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1.  Health Technology Assessment of laparoscopic compared to conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair regarding safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness 
Introduction
Incisional hernias are a common complication following abdominal surgery and they represent about 80% of all ventral hernia. In uncomplicated postoperative follow-up they can develop in about eleven percent of cases and up to 23% of cases with wound infections or other forms of wound complications. Localisation and size of the incisional hernia can vary according to the causal abdominal scar. Conservative treatment (e. g. weight reduction) is only available to relieve symptoms while operative treatments are the only therapeutic treatment option for incisional hernia. Traditionally, open suture repair was used for incisional hernia repair but was associated with recurrence rates as high as 46%. To strengthen the abdominal wall and prevent the development of recurrences the additional implantation of an alloplastic mesh is nowadays commonly used. Conventional hernia surgery as well as minimally invasive surgery, introduced in the early 90s, make use of this mesh-technique and thereby showed marked reductions in recurrence rates. However, there are possible side effects associated with mesh-implantation. Therefore recommendations remain uncertain on which technique to apply for incisional hernia repair and which technique might, under specific circumstances, be associated with advantages over others.
Objectives
The goal of this HTA-Report is to compare laparoscopic incisional hernia repair (LIHR) and conventional incisional hernia repair with and without mesh-implantation in terms of their medical efficacy and safety, their cost-effectiveness as well as their ethical, social und legal implications. In addition, this report aims to compare different techniques of mesh-implantation and mesh-fixation as well as to identify factors, in which certain techniques might be associated with advantages over
others.
Methods
Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) as well as by a manual search. The former included the following electronic resources:
SOMED (SM78), Cochrane Library – Central (CCTR93), MEDLINE Alert (ME0A), MEDLINE (ME95), CATFILEplus (CATLINE) (CA66), ETHMED (ED93), GeroLit (GE79), HECLINET (HN69), AMED (CB85), CAB Abstracts (CV72), GLOBAL Health (AZ72), IPA (IA70), Elsevier BIOBASE (EB94), BIOSIS Previews (BA93), EMBASE (EM95), EMBASE Alert (EA08), SciSearch (IS90), Cochrane Library – CDSR (CDSR93), NHS-CRD-DARE (CDAR94), NHS-CRD-HTA (INAHTA) as well as NHSEED (NHSEED).
The present report includes German and English literature published until 31.08.2005. The search parameters can be found in the appendix. No limits were placed on the target population. The methodological quality of the included clinical studies was assessed using the criteria recommended by the “Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Grading Review Group“. Economic studies were evaluated by the criteria of the German Scientific Working Group Technology Assessment for Health Care.
Results
The literature search identified 17 relevant medical publications. One of these studies compared laparoscopic and conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair, while 16 studies compared laparoscopic and conventional surgery with mesh for incisional hernia repair. Among these studies were 14 primary studies (one randomised controlled trial (RCT), two systematic reviews and one HTA-Report. The only study comparing laparoscopic and conventional surgery without mesh found substantial differences in terms of baseline characteristics between treatment groups. The outcome parameters showed decreased recurrence rates for the laparoscopic repair and similar safety of the procedures. Studies comparing laparoscopic and conventional surgery with mesh found similar outcome in terms of medical efficacy and safety. However, there was a trend towards lower recurrence rates, length of hospital stay, and postoperative pain as well as decreased complication rates for laparoscopic repair in the majority of studies. The impact of the technique of mesh-implantation and -fixation as well as the impact of certain factors on the choice of technique has not been systematically assessed in any of the studies.
Discussion
All identified studies suffer from significant methodological weaknesses, such as differences between treatment groups, mainly due to the non-randomised study design, small treatment groups causing low case numbers and lack of statistical power as well as the neglect of important risk factors or adjustment for those. Therefore, no conclusive differences could be identified concerning compared operative techniques, mesh-implantation and -fixation techniques or certain risk factors. Only the comparison of laparoscopic and conventional technique with mesh provides some evidence for a trend towards similar or slightly improved outcome in terms of medical efficacy and safety for the laparoscopic technique. However, there is still a great need for further research to investigate these questions.
Basically, there is no full economic evaluation focussing on the relevant alternatives. Cost compareisons were available, even though only briefly attached to clinical research results. None of the studies primarily aimed to investigate costs or even cost-effectiveness.
Conclusion
When deciding on the choice of operative technique for incisional hernia repair, surgeons take various considerations into account, including patient characteristics, hernia characteristics and their own experience. The studies included in this HTA did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the research questions. Nonetheless, laparoscopic surgery demonstrated a trend towards similar or slightly improved outcome following incisional hernia repair. However, for more conclusive recommendations on the choice of operative technique, high quality trials are required
From the economic perspective, alternative methods are not yet assessed. Only five of the studies involve a cost analysis, though in an insufficient manner. None of the studies identified were laid out as a health economic evaluation. Hence, further research is strongly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3011306  PMID: 21289907
2.  Laparoscopic Incisional Hernia Repair in Obese Patients 
Background and Objectives:
Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is coming to the forefront as a preferred method of repair due to the advantages offered by minimally invasive techniques. To evaluate safety and feasibility of this approach in obese patients when performed by a general surgeon trained in basic laparoscopy with no prior experience in this technique, we reviewed our early experience in the first 18 patients.
