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1.  MR Molecular Imaging of Aortic Angiogenesis 
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging  2010;3(8):824-832.
The objectives of this study were to use magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging to 1) characterize the aortic neovascular development in a rat model of atherosclerosis and 2) monitor the effects of an appetite suppressant on vascular angiogenesis progression.
The James C. Russell:LA corpulent rat strain (JCR:LA-cp) is a model of metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and vasculopathy, although plaque neovascularity has not been reported in this strain. MR molecular imaging with ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles can serially map angiogenesis in the aortic wall and monitor the progression of atherosclerosis.
Six-week old JCR:LA-cp (+/?; lean, n = 5) and JCR:LA-cp (cp/cp; obese, n = 5) rats received standard chow, and 6 obese rats were fed the appetite suppressant benfluorex over 16 weeks. Body weight and food consumption were recorded at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. MR molecular imaging with ανβ3-targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles was performed at weeks 0, 8, and 16. Fasted plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose were measured immediately before MR scans. Plasma insulin and leptin levels were assayed at weeks 8 and 16.
Benfluorex reduced food consumption (p < 0.05) to the same rate as lean animals, but had no effect on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. MR (3-T) aortic signal enhancement with ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles was initially equivalent between groups, but increased (p < 0.05) in the untreated obese animals over 16 weeks. No signal change (p > 0.05) was observed in the benfluorex-treated or lean rat groups. MR differences paralleled adventitial microvessel counts, which increased (p < 0.05) among the obese rats and were equivalently low in the lean and benfluorex-treated animals (p > 0.05). Body weight, insulin, and leptin were decreased (p < 0.05) from the untreated obese animals by benfluorex, but not to the lean control levels (p < 0.05).
Neovascular expansion is a prominent feature of the JCR:LA-cp model. MR imaging with ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles provided a noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis in untreated obese rats, which was suppressed by benfluorex.
PMCID: PMC3425389  PMID: 20705262
angiogenesis; atherosclerosis; metabolic syndrome; nanoparticle
2.  Increased hypolipidemic benefits of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in combination with trans-11 vaccenic acid in a rodent model of the metabolic syndrome, the JCR:LA-cp rat 
Conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) and trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) are found naturally in ruminant-derived foods. CLA has been shown to have numerous potential health related effects and has been extensively investigated. More recently, we have shown that VA has lipid-lowering properties associated with reduced hepatic lipidogenesis and chylomicron secretion in the JCR:LA-cp rat. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential additional hypolipidemic effects of purified forms of CLA and VA in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome (the JCR:LA-cp rat).
Twenty four obese JCR:LA-cp rats were randomized and assigned to one of three nutritionally adequate iso-caloric diets containing 1% w/w cholesterol and 15% w/w fat for 16 wk: 1) control diet (CD), 2) 1.0% w/w cis-9, trans-11 CLA (CLA), 3) 1.0% w/w VA and 1% w/w cis-9, trans-11 CLA (VA+CLA). Lean rats were fed the CD to represent normolipidemic conditions.
Fasting plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were reduced in obese rats fed either the CLA diet or the VA+CLA diet as compared to the obese control group (p < 0.05, p < 0.001; p < 0.001, p < 0.01; p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). The VA+CLA diet reduced plasma TG and LDL-cholesterol to the level of the normolipidemic lean rats and further decreased nonesterified fatty acids compared to the CLA diet alone. Interestingly, rats fed the VA+CLA diet had a higher food intake but lower body weight than the CLA fed group (P < 0.05). Liver weight and TG content were lower in rats fed either CLA (p < 0.05) or VA+CLA diets (p < 0.001) compared to obese control, consistent with a decreased relative protein abundance of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase in both treatment groups (P < 0.01). The activity of citrate synthase was increased in liver and adipose tissue of rats fed, CLA and VA+CLA diets (p < 0.001) compared to obese control, suggesting increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative capacity.
