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1.  Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:310.
Background
The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14).
Findings
The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p < 0.05), although the correlation between the RS and CES-D was somewhat lower than that in previous studies. Factor analyses indicated a one-factor solution for RS-14, but as for RS, the result was not consistent with previous studies.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-310
PMCID: PMC2993730  PMID: 21083895
2.  Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 
Psychiatry Investigation  2010;7(2):109-115.
Objective
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measures various aspects of psychological resilience in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ailments. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC).
Methods
In total, 576 participants were enrolled (497 females and 79 males), including hospital nurses, university students, and firefighters. Subjects were evaluated using the K-CD-RISC, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability, and convergent validity and factor analysis were also performed to evaluate validity.
Results
Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. The total score on the K-CD-RISC was positively correlated with the RSES (r=0.56, p<0.01). Conversely, BDI (r=-0.46, p<0.01), PSS (r=-0.32, p<0.01), and IES-R scores (r=-0.26, p<0.01) were negatively correlated with the K-CD-RISC. The K-CD-RISC showed a five-factor structure that explained 57.2% of the variance.
Conclusion
The K-CD-RISC showed good reliability and validity for measurement of resilience among Korean subjects.
doi:10.4306/pi.2010.7.2.109
PMCID: PMC2890864  PMID: 20577619
Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Posttraumatic stress disorder; Resilience; Reliability; Validity; Trauma
3.  Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study 
Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.
doi:10.1155/2010/952493
PMCID: PMC3065659  PMID: 21461335
4.  An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials 
Psychiatry research  2007;152(2-3):293-297.
Resilience may be an important component of prevention of neuropsychiatric disease. Resilience has proven to be quantifiable by scales such as the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Here, we introduce a 2-item version of this scale, the CD-RISC2. We hypothesize that this shortened version of the scale has internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity as well as significant correlation with the full scale. Additionally, we hypothesize that the CD-RISC2 can be used to assess pharmacological modification of resilience. We test these hypotheses by utilizing data from treatment trials of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder with setraline, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine XR, and kava as well as data from the general population, psychiatric outpatients, and family medicine clinic patients.
doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2007.01.006
PMCID: PMC2041449  PMID: 17459488
Anxiety; treatment; hardiness
5.  A methodological review of resilience measurement scales 
Background
The evaluation of interventions and policies designed to promote resilience, and research to understand the determinants and associations, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. This paper systematically reviews the psychometric rigour of resilience measurement scales developed for use in general and clinical populations.
Methods
Eight electronic abstract databases and the internet were searched and reference lists of all identified papers were hand searched. The focus was to identify peer reviewed journal articles where resilience was a key focus and/or is assessed. Two authors independently extracted data and performed a quality assessment of the scale psychometric properties.
Results
Nineteen resilience measures were reviewed; four of these were refinements of the original measure. All the measures had some missing information regarding the psychometric properties. Overall, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Resilience Scale for Adults and the Brief Resilience Scale received the best psychometric ratings. The conceptual and theoretical adequacy of a number of the scales was questionable.
Conclusion
We found no current 'gold standard' amongst 15 measures of resilience. A number of the scales are in the early stages of development, and all require further validation work. Given increasing interest in resilience from major international funders, key policy makers and practice, researchers are urged to report relevant validation statistics when using the measures.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-8
PMCID: PMC3042897  PMID: 21294858
6.  Resilience and Treatment Adhesion in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Background:
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, rheumatic inflammatory disease that can cause significant morbidity with evident psychological impacts and obvious harm to quality-of-life that require the patient to adapt treatment.
Objective:
Assessment of resilience and the self-reported treatment adhesion behaviors of patients with SLE, investigating which of these factors are associated to resilience.
Method:
Cross-sectional study of 40 women with SLE. A questionnaire with social demographic data, health history and the Wagnild Young Resilience Scale were used.
Results:
62.5% followed the medical treatment properly but 55% found it difficult. 27.5% of the patients presented low resilience, 57.5% medium and 15% high resilience. Resilience was associated in the chi-square test (p-value < 0.05) with the variables work, understanding SLE, trying to find out about SLE, following the treatment correctly, difficulty in following the treatment and stopping some activity because of the disease. In the correlation analysis, resilience was associated with age (-0.3960), number of working hours (0.5533), specialized treatment duration (-0.8103) and disease duration from diagnosis (-0.8014).