Methods:
All patients with incisional hernias presenting to a single surgeon from 2000 to 2002 were offered laparoscopic repair. Patients were informed about the limited experience of the surgeon in this particular field. Those who consented were repaired laparoscopically using a standard 4-port technique, one 12-mm port and three 5-mm ports. All patients with body mass index ≥30 were included in this review. A retrospective review of the data included demographics, operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction.
Results:
Nineteen laparoscopic repairs were completed in 18 patients. No conversions to open repair were necessary. All patients were females except for 2. All hernia sacs were left in place, some of which were empty while others required extensive lysis of adhesions to release sac contents. Mean fascial defect was 102.5 cm2. One defect was closed primarily without mesh, while the rest were closed using Composix mesh in 1 and Dual Plus Gore-Tex mesh in the rest. Three patients were discharged from the recovery room. Mean follow-up was 24 months. No wound or mesh infections occurred. Eight patients had no complications. Eight patients had asymptomatic seromas. Two patients had hematomas; none of them required drainage. One patient had nonspecific dizziness. One patient presented with bowel obstruction secondary to early recurrence (within a week). The repair was salvaged laparoscopically. Upon evaluation by telephone calls, all patients indicated extreme satisfaction with the results.
Conclusions:
A general surgeon with training in basic laparoscopy can safely perform laparoscopic incisional hernia repair on obese patients with minimal complications. The procedure requires a short leaning curve of no more than 3 cases and few extra materials to be feasible at any hospital in the US. Patient satisfaction with this technique is certainly gratifying.
PMCID: PMC3015547  PMID: 15791970
Laparoscopy; Ventral hernia; Incisional hernia; Obesity
3.  The use of mesh in acute hernia: frequency and outcome in 99 cases 
Hernia  2011;15(3):297-300.
Background
Incarceration of inguinal, umbilical and cicatricial hernias is a frequent problem. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of mesh and outcome after surgery. The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the use of mesh in incarcerated hernia and the clinical outcome.
Patients and methods
Correspondence, operation reports and patient files between January 1995 and December 2005 of patients presented at one academic and one teaching hospital in Rotterdam were searched for the following keywords: incarceration, strangulation and hernia. The patient characteristics, clinical presentation, pre-operative findings and clinical course were scored and analysed.
Results
A total of 203 patients could be identified: 76 inguinal, 52 umbilical, 39 incisional, 14 epigastric, 14 femoral, five trocar and three spigelian hernias. In the statistical analysis, epigastric, femoral, trocar and spigelian hernias were pooled, due to their small group sizes. One patient was excluded from the analysis because the hernia was not corrected during operation. In total, 99 hernias were repaired using mesh versus 103 primary suture repairs.
Twenty-five wound infections were registered (12.3%). One mesh was removed during a reintervention for anastomotic leakage, although no signs of wound infection were present. Nine patients died, none of them due to wound-related problems [one cardiovascular, one ruptured aneurysm, two anastomotic leakage, two sepsis e causa incognita (e.c.i.), three pulmonary complications]. Univariate analysis showed that female patients (P = 0.007), adipose patients (P = 0.016), patients with an umbilical hernia (P = 0.01) and patients who underwent a bowel resection (P = 0.015) had a significantly higher rate of wound infections. The type of repair (e.g. primary suture or mesh), use of antibiotic prophylaxis, gender, ASA class and age showed no significant relation with post-operative wound infection. After logistic regression analysis, only bowel resection (P = 0.020) showed a significant relation with post-operative wound infection.
Conclusions
Wound infection rates are high after the correction of acute hernia, but clinical consequences are relatively low. Mesh correction of an acute hernia seems to be safe and should be considered in every incarcerated hernia.
doi:10.1007/s10029-010-0779-4
PMCID: PMC3114066  PMID: 21259032
Hernia; Abdominal; Acute
4.  Laparoscopic Hernia Repair: a Two-Port Technique 
Results of this study suggest that laparoscopic herniorrhaphy with a 2-port technique may allow a safe, efficient repair of ventral and incisional hernias.
Objective:
Various ventral and incisional hernia repair techniques exist and have largely replaced the open ones. The purpose of this study was to document the 2-port technique and demonstrate that it is feasible, efficient, and safe. To our knowledge, this is the largest report on this topic to date in the English-language literature.
Methods:
Forty patients with ventral hernias (VH) or incisional hernias (IH) underwent laparoscopic repair with a 2-port technique. The technique involves insertion of one 10-mm to 12-mm balloon port and one 5-mm port, usually on the left side as laterally as possible. A mesh is inserted through the balloon port site and secured to the abdominal wall by using either 4 peripheral or 1 central Prolene suture. Helical fasteners are used to attach the mesh to the abdominal wall.
Results:
Forty patients with 47 hernias underwent repair. Operating time ranged from 15 minutes to 70 minutes. Early complications were seen in 5 patients and included 1 small bowel enterotomy, 2 small bowel obstructions (SBO) with bowel adhering to the visceral side of the mesh, 1 wound infection, and 1 seroma. Late postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients (20%) who experienced persistent abdominal pain that resolved without any treatment. There was one recurrence during a mean follow-up of 23.5 months.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy with the 2-port technique offers an efficient, safe, and effective repair for ventral and incisional hernias.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12674612014860
PMCID: PMC3021302  PMID: 20529535
Laparoscopy; Ventral hernia; Two-port technique
5.  Modified onlay technique for the repair of the more complicated incisional hernias: single-centre evaluation of a large cohort 
Hernia  2010;14(4):369-374.
