The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14).
The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p < 0.05), although the correlation between the RS and CES-D was somewhat lower than that in previous studies. Factor analyses indicated a one-factor solution for RS-14, but as for RS, the result was not consistent with previous studies.
This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measures various aspects of psychological resilience in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ailments. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC).
In total, 576 participants were enrolled (497 females and 79 males), including hospital nurses, university students, and firefighters. Subjects were evaluated using the K-CD-RISC, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability, and convergent validity and factor analysis were also performed to evaluate validity.
Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. The total score on the K-CD-RISC was positively correlated with the RSES (r=0.56, p<0.01). Conversely, BDI (r=-0.46, p<0.01), PSS (r=-0.32, p<0.01), and IES-R scores (r=-0.26, p<0.01) were negatively correlated with the K-CD-RISC. The K-CD-RISC showed a five-factor structure that explained 57.2% of the variance.
The K-CD-RISC showed good reliability and validity for measurement of resilience among Korean subjects.
Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Posttraumatic stress disorder; Resilience; Reliability; Validity; Trauma
Resilience may be an important component of prevention of neuropsychiatric disease. Resilience has proven to be quantifiable by scales such as the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Here, we introduce a 2-item version of this scale, the CD-RISC2. We hypothesize that this shortened version of the scale has internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity as well as significant correlation with the full scale. Additionally, we hypothesize that the CD-RISC2 can be used to assess pharmacological modification of resilience. We test these hypotheses by utilizing data from treatment trials of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder with setraline, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine XR, and kava as well as data from the general population, psychiatric outpatients, and family medicine clinic patients.
Anxiety; treatment; hardiness
Preeclampsia is a frequent obstetric complication which affects the mother`s and the fetus’s health and can be life threatening. It also has an impact on psychological outcomes. There may be protective variables such as resilience shielding against psychosocial distress in women experiencing these pregnancy complications. The aim of this study was to examine differences in resilience in terms of quality of life, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women after preeclampsia.
Four international validated questionnaires were used to measure the psychological outcomes (Medical Outcome Study Short-Form SF12, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale EPDS, Resilience Scale RS13, Impact of Event Scale IES-R). Statistical analyses were performed using independent-samples t-test and chi-square test.
67 women with previous preeclampsia returned the questionnaires. Women with high resilience showed significantly less depression (p = 0.001) and better mental quality of life (p = 0.002) compared to women with low resilience. No group differences were found on the medical and socio-demographic characteristics.
Resilience has an important impact on the psychological outcomes in women after preeclampsia. A screening for resilience, depression and quality of life may be appropriate to identify these women.
Preeclampsia; Depression; Post-traumatic stress; Quality of life; Psychological outcomes; Resilience
The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults.
The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N = 386; female = 47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix – diversity, land use mix – access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version).
The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 –0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r = 0.10 –0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes.
The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Nigerian adults and may be useful for evaluation of the built environment in Nigeria. Further adaptation and evaluation in other African countries is needed to create a version that could be used throughout the African region.
Built environment; Physical activity; Measurements; Psychometric; Africa
The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version.
Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS) and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI) were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient.
The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores.
The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.
Resilience; 10-item CD-RISC; Young adults; Reliability; Validity; Questionnaire
The evaluation of interventions and policies designed to promote resilience, and research to understand the determinants and associations, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. This paper systematically reviews the psychometric rigour of resilience measurement scales developed for use in general and clinical populations.
Eight electronic abstract databases and the internet were searched and reference lists of all identified papers were hand searched. The focus was to identify peer reviewed journal articles where resilience was a key focus and/or is assessed. Two authors independently extracted data and performed a quality assessment of the scale psychometric properties.
Nineteen resilience measures were reviewed; four of these were refinements of the original measure. All the measures had some missing information regarding the psychometric properties. Overall, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Resilience Scale for Adults and the Brief Resilience Scale received the best psychometric ratings. The conceptual and theoretical adequacy of a number of the scales was questionable.
We found no current 'gold standard' amongst 15 measures of resilience. A number of the scales are in the early stages of development, and all require further validation work. Given increasing interest in resilience from major international funders, key policy makers and practice, researchers are urged to report relevant validation statistics when using the measures.
Resilience, the ability to adapt positively to adversity, may be an important factor in successful aging. However, the assessment and correlates of resilience in elderly individuals have not received adequate attention.