Conclusion:
Patients with high resilience tended to follow treatment correctly, tried to understand the disease and adhered more to the treatment to avoid risks and promote protection factors. Therefore knowledge of resilience in patients with SLE is necessary. It is important that the state takes necessary actions to facilitate access to treatment, to educational programs and to medical support. Awareness and counselling sessions must be initiated to develop and promote individual capacities to learn how to tackle with the disease for which psychological support of family and doctors can play a significant role.
doi:10.2174/1874312920140127001
PMCID: PMC3963129  PMID: 24665352
Resilience; treatment adhesion; systemic lupus erythematosus.
7.  Measurement and Predictors of Resilience Among Community-Dwelling Older Women 
Journal of psychiatric research  2008;43(2):148-154.
Background
Resilience, the ability to adapt positively to adversity, may be an important factor in successful aging. However, the assessment and correlates of resilience in elderly individuals have not received adequate attention.
Method
A total of 1,395 community-dwelling women over age 60 who were participants at the San Diego Clinical Center of the Women’s Health Initiative completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), along with other scales pertinent to successful cognitive aging. Internal consistency and predictors of the CD-RISC were examined, as well as the consistency of its factor structure with published reports.
Results
The mean age of the cohort was 73 (7.2) years and 14% were Hispanic, 76% were non-Hispanic white, and nearly all had completed a high school education (98%). The mean total score on the CD-RISC was 75.7 (SD=13.0). This scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.92). Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors (somewhat different from those previously reported among younger adults) that reflected items involving: 1) personal control and goal orientation, 2) adaptation and tolerance for negative affect, 3) leadership and trust in instincts, and 4) spiritual coping. The strongest predictors of CD-RISC scores in this study were higher emotional well-being, optimism, self-rated successful aging, social engagement, and fewer cognitive complaints.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that the CD-RISC is an internally consistent scale for assessing resilience among older women, and that greater resilience as assessed by the CD-RISC related positively to key components of successful aging.
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.03.007
PMCID: PMC2613196  PMID: 18455190
Resilience; adaptation; elderly; successful aging; cognition; optimism
8.  Validity and internal consistency of a Hausa version of the Ibadan knee/hip osteoarthritis outcome measure 
Background
The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM) was developed for measuring end results of care in patients with knee or hip OA in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to validate a Hausa translation of IKHOAM in order to promote its use among the Hausa populations of Nigeria and other West African countries.
Methods
Sixty-seven patients with knee OA, literate in Hausa and English, recruited consecutively from all government hospitals in Kano were assessed on both English and Hausa versions of IKHOAM. The order of assessment with the versions was randomized and separated by 24 hours. Participants also rated their pain intensity on the Visual Analogue Scale. Data was analyzed using the Spearman Rank Order correlation and Cronbach's alpha.
Results
The participants (17 males, 50 females) were aged 55.7 ± 13.4 years. Participants' scores on the Hausa version correlated significantly with the original version (r = 0.67, p = 0.000) and with pain intensity scores on the Visual Analogue Scale (r = -0.24, p = 0.005). The Cronbach's alpha for correlation on the different parts of the Hausa version ranged between 0.28 and 0.95.
Conclusion
The Hausa version of IKHOAM meets the criteria for validity and internal consistency and may be used in the Hausa speaking parts of Nigeria and other West African countries.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-86
PMCID: PMC2582225  PMID: 18945365
9.  Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria 
Background
The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults.
Methods
The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N = 386; female = 47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix – diversity, land use mix – access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version).
Results
The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 –0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r = 0.10 –0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes.
Conclusions
The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Nigerian adults and may be useful for evaluation of the built environment in Nigeria. Further adaptation and evaluation in other African countries is needed to create a version that could be used throughout the African region.
doi:10.1186/1476-072X-12-16
PMCID: PMC3606828  PMID: 23514561
Built environment; Physical activity; Measurements; Psychometric; Africa
10.  The impact of resilience on psychological outcomes in women after preeclampsia: an observational cohort study 
Background
Preeclampsia is a frequent obstetric complication which affects the mother`s and the fetus’s health and can be life threatening. It also has an impact on psychological outcomes. There may be protective variables such as resilience shielding against psychosocial distress in women experiencing these pregnancy complications. The aim of this study was to examine differences in resilience in terms of quality of life, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women after preeclampsia.
Methods
Four international validated questionnaires were used to measure the psychological outcomes (Medical Outcome Study Short-Form SF12, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale EPDS, Resilience Scale RS13, Impact of Event Scale IES-R). Statistical analyses were performed using independent-samples t-test and chi-square test.