Background
The repair of incisional hernias remains a challenge for the general surgeon. Indications for surgery are severe bowel obstruction, as well as aesthetic problems. There are various surgical methods to correct these hernias, with varying results. However, the gold standard has not yet been found. Both laparoscopic repair and the component separation technique (CTS) have proven to be acceptable techniques; however, they are not always suitable for resolving the more complicated abdominal wall defects, i.e. after open-abdomen treatment or fascial necrosis. In our hospital, we developed a new onlay technique which we have evaluated in the following research.
Patients and methods
During a period of 10 years (1996–2007), 101 patients with an incisional hernia were corrected with the new onlay technique. A Marlex mesh of dimensions at least 10 × 20 cm was used, overlapping the fascia by at least 5 cm on each side. This mesh was stapled onto the fascia with skin staples. Of the 101 patients, there were 45 men and 56 women, with a mean age of 55 years. Nine patients died and 13 were lost during follow-up. Of the remaining 79 patients, eight refused to participate. The mean follow-up time was 64 months (normal distribution, standard deviation [SD] 34 months). This cohort of 101 patients was studied retrospectively.
Results
Seventy-one of the 101 patients were evaluated at our out-patient clinic. For 24 patients (25%), the operation was for a recurrence after an incisional hernia correction in the past. Twenty-one patients (20%) had an open-abdomen treatment in their medical history. The surgical procedure was technically possible in all patients and the mean operation time was 63 min. The median admission time was 4.5 days (quartiles 3–6.25). The mean follow-up time was 64 months (SD 35 months). A seroma was reported in 27 of 101 patients (27%) and a wound infection in 22 patients (21%), of which seven patients had to be re-operated. Only if a patient was evaluated at our out-patient clinic could reherniation have been scored; this occurred in 11 of 71 patients (16%).
Conclusion
This technique is an effective and simple procedure to correct incisional hernias with acceptable complication rates and is feasible even in the more complicated hernias.
doi:10.1007/s10029-010-0646-3
PMCID: PMC2908454  PMID: 20229287
Incisional hernia; Abdominal wall defects; Mesh repair; Hernia
6.  Laparoscopic incisional and ventral hernia repair 
Background:
It has been more than a decade, since the introduction of laparoscopic management of ventral and incisional hernia. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature, analyze the results of Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernia and to ascertain its role.
Materials and Methods:
Pubmed was used for identifying the original articles. Both incisional and ventral hernia repair were included. Out of 145 articles extracted from Pubmed, 34 original studies were considered for review. More than three thousand patients were included in the review. Variables analyzed in the review were inpatient stay, defect size, mesh size, hematoma, seroma, wound infection, bowel perforation, obstruction, ileus, recurrence and pain. Qualitative analysis of the variables was carried out.
Results:
Seromas (5.45%) and post operative pain (2.75%) are the two common complications associated with this procedure. Recurrence rate was found to be 3.67%. Overall complication rate was 19.24%, with two deaths reported.
Conclusion:
The results suggest laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernia as an effective procedure. Faster recovery and shorter in patient stay - makes it a feasible alternative to open repair.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.37190
PMCID: PMC2749189  PMID: 19789663
Incisional hernia; laparoscopy; mesh; repair; ventral hernia
7.  Short- and long-term outcomes of incarcerated inguinal hernias repaired by Lichtenstein technique 
Introduction
The use of tension-free inguinal hernia repair techniques using commercially available implants is now rather common. However, it is widely accepted that the use of biomaterials should be limited to non-infected surgical fields. As such, most current studies pertain to the application of various implants during the surgical repair of uncomplicated hernias.
Aim
To compare the short- and long-term outcomes of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair using the Lichtenstein or Bassini technique.
Material and methods
Between 1997 and 2012, 107 patients were operated on an emergency basis due to the incarceration of inguinal hernias – 105 subjects were included for further analysis in our study.
Results
Postoperative complications were observed in 13 out of the 84 (15.5%) patients subjected to Lichtenstein repair. In 9 of these patients (10.7%), morbidity was associated with the surgical wound. In 2 cases (2.4%), a small inflammatory infiltration was observed and resolved within a few days. Serous fluid accumulation within the wound was observed in 3 patients (3.6%), but the fluid was successfully drained by puncture. Finally, hematoma formed in 4 cases (4.8%). In total, 4 complications (19%) were recorded in the group of 21 patients who were operated on with the Bassini technique. In 3 of these cases (14.3%), the complications were related to suppuration of the surgical wound.