A total of 1,395 community-dwelling women over age 60 who were participants at the San Diego Clinical Center of the Women’s Health Initiative completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), along with other scales pertinent to successful cognitive aging. Internal consistency and predictors of the CD-RISC were examined, as well as the consistency of its factor structure with published reports.
The mean age of the cohort was 73 (7.2) years and 14% were Hispanic, 76% were non-Hispanic white, and nearly all had completed a high school education (98%). The mean total score on the CD-RISC was 75.7 (SD=13.0). This scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.92). Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors (somewhat different from those previously reported among younger adults) that reflected items involving: 1) personal control and goal orientation, 2) adaptation and tolerance for negative affect, 3) leadership and trust in instincts, and 4) spiritual coping. The strongest predictors of CD-RISC scores in this study were higher emotional well-being, optimism, self-rated successful aging, social engagement, and fewer cognitive complaints.
Our study suggests that the CD-RISC is an internally consistent scale for assessing resilience among older women, and that greater resilience as assessed by the CD-RISC related positively to key components of successful aging.
Resilience; adaptation; elderly; successful aging; cognition; optimism
The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM) was developed for measuring end results of care in patients with knee or hip OA in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to validate a Hausa translation of IKHOAM in order to promote its use among the Hausa populations of Nigeria and other West African countries.
Sixty-seven patients with knee OA, literate in Hausa and English, recruited consecutively from all government hospitals in Kano were assessed on both English and Hausa versions of IKHOAM. The order of assessment with the versions was randomized and separated by 24 hours. Participants also rated their pain intensity on the Visual Analogue Scale. Data was analyzed using the Spearman Rank Order correlation and Cronbach's alpha.
The participants (17 males, 50 females) were aged 55.7 ± 13.4 years. Participants' scores on the Hausa version correlated significantly with the original version (r = 0.67, p = 0.000) and with pain intensity scores on the Visual Analogue Scale (r = -0.24, p = 0.005). The Cronbach's alpha for correlation on the different parts of the Hausa version ranged between 0.28 and 0.95.
The Hausa version of IKHOAM meets the criteria for validity and internal consistency and may be used in the Hausa speaking parts of Nigeria and other West African countries.
The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory) is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study examined the reliability, validity, screening accuracy and clinical application of the KIPPPI.
Parents of 5959 2-year-old children in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands, were invited to participate in the study. Parents of 3164 children (53.1% of all invited parents) completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents who worried about their child’s upbringing and parent’s that did not. Screening accuracy of the KIPPPI was evaluated against the CBCL by calculating the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The clinical application was evaluated by the relation between KIPPPI scores and the clinical decision made by the child health professionals.
Psychometric properties of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale and Autonomy scale were respectively: Cronbach’s alphas: 0.88, 0.86, 0.83, 0.58. Test-retest correlations: 0.80, 0.76, 0.73, 0.60. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The KIPPPI was able to discriminate between parents that worried about their child and parents that did not. Screening accuracy was high (>0.90) for the KIPPPI Total score and for the Wellbeing scale. The KIPPPI scale scores and clinical decision of the child health professional were related (p<0.05), indicating a good clinical application.
The results in this large-scale study of a diverse general population sample support the reliability, validity and clinical application of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale and Competence scale. Also, the screening accuracy of the KIPPPI Total score and Wellbeing scale were supported. The Autonomy scale needs further study.
The aim of this multi-informant twin study was to determine the relative role of genetic and environmental factors in explaining variation in trait resilience in adolescents. Participants were consenting families (N = 2,638 twins in 1,394 families), from seven national cohorts (age 12–18 years, both sexes) of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together. Questionnaire data on the adolescents’ Ego-resilience (ER89) was collected from mothers, fathers and twins, and analysed by means of multivariate genetic modelling. Variance in trait resilience was best represented in an ADE common pathways model with sex limitation. Variance in the latent psychometric resilience factor was largely explained by additive genetic factors (77% in boys, 70% in girls), with the remaining variance (23 and 30%) attributable to non-shared environmental factors. Additive genetic sources explained more than 50% of the informant specific variation in mothers and fathers scores. In twins, additive and non-additive genetic factors together explained 40% and non-shared environmental factor the remaining 60% of variation. In the mothers’ scores, the additive genetic effect was larger for boys than for girls. The non-additive genetic factor found in the twins’ self ratings was larger in boys than in girls. The remaining sex differences in the specific factors were small. Trait resilience is largely genetically determined. Estimates based on several informants rather than single informants approaches are recommended.