Results
67 women with previous preeclampsia returned the questionnaires. Women with high resilience showed significantly less depression (p = 0.001) and better mental quality of life (p = 0.002) compared to women with low resilience. No group differences were found on the medical and socio-demographic characteristics.
Conclusions
Resilience has an important impact on the psychological outcomes in women after preeclampsia. A screening for resilience, depression and quality of life may be appropriate to identify these women.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-194
PMCID: PMC3831246  PMID: 24225064
Preeclampsia; Depression; Post-traumatic stress; Quality of life; Psychological outcomes; Resilience
11.  Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) in young adults 
Background
The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version.
Findings
Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS) and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI) were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient.
The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores.
Conclusions
The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-63
PMCID: PMC3173284  PMID: 21819555
Resilience; 10-item CD-RISC; Young adults; Reliability; Validity; Questionnaire
12.  Prevalence of Physical Activity Among Adults in a Metropolitan Nigerian City: A Cross-Sectional Study 
Journal of Epidemiology  2013;23(3):169-177.
Background
Baseline information on physical activity is relevant to controlling the epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases occurring in many African countries. However, standardized data on physical activity are lacking in Nigeria. We assessed the prevalence of physical activity and its relationships with sociodemographic characteristics in a subnational sample of Nigerian adults.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 934 adults (age, 20–82 years) living in metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria. Physical activity was measured using the validated Nigerian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF). Using the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, participants were classified as sufficiently active or insufficiently active. Sociodemographic correlates of sufficient physical activity were identified using multinomial logistic regression.
Results
Overall, 68.6% of Nigerian adults were sufficiently active. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of physical activity between men (68.0%) and women (69.3%), but physical activity tended to decrease with increasing age category, especially among men. Physical activity prevalence was positively associated with being married (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.04–4.37) and blue collar work (OR = 2.19, CI = 1.16–4.12) and negatively associated with car ownership (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17–0.86) and higher income (OR = 0.54, CI = 0.10–0.95).
Conclusions
The prevalence of physical activity varied between sociodemographic subgroups of Nigerian adults; thus, public health policies and interventions based on ecologic models of health behaviors may be warranted in promoting physical activity in Nigeria.
doi:10.2188/jea.JE20120116
PMCID: PMC3700262  PMID: 23604060
physical activity; sociodemographic characteristics; IPAQ; Nigerian adults
13.  Parallel Psychometric and Cognitive Modeling Analyses of the Penn Face Memory Test in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service Members 
Objective
The psychometric properties of the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; Gur et al., 1997) were investigated in a large sample (4,236 participants) of U.S. Army Soldiers undergoing computerized neurocognitive testing. Data were drawn from the initial phase of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), a large-scale study directed towards identifying risk and resilience factors for suicidal behavior and other stress-related disorders in Army Soldiers. In this paper we report parallel psychometric and cognitive modeling analyses of the PFMT to determine whether ability estimates derived from the measure are precise and valid indicators of memory in the Army STARRS sample.
Method
Single-sample cross-validation methodology combined with exploratory factor and multidimensional item response theory techniques were used to explore the latent structure of the PFMT. To help resolve rotational indeterminacy of the exploratory solution, latent constructs were aligned with parameter estimates derived from an unequal-variance signal detection model.
Results
Analyses suggest that the PFMT measures two distinct latent constructs, one associated with memory strength and one associated with response bias, and that test scores are generally precise indicators of ability for the majority of Army STARRS participants.
Conclusions
These findings support the use of the PFMT as a measure of major constructs related to recognition memory and have implications for further cognitive-psychometric model development.
doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.762974
PMCID: PMC3600160  PMID: 23383967
cognitive-psychometric modeling; item response theory; Penn Face Memory Test; Army STARRS
14.  Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): Validated for teenage school students in England and Scotland. A mixed methods assessment 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:487.
Background
Understanding and measuring mental health and wellbeing amongst teenagers has recently become a priority. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is validated for measuring mental wellbeing in populations aged 16 years and over in the UK. We report here a study designed to establish the validity and reliability of WEMWBS in teenagers in the UK.
Methods
WEMWBS and comparator scales, together with socio-demographic information and self-reported health, were incorporated into a self-administered questionnaire given to pupils aged 13 to 16 years in six schools in Scotland and England. Psychometric properties including internal consistency, correlations with comparator scales, test-retest stability and unidimensionality were investigated for WEMWBS. Twelve focus groups were undertaken to assess acceptability and comprehensibility of WEMWBS and were taped, transcribed and analysed thematically.
