This review focuses on outlining the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particulates in vitro and in vivo, in order to understand their ability to detrimentally impact on human health. Evaluating the hazards associated with TiO2 particles is vital as it enables risk assessments to be conducted, by combining this information with knowledge on the likely exposure levels of humans. This review has concentrated on the toxicity of TiO2, due to the fact that the greatest number of studies by far have evaluated the toxicity of TiO2, in comparison to other metal oxide particulates. This derives from historical reasons (whereby the size dependency of particulate toxicity was first realised for TiO2) and due to its widespread application within consumer products (such as sunscreens). The pulmonary and dermal hazards of TiO2 have been a particular focus of the available studies, due to the past use of TiO2 as a (negative) control when assessing the pulmonary toxicity of particulates, and due to its incorporation within consumer products such as sunscreens. Mechanistic processes that are critical to TiO2 particulate toxicity will also be discussed and it is apparent that, in the main, the oxidant driven inflammatory, genotoxic and cytotoxic consequences associated with TiO2 exposure, are inherently linked, and are evident both in vivo and in vitro. The attributes of TiO2 that have been identified as being most likely to drive the observed toxicity include particle size (and therefore surface area), crystallinity (and photocatalytic activity), surface chemistry, and particle aggregation/agglomeration tendency. The experimental set up also influences toxicological outcomes, so that the species (or model) used, route of exposure, experiment duration, particle concentration and light conditions are all able to influence the findings of investigations. In addition, the applicability of the observed findings for particular TiO2 forms, to TiO2 particulates in general, requires consideration. At this time it is inappropriate to consider the findings for one TiO2 form as being representative for TiO2 particulates as a whole, due to the vast number of available TiO2 particulate forms and large variety of potential tissue and cell targets that may be affected by exposure. Thus emphasising that the physicochemical characteristics are fundamental to their toxicity.
There is an increasing interest in the application of photocatalytic properties for disinfection of surfaces, air, and water. Titanium dioxide is widely used as a photocatalyst, and the addition of silver reportedly enhances its bactericidal action. However, the synergy of silver nanoparticles and TiO2 is not well understood. The photocatalytic elimination of Bacillus atrophaeus was examined under different calcination temperatures, dip-coating speeds, and ratios of TiO2, SiO2, and Ag to identify optimal production conditions for the production of TiO2- and/or TiO2/Ag-coated glass for surface disinfection. Photocatalytic disinfection of pure TiO2 or TiO2 plus Ag nanoparticles was dependent primarily on the calcination temperature. The antibacterial activity of TiO2 films was optimal with a high dip-coating speed and high calcination temperature (600°C). Maximal bacterial inactivation using TiO2/Ag-coated glass was also observed following high-speed dip coating but with a low calcination temperature (250°C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the Ag nanoparticles combined together at a high calcination temperature, leading to decreased antibacterial activity of TiO2/Ag films due to a smaller surface area of Ag nanoparticles. The presence of Ag enhanced the photocatalytic inactivation rate of TiO2, producing a more pronounced effect with increasing levels of catalyst loading.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers in the anatase structure were successfully prepared via electrospinning technique followed by calcination process. The morphologies, crystal structure, surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of resulting TiO2 nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that calcination temperature had greatly influenced the morphologies of TiO2 nanofibers, but no obvious effect was noticed on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers. The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanofibers were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was observed that TiO2 nanofibers obtained by calcination at 500°C for 3 hours exhibited the most excellent photocatalytic activity. We present a novel and simple method to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers with high-photocatalytic activity.
Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO2 content of sweets is higher than other food products, and that a typical exposure for a US adult may be on the order of 1 mg Ti per kilogram body weight per day. Thus, because of the millions of tons of titanium based white pigment used annually, testing should focus on food-grade TiO2 (E171) rather than that adopted in many environmental health and safety tests (i.e., P25), which is used in much lower amounts in products less likely to enter the environment (e.g., catalyst supports, photocatalytic coatings).
nanotechnology; nanomaterial; TiO2; exposure; fate; transport; wastewater; P25; E171
Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and organic synthesis.
