess the feasibility of adding dose-intensive topotecan and cyclophosphamide to induction therapy for newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB).
Patients and Methods
Enrolled patients received two cycles of topotecan (approximately 1.2 mg/m2/d) and cyclophosphamide (400 mg/m2/d) for 5 days followed by four cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center [MSKCC] regimen). Pharmacokinetically guided topotecan dosing (target systemic exposure with area under the curve of 50 to 70 ng/mL/hr) was performed. Peripheral-blood stem cell (PBSC) harvest and surgical resection of residual primary tumor occurred after cycles 2 and 5, respectively. Patients achieving at least a partial response received myeloablative chemotherapy with PBSC rescue and radiation to the presurgical primary tumor volume. Oral 13-cis-retinoic acid maintenance therapy was administered twice daily for 14 days in six 28-day cycles.
Results
Thirty-one patients were enrolled onto the study. No deaths related to toxicity or dose-limiting toxicities occurred during induction. Mucositis rarely occurred after topotecan cycles (9.7%) in contrast to 30% after MSKCC cycles. Thirty patients underwent PBSC collection with median 31.1 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg (range, 1.8 to 541.8 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg), all negative for tumor contamination by immunocytochemical analysis. Targeted topotecan systemic exposure was achieved in 26 (84%) of 31 patients. At the end of induction, 26 patients (84%) had tumor response and one patient had progressive disease. In the overall cohort, 3-year event-free and overall survival were 37.8% ± 9.4% and 57.1% ± 9.4%, respectively.
Conclusion
This pilot induction regimen was well tolerated with expected and reversible toxicities. These data support investigation of efficacy in a phase III clinical trial for newly diagnosed HRNB.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.34.3293
PMCID: PMC3221519  PMID: 22010014
9.  Evaluating the effects of lenalidomide induction therapy on peripheral stem cells collection in patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma 
Introduction
Lenalidomide (LEN) is a relatively new and very effective therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). Prior LEN therapy is associated with an increased risk of peripheral blood stem cell collection (PBSC) failure, particularly with filgrastim (G-CSF) alone. We performed a retrospective chart review of 319 consecutive MM patients who underwent apheresis to collect PBSCs for the first autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).
Results
The median number of PBSCs collected in the LEN (+) group was significantly less than the LEN (−) group (6.34 vs. 7.52×106 CD34+ cells/kg; p=0.0004). In addition, the median number of apheresis sessions required for adequate PBSCs collection were significantly more in the LEN (+) group as compared to LEN (−) group (2 vs. 1 sessions; p=0.002). In the LEN (+) group, there was a negative correlation between PBSCs collected and prior number of cycles of LEN (p=0.0001). Rate of PBSC collection failure was 9 % in the LEN (+) group and 5 % in the LEN (−) group (p=0.16). Only six patients who failed PBSC collection with G-CSF were able to collect adequate PBSCs with G-CSF + plerixafor. LEN exposure had no effect on neutrophil or platelet recovery post-ASCT.
Conclusions
Up to four cycles of LEN exposure have minimal negative impact on PBSC collection. Despite prolong exposure of LEN, PBSC collection was adequate for two ASCTs in the majority of patients and post-ASCT engraftment was not longer than expected; however, clinical relevance (complication rate, quality of life, cost) of prolonged LEN exposure on both PBSC and ASCT, should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials.
doi:10.1007/s00520-013-1808-5
PMCID: PMC3837683  PMID: 23591714
Lenalidomide; Multiple myeloma; Peripheral stem cells collection
10.  Optimal stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies 
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a standard treatment for many hematological malignancies. Three different sources of stem cells, namely bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and cord blood (CB) can be used for HSCT, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that there is no significant survival advantage of PBSC over BM in Human Leukocyte Antigen-matched sibling transplant for adult patients with hematological malignancies. PBSC transplant probably results in lower risk of relapse and hence better disease-free survival, especially in patients with high risk disease at the expense of higher risks of both severe acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the unrelated donor setting, the only RCT available suggests that PBSC and BM result in comparable overall and disease-free survivals in patients with hematological malignancies; and PBSC transplant results in lower risk of graft failure and higher risk of chronic GVHD. High level evidence is not available for CB in comparison to BM or PBSC. The risks and benefits of different sources of stem cells likely change with different conditioning regimen, strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of GVHD and manipulation of grafts. The recent success and rapid advance of double CB transplant and haploidentical BM and PBSC transplants further complicate the selection of stem cell source. Optimal selection requires careful weighing of the risks and benefits of different stem cell source for each individual recipient and donor. Detailed counseling of patient and donor regarding risks and benefits in the specific context of the patient and transplant method is essential for informed decision making.
doi:10.5500/wjt.v3.i4.99
PMCID: PMC3879529  PMID: 24392314
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Bone marrow; Peripheral blood stem cell; Cord blood; Hematological malignancy
11.  High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa and cyclophosphamide (CTC) with peripheral blood stem cell support in the adjuvant therapy of high-risk breast cancer: a practical approach. 