We demonstrate that the hypolipidemic effects of chronic cis-9, trans-11 CLA supplementation on circulating dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis are enhanced by the addition of VA in the JCR:LA-cp rat.
PMCID: PMC3161353  PMID: 20633302
3.  Prebiotic fibres dose-dependently increase satiety hormones and alter Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in lean and obese JCR:LA-cp rats 
The British journal of nutrition  2011;107(4):10.1017/S0007114511003163.
There is a growing interest in modulating gut microbiota with diet in the context of obesity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose) on gut satiety hormones, energy expenditure, gastric emptying and gut microbiota. Male lean and obese JCR:LA-cp rats were randomised to either of the following: lean 0 % fibre (LC), lean 10 % fibre (LF), lean 20 % fibre (LHF), obese 0 % fibre (OC), obese 10 % fibre (OF) or obese 20 % fibre (OHF). Body composition, gastric emptying, energy expenditure, plasma satiety hormone concentrations and gut microbiota (using quantitative PCR) were measured. Caecal proglucagon and peptide YY mRNA levels were up-regulated 2-fold in the LF, OF and OHF groups and 3-fold in the LHF group. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in obese v. lean rats and decreased in the OHF group. Plasma ghrelin response was attenuated in the LHF group. Microbial species measured in the Bacteroidetes division decreased, whereas those in the Firmicutes increased in obese v. lean rats and improved with prebiotic intake. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus increased in the OHF v. OC group. Bacteroides and total bacteria negatively correlated with percentage of body fat and body weight. Enterobacteriaceae increased in conjunction with glucose area under the curve (AUC) and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC. Bacteroides and total bacteria correlated positively with ghrelin AUC yet negatively with insulin AUC and energy intake (P<0·05). Several of the mechanisms through which prebiotics act (food intake, satiety hormones and alterations in gut microbiota) are regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The combined effects of prebiotics may have therapeutic potential for obesity.
PMCID: PMC3827017  PMID: 21767445 CAMSID: cams3660
Inulin; Oligofructose; Satiety response; Gut microbiota
4.  Differential Secretion of Satiety Hormones With Progression of Obesity in JCR: LA-corpulent Rats 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2008;16(4):10.1038/oby.2007.128.
To characterize the gastrointestinal tract at the onset and in well-established obesity.
Methods and Procedures
Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male JCR:LA-cp rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were killed at 3.5 weeks and 9 months of age and plasma concentrations of satiety hormones determined. The small intestine, colon, and stomach were measured, weighed, and mRNA levels of satiety genes quantified.
At the onset of obesity, obese rats had greater intestine, colon, and liver mass when adjusted for body weight compared to lean rats. Conversely, adult rats with established obesity had lower intestine and colon mass and length after adjustment for body weight. Early changes in gene expression included decreased ghrelin mRNA levels in stomach and increased peptide YY (PYY) mRNA levels in duodenum of young obese rats. After massive accumulation of adipose tissue had occurred, adult obese rats had increased proglucagon and ghrelin mRNA expression in the proximal intestine. In the distal small intestine, obese rats had lower proglucagon, ghrelin, and PYY mRNA levels. Finally, at the onset and in well-established obesity, obese rats had higher plasma insulin, amylin, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and PYY, a finding, with the exception of insulin, unique to this model. Plasma total ghrelin levels were significantly lower at the onset of obesity and established obesity compared to the lean rats.
Several defects are manifested in the obese gut early on in the disease before the accumulation of large excesses of body fat and represent potential targets for early intervention in obesity.
PMCID: PMC3827016  PMID: 18239578 CAMSID: cams3665
5.  Effect of prebiotic fibre supplementation on hepatic gene expression and serum lipids: a dose–response study in JCR:LA-cp rats 
The British journal of nutrition  2009;103(11):10.1017/S0007114509993539.