TiO2 nanostructure; fabrication techniques; doping in TiO2; TiO2-assisted photoactivity; solar hydrogen; TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells; TiO2 self-cleaning; organic synthesis
This study investigates the mechanisms of UV-A (315 to 400 nm) photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) applied to the degradation of Escherichia coli and their effects on two key cellular components: lipids and proteins. The impact of TiO2 photocatalysis on E. coli survival was monitored by counting on agar plate and by assessing lipid peroxidation and performing proteomic analysis. We observed through malondialdehyde quantification that lipid peroxidation occurred during the photocatalytic process, and the addition of superoxide dismutase, which acts as a scavenger of the superoxide anion radical (O2·−), inhibited this effect by half, showing us that O2·− radicals participate in the photocatalytic antimicrobial effect. Qualitative analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis allowed selection of proteins for which spot modifications were observed during the applied treatments. Two-dimensional electrophoresis highlighted that among the selected protein spots, 7 and 19 spots had already disappeared in the dark in the presence of 0.1 g/liter and 0.4 g/liter TiO2, respectively, which is accounted for by the cytotoxic effect of TiO2. Exposure to 30 min of UV-A radiation in the presence of 0.1 g/liter and 0.4 g/liter TiO2 increased the numbers of missing spots to 14 and 22, respectively. The proteins affected by photocatalytic oxidation were strongly heterogeneous in terms of location and functional category. We identified several porins, proteins implicated in stress response, in transport, and in bacterial metabolism. This study reveals the simultaneous effects of O2·− on lipid peroxidation and on the proteome during photocatalytic treatment and therefore contributes to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms in antibacterial photocatalytic treatment.
Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using rice straw as a soft biotemplate. Rice straw, as a lignocellulosic waste material, is a biomass feedstock which is globally produced in high rate and could be utilized in an innovative approach to manufacture a value-added product. Rice straw as a reliable biotemplate has been used in the sol-gel method to synthesize ultrasmall sizes of TiO2-NPs with high potential application in photocatalysis. The physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were investigated by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible spectra (UV-Vis), and surface area and pore size analysis. All results consensually confirmed that particle sizes of synthesized titanium dioxide were template-dependent, representing decrease in the nanoparticles sizes with increase of biotemplate concentration. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles as small as 13.0 ± 3.3 nm were obtained under our experimental conditions. Additionally, surface area and porosity of synthesized TiO2-NPs have been enhanced by increasing rice straw amount which results in surface modification of nanoparticles and potential application in photocatalysis.
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a Mott phase transition compound that can be applied as a thermochromic smart material for energy saving and comfort, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known photocatalyst for self-cleaning coatings. In this paper, we report a VO2@TiO2 core-shell structure, in which the VO2 nanorod core exhibits a remarkable modulation ability for solar infrared light, and the TiO2 anatase shell exhibits significant photocatalytic degradation of organic dye. In addition, the TiO2 overcoating not only increased the luminous transmittance of VO2 based on an antireflection effect, but also modified the intrinsic colour of VO2 films from yellow to light blue. The TiO2 also enhanced the chemical stability of VO2 against oxidation. This is the first report of such a single nanoparticle structure with both thermochromic and photocatalytic properties that offer significant potential for creating a multifunctional smart coating.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used due to
their specific properties, like UV filters in sunscreen. In that particular case
TiO2 NPs are surface modified to avoid photocatalytic effects. These
surface-treated nanoparticles (STNPs) spread in the environment and might release
NPs as degradation residues. Indeed, degradation by the environment (exposure to
UV, water and air contact …) will occur and could profoundly alter the
physicochemical properties of STNPs such as chemistry, size, shape, surface
structure and dispersion that are important parameters for toxicity. Although the
toxicity of surface unmodified TiO2 NPs has been documented, nothing
was done about degraded TiO2 STNPs which are the most likely to be
encountered in environment. The superoxide production by aged STNPs suspensions
was tested and compared to surface unmodified TiO2 NPs. We investigated
the possible toxicity of commercialized STNPs, degraded by environmental
conditions, on human intestinal epithelial cells. STNPs sizes and shape were
characterized and viability tests were performed on Caco-2 cells exposed to STNPs.
The exposed cells were imaged with SEM and STNPs internalization was researched by
TEM. Gene expression microarray analyses were performed to look for potential
changes in cellular functions.