Resilience; Adolescents; Twin study; Heritability; Multiple informants
The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego-control and ego-resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego-control and ego-resiliency when participants (n = 136) were in preschool and elementary school. Ratings showed evidence for convergent and discriminant validity and stability over time. Ego-resiliency, but not ego-control, emerged as powerful predictor of adaptive functioning at age 19 and 26, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems at 16, 23, 26, and 32 years. We interpret these findings as evidence that flexibility and adaptability -measured with ego-resiliency- may reduce risk and promote successful adaptation in low-SES environments.
behavior problems; ego control; ego resiliency; externalizing problems; high-risk sample; internalizing problems; longitudinal study; promotive factor; risk factor; self-regulation
Baseline information on physical activity is relevant to controlling the epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases occurring in many African countries. However, standardized data on physical activity are lacking in Nigeria. We assessed the prevalence of physical activity and its relationships with sociodemographic characteristics in a subnational sample of Nigerian adults.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 934 adults (age, 20–82 years) living in metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria. Physical activity was measured using the validated Nigerian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF). Using the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, participants were classified as sufficiently active or insufficiently active. Sociodemographic correlates of sufficient physical activity were identified using multinomial logistic regression.
Overall, 68.6% of Nigerian adults were sufficiently active. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of physical activity between men (68.0%) and women (69.3%), but physical activity tended to decrease with increasing age category, especially among men. Physical activity prevalence was positively associated with being married (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.04–4.37) and blue collar work (OR = 2.19, CI = 1.16–4.12) and negatively associated with car ownership (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17–0.86) and higher income (OR = 0.54, CI = 0.10–0.95).
The prevalence of physical activity varied between sociodemographic subgroups of Nigerian adults; thus, public health policies and interventions based on ecologic models of health behaviors may be warranted in promoting physical activity in Nigeria.
physical activity; sociodemographic characteristics; IPAQ; Nigerian adults
Aims of this study were (a) to summarize the psychometric literature on the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA), (b) to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the MIA’s Avoidance Alone and Avoidance Accompanied rating scales relative to clinical severity ratings of anxiety disorders from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS), and (c) to establish a cutoff score indicative of interviewers’ diagnosis of agoraphobia for the Avoidance Alone scale. A meta-analytic synthesis of 10 published studies yielded positive evidence for internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. Participants in the present study were 129 people with a diagnosis of panic disorder. Internal consistency was excellent for this sample, α = .95 for AAC and .96 for AAL. When the MIA scales were correlated with interviewer ratings, evidence for convergent and discriminant validity for AAL was strong (convergent r with agoraphobia severity ratings = .63 vs. discriminant rs of .10-.29 for other anxiety disorders) and more modest but still positive for AAC (.54 vs. .01-.37). Receiver operating curve analysis indicated that the optimal operating point for AAL as an indicator of ADIS agoraphobia diagnosis was 1.61, which yielded sensitivity of .87 and specificity of .73.
agoraphobia; panic disorder; Mobility Inventory; psychometric; reliability; validity
A delirium, is a serious, high-frequency complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The consequences of this complication range from high morbidity and mortality to greater need for nursing care. Despite these, delirium is often not recognized and there for not treated. In this study a nursing screening instrument, the NEECHAM confusion scale, was studied for early recognition of delirium ICU patients. This scale proved valid and reliable in several studies in the general hospital population.
In this study validity and reliability were tested in a prospective cohort of 105 patients. Gold standard for delirium was an independent DSM-IV diagnosis. User friendliness was tested by structured evaluation of nurses' experiences working with the scale.
The NEECHAM confusion scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.88) and an interrater reliability of Cohen's Kappa 0.60. The concurrent validity with the DSM-IVcriteria showed a strong link (chi-square 67.52, p [less than or equal to] 0.001). Sensitivity was high, 97% and specificity was good 83%. ICU nurses completed the NEECHAM confusion rating in 3.69, ± 1.21 minutes average. In general the nurses were positive about the NEECHAM confusion scale. They were able to collect data during regular care, but experienced problems in rating the scale in intubated patients. The items in themselves were clear, the content validity, measured by the language used was rated good.
