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1.  Adsorption structure of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 zeolite determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction 
The most stable sorption site of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 is the sinusoidal channel. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is situated.
The adsorption structures of dimethyl ether (DME) on silicalite-1 zeolite (MFI-type) are determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of low-loaded DME-silicalite-1 indicates that all DME molecules are located in the sinusoidal channel, which is the most stable sorption site based on the van der Waals interaction between DME and the framework. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is in the pore system of MFI-type zeolites. Bent molecules favor the sinusoidal channel, while linear molecules favor the straight channel. The contribution of DME–DME interactions is considerable in the high-loaded DME-silicalite-1 structure.
doi:10.1107/S2052520614015911
PMCID: PMC4184374  PMID: 25274519
adsorption structure; MFI-type zeolite; silicalite-1; dimethyl ether; single-crystal structure analysis
2.  Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing 
Journal of Applied Crystallography  2013;46(Pt 6):1863-1873.
Implementation of the RED software package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction data is described.
Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05–0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0–3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods.
doi:10.1107/S0021889813027714
PMCID: PMC3831301  PMID: 24282334
rotation electron diffraction; electron diffraction tomography; three-dimensional electron diffraction; structure analysis; electron diffraction; computer programs
3.  Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Concentration and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(7):e1001255.
Kay-Tee Khaw and colleagues analyze data from a prospective cohort study and show associations between plasma concentrations of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease, and an inverse association between omega-6 polyunsaturated phospholipid fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease.
Background
The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD.
Methods and Findings
We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA) concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk) of 25,639 individuals aged 40–79 years examined in 1993–1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0) plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27–2.41, p<0.0001), in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q), and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60–0.99, p<0.05) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0) concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59–0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1). Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids.
Conclusions
In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart, causing the affected person to experience pain, usually on exertion (angina). A complete occlusion of the vessel by deposits causes a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Lifestyle factors, such as diet (particularly one high in fat), contribute to causing CHD. There are different types of fat, some of which are thought to increase risk of CHD, such as saturated fat, typically found in meat and dairy foods. However, others, such as unsaturated fats (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats) found in foods such as vegetable oils, fish, and nuts, may actually help prevent this condition.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although there have been many studies investigating the role of different types of dietary fat in coronary heart disease, it is still not clear whether coronary heart disease can be prevented by changing the type of dietary fat consumed from saturated to unsaturated fats or by lowering all types of dietary fat. Furthermore, many of these studies have relied on participants recalling their dietary intake in questionnaires, which is an unreliable method for different fats. So in this study, the researchers used an established UK cohort to measure the levels of different types of fatty acids in blood to investigate whether a diet high in saturated fatty acids and low in unsaturated fatty acids increases CHD risk.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used a selection of 10,000 participants (all men and women aged 40–79 years) from the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Blood samples from the selected participants taken at the start of the study in 1993–1997 were analyzed to determine levels of specific fatty acids. Participants were followed up till 2011. The researchers identified 2,424 participants who were subsequently diagnosed with CHD using death certificates and hospital discharge data and matched these with 4,930 controls who were still alive and free of known coronary disease. The researchers grouped the type of blood fatty acids identified in the blood samples into six families (even chain saturated fatty acid, odd chain saturated fatty acid, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, and trans-fatty acid), which represented saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using statistical methods, the researchers then compared the risks of developing CHD between cases and controls by the concentration of fatty acid families after adjusting for age and sex and other factors, such as body mass index, physical activity, and smoking. Using these methods, the researchers found that there was no overall significant relationship between total blood fatty acid concentration and CHD but there was a positive association with increasing blood saturated fatty acid concentration after adjusting for other fatty acid concentrations, with an odds ratio of 1.83 comparing higher versus lower concentrations. This risk was attenuated after adjusting for cholesterol levels, indicating that much of the association between saturated fatty acid and CHD is likely to be mediated through blood cholesterol levels. In contrast, blood omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid concentrations were associated with lower CHD risk. Blood monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and trans-fatty acids were not consistently associated with CHD risk. The authors also noted that within families of fatty acids, individual fatty acids related differently to CHD risk.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that plasma concentrations of saturated fatty acids are associated with increased risk of CHD and that concentrations of omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids are associated with decreased risk of CHD. These findings are consistent with other studies and with current dietary advice for preventing CHD, which encourages substituting foods high in saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated fats. The results also suggest that different fatty acids may relate differently to CHD risk and that the overall balance between different fatty acids is important. However, there are limitations to this study, such as that factors other than diet (genetic differences in metabolism, for example) may cause changes to blood fatty acid levels so a major question is to identify what factors influence blood fatty acid concentrations. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that individual fatty acids play a role in increasing or decreasing risks of CHD.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001255.
Information about the EPIC-Norfolk study is available
The American Heart Foundation provides patient-friendly information about different dietary fats as does Medline
The British Heart Foundation also provides patient-friendly information on heart conditions
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001255
PMCID: PMC3389034  PMID: 22802735
4.  Determining the structure of a benzene7.2-silicalite-1 zeolite using a single-crystal X-ray method 
An orthorhombic benzene-silicalite-1 single crystal was obtained from a monoclinic twin crystal, and the structure was determined by a single-crystal method for the first time.