The production of reactive oxygen species was detected with surface unmodified
TiO2 NPs but not with STNPs or their residues. Through three
different toxicity assays, the STNPs tested, which have a strong tendency to
aggregate in complex media, showed no toxic effect in Caco-2 cells after exposures
to STNPs up to 100 μg/mL over 4 h, 24 h and 72 h. The
cell morphology remained intact, attested by SEM, and internalization of STNPs was
not seen by TEM. Moreover gene expression analysis using pangenomic
oligomicroarrays (4x 44000 genes) did not show any change versus unexposed cells
after exposure to 10 μg/ mL, which is much higher than potential
TiO2 STNPs, degraded or not, are not harmful to Caco-2 cells and are
unlikely to penetrate the body via oral route. It is likely that the strong
persistence of the aluminium hydroxide layer surrounding these nanoparticles
protects the cells from a direct contact with the potentially phototoxic
Nanoparticles (NPs); Surface-treated nanoparticles (STNPs); Titanium dioxide; Toxicity; degradation of nanomaterials; Gene expression; Life cycle
A systematic study of six phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with tailored molecular structures is performed to evaluate their effectiveness as dielectric modifying layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and determine the relationship between SAM structural order, surface homogeneity, and surface energy in dictating device performance. SAM structures and surface properties are examined by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Top-contact pentacene OFET devices are fabricated on SAM modified Si with a thermally grown oxide layer as a dielectric. For less ordered methyl- and phenyl-terminated alkyl ~(CH2)12 PA SAMs of varying surface energies, pentacene OFETs show high charge carrier mobilities up to 4.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. It is hypothesized that for these SAMs, mitigation of molecular scale roughness and subsequent control of surface homogeneity allow for large pentacene grain growth leading to high performance pentacene OFET devices. PA SAMs that contain bulky terminal groups or are highly crystalline in nature do not allow for a homogenous surface at a molecular level and result in charge carrier mobilities of 1.3 cm2 V−1 s−1 or less. For all molecules used in this study, no causal relationship between SAM surface energy and charge carrier mobility in pentacene FET devices is observed.
Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 6-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111) preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.
ABS resin; SAMs; electroless copper film; heterocyclic silane
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) bearing pendant carbohydrate functionality are frequently employed to tailor glycan-specific bioactivity onto gold substrates. The resulting glycoSAMs are valuable for interrogating glycan-mediated biological interactions via surface analytical techniques, microarrays, and label-free biosensors. GlycoSAM composition can be readily modified during assembly using mixed solutions containing thiolated species, including carbohydrates, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) and other inert moieties. This intrinsic tunability of the self-assembled system is frequently used to optimize bioavailability and anti-biofouling properties of the resulting SAM. However, until now, our nanoscale understanding of the behavior of these mixed glycoSAMs has lacked detail. In this study, we examined the time-dependent clustering of mixed sugar+OEG glycoSAMs on ultraflat gold substrates. Composition and surface morphologic changes in the monolayers were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. We provide evidence that the observed clustering is consistent with a phase separation process in which surface-bound glycans self-associate to form dense glycoclusters within the monolayer. These observations have significant implications for the construction of mixed glycoSAMs for use in biosensing and glycomics applications.
Atomic force microscopy; carbohydrates; glycoSAM; phase separation; XPS
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as titanium (IV) oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these nanoparticles to be mainly non-cyto- and -genotoxic, although they had been found to generate free radicals both acellularly (specially through photocatalytic activity) and intracellularly. The present study determines the role of TiO2-NP (anatase, ∅ < 100 nm) using several parameters such as cyto- and genotoxicity, DNA-adduct formation and generation of free radicals following its uptake by human lung cells in vitro. For comparison, iron containing nanoparticles (hematite, Fe2O3, ∅ < 100 nm) were used. The results of this study showed that both types of NP were located in the cytosol near the nucleus. No particles were found inside the nucleus, in mitochondria or ribosomes. Human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were more sensitive regarding cyto- and genotoxic effects caused by the NP than human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). In contrast to hematite NP, TiO2-NP did not induce DNA-breakage measured by the Comet-assay in both cell types. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity) as well as intracellularly for both types of particles, however, the iron-containing NP needed special reducing conditions before pronounced radical generation. A high level of DNA adduct formation (8-OHdG) was observed in IMR-90 cells exposed to TiO2-NP, but not in cells exposed to hematite NP. Our study demonstrates different modes of action for TiO2- and Fe2O3-NP. Whereas TiO2-NP were able to generate elevated amounts of free radicals, which induced indirect genotoxicity mainly by DNA-adduct formation, Fe2O3-NP were clastogenic (induction of DNA-breakage) and required reducing conditions for radical formation.