The psychometric characteristics of the NEECHAM confusion scale of this ICU study are generally consistent with validity research previously reported for the general hospital population. The psychometric characteristics and the ease of use of the NEECHAM confusion scale enables ICU nurses to early recognize delirium. Further study, especially in intubed patients is recommended.
Understanding and measuring mental health and wellbeing amongst teenagers has recently become a priority. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is validated for measuring mental wellbeing in populations aged 16 years and over in the UK. We report here a study designed to establish the validity and reliability of WEMWBS in teenagers in the UK.
WEMWBS and comparator scales, together with socio-demographic information and self-reported health, were incorporated into a self-administered questionnaire given to pupils aged 13 to 16 years in six schools in Scotland and England. Psychometric properties including internal consistency, correlations with comparator scales, test-retest stability and unidimensionality were investigated for WEMWBS. Twelve focus groups were undertaken to assess acceptability and comprehensibility of WEMWBS and were taped, transcribed and analysed thematically.
A total of 1,650 teenagers completed the questionnaire (response rate 80.8%). Mean WEMWBS score was 48.8 (SD 6.8; median 49). Response scores covered the full range (from 14 to 70). WEMWBS demonstrated strong internal consistency and a high Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 (95% CI (0.85-0.88), n = 1517). Measures of construct validity gave values as predicted. The correlation coefficient for WEMWBS total score and psychological wellbeing domain of the Kidscreen-27 was 0.59 (95% CI [0.55; 0.62]); for the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) was 0.65, 95% CI [0.62; 0.69]; and for the WHO (WHO-5) Well-being Index 0.57 (95% CI [0.53; 0.61]). The correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was -0.44 (95% CI [-0.49; -0.40]) and for the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) -0.45 (95% CI [-0.49; -0.40]). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.66 (95% CI [0.59; 0.72] n = 212)). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated one underlying factor.
WEMWBS was significantly associated with the Family Affluence Score (WEMWBS increased with increasing household socio-economic status) and had a positive association with the physical health dimension of the Kidscreen-27, but was unrelated to age, gender or location/school. Eighty students took part in focus groups. In general, although some students considered some items open to misunderstanding or misinterpretation, WEMWBS was received positively and was considered comprehensible, and acceptable.
WEMWBS is a psychometrically strong population measure of mental wellbeing, and can be used for this purpose in teenagers aged 13 and over.
No data exists on Parkinson's disease (PD) and secondary Parkinsonism in Northwestern Nigeria. This study was designed to create a database, document the clinical profile of PD in Kano, northwestern Nigerian, and compare this to prior observations within and outside Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
A database was documented on prospective patients presenting consecutively to the Neurology out-patients clinic of the two tertiary health facilities in Kano northwestern Nigeria over a period of 4 years. Demographic and clinical data at presentation were documented for all patients. Cases were classified as PD or secondary Parkinsonism. The severity at presentation and at last visit was classified using the H and Y scale.
Over a period of 4 years, out 1153 a total of 96 patients comprising 74 males and 22 females were enrolled. Eighty (83.3%) of them had clinically diagnosed PD while 16 (16.7%) had clinical features compatible with secondary Parkinsonism. The mean age at onset of symptoms in the PD patients (mean 58.2 ± 6.72 yrs ) was more than in secondary Parkinsonism (mean 51.4 ± 10.04 and P = 0.001). There was male preponderance in both idiopathic Parkinsonism (PD) (m:f = 3.2:1) and secondary Parkinsonism (m:f = 4.3:1). Out of the patients with secondary Parkinsonism, 10 (62.5%) and 5 (31.3%) had vascular Parkinsonism and drug-induced Parkinsonism, respectively. Duration of symptoms prior to presentation ranged between 3 months and 16 years. The mean (SD) time interval from the onset of motor symptoms to diagnosis of PD was 3.6 ± 3.4 yrs and time interval for men and women (male 3.8 ± 3.7; female 2.8 ± 2.1; P = 0.249).
Clinical profile of patients with PD and secondary Parkinsonism in Kano is similar to that from other populations within Nigeria and other developing countries. However, delayed presentation, less frequent family history, lower frequency of Young-onset PD as well as treatment challenges occasioned by poverty, inadequacy of expert, and lack of newer drugs and treatment options contrasts the situation in western populations.