Results
A total of 1,650 teenagers completed the questionnaire (response rate 80.8%). Mean WEMWBS score was 48.8 (SD 6.8; median 49). Response scores covered the full range (from 14 to 70). WEMWBS demonstrated strong internal consistency and a high Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 (95% CI (0.85-0.88), n = 1517). Measures of construct validity gave values as predicted. The correlation coefficient for WEMWBS total score and psychological wellbeing domain of the Kidscreen-27 was 0.59 (95% CI [0.55; 0.62]); for the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) was 0.65, 95% CI [0.62; 0.69]; and for the WHO (WHO-5) Well-being Index 0.57 (95% CI [0.53; 0.61]). The correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was -0.44 (95% CI [-0.49; -0.40]) and for the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) -0.45 (95% CI [-0.49; -0.40]). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.66 (95% CI [0.59; 0.72] n = 212)). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated one underlying factor.
WEMWBS was significantly associated with the Family Affluence Score (WEMWBS increased with increasing household socio-economic status) and had a positive association with the physical health dimension of the Kidscreen-27, but was unrelated to age, gender or location/school. Eighty students took part in focus groups. In general, although some students considered some items open to misunderstanding or misinterpretation, WEMWBS was received positively and was considered comprehensible, and acceptable.
Conclusions
WEMWBS is a psychometrically strong population measure of mental wellbeing, and can be used for this purpose in teenagers aged 13 and over.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-487
PMCID: PMC3141456  PMID: 21693055
15.  Reassessment of the Psychometric Characteristics and Factor Structure of the ‘Perceived Stress Questionnaire’ (PSQ): Analysis in a Sample of Dental Students 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87071.
Background
The training to become a dentist can create psychological distress. The present study evaluates the structure of the ‘Perceived Stress Questionnaire’ (PSQ), its internal consistency model and interrelatedness with burnout, anxiety, depression and resilience among dental students.
Methods
The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of Spanish dental students (n = 314) completed the PSQ, the ‘Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale’ (GADS), ‘Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale’ (10-item CD-RISC) and ‘Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey’ (MBI-SS). The structure was estimated using Parallel Analysis from polychoric correlations. Unweighted Least Squares was the method for factor extraction, using the Item Response Theory to evaluate the discriminative power of items. Internal consistency was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variable. The relationships between the PSQ and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman’s coefficient.
Results
The results showed a PSQ structure through two sub-factors (‘frustration’ and ‘tenseness’) with regard to one general factor (‘perceived stress’). Items that did not satisfy discriminative capacity were rejected. The model fit were acceptable (GFI = 0.98; RSMR = 0.06; AGFI = 0.98; NFI = 0.98; RFI = 0.98). All the factors showed adequate internal consistency as measured by the congeneric model (≥0.91). High and significant associations were observed between perceived stress and burnout, anxiety, depression and resilience.
Conclusions
The PSQ showed a hierarchical bi-factor structure among Spanish dental students. Using the questionnaire as a uni-dimensional scale may be useful in perceived stress level discrimination, while the sub-factors could help us to refine perceived stress analysis and improve therapeutic processes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087071
PMCID: PMC3900726  PMID: 24466330
16.  Genetic and Environmental Causes of Variation in Trait Resilience in Young People 
Behavior Genetics  2011;42(3):366-377.
The aim of this multi-informant twin study was to determine the relative role of genetic and environmental factors in explaining variation in trait resilience in adolescents. Participants were consenting families (N = 2,638 twins in 1,394 families), from seven national cohorts (age 12–18 years, both sexes) of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together. Questionnaire data on the adolescents’ Ego-resilience (ER89) was collected from mothers, fathers and twins, and analysed by means of multivariate genetic modelling. Variance in trait resilience was best represented in an ADE common pathways model with sex limitation. Variance in the latent psychometric resilience factor was largely explained by additive genetic factors (77% in boys, 70% in girls), with the remaining variance (23 and 30%) attributable to non-shared environmental factors. Additive genetic sources explained more than 50% of the informant specific variation in mothers and fathers scores. In twins, additive and non-additive genetic factors together explained 40% and non-shared environmental factor the remaining 60% of variation. In the mothers’ scores, the additive genetic effect was larger for boys than for girls. The non-additive genetic factor found in the twins’ self ratings was larger in boys than in girls. The remaining sex differences in the specific factors were small. Trait resilience is largely genetically determined. Estimates based on several informants rather than single informants approaches are recommended.