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 14, 25 and 40nm diameters were functionalized with different chain length (C6, C8, C11 and C16) carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (COOH-SAMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to examine the changes in surface chemistry as both AuNP diameter and SAM chain length were varied. COOH-SAMs on flat gold surfaces were also examined and compared to the COOH-SAM on AuNP results. For a given surface, as the COOH-SAM chain length increased the XPS C/Au atomic ratio increased due to an increased number of carbon atoms per molecule in the overlayer and an increased attenuation of the Au substrate signal. For the C16 COOH-SAMs, as the size of AuNPs decreased the XPS C/Au atomic ratio and the apparent SAM thickness increased due to the increased curvature of the smaller AuNPs. The C16 COOH-SAMs on the flat Au had the lowest XPS C/Au atomic ratio and apparent SAM thickness of any C16 COOH-SAM covered Au surface. The effective take-off angles of the COOH-SAMs were also calculated by comparing the apparent thickness of COOH-SAMs with literature values. The effective take-off angle for C16 COOH-SAM on 14nm, 25nm and 40nm diameter AuNPs and flat Au were found to be 57°, 53°, 51° and 39°, respectively, for data acquired in a mode that collects a wide range of photoelectron take-off angles. The effective take-off angle for C16 COOH-SAM on 14nm AuNP and flat Au decreased to 52° and 0°, respectively, for data acquired in a mode that collects a narrow range of photoelectron take-off angles. The ToF-SIMS results showed similar changes in surface chemistry with COOH-SAM chain length and AuNP size. For example, the ratio of the sum of the C1–4HxOy positive ion intensities to the sum of the Au-containing positive ions intensities increased with decreasing AuNP size and increasing COOH-SAM chain length. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR) was used to characterize the crystallinity of the COOH-SAMs. The CH2 stretching frequencies decreased with increasing COOH-SAM chain length on flat Au. The C16 COOH-SAM on the 14nm AuNPs exhibited a crystalline-like CH2 stretching frequency. The size, size distribution, shapes and solution stability of AuNPs were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. As the average diameter of the AuNPs decreased the size distribution became narrower and the shape became more spherical.
A novel TiO2–coconut shell powder (TCNSP) composite, prepared by the controlled sol-gel method with a subsequent heat treatment, was investigated as an innovative photocatalytic absorbent for the removal of carbamazepine (CBZ). CBZ is used worldwide as an antiepileptic drug, which has recently been recognized as an important organic pollutant increasingly found in wastewaters from urban areas and other aquatic environments. The granulation process was performed by using a semiautomated mass production line to produce sufficient quantities of TCNSP composites, possessing sufficient crush strength for commercialization. Physical properties of the TCNSP composite such as crystallinity, morphology, crush strength, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)–specific surface area were controlled by the mass ratio of titanium dioxide sol and coconut shell powder (CNSP). Calcination at 700°C produced anatase phase TiO2 in the TCNSP composites with a BET high surface area of 454 m2/g. Anatase crystallite size of the TCNSP composite increased from 2.37 to 15.11 nm with increasing calcination temperature from 500°C to 800°C. Calcinated TCNSP composites had higher CBZ removal efficiency (98%) than pure TiO2 (23%) and CNSP (34%) within a 40-min reaction time. Optimization of this innovative adsorption/photocatalytic process was obtained by a response surface methodology and a central composite design model, which indicated that this novel and sustainable technology was successful in removing CBZ from a solution.
drug; granulation; photocatalytic degradation; semiautomated mass production line; TiO2–coconut shell powder composite
Cobalt Chromium (Co-Cr) alloys has been widely used in the biomedical arena for cardiovascular, orthopedic and dental applications. Surface modification of the alloy allows us to tailor the interfacial properties to address critical challenges of Co-Cr alloy in medical applications. Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) have been used to form thin films on the oxide layer of the Co-Cr alloy surface by solution deposition technique. The SAMs formed were investigated for their stability to oxidative conditions of ambient laboratory environment over periods of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. The samples were then characterized for their stability using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Contact Angle Measurements. Detailed high energy XPS elemental scans confirmed the presence of the phosphonic monolayer after oxidative exposure which suggested that the SAMs were firmly attached to the oxide layer of Co-Cr alloy. AFM images gave topographical data of the surface and showed islands of SAMs on Co-Cr alloy surface, before and after SAM formation and also over the duration of the oxidative exposure. Contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophobicity of the surface over 14 days. Thus the SAMs were found to be stable for the duration of the study. These SAMs could be subsequently tailored by modifying the terminal functional groups and could be used for various potential biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biocompatibility and tissue integration
surface modification; self assembled monolayers (SAMs); phosphonic acids; cobalt chromium alloy
The antibacterial activity of photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) substrates is induced primarily by UV light irradiation. Recently, nitrogen- and carbon-doped TiO2 substrates were shown to exhibit photocatalytic activities under visible-light illumination. Their antibacterial activity, however, remains to be quantified. In this study, we demonstrated that nitrogen-doped TiO2 substrates have superior visible-light-induced bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli compared to pure TiO2 and carbon-doped TiO2 substrates. We also found that protein- and light-absorbing contaminants partially reduce the bactericidal activity of nitrogen-doped TiO2 substrates due to their light-shielding effects. In the pathogen-killing experiment, a significantly higher proportion of all tested pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Acinetobacter baumannii, were killed by visible-light-illuminated nitrogen-doped TiO2 substrates than by pure TiO2 substrates. These findings suggest that nitrogen-doped TiO2 has potential application in the development of alternative disinfectants for environmental and medical usages.