A simple method for preparing orthorhombic single crystals of benzene-silicalite-1 was developed. A silicalite-1 crystal was pressed with a weight of 2 g along the +c and −c crystallographic axes while the temperature was increased to 473 K. The temperature was then slowly reduced to 313 K, and these heating and cooling steps were repeated three times. After the orthorhombic single crystals adsorbed benzene, the crystal structure of the resulting benzene-silicalite-1 was determined. There were two kinds of benzene molecules in the asymmetric unit. One was located at the intersection of the straight channels and the sinusoidal channels with the benzene ring parallel to the ac plane. The other benzene was located in the middle of the straight channel.
doi:10.1107/S0108768111038560
PMCID: PMC3222141  PMID: 22101540
ZSM-5; MFI; silicalite-1; benzene-silicalite-1
5.  Liposomal encapsulation of foscarnet protects against hypocalcemia induced by free foscarnet. 
Hypocalcemia and an increase in creatinine level are the most important serious effects associated with foscarnet (PFA) therapy. In an animal model, we have explored the potential protective role of liposome-encapsulated foscarnet (LE-PFA) on these metabolic abnormalities. PFA administered as one bolus injection (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg) caused significant rapid decreases (approximately 20%) in the levels of calcium and phosphorus in serum within a few minutes and up to 30 min after injection. LE-PFA did not induce any of these changes, while peak levels in serum and the half-life of this formulation were much higher than those of the free drug. PFA administered for 2 weeks (340 or 500 mg/kg/day) resulted in no changes in creatinine or blood urea nitrogen levels in serum at the low-dosage level, but at the higher-dosage level, the creatinine level in serum increased by day 5 posttreatment. Furthermore, there was no increase in the creatinine or blood urea nitrogen level after 2 weeks of treatment with LE-PFA at a dosage of 35 mg/kg/day. When the pharmacokinetics of both free PFA and LE-PFA were compared, the plasma half-life of the encapsulated drug was approximately four times longer than that of the free drug. In addition, the systemic clearance of LE-PFA was approximately one-fifth of that of the free drug. In conclusion, free PFA causes hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia and increases the creatinine level in serum, whereas the LE form of this drug seems to protect against the abnormal changes in calcium and phosphorus levels caused by the free drug. By preventing hypocalcemia and increasing its half-life, LE-PFA can be used at lower doses and at longer intervals. Clinical investigations of these formulations may be worthwhile.
PMCID: PMC162866  PMID: 8540701
6.  Effects of Alcohol Compounds on the Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Oleaginous Yeast Trichosporon fermentans 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46975.
The inhibitors present in dilute acid-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates would show great effect on the growth and product formation of microorganisms. To understand their inhibitory law and mechanism on oleaginous microorganism could help improving the efficiency of lignocellulose hydrolysis, detoxification, and lipid fermentation. The effects of four representative alcohol compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including furfuryl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, catechol, hydroquinone on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of Trichosporon fermentans were systematically investigated in this work. The toxicity of selected alcohol compounds was well related to their log P value except furfuryl alcohol, whose log P value was the minimum but with the highest toxicity to T. fermentans. The inhibition of all the alcohol compounds on the growth of T. fermentans was more serious than on the lipid synthesis. Also, the growth of T. fermentans was more sensitive to the variation of inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than lipid synthesis in the presence of alcohol compounds. Initial pH had more profound influence on the lipid fermentation than inoculum size and cultural temperature did. Careful control of fermentation conditions could be helpful for improving lipid yield of T. fermentans in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Among the four alcohol compounds tested, most alcohol compounds showed inhibition on both sugar consumption and malic enzyme activity of T. fermentans. However, vanillyl alcohol had little influence on the malic enzyme activity. Similarly, all alcohol compounds except vanillyl alcohol exerted damage on the cell membrane of T. fermentans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046975
PMCID: PMC3465294  PMID: 23071683
7.  Dependence of Escherichia coli hyperbaric oxygen toxicity on the lipid acyl chain composition. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1978;134(3):808-820.