Conclusions
Polypropylene mesh may be safely implanted during the repair of incarcerated hernia and this approach is reflected by satisfactory long-term outcomes.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2014.41630
PMCID: PMC4105675  PMID: 25097686
incarcerated inguinal hernias; Lichtenstein technique
8.  Incisional Hernia in Women: Predisposing Factors and Management Where Mesh is not Readily Available 
Background / Aim: Incisional hernia is still relatively common in our practice. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with incisional hernia in our region. The setting is the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria during a period when prosthetic mesh was not readily available. Patients and Methods: All the women who presented with incisional hernia between 1996 and 2005 were prospectively studied using a standard form to obtain information on pre-hernia (index) operations and possible predisposing factors. They all had open surgical repair and were followed up for 18–60 months. Results: Forty-four women were treated during study period. The index surgeries leading to the hernias were emergency caesarian section 26/44 (59.1%), emergency exploratory laparotomy 6/44 (13.6%), and elective surgeries 12/44 (27.3%). Major associated risk factors were the use of wrong suture materials for fascia repair, midline incisions, wound sepsis, and overweight. Conclusion: For elective surgeries, reduction of weight should be encouraged when appropriate, and transverse incisions are preferred. Absorbable sutures, especially chromic catgut, should be avoided in fascia closure. Antibiotics should be used for complicated obstetric cases.
doi:10.4176/081105
PMCID: PMC3066721  PMID: 21483511
Incisional hernia; Women; Predisposing factors; Nigeria
9.  Characterizing laparoscopic incisional hernia repair 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2007;50(3):195-201.
Introduction
Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernias (LVIHRs) is feasible; however, many facets of this procedure remain poorly defined. The indications, essential technical features and postoperative management should be standardized to optimize outcomes and facilitate training in this promising approach to incisional hernia repair.
Methods
All patients referred to one surgeon at a tertiary care centre for LVIHR from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed. Patient records were analyzed and perioperative outcomes were documented.
Results
Of the 69 patients who were referred for management of incisional hernia, 64 underwent LVIHR. The mean age of patients selected for surgery was 61.4 years (28% of patients over age 70 years); their mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.8 kg/m2 and mean American Association of Anaesthetists (ASA) score was 2.5 (52% of patients had an ASA score equal to 3). The mean operating time was 130.7 minutes for a mean abdominal wall defect of 123.9 cm2 and a mean prosthetic mesh size of 344 cm2. Patients with recurrent incisional hernias and previous prosthetic mesh were the most challenging, with a mean BMI of 39 kg/m2, mean operating time of 191 minutes, mean defect of 224 cm2 and mean prosthetic mesh size of 508 cm2. One patient was converted to open surgery and, in 2 patients, small bowel injuries were repaired laparoscopically without adverse sequelae. The mean length of stay was 4.5 days (median 3.0 d). Postoperatively, 78% of patients developed seromas within the residual hernia sac. All seromas were managed nonoperatively; one-half resolved by 7 weeks, and larger seromas persisted for up to 24 weeks. There was an 18.7% rate of minor complications and a 3.1% rate of major complications (no deaths). After a mean follow-up of 7.7 months, 2 recurrent hernias (3.1%) were identified in patients with multiple previous open mesh repairs.
Conclusion
Although LVIHR may be challenging, it has the potential to be considered a primary approach for most ventral and incisional hernias, regardless of patient status or hernia complexity.
PMCID: PMC2384279  PMID: 17568491
10.  Allograft AlloDerm® tissue for laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal groin hernia repair: A case report 
INTRODUCTION
Synthetic mesh is the prosthetic material used for most inguinal hernioplasties. However, when left in contact with intra-abdominal viscera, it often becomes associated with infection and migration, particularly in irradiated tissues, contaminated fields, immunosuppressed individuals, and patients with intestinal obstruction or fistula. AlloDerm® Regenerative Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ) is derived from human cadaver skin and may be associated with fewer visceral adhesions and more durability in infected fields than synthetic mesh.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report the first case in which AlloDerm was used in a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair of a multiple recurrent right inguinal hernia, a left femoral hernia, and an umbilical hernia in the same patient. Use of AlloDerm greatly enhanced the maneuverability during laparoscopic hernia repair due to its pliability and strength and eliminated the need to cover the prosthetic with peritoneum.
DISCUSSION
Previous pelvic radiation and multiple previous groin repairs can render the peritoneum friable, resulting in obstacles to successful closure. AlloDerm is a reasonable choice for groin hernia repairs when such factors are present.
CONCLUSION
The long-term durability of AlloDerm for laparoscopic groin hernia repairs is yet to be determined, but based on current data it seems prudent to use this technique in laparoscopic repair of complex groin hernias where infection is suspected or inadequate prosthetic coverage with peritoneum is anticipated.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.02.015
PMCID: PMC4066573  PMID: 24780773
AlloDerm; Inguinal hernia; Femoral hernia; Recurrent hernia; Laparoscopic hernia repair
11.  Early outcome of incisional hernia repair using polypropylene mesh: A preliminary report 
Background:
The use of prosthetics for open repair of incisional hernia is very recent in our practice. We highlight our experience repairing incisional hernias with polypropylene mesh.
Patients and Methods:
Patients presenting with incisional hernia >5 cm in length or width received open polypropylene mesh repair and were followed for two years. Data obtained included age, sex, primary surgery causing the hernia, the length of the fascial defect and previous attempts at repair. Post-operative wound complications were recorded. The integrity of the scar and patient satisfaction or concerns with the repair was assessed at each visit.
Results:
Nineteen females with a mean age of 35 years (range 30-54) underwent repair; most arising from obstetric or gynaecological procedures. Sixteen (82.2%) had midline, 2 (10.5) transverse and 1 (5.3) Pfannenstiel scars. One patient had no previous repair (R0), 7 had undergone one repair (R1), 9 had undergone two repairs (R2) and 1 had three previous repairs (R3). The length of fascial defects ranged from 8 to 18 cm and seroma collection and stitch sinus were the common problems encountered. Two (10.5%) recurrences were recorded in two years.