This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures.
molecular photovoltaics; self-assembly devices; transport in molecular nanoscale systems; polarons in organic media
Self-assembled monolayers of alkylthiolates on gold and alkylsilanes on silicon dioxide have been patterned photocatalytically on sub-100 nm length-scales using both apertured near-field and apertureless methods. Apertured lithography was carried out by means of an argon ion laser (364 nm) coupled to cantilever-type near-field probes with a thin film of titania deposited over the aperture. Apertureless lithography was carried out with a helium–cadmium laser (325 nm) to excite titanium-coated, contact-mode atomic force microscope (AFM) probes. This latter approach is readily implementable on any commercial AFM system. Photodegradation occurred in both cases through the localized photocatalytic degradation of the monolayer. For alkanethiols, degradation of one thiol exposed the bare substrate, enabling refunctionalization of the bare gold by a second, contrasting thiol. For alkylsilanes, degradation of the adsorbate molecule provided a facile means for protein patterning. Lines were written in a protein-resistant film formed by the adsorption of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized trichlorosilanes on glass, leading to the formation of sub-100 nm adhesive, aldehyde-functionalized regions. These were derivatized with aminobutylnitrilotriacetic acid, and complexed with Ni2+, enabling the binding of histidine-labeled green fluorescent protein, which yielded bright fluorescence from 70-nm-wide lines that could be imaged clearly in a confocal microscope.
nanofabrication; photocatalytic patterning; near-field lithography; local probe lithography; protein patterning; GFP; monolayers
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)
can be formed at the interface
between solids and fluids, and are often used to modify the surface
properties of the solid. One of the most widely employed SAM systems
is exploiting thiol-gold chemistry, which, together with alkane-chain-based
molecules, provides a reliable way of SAM formation to modify the
surface properties of electrodes. Oligo ethylene-glycol (OEG) terminated
alkanethiol monolayers have shown excellent antifouling properties
and have been used extensively for the coating of biosensor electrodes
to minimize nonspecific binding. Here, we report the investigation
of the dielectric properties of COOH-capped OEG monolayers and demonstrate
a strategy to improve the dielectric properties significantly by mixing
the OEG SAM with small concentrations of 11-mercaptoundecanol (MUD).
The monolayer properties and composition were characterized by means
of impedance spectroscopy, water contact angle, ellipsometry and X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy. An equivalent circuit model is proposed
to interpret the EIS data and to determine the conductivity of the
monolayer. We find that for increasing MUD concentrations up to about
5% the resistivity of the SAM steadily increases, which together with
a considerable decrease of the phase of the impedance, demonstrates
significantly improved dielectric properties of the monolayer. Such
monolayers will find widespread use in applications which depend critically
on good dielectric properties such as capacitive biosensor.
Outbreaks of infectious diseases by microbial pathogens can cause substantial losses of stock in aquaculture systems. There are several ways to eliminate these pathogens including the use of antibiotics, biocides and conventional disinfectants, but these leave undesirable chemical residues. Conversely, using sunlight for disinfection has the advantage of leaving no chemical residue and is particularly suited to countries with sunny climates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst that increases the effectiveness of solar disinfection. In recent years, several different types of solar photocatalytic reactors coated with TiO2 have been developed for waste water and drinking water treatment. In this study a thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR), designed as a sloping flat plate reactor coated with P25 DEGUSSA TiO2, was used.
The level of inactivation of the aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined after travelling across the TFFBR under various natural sunlight conditions (300-1200 W m-2), at 3 different flow rates (4.8, 8.4 and 16.8 L h-1). Bacterial numbers were determined by conventional plate counting using selective agar media, cultured (i) under conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and (ii) under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (agar medium supplemented with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate at 0.05% w/v, incubated under anaerobic conditions), to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive) cells. The results clearly demonstrate that high sunlight intensities (≥ 600 W m-2) and low flow rates (4.8 L h-1) provided optimum conditions for inactivation of A. hydrophila ATCC 3564, with greater overall inactivation and fewer sub-lethally injured cells than at low sunlight intensities or high flow rates. Low sunlight intensities resulted in reduced overall inactivation and greater sub-lethal injury at all flow rates.