This study examines certain membrane-related aspects of oxygen poisoning in Escherichia coli K1060 (fabB fadE lacI) and its parent strain, K-12 Ymel. Cells were grown to exponential or stationary phase in a minimal medium and exposed to air plus 300 lb/in2 of O2 as a suspension in minimal salts. After an initial lag, both strains lost viability with apparent first-order kinetics. Hypebaric oxygen was more toxic to cells harvested during the exponential phase of growth than to cells harvested from the stationary phase of growth for both strains K-12 Ymel and K1060. Control suspensions exposed to air plus 300 lb/in2 of N2 did not lose viability during a 96-h exposure. The sensitivity of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph, strain K1060, to hyperbaric oxygen increased as the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid supplement increased. Cells grown with a cyclopropane fatty acid (9,10=methylenoctadecanoate) were the most resistant; cells grown with a monounsaturated fatty acid (oleate) were intermediate; and those grown with polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleate and linolenate) were most sensitive to hyperbaric oxygen. The parent strain, K-12 Ymel, lost viability in hyperbaric oxygen most similarly to strain K1060 supplemented with oleate. To determine the relative effect of hyperbaric oxygen on the survival of E. coli with saturated membranes, substrains of K1060 were selected for growth on 12-methyltetrade-canoate or on 9 or 10-monobromostearate. Substrains grown with a saturated fatty acid supplement were equally or more sensitive to hyperbaric oxygen than when the same substrains were grown with a cyclopropane fatty acid supplement. The lipid acyl chain composition was determined in E. coli K1060 before and after exposure to hyperbaric oxygen or hyperbaric nitrogen. The proportion of nonsaturated acyl chain lipid of either the oleate- or the 9,10-methyleneoctade-canoate-supplemented K1060 remained unchanged after hyperbaric gas exposure. In strain K1060 supplemented with linoleate and grown to stationary phase, however, the relative unsaturated acyl chain content after hyperbaric exposure decreased in both gases. This finding prompted an investigation of the role of lipid oxidation in hyperbaric oxygen toxicity. Assays of potential lipid oxidation products were performed with linoleate-grown cells. The lipid hydroperoxide and peroxide content of the lipid extract increased by 6.9 times after 48 h of air plus 300 lb/in2 of O2; malondialdehyde and fluorescent complex lipid oxidation products showed much smaller or no changes. Lipid extracts from hyperbaric oxygen-exposed cells were not toxic to viable E. coli K1060, nor did they increase the rate of loss of viability in cells simultaneously exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. Linoleic acid hydroperoxide at 1.0 mM had no effect on the viability of E. coli K-12 Ymel and only marginally decreased the viability of E. coli K1060 supplemented with linoleate. We conclude that the kinetics of oxygen toxicity in E...
PMCID: PMC222327  PMID: 350850
8.  Gas sensing properties of conducting polymer/Au-loaded ZnO nanoparticle composite materials at room temperature 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):467.
In this work, a new poly (3-hexylthiophene):1.00 mol% Au-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles (P3HT:Au/ZnO NPs) hybrid sensor is developed and systematically studied for ammonia sensing applications. The 1.00 mol% Au/ZnO NPs were synthesized by a one-step flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process and mixed with P3HT at different mixing ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, and 1:2) before drop casting on an Al2O3 substrate with interdigitated gold electrodes to form thick film sensors. Particle characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) showed highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (5 to 15 nm) loaded with ultrafine Au nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm). Film characterizations by XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the presence of P3HT/ZnO mixed phases and porous nanoparticle structures in the composite thick film. The gas sensing properties of P3HT:1.00 mol% Au/ZnO NPs composite sensors were studied for reducing and oxidizing gases (NH3, C2H5OH, CO, H2S, NO2, and H2O) at room temperature. It was found that the composite film with 4:1 of P3HT:1.00 mol% Au/ZnO NPs exhibited the best NH3 sensing performances with high response (approximately 32 to 1,000 ppm of NH3), fast response time (4.2 s), and high selectivity at room temperature. Plausible mechanisms explaining the enhanced NH3 response by composite films were discussed.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-467
PMCID: PMC4159556  PMID: 25246871
P3HT; Au-loaded ZnO; Composite films; NH3 sensor; Flame spray pyrolysis
9.  Analysis of biodegradation performance of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by Amorphotheca resinae ZN1 
Background
Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the degradation products of lignocellulose during pretreatment operations and significantly inhibit the consequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation processes. The biodetoxification fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1 had demonstrated its excellent capacity on degrading lignocellulose derived inhibitors and helped the fermentation processes to achieve high yield of ethanol and biochemicals. Analysis of the biological degradation performance of furfural and HMF by A. resinae ZN1 will provide essential information for their fast and complete removal from the pretreated lignocellulose materials and facilitate the consequent ethanol fermentation.
Results
The degradation performance of furfural and HMF by A. resinae ZN1 was investigated by capturing intermediate metabolic products at various culture conditions. A. resinae ZN1 converts furfural/HMF into furfuryl/HMF alcohols and furoic/HMF acids simultaneously at aerobic condition, and only the corresponding furfuryl/HMF alcohols are obtained at anaerobic condition. The existence of glucose accelerates the degradation rate of furfural and HMF by A. resinae ZN1 and the cell mass growth rate aerobically. Remarkably, glucose is not consumed before furfural or HMF is degraded to a low threshold concentration. The finding suggests that furfural or HMF has a substrate priority of utilization by A. resinae ZN1 than glucose. This property may help the detoxification of furfural and HMF to be operated without consuming glucose.