Conclusion:
Open mesh repair of incisional hernia carries a low risk of infection and recurrence in two years.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.137197
PMCID: PMC4124548  PMID: 25114370
Incisional hernia; low recurrence; polypropylene mesh; seroma
12.  Low recurrence rate of a two-layered closure repair for primary and recurrent midline incisional hernia without mesh 
Hernia  2009;13(4):421-426.
Background
Incisional hernia is a serious complication after abdominal surgery and occurs in 11–23% of laparotomies. Repair can be done, for instance, with a direct suture technique, but recurrence rates are high. Recent literature advises the use of mesh repair. In contrast to this development, we studied the use of a direct suture repair in a separate layer technique. The objective of this retrospective observational study is to assess the outcomes (recurrences and complications) of a two-layered open closure repair for primary and recurrent midline incisional hernia without the use of mesh.
Methods
In an observational retrospective cohort study, we analysed the hospital and outpatient records of 77 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for a primary or recurrent incisional hernia between 1st May 2002 and 8th November 2006. The repair consisted of separate continuous suturing of the anterior and posterior fascia, including the rectus muscle, after extensive intra-abdominal adhesiolysis.
Results
Forty-one men (53.2%) and 36 women (46.8%) underwent surgery. Sixty-three operations (81.8%) were primary repairs and 14 (18.2%) were repairs for a recurrent incisional hernia. Of the 66 patients, on physical examination, three had a recurrence (4.5%) after an average follow-up of 2.6 years. The 30-day postoperative mortality was 1.1%. Wound infection was seen in five patients (6.5%).
Conclusions
A two-layered suture repair for primary and recurrent incisional hernia repair without mesh with extensive adhesiolysis was associated with a recurrence rate comparable to mesh repair and had an acceptable complication rate.
doi:10.1007/s10029-009-0487-0
PMCID: PMC2719741  PMID: 19296196
Ventral hernia; Abdominal hernia; Suture repair; Direct repair; Recurrence
13.  A Systematic Review of Outcomes Following Repair of Complex Ventral Incisional Hernias With Biologic Mesh 
International Surgery  2013;98(4):399-408.
Repair of contaminated/infected ventral incisional hernias is marked by high rates of recurrence, complications, and/or explantation of synthetic mesh. Biologic mesh products are recommended for repair to permit reconstruction and reduce complications. A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases identified English-language articles reporting postoperative outcomes (e.g., hernia recurrence, infection, mesh explantation) in patients undergoing contaminated/infected ventral incisional herniorrhaphy. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and contained quantitative outcome data. All were retrospective chart reviews of biologic mesh use (mostly human acellular dermal matrix). Hernia recurrence and wound infection rates were highly variable and inconsistently reported across studies. Mesh explantation was rarely reported. Outcome variability is likely owing to heterogenous patient populations, surgical technique variations, and follow-up duration. Biologic mesh use in contaminated/infected herniorrhaphy was marked by low reported rates of secondary surgeries for infected mesh removal. Data from large, well-controlled, prospective trials with biologic mesh products are needed.
doi:10.9738/INTSURG-D-12-00002.1
PMCID: PMC3829071  PMID: 24229031
Ventral incisional herniorrhaphy; Biologic mesh; Hernia recurrence; Postsurgical complication
14.  Non-crosslinked porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix for the management of complex ventral abdominal wall hernias: a report of 45 cases 
Hernia  2013;18(1):71-79.
Purpose
Ventral abdominal wall hernias are common and repair is frequently associated with complications and recurrence. Although non-crosslinked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix (PADM) has been used successfully in the repair of complex ventral hernias, there is currently no consensus regarding the type of mesh and surgical techniques to use in these patients. This report provides added support for PADM use in complex ventral hernias.
Methods
In a consecutive series of adult patients (2008–2011), complex ventral abdominal wall hernias (primary and incisional) were repaired with PADM by a single surgeon. Patient comorbidities, repair procedures, and postoperative recovery, recurrence, and complications were noted.
Results
Forty-four patients (mean age, 57.5 years) underwent 45 single-stage ventral abdominal wall hernia repairs (3 primary; 42 incisional). Previously placed synthetic mesh was removed in 17 cases. In 40 cases, primary fascial closure was achieved; in 5 cases, PADM was used as a bridge. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) was used for 38/45 cases: 19 closed incisions, 16 cases using the “French fry” technique, and 3 cases with open incisions. Mean hospital stay was 8.2 days (range, 3–32) and mean follow-up was 17 months (range, 1–48). There were 4 (8.9 %) hernia recurrences, 3 requiring additional repair and 1 requiring PADM explantation. There were 3 (6.7 %) skin dehiscences, 4 (8.9 %) deep wound infections requiring drainage, and 5 (11.1 %) seromas (4 self-limited, 1 requiring drainage).