British Journal of Cancer  1995;71(4):857-862.
In 29 chemotherapy-naive patients with stage II-III breast cancer, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were mobilised following fluorouracil 500 mg m-2, epirubicin 90-120 mg m-2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg m-2 (FEC) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; Filgrastim) 300 microgram s.c. daily. In all but one patient, mobilisation was successful, requiring three or fewer leucocytopheresis sessions in 26 patients; 28 patients subsequently underwent high-dose chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin 1600 mg m-2, thiotepa 480 mg m-2 and cyclophosphamide 6 g m-2 (CTC) followed by PBSC transplantation. Haemopoietic engraftment was rapid with a median time to neutrophils of 500 x 10(6) l(-1) of 9 days (range 8-10) in patients who received G-CSF after PBSC-transplantation; platelet transfusion independence was reached within a median of 10 days (range 7-16). Neutropenic fever occurred in 96% of patients. Gastrointestinal toxicity was substantial but reversible. Renal, neural or ototoxicity was not observed. Complications related to the central venous catheter were encountered in 64% of patients, with major vein thrombosis occurring in 18%. High-dose CTC-chemotherapy with PBSC-transplantation, harvested after mobilisation with FEC and G-CSF, is reasonably well tolerated without life-threatening toxicity and is a suitable high-dose strategy for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC2033734  PMID: 7536025
12.  Optimal Time to Start Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection in Children with High-Risk Solid Tumors 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;29(1):110-116.
In order to clarify the optimal timing for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, PBSC collection records of 323 children who were scheduled to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation from two study periods differing in the timing of PBSC collection were analyzed. In the early study period (March 1998 to August 2007, n=198), PBSC collection was initiated when the peripheral WBC count exceeded 1,000/µL during recovery from chemotherapy. Findings in this study period indicated that initiation of PBSC collection at a higher WBC count might result in a greater CD34+ cell yield. Therefore, during the late study period (September 2007 to December 2012, n=125), PBSC collection was initiated when the WBC count exceeded 4,000/µL. Results in the late study period validated our conclusion from the early study period. Collection of a higher number of CD34+ cells was associated with a faster hematologic recovery after transplant in the late study period. Initiation of PBSC collection at WBC count > 4,000/µL was an independent factor for a greater CD34+ cell yield. In conclusion, PBSC collection at a higher WBC count is associated with a greater CD34+ cell yield, and consequently a faster hematologic recovery after transplant.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.110
PMCID: PMC3890460  PMID: 24431914
High-Dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection
13.  Stem cell collection in unmanipulated HLA-haploidentical/mismatched related transplantation with combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised blood and bone marrow for patients with haematologic malignancies: the impact of donor characteristics and procedural settings 
Unmanipulated haploidentical/mismatched related transplantation with combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (G-PBSCs) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised bone marrow (G-BM) has been developed as an alternative transplantation strategy for patients with haematologic malignancies. However, little information is available about the factors predicting the outcome of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection and bone marrow (BM) harvest in this transplantation. The effects of donor characteristics and procedure factors on CD34+ cell yield were investigated. A total of 104 related healthy donors received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by PBSC collection and BM harvest. Male donors had significantly higher yields compared with female donors. In multiple regression analysis for peripheral blood collection, age and flow rate were negatively correlated with cell yield, whereas body mass index, pre-aphaeresis white blood cell (WBC) and circulating immature cell (CIC) counts were positively correlated with cell yields. For BM harvest, age was negatively correlated with cell yields, whereas pre-BM collection CIC counts were positively correlated with cell yield. All donors achieved the final product of ≥6 ×106 kg−1 recipient body weight. This transplantation strategy has been shown to be a feasible approach with acceptable outcomes in stem cell collection for patients who received HLA-haploidentical/mismatched transplantation with combined G-PBSCs and G-BM. In donors with multiple high-risk characteristics for poor aphaeresis CD34+ cell yield, BM was an alternative source.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-3148.2010.00990.x
PMCID: PMC2871169  PMID: 20136781
granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; HLA-haploidentical/mismatched related donors; leukaemia; mobilisation; transplantation
14.  Stem Cell Mobilization and Collection for Induction of Mixed Chimerism and Renal Allograft Tolerance in Cynomolgus Monkeys1 
The Journal of surgical research  2010;168(2):294-300.