Prebiotic fibres have been proposed to promote weight loss and lower serum cholesterol; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present research was to identify possible mechanisms through which prebiotic fibres improve serum lipids. Lean and obese JCR:La-cp rats aged 8 weeks consumed one of three diets supplemented with 0, 10 or 20 % prebiotic fibre for 10 weeks. Rats were anaesthetised and a fasting blood sample was taken for lipid analysis. Real-time PCR was used to determine gene expression for cholesterol and fatty acid regulatory genes in liver tissue. Liver and caecal digesta cholesterol and TAG content were quantified. Both doses of prebiotic fibre lowered serum cholesterol levels by 24 % in the obese hyperlipidaemic rats (P<0·05). This change was associated with an increase in caecal digesta as well as an up-regulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile production. Additionally, there was a 42 % reduction in TAG accumulation in the liver of the obese rats with 10 % prebiotic diet (P<0·05); however, no change in liver fatty acid synthase (FAS). Prebiotic fibres appear to lower cholesterol levels through increased cholesterol excretion in the form of bile and inhibit the accumulation of TAG in the liver through a mechanism unrelated to FAS. These effects appear to be limited to the obese model and particularly the 10 % dose. The present work is significant as it provides insight into the mechanisms of action for prebiotic fibres on lipid metabolism and furthers the development of dietary treatments for hypercholesterolaemia.
PMCID: PMC3827012  PMID: 20021705 CAMSID: cams3654
Inulin and oligofructose; Lipid metabolism; Liver TAG; Cholesterol content; Gene expression
6.  Inhibition of nitric oxide generation unmasks vascular dysfunction in insulin-resistant, obese JCR:LA-cp rats 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1998;124(2):361-369.
The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on vascular reactivity and platelet function in the obese (cp/cp) and lean (+/?) JCR:LA-cp rats were investigated.Phenylephrine (PE; 0.1 nM–10 μM) induced contraction of isolated aortic rings in both genotypes (cp/cp and +/?) of JCR:LA-cp rats. The sensitivity to contraction with PE was enhanced in cp/cp compared with +/? rings. Rings from both genotypes showed an increased contraction upon removal of the endothelium.Acetylcholine (ACh; 0.1 nM–10 μM)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of rings was not significantly different in the two genotypes. Both were inhibited to a similar extent by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 0.01–1 mM) when administered in vitro.The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME; 0.3, 1 or 3 mg ml−1, p.o.) when administered in vivo increased blood pressure in cp/cp rats but not in +/? rats.L-NAME resulted in greater inhibition of ACh-induced relaxation in cp/cp rings compared with +/? rings.L-NAME treatment in vivo caused a decrease in cyclic GMP and NOS activity in rings from cp/cp but not +/? rats.The NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP; 0.1 nM–10 μM)-induced relaxation of rings from +/? rats, an effect enhanced by the treatment with L-NAME in vivo.Oral administration of L-NAME did not enhance the vasorelaxant effect of SNAP on rings of aorta from cp/cp animals.Platelet aggregation and NOS activity were similar in both genotypes and were not modified by oral administration of L-NAME.These results show that unimpaired generation of NO is crucial for maintenance of vascular tone particularly under conditions of vascular insult exemplified by insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidemia detected in cp/cp rats.
PMCID: PMC1565384  PMID: 9641554
Nitric oxide; JCR:LA-cp rat; insulin resistance; vascular smooth muscle; NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; endothelium; platelets
7.  Glucose Tolerance, Lipids, and GLP-1 Secretion in JCR:LA-cp Rats Fed a High Protein Fiber Diet 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2008;16(1):10.1038/oby.2007.16.
We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain.
Methods and Procedures
Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined.
Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels.
Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia.
PMCID: PMC3827014  PMID: 18223610 CAMSID: cams3664
8.  Arterial Retention of Remnant Lipoproteins Ex Vivo Is Increased in Insulin Resistance Because of Increased Arterial Biglycan and Production of Cholesterol-Rich Atherogenic Particles That Can Be Improved by Ezetimibe in the JCR:LA-cp Rat 
Literature supports the “response-to-retention” hypothesis—that during insulin resistance, impaired metabolism of remnant lipoproteins can contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease progression. We used the JCR:LA-cp rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine the extent of arterial accumulation of intestinal-derived remnants ex vivo and potential mechanisms that contribute to exacerbated cholesterol deposition in insulin resistance.