Conclusions
Non-crosslinked intact PADM yielded favorable early outcomes when used to repair complex ventral abdominal wall hernias in high-risk patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10029-013-1148-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10029-013-1148-x
PMCID: PMC3902083  PMID: 23934355
Ventral abdominal wall hernias; Non-crosslinked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix; Vacuum-assisted closure; Synthetic mesh; Biologic acellular dermal matrix; Strattice
15.  Incisional hernia appendicitis: A report of two unique cases and literature review 
INTRODUCTION
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. The presence of an inflamed appendix in an incisional hernia is rare. Incisional hernias complicate both open and laparoscopic surgery.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe two unique cases of acute appendicitis within incisional hernias following an open cholecystectomy and a diagnostic laparoscopy. Acute appendicitis was diagnosed intraoperatively and a formal appendicectomy was performed with subsequent primary repair of the hernial defect in each case.
DISCUSSION
The method chosen for primary repair of an incisional hernia containing an acutely inflamed appendix depends on a number of factors including size of hernial defect and degree of contamination. Closure of 5 mm port sites is not routine in current surgical practice. Herniation of intra-abdominal contents through such defects can occur rarely. The repair of an incisional hernia using mesh in a contaminated surgical field is controversial. There may be advantages in the use of biological meshes.
CONCLUSION
Surgical awareness of potential complications relating to the management of incisional hernia appendicitis is of primary importance in determining intraoperative strategy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.12.006
PMCID: PMC3604693  PMID: 23333806
Acute appendicitis; Incisional hernia; Port site hernia
16.  Polyester Composite Versus PTFE in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair 
This study demonstrated no significant association between polyester composite and PTFE mesh and postoperative complications.
Introduction:
Both polyester composite (POC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh are commonly used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, sparse information exists comparing perioperative and long-term outcome by mesh repair.
Methods:
A prospective database was utilized to identify 116 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2004-2009. Patients were grouped by type of mesh used, PTFE versus POC, and retrospectively compared. Follow-up at a mean of 12 months was achieved by telephone interview and office visit.
Results:
Of the 116 patients, 66 underwent ventral hernia repair with PTFE and 50 with POC mesh. Patients were well matched by patient demographics. No difference in mean body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC group (31.8 vs. 32.5, respectively; P=NS). Operative time was significantly longer in the PTFE group (136 vs.106 minutes, P<.002). Two perioperative wound infections occurred in the PTFE group and none in the POC group (P=NS). No other major complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period (30 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC groups in hernia recurrence (3% vs. 2%), wound complications (1% vs. 0%), mesh infection, requiring removal (3% vs. 0%), bowel obstruction (3% vs. 2%), or persistent pain or discomfort (28% vs. 32%), respectively (P=NS).
Conclusion:
Our study demonstrated no significant association between types of mesh used and postoperative complications. In the 12-month follow-up, no differences were noted in hernia recurrence.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13125733356350
PMCID: PMC3183558  PMID: 21985714
Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair; Mesh repair; PTFE; Polyester; Ventral hernia
17.  Components Separation Technique Combined with a Double-Mesh Repair for Large Midline Incisional Hernia Repair 
World Journal of Surgery  2011;35(11):2399-2402.
Background
The surgical treatment of large midline incisional hernias remains a challenge. The aim of this report is to present the results of a new technique for large midline incisional hernia repair which combines the components-separation technique with a double-prosthetic-mesh repair.
Methods
The records of all consecutive patients who received a double-mesh combined with the components-separation technique for ventral hernia repair were reviewed. The clinical, surgical, and follow-up data were analyzed.
Results
Nine patients [3 women, 6 men; median age = 62 years (range = 26–77)] were included in the study. Median transverse defect size was 20 cm (range = 15–25). The median duration of hospital stay was 8 days (range = 5–17). Postoperative complications occurred in 66% (6/9). Follow-up [median = 13 months (range = 3–49)] showed no recurrent hernias, but one patient had a small hernia after a relaparotomy for colon carcinoma recurrence. The overall occurrence of wound infections was 44% (4/9). There was no mortality.
Conclusion
The components-separation technique in combination with a double-mesh has shown a low recurrence rate in the short-term follow-up. However, there is a considerable occurrence of postoperative wound infections. Long-term results of the hernia recurrence rate have to be awaited.
doi:10.1007/s00268-011-1249-6
PMCID: PMC3191289  PMID: 21882019
18.  Incarcerated internal hernia within a huge irreducible parastomal hernia with intestinal obstruction: a rare case report of "hernia within hernia" 
We report an incarcerated internal hernia in a huge irreducible parastomal hernia-"hernia within hernia." A 70-year-old obese woman with diabetes who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection 20 years ago was admitted to our hospital with 20 years history of a huge irreducible bulge, 25 cm in diameter. An internal hernia due to an adhesive band extending from the sac wall to proximal colon was found in the parastomal hernia sac during an emergency laparotomy. We cut off the distal colon and relocated the colostomy stoma. The patient was discharged uneventfully 2 weeks after the surgery and was readmitted to have a further laparoscopic hernia repair 8 months later. Unfortunately, an unrecognized enterotomy occurred during the secondary surgery that led to an additional laparotomy during which the mesh was not contaminated by the bowel contents and was kept in place. At 22-month follow-up, there were no evidences of recurrence.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.179
PMCID: PMC3433556  PMID: 22977766
Ventral hernia; Incarceration; Intestinal obstruction; Herniorrhaphy
19.  A Comparative Analysis on Various Techniques of Incisional Hernia Repair–Experience from a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(4):271-273.