Background
We have previously observed that donor bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells successfully induce transient mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance following non-myeloablative conditioning of the recipient. Stem cells isolated from the peripheral blood (PBSC) may provide similar benefits. We sought to determine the most effective method of mobilizing PBSC for this approach and the effects of differing conditioning regimens on their engraftment.
Methods
A standard dose (10 μg/kg) or high dose (100 μg/kg) of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) with or without stem cell factor (SCF) was administered to the donor and PBSC were collected by leukapheresis. Cynomolgus monkey recipients underwent a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen (total body irradiation, thymic irradiation and ATG) with splenectomy (splenectomy group) or a short course of anti-CD154 antibody (aCD154) (aCD154 group). Recipients then received combined kidney and PBSC transplantation and a one-month post transplant course of cyclosporine.
Results
Treatments with either two cytokines (GCSF+SCF) or high dose GCSF provided significantly more hematopoietic progenitor cells than standard dose GCSF alone. Recipients in the aCD154 group developed significantly higher myeloid and lymphoid chimerism (p<0.0001 and p=0.0002, respectively) than those in the splenectomy group. Longer term renal allograft survival without immunosuppression was also observed in the aCD154 group, while two of three recipients in the splenectomy group rejected their allografts soon after discontinuation of immunosuppression.
Conclusions
Protocols including administration of two cytokines (GCSF + SCF) or high dose GCSF alone significantly mobilized more PBSC than standard dose GCSF alone. The recipients of PBSC consistently developed excellent chimerism and survived long-term without immunosuppression, when treated with CD154 blockade.
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2010.02.027
PMCID: PMC2952058  PMID: 20605588
kidney transplantation; nonhuman primates; tolerance; mixed chimerism; peripheral blood stem cell transplantation; leukapheresis
15.  Adverse events associated with apheresis procedures: Incidence and relative frequency 
Introduction:
Apheresis procedures [Plateletpheresis, Plasmapheresis/ Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE), & Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection (PBSC)] are usually well tolerated. Occasionally, Adverse Events (AEs) of variable severity may occur during or after the procedure. AEs that occur in Donors/Patients are divided into local reactions and systemic reactions.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 3,367 apheresis procedures were performed, out of which 3,120 were plateletpheresis procedures, and out of which 1,401 were on Baxter CS 3000 & 1,719 were on Haemonetics MCS+ cell separators. Rest of 247 TPE & PBSC procedures were done on Haemonetics MCS+ cell separators.
Results:
90 AEs were reported in relation to the 3,367 procedures. Out of 90 AEs, 85 AEs (94%) were associated with plateletpheresis (n = 3,120) and 05 AEs (06%) with TPE & PBSC (n = 247). The rate of vascular injury (VI), Citrate reaction (CR), and Presyncopal/Syncopal (PS/S) in plateletpheresis was 1.6% (52/3,120), 0.96% (30/3,120), and 0.096% (03/3,120), respectively. The rate of CR in TPE and PBSC was 1.23% (02/162) and 2.3% (02/85), respectively. The rate of PS/S in PBSC was 1.17% (01/85). AEs for Plateletpheresis, TPE & PBSC were 2.7% (85/3,120), 1.23% (02/162), and 3.5% (03/85), respectively. VI, CR, and PS/S were mostly of mild intensity. Both cell separators were equally safe, when AEs associated with plateletpheresis were compared with each other; 2.8% on CS 3000 & 2.6% on MCS+.
Conclusion:
Apheresis procedures performed on cell separators are safe, with a low incidence of significant AEs. No significant difference was noted in AEs among the two cell separators studied.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.106730
PMCID: PMC3613659  PMID: 23559763
Adverse events; citrate reaction; peripheral blood stem cell; presyncopal/syncopal; therapeutic plasma exchange; vascular injury
16.  Improved Post-Thaw Recovery of Peripheral Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells Using a Novel Intracellular-like Cryopreservation Solution 
Cytotherapy  2009;11(4):472-479.