Methods and Results
Arteries from control and MetS (insulin-resistant) JCR:LA-cp rats were perfused ex vivo with Cy5-labeled remnant lipoproteins, and their arterial retention was quantified by confocal microscopy. Arterial proteoglycans were isolated from control and MetS rats at 6, 12, and 32 weeks of age. There was a significant increase in the arterial retention of remnants and in associated cholesterol accumulation in MetS rats as compared to control rats. Mechanistic studies reveal that increased cholesterol deposition is a result of greater arterial biglycan content; longer glycosaminoglycans and increased production of cholesterol-rich intestinal-derived remnants, as compared to controls. Additionally, perfusion of vessels treated with ezetimibe, alone or in combination with simvastatin, with remnants isolated from the respective treatment group reduced ex vivo arterial retention of remnant-derived cholesterol ex vivo as compared to untreated controls.
Increased progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus might be explained in part by an increase in the arterial retention of cholesterol-rich remnants. Furthermore, ezetimibe alone or in combination treatment with simvastatin could be beneficial in ameliorating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in insulin resistance and MetS.
PMCID: PMC3541624  PMID: 23316299
arterial remodeling; biglycan; metabolic syndrome; triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins
9.  Increased insulin sensitivity and reduced micro and macro vascular disease induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose during metabolic syndrome in obese JCR: LA-cp rats 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2007;151(2):216-225.
Background and purpose:
The metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. The origins of the syndrome have been hypothesized to lie in continuous availability of energy dense foods in modern societies. In contrast, human physiology has evolved in an environment of sporadic food supply and frequent food deprivation. Intermittent food restriction in rats has previously been shown to lead to reduction of cardiovascular risk and a greater life span. The non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) is taken up by cells and induces pharmacological inhibition of metabolism of glucose. We hypothesized that intermittent inhibition of glucose metabolism, a metabolic deprivation, may mimic intermittent food deprivation and ameliorate metabolic and pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome.
Experimental approach:
Insulin resistant, atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-cp rats were treated with 2-DG (0.3% w/w in chow) on an intermittent schedule (2 days treated, one day non-treated, two days treated and two days non-treated) or continuously at a dose to give an equivalent averaged intake.
Key results:
Intermittent 2-DG-treatment improved insulin sensitivity, which correlated with increased adiponectin concentrations. Further, intermittent treatment (but not continuous treatment) reduced plasma levels of leptin and the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Both 2-DG treatments reduced micro-vascular glomerular sclerosis, but only the intermittent schedule improved macro-vascular dysfunction.
Conclusions and implications:
Our findings are consistent with reduction in severity of the metabolic syndrome and protection against end stage micro- and macro-vascular disease through intermittent metabolic deprivation at a cellular level by inhibition of glucose oxidation with 2-DG.
PMCID: PMC2013948  PMID: 17375078
metabolic syndrome; atherosclerosis; 2-deoxy-D-glucose; glucose metabolism; vascular dysfunction; glomerular sclerosis; JCR:LA-cp rat
10.  Leptin Deficiency and Its Effects on Tibial and Vertebral Bone Mechanical Properties in Mature Genetically Lean and Obese JCR:LA-Corpulent Rats 
Journal of Obesity  2012;2012:650193.
Leptin signaling deficient rodents have emerged as models of obesity/insulin resistance syndrome. Altered leptin signaling, however, can affect axial and appendicular bone geometrical properties differently, and, thus, we hypothesized that leptin-deficiency would differentially influence mechanical properties of vertebrae and tibiae compared to lean rats. Mature (9 mo) leptin receptor deficient obese (cp/cp; n = 8) and lean (+/?; n = 7) male JCR:LA-corpulent rats were used to test that hypothesis. Tibiae and the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were scanned with micro-CT and were broken in three point-bending (tibiae) or axial loading (L6). Supporting the hypothesis, vertebrae and tibiae were differentially affected by leptin signaling deficiency. Tibiae, but not vertebrae, were significantly shorter in obese rats and achieved a significantly greater load (>18%), displacement (>15%), and stress (>18%) at the proportional limit, relative to the lean rats. Conversely, L6 in obese rats had significantly reduced displacement (>25%) and strain (>32%) at proportional limit, relative to the lean rats. Those combined results suggest that the etiology and duration of obesity may be important determinants of bone mechanical properties, and axial and appendicular bones may be affected differently.