This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India over a period of 7 years and included 90 patients with incisional hernia (n = 90; 76 females and 14 males), operated over 2 years (January 2004 to December 2005), and followed-up for 5 years postoperatively (2005–2009). As per the surgical unit preference, patients underwent different methods of hernia repair—onlay mesh repair (n = 45, 50 %), underlay mesh repair (n = 18, 20 %), and anatomical repair (i.e., without mesh) (n = 27, 30 %). Parameters studied included seroma formation, wound infection, postoperative pain, and hernia recurrence. Although the first two parameters were statistically not significant, postoperative pain was found to be more in patients who underwent an underlay repair. A significant difference in the hernia recurrence rate was observed between mesh repair and anatomical repair groups. Hence, we conclude that all incisional hernias should be repaired with a mesh (meshplasty).
doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0644-z
PMCID: PMC3726823  PMID: 24426451
Incisional hernia; Mesh repair; Recurrence
20.  Laparoscopic repair of incisional and ventral hernias with the new type of meshes: randomized control trial 
Introduction
Laparoscopic incisional and ventral hernia repair (LIVHR) was first reported by Le Blanc and Booth in 1993. Many studies are available in the literature that have shown that laparoscopic repair of incisional and ventral hernia is preferred over open repair because of lower recurrence rates (less than 10%), less wound morbidity, less pain, and early return to work.
Aim
To identify the long-term outcomes between the different types of meshes and two techniques of mesh fixation, i.e., tacks (method Double crown) and transfascial polypropylene sutures.
Material and methods
A total of 92 patients underwent LIVHR at our department between January 2009 and August 2012. The hernias were umbilical in 26 patients, paraumbilical in 15 patients and incisional in 51 patients. All patients admitted for LIVHR were randomized to either group I (tacker fixation of ePTFE meshes) or group II (suture fixation of meshes with nitinol frame) using computer-generated random numbers with block randomization and sealed envelopes for concealed allocation.
Results
The mean mesh fixation time was significantly higher in the tacker fixation group (117 ±15 min vs. 72 ±6 min, p < 0.01). There were no conversions in either group. The median postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 ±1.5 days. All patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, 12 and every 6 months thereafter postoperatively. There were 5 recurrences in the study population. In group I there were 4 patients with recurrence, and only 1 patient in the group with meshes with a nitinol frame.
Conclusions
Meshes of the new generation with a nitinol framework can significantly improve laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. The fixation of these meshes is very simple using 3–4 transfascial sutures. The absence of shrinkage of these meshes makes the probability of recurrence minimal. Absence of tackers allows postoperative pain to be minimized. We consider that these new meshes can significantly improve laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2014.41623
PMCID: PMC4105668  PMID: 25097679
laparoscopic hernia repair; meshes; ventral hernia
21.  Analysis of Risk Factors for the Development of Incisional and Parastomal Hernias in Patients after Colorectal Surgery 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall rate and risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia and a parastomal hernia after colorectal surgery.
Methods
The study cohort consisted of 795 consecutive patients who underwent open colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2007 by a single surgeon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed.
Results
The overall incidence of incisional hernias was 2% (14/690). This study revealed that the cumulative incidences of incisional hernia were 1% at 12 months and 3% after 36 months. Eighty-six percent of all incisional hernias developed within 3 years after a colectomy. The overall rate of parastomal hernias in patients with a stoma was 6.7% (7/105). The incidence of parastomal hernias was significantly higher in the colostomy group than in the ileostomy group (11.9% vs. 0%; P = 0.007). Obesity, abdominal aortic aneurysm, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, serum albumin level, emergency surgery and postoperative ileus did not influence the incidence of incisional or parastomal hernias. However, the multivariate analysis revealed that female gender and wound infection were significant risk factors for the development of incisional hernias female: P = 0.009, wound infection: P = 0.041). There were no significant factors related to the development of parastomal hernias.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that most incisional hernias develop within 3 years after a colectomy. Female gender and wound infection were risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia after colorectal surgery. In contrast, no significant factors were found to be associated with the development of a parastomal hernia.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.6.299
PMCID: PMC3548144  PMID: 23346508
Ventral hernia; Surgical stomas; Ileostomies; Colostomies
22.  A randomised, multi-centre, prospective, observer and patient blind study to evaluate a non-absorbable polypropylene mesh vs. a partly absorbable mesh in incisional hernia repair 
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery  2012;397(8):1225-1234.
Background
The implantation of a polymer mesh is considered as the standard treatment for incisional hernia. It leads to lower recurrence rates compared to suture techniques without mesh implantation; however, there are also some drawbacks to mesh repair. The operation is more complex and peri-operative infectious complications are increased. Yet it is not clear to what extent a mesh implantation influences quality of life or leads to chronic pain or discomfort. The influence of the material, textile structure and size of the mesh remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a non-absorbable, large pore-sized, lightweight polypropylene (PP) mesh leads to a better health outcome compared to a partly absorbable mesh.
Methods/design
In this randomised, double-blinded study, 80 patients with incisional hernia after a median laparotomy received in sublay technique either a non-absorbable mesh (Optilene® Mesh Elastic) or a partly absorbable mesh (Ultrapro® Mesh). Primary endpoint was the physical health score from the SF-36 questionnaire 21 days post-operatively. Secondary variables were patients' daily activity score, pain score, wound assessment and post-surgical complications until 6 months post-operatively.