Background
Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) have become the preferred stem cell source for autologous hematopoietic transplantation. A critical aspect of this treatment modality is cryopreservation of the stem cell products, which permits temporal separation of the PBSC mobilization/collection phase from the subsequent high-dose therapy. While controlled rate freezing and liquid nitrogen storage have become “routine” practice in many cell processing facilities, there is clearly room for improvement, as current cryopreservation media formulations still result in significant loss and damage to the stem/progenitor cell populations essential for engraftment, and can also expose the patients to relatively undefined serum components and larger volumes of DMSO that can contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the transplant therapy.
Methods
This study compared cryopreservation of PBSC in a novel intracellular-like, fully defined, serum- and protein-free preservation solution, CryoStor™ (BioLife Solutions, Inc.), with a standard formulation used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC). Briefly, human PBSC apheresis specimens were collected and 5 × 107 cells/1 ml sample vial were prepared for cryopreservation in the following solutions: 1) FHCRC standard – Normosol-R, 5% HSA, 10% DMSO, and 2) CryoStor™ CS10 (final diluted conc. of 5% DMSO). A standard controlled-rate freezing program was employed, and frozen vials were stored in the vapor phase of a liquid nitrogen freezer for a minimum of one week. Vials were then thawed and evaluated for TNC, Viability, CD34, and granulocytes by flow cytometry, along with colony-forming activity in methylcellulose.
Results
The PBSC samples frozen in CryoStor™ CS10 yielded significantly improved post-thaw recoveries for total viable CD34+, CFU, and viable granulocytes. Specifically, relative to the FHCRC standard formulation, cryopreservation with CS10 resulted in an average 1.8 fold increased recovery of viable CD34+ cells (P = 0.005), a 1.5 fold increase in CFU-GM numbers (P = 0.030), and a 2.3 fold increase in granulocyte recovery (P = 0.045).
Discussion
This study indicates that use of CryoStor™ for cryopreservation can yield significantly improved recovery and in vitro functionality of the stem/progenitor cells in PBSC products. In addition, it is important to note that these improved recoveries were obtained while also not introducing any extra serum or serum-derived proteins, and reducing the final concentration/volume of DMSO by half. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are clearly necessary, however these findings imply use of CryoStor™ for cryopreservation might ultimately result in improved engraftment for those patients with lower content of CD34+ cells in their PBSC collections, along with reducing the requirement for additional apheresis collections, and decreasing the risk of adverse infusion reactions associated with higher exposure to DMSO.
doi:10.1080/14653240902887242
PMCID: PMC3021966  PMID: 19499402
Cryopreservation; CryoStor; CD34+; CFU-GM; PBSC
17.  Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell rescue of late graft failure after bone marrow transplantation in patients with aplastic anemia. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(4):468-474.
We investigated the effect and outcome of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue for aplastic anemia (AA) patients with graft failure after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seven (28%) of 25 AA patients who received BMT from HLA-identical sibling donors developed late graft failure at a median of 7 months (range, 2.0-9.3 months) after transplantation. The patients with graft failure were treated with PBSC collected from the original donor after mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The median boost dose of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 3.1 x 10(8)/kg (range, 1.4-11.9 x 10(8)/kg). Median times to reach an absolute neutrophil count greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L and a platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L were 7 days (range, 4-14 days) and 9 days (range, 3-41 days), respectively. There was sustained graft function in 6 of 7 patients, with a median follow-up duration of 3.3 yr (range, 1.0-6.2 yr). Grade-I acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 2 patients, while extensive chronic GVHD developed in 3 patients. This report shows that G-CSF-mobilized allogeneic PBSC rescue is very effective in achieving complete and sustained engraftment in patients with AA after graft failure. However, more efficacious measures to prevent extensive chronic GVHD remain to be developed.
PMCID: PMC3054912  PMID: 12172040
18.  Efficacy of vincristine and etoposide with escalating cyclophosphamide in poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumors1 
Neuro-Oncology  2006;8(1):53-59.