doi:10.1007/s10519-011-9519-5
PMCID: PMC3350764  PMID: 22101958
Resilience; Adolescents; Twin study; Heritability; Multiple informants
17.  Early Patterns of Self-Regulation as Risk and Promotive Factors in Development: A Longitudinal Study from Childhood to Adulthood in a High-Risk Sample 
The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego-control and ego-resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego-control and ego-resiliency when participants (n = 136) were in preschool and elementary school. Ratings showed evidence for convergent and discriminant validity and stability over time. Ego-resiliency, but not ego-control, emerged as powerful predictor of adaptive functioning at age 19 and 26, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems at 16, 23, 26, and 32 years. We interpret these findings as evidence that flexibility and adaptability -measured with ego-resiliency- may reduce risk and promote successful adaptation in low-SES environments.
doi:10.1177/0165025412444076
PMCID: PMC3496279  PMID: 23155299
behavior problems; ego control; ego resiliency; externalizing problems; high-risk sample; internalizing problems; longitudinal study; promotive factor; risk factor; self-regulation
18.  Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria 
BMC Medical Ethics  2009;10:11.
Background
Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join.
Methods
A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.
Results
A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3). The sample was predominantly male (69.9%) and married (64.6%). There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher.
Conclusion
The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics.
doi:10.1186/1472-6939-10-11
PMCID: PMC2727518  PMID: 19646279
19.  Longitudinal evaluation of the psychosocial wellbeing of recent orphans compared with non-orphans in a school-attending cohort in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 
To assess differences in psychosocial wellbeing between recent orphans and non-orphans, we followed a cohort of 157 school-going orphans and 480 non-orphans ages 9-15 in a context of high HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa from 2004 to 2007. Several findings were contrary to published evidence to date, as we found no difference between orphans and non-orphans in anxiety/depression symptoms, oppositional behavior, self-esteem, or resilience. Female gender, self-reported poor health, and food insecurity were the most important predictors of children’s psychosocial wellbeing. Notably, girls had greater odds of reporting anxiety/depression symptoms than boys, and scored lower on self-esteem and resilience scales. Food insecurity predicted greater anxiety/depression symptoms and lower resilience. Perceived social support was a protective factor, as it was associated with lower odds of anxiety/depression symptoms, lower oppositional scores, and greater self-esteem and resilience. Our findings suggest a need to identify and strengthen psychosocial supports for girls, and for all children in contexts of AIDS-affected and economic adversity.
doi:10.1080/14623730.2012.733600
PMCID: PMC3583365  PMID: 23457424
20.  Measuring Resilience in Adult Women Using the 10-Items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Role of Trauma Exposure and Anxiety Disorders 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e39879.
Purpose
Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience.
Methods
We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory).
Results
Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21–0.93]). This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44–7.01]).
Conclusion
Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a “vaccination” effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039879
PMCID: PMC3387225  PMID: 22768152
21.  Stress Management and Resilience Training Among Department of Medicine Faculty: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial 
Background
Physician distress is common and related to numerous factors involving physicians’ personal and professional lives. The present study was designed to assess the effect of a Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for increasing resiliency and quality of life, and decreasing stress and anxiety among Department of Medicine (DOM) physicians at a tertiary care medical center.
Participants
Forty DOM physicians were randomized in a wait-list controlled clinical trial to either the SMART intervention or a wait-list control group for 8 weeks. The intervention involved a single 90 min one-on-one training in the SMART program. Primary outcome measures assessed at baseline and week 8 included the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Smith Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Linear Analog Self Assessment Scale (LASA).
Results
Thirty-two physicians completed the study. A statistically significant improvement in resiliency, perceived stress, anxiety, and overall quality of life at 8 weeks was observed in the study arm compared to the wait-list control arm: CDRS: mean ± SD change from baseline +9.8 ± 9.6 vs. -0.8 ± 8.2, t(30) = 3.18, p = 0.003; PSS: -5.4 ± 8.1 vs. +2.2 ± 6.1, t(30) = -2.76, p = 0.010; SAS: -11.8 ± 12.3 vs.+ 2.9 ± 8.9, t(30) = -3.62, p = 0.001; and LASA: +0.4 ± 1.4 vs. -0.6 ± 1.0, t(30) = 2.29, p = 0.029.