Conclusions
The biological degradation performance of furfural and HMF by A. resinae ZN1 was investigated experimentally. Oxygen supply is important on the complete biodegradation of furfural and HMF by A. resinae ZN1. Furfural or HMF has the priority of substrate utilization than glucose by A. resinae ZN1. This study provided important information for detoxification enhancement and strain modification.
doi:10.1186/1754-6834-7-51
PMCID: PMC4101820  PMID: 24708699
Biodegradation; furfural; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; Amorphotheca resinae ZN1; lignocellulose; pretreatment; oxygen supply; substrate priority
10.  Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years 
BACKGROUND
Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition.
OBJECTIVE
To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition.
DESIGN
85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis.
RESULTS
In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children.
CONCLUSIONS
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01810.x
PMCID: PMC3697011  PMID: 22897691
fetal alcohol syndrome; intrauterine growth retardation; postnatal growth; body composition; bioelectric impedance analysis; prenatal alcohol exposure; iron deficiency; food security
11.  Identification of a Plasmodium falciparum Phospholipid Transfer Protein*  
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2013;288(44):31971-31983.
Background: PFA0210c is an exported Plasmodium falciparum protein.
Results: PFA0210c is a phospholipid transfer protein with similarities to proteins of the family of START domain-containing proteins and can transfer various phospholipids between membranes in vitro.
Conclusion: PFA0210c and its orthologs are phospholipid transfer proteins with a broad specificity.
Significance: Identification of the function of conserved Plasmodium proteins allows deeper insight into the basis of pathogenesis.
Infection of erythrocytes by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum results in dramatic modifications to the host cell, including changes to its antigenic and transport properties and the de novo formation of membranous compartments within the erythrocyte cytosol. These parasite-induced structures are implicated in the transport of nutrients, metabolic products, and parasite proteins, as well as in parasite virulence. However, very few of the parasite effector proteins that underlie remodeling of the host erythrocyte are functionally characterized. Using bioinformatic examination and modeling, we have found that the exported P. falciparum protein PFA0210c belongs to the START domain family, members of which mediate transfer of phospholipids, ceramide, or fatty acids between membranes. In vitro phospholipid transfer assays using recombinant PFA0210 confirmed that it can transfer phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin between phospholipid vesicles. Furthermore, assays using HL60 cells containing radiolabeled phospholipids indicated that orthologs of PFA0210c can also transfer phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Biochemical and immunochemical analysis showed that PFA0210c associates with membranes in infected erythrocytes at mature stages of intracellular parasite growth. Localization studies in live parasites revealed that the protein is present in the parasitophorous vacuole during growth and is later recruited to organelles in the parasite. Together these data suggest that PFA0210c plays a role in the formation of the membranous structures and nutrient phospholipid transfer in the malaria-parasitized erythrocyte.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.474189
PMCID: PMC3814793  PMID: 24043620
Lipid Transport; Malaria; Parasitology; Phospholipid; Plasmodium; Phospholipid Transfer
12.  Networks underlying paroxysmal fast activity and slow spike and wave in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 
Neurology  2013;81(7):665-673.
Objective:
To use EEG-fMRI to determine which structures are critically involved in the generation of paroxysmal fast activity (PFA) and slow spike and wave (SSW) (1.5–2.5 Hz), the characteristic interictal discharges of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS).
Methods:
We studied 13 well-characterized patients with LGS using structural imaging and EEG-fMRI at 3 tesla. Ten patients had cortical structural abnormalities. PFA and SSW were considered as separate events in the fMRI analysis.
Results:
Simultaneous with fMRI, PFA was recorded in 6 patients and SSW in 9 (in 2, both were recorded). PFA events showed almost uniform increases in blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal in “association” cortical areas, as well as brainstem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. SSW showed a different pattern of BOLD signal change with many areas of decreased BOLD signal, mostly in primary cortical areas. Two patients with prior callosotomy had lateralized as well as generalized PFA. The lateralized PFA was associated with a hemispheric version of the PFA pattern we report here.
Conclusion:
PFA is associated with activity in a diffuse network that includes association cortices as well as an unusual pattern of simultaneous activation of subcortical structures (brainstem, thalamus, and basal ganglia). By comparison, the SSW pattern is quite different, with cortical and subcortical activations and deactivations. Regardless of etiology, it appears that 2 key, but distinct, patterns of diffuse brain network involvement contribute to the defining electrophysiologic features of LGS.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182a08f6a
PMCID: PMC3775693  PMID: 23864316
13.  An oxygen enrichment device for lowlanders ascending to high altitude 
Background
When ascending to the high altitude, people living in low altitude areas will suffer from acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that whether an oxygen concentration membrane can be made and used to construct a new portable oxygen enrichment device for individuals in acute exposure to the high altitude.
Methods
The membrane was fabricated using vinylsiloxane rubber, polyphenylene oxide hydrogen silicone polymers, chloroplatinic acid and isopropyl alcohol. The membrane was assembled in a frame and the performance was tested in terms of concentration of oxygen, flow rate of oxygen enriched air, pressure ratio across the membrane and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the oxygen concentration device was constructed using the membrane, a DC fan, vacuum pump and gas buffer. A nonrandomized preliminary field test was conducted, in which eight healthy male subjects were flown to Tibet (Lhasa, 3,700 m). First, subjects wore the oxygen enrichment device and performed an incremental exercise on cycle ergometer. The test included heart rate (HR), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) and physical work capacity (PWC). Then, after a rest period of 4 hours, the experimental protocol was repeated without oxygen enrichment device.