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the VETOPEC regimen, a regimen of vincristine and etoposide with escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (CPA), in pediatric patients with high-risk brain tumors. Three consecutive studies by the Australia and New Zealand Children’s Cancer Study Group—VETOPEC I, Baby Brain 91, and VETOPEC II—have used a specific chemotherapy regimen of vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16) and escalating CPA in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk solid tumors. Patients in the VETOPEC II cohort were treated with very high dose CPA with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue. We analyzed the subset of patients with high-risk brain tumors treated with these intensive VETOPEC-based protocols to assess the response, toxicity, and survival. We also assessed whether the use of very high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue improved the response rate or affected toxicity. Seventy-one brain tumor patients were treated with VETOPEC-based protocols. Of the 54 patients evaluable for tumor response, 17 had a complete response (CR) and 20 a partial response (PR) to treatment, which yielded an overall response rate of 69%. The CR + PR was 83% (19/23) for medulloblastomas, 56% (5/9) for primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 55% (6/11) for grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas, and 80% (6/8) for ependymomas. At a median follow-up of 36 months, overall survival for the entire cohort of 71 patients was 32%, with event-free survival of 13%. There were no toxic deaths within the PBSC-supported VETOPEC II cohort, despite higher CPA doses, compared with 7% among the non-PBSC patients. This regimen produces high response rates in a variety of very poor prognosis pediatric brain tumors. The maximum tolerated dose of CPA was not reached. Higher escalation in doses of CPA did not deliver a further improvement in response. With PBSC rescue in the VETOPEC II study, hematologic toxicity was no longer a limiting factor. The response rates observed support further development of this chemotherapy regimen.
doi:10.1215/S1522851705000463
PMCID: PMC1871918  PMID: 16443948
brain tumor; childhood; cyclophosphamide; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplant
19.  Platelet and Red Blood Cell Utilization and Transfusion Independence in Umbilical Cord Blood and Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplants 
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have substantial transfusion requirements. Factors associated with increased transfusions and the extent of blood product use in umbilical cord blood (UCB) recipients are uncertain. We reviewed blood product use in 229 consecutive adult recipients of allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota: 147 with leukemia, 82 lymphoma or myeloma; 58% received unrelated UCB and 43% sibling donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. Although neutrophil recovery was prompt (UCB median 17, range 2–45 days, and PBSC 14, range 3–34 days), only 135 of 229 (59% cumulative incidence, CI) achieved RBC independence and 157 (69%) achieved platelet independence by 6 months. Time to platelet independence was prolonged in UCB recipients (median UCB 41 vs. PBSC 14 days) and in patients who had received a prior transplant (median 48 vs. 32 days). Patients who received UCB grafts required more RBC through day 60 post HCT (mean UCB 7.8 (95% CI 6.7–8.9) vs. PBSC 5.2 (3.7–6.7) transfusions, p=0.04), and more platelet transfusions (mean 25.2 (95% CI 22.1–28.2) vs. 12.9 (9.4–16.4), p<0.01) compared to PBSC recipients. Patient receiving myeloablative (MA) conditioning required more RBC and platelet transfusions during the first 2 months post HCT compared to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) (7.4 vs. 6.2, p=0.3 for RBC; 23.2 vs 17.5, p=0.07 for platelets). Despite prompt neutrophil engraftment, UCB recipients had delayed platelet recovery as well as more prolonged and costly blood product requirements. Enhanced approaches to accelerate multilineage engraftment could limit the transfusion-associated morbidity and costs accompanying UCB allotransplantation.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.08.017
PMCID: PMC3010271  PMID: 20813199
20.  Extended Mycophenolate Mofetil and Shortened Cyclosporine Failed to Reduce Graft-versus-Host Disease after Unrelated Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Nonmyeloablative Conditioning 
We previously reported data from 103 patients with hematological malignancies (median age 54 years) who received peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts from HLA-matched unrelated donors after nonmyeloablative conditioning and were given postgrafting immunosuppression consisting of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; administered from day 0 until day +40 with taper through day +96) and cyclosporine (CSP; given from day -3 to day +100, with taper through day 180) (historical patients). The incidences of grade II-IV acute and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 52% and 49%, respectively, and the 1-year probabilities of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and progression-free survival were 26%, 18%, and 56%, respectively. Here, we treated 71 patients with hematological malignancies (median age 56 years) with unrelated PBSC grafts and investigated whether postgrafting immunosuppression with an extended course of MMF, given at full dosing until day 150 and then tapered through day 180, and a shortened course of CSP, through day 80, would promote tolerance induction and reduce the incidence of GVHD (current patients). We observed 77% grade II-IV acute and 45% extensive chronic GVHD (P=0.03, and P=0.43, respectively, in current compared to historical patients). The 1-year probabilities of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and progression-free survival were 23%, 29%, and 47%, respectively, (P=0.89, P=0.02, and P=0.08 compared to the historical patients). We conclude that postgrafting immunosuppression with extended MMF and shortened CSP failed to decrease the incidence of GVHD among unrelated PBSC recipients given nonmyeloablative conditioning.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.05.011