Conclusions
A brief training to enhance resilience and decrease stress among physicians using the SMART program was feasible. Further, the intervention provided statistically significant improvement in resilience, stress, anxiety, and overall quality of life. In the future, larger clinical trials with longer follow-up and possibly wider dissemination of this intervention are warranted.
doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1640-x
PMCID: PMC3138987  PMID: 21279454
stress; resilience; wellness; physicians; burnout
22.  The Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale: Assessment of Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity 
Addictive behaviors  2011;36(12):1223-1227.
The present study assessed the factor structure, reliability, test retest, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale (OCCS), a newly developed questionnaire adapted from the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The questionnaire was administered to 189 cocaine-dependent individuals participating in two medication treatment trials for cocaine dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed that it primarily assesses two factors, obsessions and compulsions. In addition, the data provided strong support for the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, and convergent validity of this two-factor measure. Overall, the data provide support for the psychometric strength of a modified version of the OCDS specifically designed to assess obsessive and compulsive cocaine use among those with cocaine dependence.
doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.07.028
PMCID: PMC3179801  PMID: 21862227
Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale; Cocaine; Confirmatory factor analysis; Psychometric properties
23.  Psychometric Properties of the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia: Convergent, Discriminant, and Criterion-Related Validity 
Behavior therapy  2011;42(4):689-699.
Aims of this study were (a) to summarize the psychometric literature on the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA), (b) to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the MIA’s Avoidance Alone and Avoidance Accompanied rating scales relative to clinical severity ratings of anxiety disorders from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS), and (c) to establish a cutoff score indicative of interviewers’ diagnosis of agoraphobia for the Avoidance Alone scale. A meta-analytic synthesis of 10 published studies yielded positive evidence for internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. Participants in the present study were 129 people with a diagnosis of panic disorder. Internal consistency was excellent for this sample, α = .95 for AAC and .96 for AAL. When the MIA scales were correlated with interviewer ratings, evidence for convergent and discriminant validity for AAL was strong (convergent r with agoraphobia severity ratings = .63 vs. discriminant rs of .10-.29 for other anxiety disorders) and more modest but still positive for AAC (.54 vs. .01-.37). Receiver operating curve analysis indicated that the optimal operating point for AAL as an indicator of ADIS agoraphobia diagnosis was 1.61, which yielded sensitivity of .87 and specificity of .73.
doi:10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.001
PMCID: PMC3519241  PMID: 22035997
agoraphobia; panic disorder; Mobility Inventory; psychometric; reliability; validity
24.  Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale 
AIDS care  2012;24(11):1432-1441.
The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms.
doi:10.1080/09540121.2012.656567
PMCID: PMC3436989  PMID: 22409246
25.  Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Axis II Measures 
Journal of orofacial pain  2010;24(1):48-62.
AIMS
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) biobehavioral (Axis II) screening instruments.
METHODS
Participants with Axis I TMD diagnoses (n=626) completed the Axis II instruments (Depression, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, Graded Chronic Pain) and other instruments assessing psychological distress, pain, and disability at three study sites. Internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent/discriminant validity of the Axis II measures were assessed. To assess criterion validity of Depression and Nonspecific Physical Symptoms instruments as screeners, 170 participants completed a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview.
RESULTS
The Axis II instruments showed very good-excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.80 – 0.95). Their convergent (correlation range 0.3–0.9) and discriminant (range 0.0–0.6) validity were generally supported, although Nonspecific Physical Symptoms was more strongly associated with depressive than with somatic symptoms. Temporal stability was high for characteristic pain intensity (Lin’s correlation concordance coefficient [CCC] = 0.91), interference (CCC = 0.89), and chronic pain grade (weighted kappa = 0.87), and fair-good for Depression and Nonspecific Physical Symptoms (CCC = 0.63 – 0.78). The Depression instrument normal vs moderate-severe cut-point was good at identifying current-year DSM-IV depression and dysthymia diagnoses (sensitivity 87%, specificity 53%). Nonspecific Physical Symptoms did not have high utility for detecting psychiatric disorders (sensitivity 86%, specificity 31%).
CONCLUSION
The Axis-II Depression and Graded Chronic Pain instruments have clinically relevant and acceptable psychometric properties for reliability and validity and utility as instruments for identifying TMD patients with high levels of distress, pain, and disability that can interfere with treatment response and course of Axis I disorders.
PMCID: PMC3115780  PMID: 20213031
RDC/TMD; biobehavioral; screening; sensitivity; specificity

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