Results
The testing showed that the membrane could increase the oxygen concentration by up to 30%. Simulation test indicated that although the performance of the oxygen enrichment device decreased with altitudes, the oxygen concentration could still maintain 28% with flow rate of enriched air 110 cm3/s at 5000 m. The field test showed that higher SpO2, lower HR, and better PWC (measured by the PWC-170) were observed from all the subjects using oxygen enrichment device compared with non-using (P < 0.01).
Conclusions
We concluded that the new portable oxygen enrichment device would be effective in improving exercise performance when ascending to the high altitude.
doi:10.1186/1475-925X-12-100
PMCID: PMC4124732  PMID: 24103365
Medical devices; Hypoxia; Oxygen enrichment membrane; High altitude
14.  A Composite Membrane of Caesium Salt of Heteropolyacids/Quaternary Diazabicyclo-Octane Polysulfone with Poly (Tetrafluoroethylene) for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cells 
Membranes  2012;2(3):384-394.
Inorganic-organic composite electrolyte membranes were fabricated from CsXH3−XPMo12O40 (CsPOMo) and quaternary diazabicyclo-octane polysulfone (QDPSU) using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) porous matrix for the application of intermediate temperature fuel cells. The CsPOMo/QDPSU/PTFE composite membrane was made proton conducting by using a relatively low phosphoric acid loading, which benefits the stability of the membrane conductivity and the mechanical strength. The casting method was used in order to build a thin and robust composite membrane. The resulting composite membrane films were characterised in terms of the elemental composition, membrane structure and morphology by EDX, FTIR and SEM. The proton conductivity of the membrane was 0.04 S cm−1 with a H3PO4 loading level of 1.8 PRU (amount of H3PO4 per repeat unit of polymer QDPSU). The fuel cell performance with the membrane gave a peak power density of 240 mW cm−2 at 150 °C and atmospheric pressure.
doi:10.3390/membranes2030384
PMCID: PMC4021907  PMID: 24958287
composite membrane; intermediate temperature fuel cells; heteropolyacids; microporous PTFE; polysulfone
15.  Invited commentary on Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnostic guidelines 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:85.
The publication of Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnostic guidelines marks an important step forward in Australia’s efforts to prevent FASD. But do we need yet another set of FASD guidelines? At the 5th International FASD Conference, the ever growing number of FASD diagnostic guidelines was identified as a core area of concern by leaders in FASD worldwide. All agreed we need to strive to adopt a single set of guidelines. It is essential that FASD diagnosis advance to incorporate new knowledge and technology. But to date, the field of FASD has seen multiple sets of guidelines published that do not address the important question-How is the performance of these new guidelines superior to the performance of existing guidelines to warrant/justify their introduction into the medical literature?
The Australian guidelines include FAS, PFAS and Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Alcohol Exposed (ND-AE). This latter group includes individuals with severe CNS abnormalities without the physical features of FAS. This is the group the 4-Digit-Code calls Static-Encephalopathy-Alcohol-Exposed (SE-AE). The criteria for FAS, PFAS, and ND-AE (or what the 4-Digit-Code calls SE-AE) are identical between the Australian and 4-Digit-Code guidelines with the exception of one very small, but very consequential difference in facial criteria for PFAS. The 4-Digit-Code requires a Rank 3 FAS facial phenotype for PFAS (J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol20(3):e416–e467, 2013); the Australian guidelines relax the criteria to include the Rank 2 FAS facial phenotype. This relaxation of the criteria renders the facial phenotype NOT specific to prenatal alcohol exposure as confirmed in published empirical studies. If the facial phenotype is not specific to (caused only by) prenatal alcohol exposure one can no longer validly call the outcome PFAS. When one makes a diagnosis of FAS (full or partial), one is stating explicitly that the individual has a syndrome caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. One is also stating explicitly that the biological mother drank alcohol during pregnancy and, as a result, harmed her child. These are bold conclusions to draw and are not without medical, ethical, and even legal consequences. So the question remains-Why go against the published empirical evidence and relax the PFAS facial criteria into the normal range?
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-85
PMCID: PMC3994222  PMID: 24685275
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; FASD 4-digit diagnostic code
16.  Porosity and Surface Properites of SBA-15 with Grafted PNIPAAM: A Water Sorption Calorimetry Study 
Langmuir  2011;27(22):13838-13846.
Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was modified in a three-step process to obtain a material with poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAM) grafted onto the inner pore surface. Water sorption calorimetry was implemented to characterize the materials obtained after each step regarding the porosity and surface properties. The modification process was carried out by (i) increasing the number of surface silanol groups, (ii) grafting 1-(trichlorosilyl)-2-(m-/p-(chloromethylphenyl) ethane, acting as an anchor for (iii) the polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide. Water sorption isotherms and the enthalpy of hydration are presented. Pore size distributions were calculated on the basis of the water sorption isotherms by applying the BJH model. Complementary measurements with nitrogen sorption and small-angle X-ray diffraction are presented. The increase in the number of surface silanol groups occurs mainly in the intrawall pores, the anchor is mainly located in the intrawall pores, and the intrawall pore volume is absent after the surface grafting of PNIPAAM. Hence, PNIPAAM seals off the intrawall pores. Water sorption isotherms directly detect the presence of intrawall porosity. Pore size distributions can be calculated from the isotherms. Furthermore, the technique provides information regarding the hydration capability (i.e., wettability of different chemical surfaces) and thermodynamic information.
doi:10.1021/la203093u
PMCID: PMC3324985  PMID: 21928772
17.  THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME AND PARTIAL FAS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN COMMUNITY 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2006;88(2-3):259-271.
OBJECTIVES
The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) were determined in a third primary school cohort in a community in South Africa (S.A.).
METHODS
An active case ascertainment, two-tier screening methodology, and the revised Institute of Medicine diagnostic criteria were employed among 818 first grade pupils. Characteristics of children with FAS and PFAS are contrasted with a randomly-selected control group. Data were collected and analyzed for children in the study regarding: 1.) physical growth and development, including dysmorphology, 2.) intelligence and behavioral characteristics, and 3.) their mother’s social, behavioral, and physical characteristics.
RESULTS
The rate of FAS and PFAS in this area continues as the highest reported in any overall community and is much higher than rates elsewhere. In this cohort it is 68.0 to 89.2 per 1,000. Severe episodic drinking on weekends among mothers of children with FAS and PFAS accounts for 96% of all alcohol consumed. Various measures of maternal drinking are significantly correlated with negative outcomes of children in the areas of non-verbal intelligence (-0.26), verbal intelligence (-0.28), problem behavior (0.31), and overall dysmorphology score (0.59). Significantly more FAS and PFAS exists among children of rural residents (OR = 3.79).
CONCLUSIONS
A high rate of FAS and PFAS was again documented in this community, and it has increased. Given population similarities, we suspect that other communities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa also have high rates. Programs for prevention are needed.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.11.007
PMCID: PMC1865526  PMID: 17127017
fetal alcohol syndrome; epidemiology; South Africa; alcohol abuse
18.  The vacuolar DHHC-CRD protein Pfa3p is a protein acyltransferase for Vac8p 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;170(7):1091-1099.
Palmitoylation of the vacuolar membrane protein Vac8p is essential for vacuole fusion in yeast (Veit, M., R. Laage, L. Dietrich, L. Wang, and C. Ungermann. 2001. EMBO J. 20:3145–3155; Wang, Y.X., E.J. Kauffman, J.E. Duex, and L.S. Weisman. 2001. J. Biol. Chem. 276:35133–35140). Proteins that contain an Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC)–cysteine rich domain (CRD) are emerging as a family of protein acyltransferases, and are therefore candidates for mediators of Vac8p palmitoylation. Here we demonstrate that the DHHC-CRD proteins Pfa3p (protein fatty acyltransferase 3, encoded by YNL326c) and Swf1p are important for vacuole fusion. Cells lacking Pfa3p had fragmented vacuoles when stressed, and cells lacking both Pfa3p and Swf1p had fragmented vacuoles under normal growth conditions. Pfa3p promoted Vac8p membrane association and palmitoylation in vivo and partially purified Pfa3p palmitoylated Vac8p in vitro, establishing Vac8p as a substrate for palmitoylation by Pfa3p. Vac8p is the first N-myristoylated, palmitoylated protein identified as a substrate for a DHHC-CRD protein.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200507048
PMCID: PMC2171546  PMID: 16186255
19.  Enhanced production of bacterial cellulose by using a biofilm reactor and its material property analysis 
Bacterial cellulose has been used in the food industry for applications such as low-calorie desserts, salads, and fabricated foods. It has also been used in the paper manufacturing industry to enhance paper strength, the electronics industry in acoustic diaphragms for audio speakers, the pharmaceutical industry as filtration membranes, and in the medical field as wound dressing and artificial skin material. In this study, different types of plastic composite support (PCS) were implemented separately within a fermentation medium in order to enhance bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Acetobacter xylinum. The optimal composition of nutritious compounds in PCS was chosen based on the amount of BC produced. The selected PCS was implemented within a bioreactor to examine the effects on BC production in a batch fermentation. The produced BC was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Among thirteen types of PCS, the type SFYR+ was selected as solid support for BC production by A. xylinum in a batch biofilm reactor due to its high nitrogen content, moderate nitrogen leaching rate, and sufficient biomass attached on PCS. The PCS biofilm reactor yielded BC production (7.05 g/L) that was 2.5-fold greater than the control (2.82 g/L). The XRD results indicated that the PCS-grown BC exhibited higher crystallinity (93%) and similar crystal size (5.2 nm) to the control. FESEM results showed the attachment of A. xylinum on PCS, producing an interweaving BC product. TGA results demonstrated that PCS-grown BC had about 95% water retention ability, which was lower than BC produced within suspended-cell reactor. PCS-grown BC also exhibited higher Tmax compared to the control. Finally, DMA results showed that BC from the PCS biofilm reactor increased its mechanical property values, i.e., stress at break and Young's modulus when compared to the control BC. The results clearly demonstrated that implementation of PCS within agitated fermentation enhanced BC production and improved its mechanical properties and thermal stability.