PMCID: PMC1986679  PMID: 17697966
21.  New Strategies for Stem Cell Mobilization 
Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is widely used as source of stem cells (PBSCs) for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The use of cytokines, alone or in combination with chemotherapy (chemomobilization), is the most common strategy applied to mobilize and collect PBSCs. However, a significant proportion of cancer patients fail to mobilize enough PBSCs to proceed to ASCT. Plerixafor is a small molecule that reversibly and transiently disrupts the interaction between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 (formerly known as stroma derived factor 1, SDF-1) leading to the rapid release of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow (BM) to PB. Plerixafor has been recently approved to enhance PBSC mobilization in adult patients with multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been shown to be more effective than G-CSF alone. There is limited experience on combining plerixafor with chemotherapy plus G-CSF in patients who mobilize poorly. Current evidence suggests that the addition of plerixafor is safe and effective in the large majority of the patients with low blood CD34+ cell count after mobilization and/or poor yield after the first collection(s). Circulating CD34+ cells can be increased by several folds with plerixafor and the majority of the patients considered “poor mobilizers” can be successfully collected. Overall, its mechanism of action inducing the rapid release of CD34+ cells from the BM to the circulation makes plerixafor suitable for the ‘preemptive’ use in patients who are hard-to-mobilize.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2012.066
PMCID: PMC3499993  PMID: 23170195
22.  Cytomegalovirus Viral Load and Virus-specific Immune Reconstitution after Peripheral Blood Stem Cell versus Bone Marrow Transplantation 
Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products contain more T cells and monocytes when compared to bone marrow (BM), leading to fewer bacterial and fungal infections. CMV viral load and disease as well as CMV-specific immune reconstitution were compared in patients enrolled in a randomized trial comparing PSBC and BM transplantation. There was a higher rate of CMV infection and disease during the first 100 days after transplantation among PBSC recipients (any antigenemia/DNAemia: PBSC, 63% vs. BM, 42%, P=0.04; CMV disease: PBSC, 17% vs. BM, 4%, P=0.03). By two years, CMV disease rates were similar. The early increase in CMV events correlated temporarily with lower CMV-specific CD4+ T helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte function at 30 days after transplantation in PBSC recipients. By 3 months after transplantation and thereafter, CMV-specific immune responses were similar between BM and PBSC recipients. In conclusion, higher CMV infection and disease rates occurred in PBSC transplant recipients early after transplantation. These differences may be due to a transient delay in CMV specific immune reconstitution following PBSC transplantation.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.010
PMCID: PMC3237869  PMID: 21664286
23.  Consolidative high-dose chemotherapy after conventional-dose chemotherapy as first salvage treatment for male patients with metastatic germ cell tumours 
Introduction:
Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
Methods:
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
Results:
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
Conclusions:
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.11233
PMCID: PMC3328550  PMID: 22511417
24.  The possible cost effectiveness of peripheral blood stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide and the late addition of G-CSF. 
The purpose of this study was to develop a cost-effective protocol for the mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) in patients with malignancy. Thirty consecutive patients were randomized to mobilize PBSC with the late addition of a standard 250 microg dose of G-CSF (Neutrogen) from day 8 or early addition of the same dose of G-CSF from day 2, following cyclophosphamide (CY) 4 g/m2. The median yield of CD34+ cells from evaluated patients was 7.87 x 10(6)/kg (range, 2.06-27.25), collected in a median of four apheresis (range, 2-9). Target CD34 + cell doses > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg were achieved in all patients able to be evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in CD34+ cell yields or toxicities. Overall engraftment occurred with median days to neutrophils > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/L or platelets > 20 x 10(9)/L of 11 and 17 days, respectively. However, the duration of G-CSF administration was markedly shorter in the late use of G-CSF group than in the early use of G-CSF group, with a median of 9 days compared with 15 days (p<0.001). PBSC harvesting after priming with CY plus delayed use of G-CSF made it a safe and cost-effective procedure.
PMCID: PMC3054601  PMID: 10719808
25.  Double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma: a pilot study in a single center. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(4):537-543.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
PMCID: PMC3054907  PMID: 12172052

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