Results
SF-36, daily activity and pain scores were similar in both groups after 21 days and 6 months, respectively. No hernia recurrence was observed during the observation period. Post-operative complication rates also showed no difference between the groups.
Conclusion
The implantation of a non-absorbable, large pore-sized, lightweight PP mesh for incisional hernia leads to similar patient-related outcome parameters, recurrence and complication rates as a partly absorbable mesh.
doi:10.1007/s00423-012-1009-6
PMCID: PMC3510400  PMID: 23053458
Incisional hernia; Lightweight mesh; Patient-reported outcome; Quality of life
23.  Recurrences in Laparoscopic Incisional Hernia Repairs: A Personal Series and Review of the Literature 
Objective:
Laparoscopic repair of incisional ventral hernias with ePTFE mesh continues to evolve, with variable reporting of surgical techniques and outcomes. This report of 34 cases discusses, with a literature review of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, specific factors associated with three recurrences.
Methods:
Retrospective analysis and review of the literature.
Results:
Thirty-two patients (16 female, 16 male), under-went 34 laparoscopic repairs: average age–54 years (27-80), average weight–207 lbs (100-300). Nineteen patients (62%) were undergoing first time repairs, 38% were redo cases and 5 cases (14%) involved previous mesh. Operating times averaged 101 minutes (45-220), and average length of stay was 1.9 days (0.6 days excluding 5 patients who required readmission), with 13 patients (38%) being discharged same-day. Two patients developed cellulitis (6%) treated without patch removal. Two enterotomies occurred (6%) both requiring patch removal. Five patients required readmission (14%), and one patient died postoperative day 29 secondary to end-stage liver disease. Three recurrences developed (9%): one secondary to missed enterotomy with reoperation, patch removal and hernia recurrence; one due to omission of suspension suture fixation; and one recurrence developed in a section of the intact old previous incision that extended beyond the original patch. Follow up has averaged 20 months (4-36).
Conclusions:
The laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernias utilizing transabdominal placement of ePTFE patch can achieve excellent results with low morbidity in comparison with open surgical approaches. In reviewing the experience of other investigators, adequate fixation of the mesh, extension to cover the entire previous incision and standardizing the placement interval of the sutures are critical to the success of the repair.
PMCID: PMC3015360  PMID: 10694076
Ventral hernia; Laparoscopy; Laparoscopic surgical procedures; Minimally invasive surgery
24.  Adhesion Formation After Laparoscopic Ventral Incisional Hernia Repair With Polypropylene Mesh: A Study Using Abdominal Ultrasound 
Objective:
Laparoscopic repair of ventral incisional hernias is feasible and safe. Polypropylene mesh is often preferred because of its ease of handling and lower cost. Complications like adhesion and fistula formation can occur. The goal of this study was to determine whether bowel adhesions and their attendant complications could be prevented by interposition of omentum.
Methods:
Thirty patients underwent laparoscopic ventral incisional hernias repair with polypropylene mesh. Omentum was always positioned over the loops of bowel for protection. At a mean follow-up of 14 months, 20 patients underwent ultrasonic examination using the previously described visceral slide technique to detect adhesions.
Results:
The mean size of the hernias in the study was 50.3 cm2, and the mean size of the mesh applied was 275 cm2. Thirteen patents (65%) had no sonographically detectable adhesions. Five patients demonstrated adhesions between the mesh and omentum, 1 patient developed adhesions between the left lobe of the liver and the mesh, and only 1 case of bowel adhesion to the edge of the mesh was found.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic ventral incisional hernias repair with polypropylene mesh and omental interposition is not associated with visceral adhesions in the majority of patients. Polypropylene mesh can be used safely when adequate omental coverage is available.
PMCID: PMC3015540  PMID: 15119656
Laparoscopy; Incisional herniorrhaphy; Mesh; Ultrasound
25.  A pseudo-TEP repair of an incarcerated obturator hernia 
Introduction
Obturator hernia (OH) is a rare condition and difficult to diagnose. While they account for as few as 0.073% of all hernias, mortality can be as high as 70%. The typical clinical presentation for OH is small bowel obstruction. Computed tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice. Surgical repair is mandatory in virtually all cases of OH and traditionally consists of performing an exploratory laparotomy.
Presentation of case
A 90-year-old female was admitted to our surgical service with signs of small bowel obstruction and a CT scan revealing incarcerated fatty tissue and small bowel within a left OH.
Discussion
The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of OH has been limited to elective repairs; most reports detail that the OH was found serendipitously during laparoscopic inguinal hernia operations or other pelvic procedures. A few reports describe the use of laparoscopy to treat OH associated with bowel obstruction in an emergency setting using a TAPP approach. A strict TEP hernia repair is not indicated for all patients with OH, and should rarely be performed in emergency situations given its limitation to assess or resect bowel if necessary. In selected cases, a formal exploratory laparoscopy that is negative for compromised bowel can be safely followed by a TEP repair using the same umbilical access as shown in our patient.
Conclusion
A 90-year-old female with a small bowel obstruction related to an incarcerated OH was treated effectively with an extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.09.004
PMCID: PMC3215224  PMID: 22096757
Hernia; Laparoscopic; TEP; Extraperitoneal; Obturator hernia

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