doi:10.1186/1754-1611-3-12
PMCID: PMC2724407  PMID: 19630969
20.  Synergistic inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro by two-drug and three-drug combinations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, phosphonoformate, and 2',3'-dideoxythymidine. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(10):2003-2011.
The effects of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), phosphonoformate (PFA), and 2',3'-dideoxythymidine (ddT) and their combination on human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) replication were studied by measuring the HIV-1 p24 antigen expression and reverse transcriptase (RT) release in HIV-1-infected MT4 cells in vitro. RT activity was also measured in a cell-free system by using poly(rA)-oligo(dT) as the primer-template, and cell growth inhibition was measured in noninfected MT4 cells. The interactions of these two- and three-drug combinations were evaluated by the combination index (CI) method and isobologram techniques. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of AZT, PFA, and ddT were 0.014 to 0.005, 9.4 to 8.8, and 8.4 to 2.5 microM, respectively, for p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 0.005 to 0.0034, 1.43 to 1.37, and 2.87 to 2.83 microM, respectively, for RT activity in vitro; for RT activity in the cell-free system, the EC50s were 0.00019 to 0.00024, 0.012 to 0.02, and 0.00074 to 0.0005 microM, for AZT-5'-triphosphate, PFA, and ddT-5'-triphosphate, respectively. AZT in combination with PFA (1:200) or ddT (1:5) as well as the combination of these three drugs (1:200:5) synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication and RT activity in the cell-free system over a wide range of drug concentrations, with the CIs ranging from 0.5 to 0.09, in which CIs of less than 1, 1, and greater than 1 indicate synergism, additive effect, and antagonism, respectively. Three- and two-drug combinations of AZT, PFA, and ddT showed similar degrees of synergism against HIV-1 replication in p24 assays and RT release assays, whereas the combination of AZT and ddT was found to be the most selective in terms of its anti-HIV-1 effect versus cytotoxicity. Dose reduction indices calculated from both HIV-1 replication inhibition, as measured by p24 ELISA and by RT activity in the cell-free system, indicated that two- and three-drug combinations at high effect levels and the selected combination ratios allow 2- to 240-fold dose reduction over the single drug alone in terms of their anti-HIV-1 effects. The three-drug combination showed the highest dose reduction index. These finding suggest that increased efficacy and reduced toxicity may be achieved in AIDS therapy by using AZT, PFA, and ddT in two- or three-drug combinations.
PMCID: PMC245315  PMID: 1722077
21.  Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up 
Membranes  2011;1(1):80-90.
Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (toluene-propylene-butadiene) from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS)/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ∼21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10−4 m2. Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.
doi:10.3390/membranes1010080
PMCID: PMC4056576  PMID: 24957498
vapor permeation; PDMS VOC recovery; air treatment
22.  Population Differences in Dysmorphic Features Among Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders 
Objective
To examine the variation in significant dysmorphic features in children from 3 different populations with the most dysmorphic forms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS).
Method
Advanced multiple regression techniques are used to determine the discriminating physical features in the diagnosis of FAS and PFAS among children from Northern Plains Indian communities, South Africa, and Italy.
Results
Within the range of physical features used to identify children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, specifically FAS and PFAS, there is some significant variation in salient diagnostic features from one population to the next. Intraclass correlations in diagnostic features between these 3 populations is 0.20, indicating that about 20% of the variability in dysmorphology core features is associated with location and, therefore, specific racial/ethnic population. The highly significant diagnostic indicators present in each population are identified for the full samples of FAS, PFAS, and normals and also among children with FAS only. A multilevel model for these populations combined indicates that these variables predict dysmorphology unambiguously: small palpebral fissures, narrow vermillion, smooth philtrum, flat nasal bridge, and fifth finger clinodactyly. Long philtrum varies substantially as a predictor in the 3 populations. Predictors not significantly related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders dysmorphology across the 3 populations are centile of height (except in Italy) strabismus, interpupilary distance, intercanthal distance, and heart murmurs.
Conclusion
The dysmorphology associated with FAS and PFAS vary across populations, yet a particular array of common features occurs in each population, which permits a consistent diagnosis across populations.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181dae243
PMCID: PMC4113014  PMID: 20431397
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS); dysmorphology; human malformations
23.  Magnetic resonance imaging outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders 
Background
Magnetic resonance (MR) technology offers non-invasive methods for in vivo assessment of neuroabnormalities.