This is the first demonstration of the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila at high sunlight intensities, providing proof-of-concept for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems.
Novel self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) designed to present homogenous surface chemistries were utilized to further investigate the material surface chemistry dependent macrophage and foreign body giant cell (FBGC) behaviors including macrophage adhesion, fusion, and apoptosis. Contact angle analysis revealed instabilities in the –CH3 and –COOH terminate SAM surfaces upon incubation in serum-free media at 37oC or under dry, room temperatureconditions. Further analysis indicated that the –CH3 terminated SAM surface degraded rapidly within 2 hours and loss of sufficient SAM units to be comparable to the gold (Au) control surface within 24 hours of incubation in serum-free media (SFM) at 37oC. After 5days of incubation in SFM at 37oC, the contact angles for the –COOH terminated SAMsurfaces increased markedly. AFM analysis confirmed the desorption of –CH3 terminated SAM molecules from the surface with increased roughness and marked appearance of peaks andvalleys within 2 hours. A decrease in the thickness of the –COOH terminated SAM surface also suggests molecular desorption over time. No significant changes in contact angle or AFM analyses were observed on the –OH terminated SAM surfaces. Cellular adhesion decreased morerapidly on the Au control and –CH3 terminated SAM surfaces in comparison to the other surfaces. However by day 10, cellular adhesion, fusion, and apoptosis were comparable on all SAM surfaces and the Au control . These studies suggest that SAM surfaces may not be suitable for long-term studies where material dependent properties are investigated.
self-assembled monolayers; instability; macrophage; foreign body giant cell; contact angles
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the structural and corrosion properties of an ISO 5832-9 biomedical alloy modified with titanium dioxide (TiO2) layers. These layers were obtained via the sol–gel method by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in isopropanol solution. To obtain TiO2 layers with different structural properties, the coated samples were annealed at temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 450, 500, 600 and 800 °C for 2 h. For all the prepared samples, accelerated corrosion measurements were performed in Tyrode’s physiological solution using electrochemical methods. The most important corrosion parameters were determined: corrosion potential, polarization resistance, corrosion rate, breakdown and repassivation potentials. Corrosion damage was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Structural analysis was carried out for selected TiO2 coatings annealed at 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In addition, the morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity, thickness and density of the deposited TiO2 layers were determined using suitable electron and X-ray measurement methods. It was shown that the structure and character of interactions between substrate and deposited TiO2 layers depended on annealing temperature. All the obtained TiO2 coatings exhibit anticorrosion properties, but these properties are related to the crystalline structure and character of substrate–layer interaction. From the point of view of corrosion, the best TiO2 sol–gel coatings for stainless steel intended for biomedical applications seem to be those obtained at 400 °C.
The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses.
The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS.
ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed.
HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS; GC-MS; EV dye; Zinc foil; Degradation mechanism
Over the past few decades, carbohydrates (glycans) have received growing attention for their many roles in biological systems, including pathogenesis, receptor-ligand interactions, and cell signaling. To unravel the biology of this important category of biomolecules, a host of new tools have been developed for glycomics investigation. At the forefront is the carbohydrate microarray, developed to immobilize functional glycans on a solid substrate to rapidly screen a variety of potential binding partners (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, cells, and viruses).
The essential role played by surface modification on glycan microarray performance requires new methods to rigorously characterize glycan surface chemistries. Due to their highly reproducible nature and well-studied properties, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold are powerful models for presenting glycans on a solid substrate, engineering biomimetic microenvironments and exploring the bioactivity of immobilized carbohydrates via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). However, it can be challenging to prepare high quality glycosylated SAMs (glyco-SAMs) that retain their biological function following surface immobilization. Herein, a selection of versatile methods for the preparation of glyco-SAMs using natural and chemically modified glycans is described. This chapter will highlight the following three immobilization techniques: (1) direct self assembly using thiolated glycosides onto gold, (2) tethering aminated glycosides onto amine-reactive SAMs, and (3) conjugating natural glycan onto divinyl sulfone-activated SAMs.
Surface plasmon resonance; Self-assembled monolayer; Glyco-SAM; Thiolated glycoside; Divinyl sulfone