Kano; Parkinson's disease
This study presents the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew version (SDQ-H), used in the Israel Survey on Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The SDQ-H was administered to a representative sample of 611 adolescents and their mothers. Structural validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) inventory was used as “gold standard” to test convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and normative scores were established. Agreement was found with the original factor structure, except for the Peer problem scale. Concurrent and discriminant validity varied from fair to very good for most scales. Total Difficulties scores showed better discriminant validity for the adolescents’ than the mothers’ report for internalizing disorders, and the opposite for externalizing disorders. Internal consistency for the Total Difficulties was 0.77 and for the Hyperactivity scale it was 0.73. It was lower for the other scales, particularly for the Peer problems scale. The findings suggest reasonable psychometric properties of the SDQ-H. Comparisons with other translated SDQ versions are presented.
SDQ-Hebrew version; validity; reliability; normative scores
A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples.
The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples.
The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit.
It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea.
ASRS; Adult ADHD; Scale; Psychometric properties; Korean
The present study examined the psychometric properties and diagnostic efficiency of the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants included 158 U.S. military veterans who have served since September 11, 2001 (post-9/11). Results support the DTS as a valid self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. The DTS demonstrated good internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent and divergent validity. Diagnostic efficiency was excellent when discriminating between veterans with PTSD and veterans with no Axis I diagnosis. However, although satisfactory by conventional standards, efficiency was substantially attenuated when discriminating between PTSD and other Axis I diagnoses. Thus, results illustrate that potency of the DTS as a diagnostic aid was highly dependent on the comparison group used for analyses. Results are discussed in terms of applications to clinical practice and research.
Posttraumatic stress disorder; Military veterans; Test validity; Differential diagnosis; Diagnostic efficiency
Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join.
A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.
A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3). The sample was predominantly male (69.9%) and married (64.6%). There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher.
The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics.
Social capital, as an asset or a resource for resilience, can be a characteristic of the community or the individual. As an individual asset, social capital consists of a person’s relationships to available social resources. As a characteristic of communities, it consists of attributes such as trust, reciprocity, collective action, and participation. Closely related to community social capital is the concept of collective efficacy. Some social networks, however, can be violent, repressive, bigoted, or otherwise destructive.
Resilience is also a characteristic of both individuals and communities. This means that the relationship between social capital and resilience is four-dimensional. In discussing each of these dimensions, we highlight the ability of resilience research to link evidence on community social capital with individual data and the recognition that individuals can be resilient even if the communities they live in have low or even negative social capital.
Recommendations for future research include greater attention to the social capital potential of Aboriginal spirituality, more comparison of urban-rural differences in social capital, and a better understanding of the factors that underlie Aboriginal youth resilience where social capital is defective.
PMID: 20963183 CAMSID: cams761
To assess differences in psychosocial wellbeing between recent orphans and non-orphans, we followed a cohort of 157 school-going orphans and 480 non-orphans ages 9-15 in a context of high HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa from 2004 to 2007. Several findings were contrary to published evidence to date, as we found no difference between orphans and non-orphans in anxiety/depression symptoms, oppositional behavior, self-esteem, or resilience. Female gender, self-reported poor health, and food insecurity were the most important predictors of children’s psychosocial wellbeing. Notably, girls had greater odds of reporting anxiety/depression symptoms than boys, and scored lower on self-esteem and resilience scales. Food insecurity predicted greater anxiety/depression symptoms and lower resilience. Perceived social support was a protective factor, as it was associated with lower odds of anxiety/depression symptoms, lower oppositional scores, and greater self-esteem and resilience. Our findings suggest a need to identify and strengthen psychosocial supports for girls, and for all children in contexts of AIDS-affected and economic adversity.
Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric properties in a variety of subsamples. Results: The final 30-item, true/false scale takes approximately 5–10 min to complete and covers risk factors, assessment and diagnosis, symptoms, course, life impact, caregiving, and treatment and management. Preliminary results suggest that the ADKS has adequate reliability (test–retest and internal consistency) and validity (content, predictive, concurrent, and convergent). Implications: The ADKS is designed for use in both applied and research contexts, capable of assessing knowledge about Alzheimer's disease among laypeople, patients, caregivers, and professionals.
Alzheimer's disease; Knowledge; Assessment; Psychometrics; Health education
Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience.
We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory).
Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21–0.93]). This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44–7.01]).
Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a “vaccination” effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.