Methods
A comprehensive neuropsychological/psychiatric battery, coupled with MR imaging, (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI) assessments, were administered to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to determine if global and/or focal abnormalities could be identified, and distinguish diagnostic subclassifications across the spectrum. The four study groups included: 1. FAS/Partial FAS; 2. Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol Exposed (SE/AE); 3. Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol Exposed (ND/AE) as diagnosed with the FASD 4-Digit Code; and 4. healthy peers with no prenatal alcohol exposure. Presented here are the MRI assessments used to compare the sizes of brain regions between the four groups. The neuropsychological/behavioral, MRS, and fMRI outcomes are reported separately.
Results
Progressing across the four study groups from Controls to ND/AE to SE/AE to FAS/PFAS, the mean absolute size of the total brain, frontal lobe, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellar vermis, and corpus callosum length decreased incrementally and significantly. The FAS/PFAS group (the only group with the 4-Digit FAS facial phenotype) had disproportionately smaller frontal lobes relative to all other groups. The FAS/PFAS and SE/AE groups (the two groups with the most severe CNS dysfunction) had disproportionately smaller caudate regions relative to the ND/AE and Control groups. The prevalence of subjects in the FAS/PFAS, SE/AE, and ND/AE groups that had one or more brain regions, two or more standard deviations below the mean size observed in the Control group was78%, 58%, and 43%, respectively . Significant correlations were observed between size of brain regions and level of prenatal alcohol exposure, magnitude of FAS facial phenotype, and level of CNS dysfunction.
Conclusions
MRI provided further validation that ND/AE, SE/AE, and FAS/PFAS, as defined by the FASD 4-Digit Code, are three clinically distinct and increasingly more affected diagnostic subclassifications under the umbrella of FASD. Neurostructural abnormalities are present across the spectrum. MRI could importantly augment diagnosis of conditions under the umbrella of FASD, once population-based norms for structural development of the human brain are established.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01004.x
PMCID: PMC4170878  PMID: 19572986
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD); Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); FASD 4-Digit Diagnostic Code
24.  Study of zeolite influence on analytical characteristics of urea biosensor based on ion-selective field-effect transistors 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):124.
A possibility of the creation of potentiometric biosensor by adsorption of enzyme urease on zeolite was investigated. Several variants of zeolites (nano beta, calcinated nano beta, silicalite, and nano L) were chosen for experiments. The surface of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors was modified with particles of zeolites, and then the enzyme was adsorbed. As a control, we used the method of enzyme immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour (without zeolites). It was shown that all used zeolites can serve as adsorbents (with different effectiveness). The biosensors obtained by urease adsorption on zeolites were characterized by good analytical parameters (signal reproducibility, linear range, detection limit and the minimal drift factor of a baseline). In this work, it was shown that modification of the surface of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors with zeolites can improve some characteristics of biosensors.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-124
PMCID: PMC3995320  PMID: 24636423
Biosensor; Urease; Silicalite; Zeolite; Nano beta; Nano L; pH-sensitive field-effect transistor
25.  COMPACT and molecular structure in toxicity assessment: a prospective evaluation of 30 chemicals currently being tested for rodent carcinogenicity by the NCI/NTP. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1996;104(Suppl 5):1011-1016.
A new series of 30 miscellaneous National Toxicology Program chemicals has been evaluated prospectively for carcinogenicity and overt toxicity by COMPACT (Computer Optimised Molecular Parametric Analysis for Chemical Toxicity. CYP1A and CYP2E1). Evaluations were also made by Hazardexpert, and for metal ion redox potentials; and these, together with COMPACT, were compared with results from the Ames test for mutagenicity in Salmonella, the micronucleus test, and 90-day subchronic rodent pathology. Seven of the 30 chemicals (nitromethane, chloroprene, xylenesulphonic acid, furfuryl alcohol, anthraquinone, emodin, cinnamaldehyde) were positive for potential carcinogenicity in the COMPACT evaluation; xylenesulphonic acid and furfuryl alcohol were only equivocally positive. Four of the 30 chemicals-scopolamine, D&C Yellow No. 11, citral, cinnamaldehyde-were positive by Hazardexpert; 6 of 30-D&C Yellow No. 11, 1-chloro-2-propanol, anthraquinone, emodin, sodium nitrite, cinnamaldehyde-were positive in the Ames test; 2 of 30-phenolphthalein and emodin-were positive in the in vivo cytogenetics test; and 3 of 30-molybdenum trioxide, gallium arsenide, vanadium pentoxide-were metal compounds with redox potentials of the metal/metal ion indicative of possible carcinogenicity. The overall prediction for carcinogenicity was positive for 12 of 30 chemicals: nitromethane, chloroprene, D&C Yellow No. 11, molybdenum trioxide, 1-chloro-2-propanol, furfuryl alcohol, gallium arsenide, anthraquinone, emodin, sodium nitrite, cinnamaldehyde, vanadium pentoxide). This overall prediction has been made on the basis of the results of the computer tests and from consideration of the information from bacterial mutagenicity, together with likely lipid solubility and pathways of metabolism and elimination.
PMCID: PMC1469712  PMID: 8933049

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