PMCID: PMC3409537  PMID: 22888408
11.  Sustained decreases in weight and serum insulin, glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol in JCR:LA-corpulent rats treated with D-fenfluramine. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1992;105(3):679-685.
1. The effects of D-fenfluramine were studied in the JCR:LA-corpulent rat that is grossly obese, hyperphagic, hyperlipidaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and atherosclerosis-prone. 2. Daily doses of 1, 2.5 and 5 mg kg-1 of D-fenfluramine produced sustained decreases in body weight and food intake over a period of 30 days in 6 month old female rats fed ad libitum. This was accompanied by decreases in the circulating concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerol, free cholesterol and insulin. 3. Food restriction imposed by meal feeding also decreased circulating glucose, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and insulin and diminished the effect of D-fenfluramine on these parameters in male and female rats. 4. Addition of D-fenfluramine to drinking water to give a dose of about 0.25 mg kg-1 daily produced a sustained decrease in body weight and food intake of male and female rats over a nine week period. 5. The results show that the JCR:LA-corpulent rat is very sensitive to the pharmacological effects of D-fenfluramine. These rats should provide an appropriate animal model for determining the mechanisms of action of this anti-obesity agent and whether apparently beneficial changes in metabolism translate into long-term protection against premature atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC1908473  PMID: 1628154
12.  Chronic Active Hepatitis Induced by Helicobacter hepaticus in the A/JCr Mouse Is Associated with a Th1 Cell-Mediated Immune Response 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(7):3142-3148.
Helicobacter hepaticus infection in A/JCr mice results in chronic active hepatitis characterized by perivascular, periportal, and parenchymal infiltrates of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. This study examined the development of hepatitis and the immune response of A/JCr mice to H. hepaticus infection. The humoral and cell-mediated T helper immune response was profiled by measuring the postinfection (p.i.) antibody response in serum, feces, and bile and by the production of cytokines and proliferative responses by splenic mononuclear cells to H. hepaticus antigens. Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and systemic IgG2a antibody developed by 4 weeks p.i. and persisted through 12 months. Splenocytes from infected mice proliferated and produced more gamma interferon (IFN-γ) than interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-5 when cultured with H. hepaticus outer membrane proteins. The predominantly IgG2a antibody response in serum and the in vitro production of IFN-γ in excess of IL-4 or IL-5 are consistent with a Th1 immune response reported in humans and mice infected with Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis, respectively. Mice infected with H. hepaticus developed progressively severe perivascular, periportal, and hepatic parenchymal lesions consisting of lymphohistiocytic and plasmacytic cellular infiltrates. In addition, transmural typhlitis was observed at 12 months p.i. The characterization of a cell-mediated Th1 immune response to H. hepaticus infection in the A/JCr mouse should prove valuable as a model for experimental regimens which manipulate the host response to Helicobacter.
PMCID: PMC108325  PMID: 9632578
13.  Differential effects of inhalation exposure to PM2.5 on hypothalamic monoamines and corticotrophin releasing hormone in lean and obese rats 
Neurotoxicology  2012;36:106-111.
Acute exposure to airborne pollutants, especially particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to increase hospital admissions for cardiovascular conditions, increase cardiovascular related mortality and predispose the elderly and obese individuals to cardiovascular conditions. The mechanisms by which PM2.5 exposure affects the cardiovascular system is not clear. Since the autonomic system plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation, we hypothesized that PM2.5 exposure most likely activates the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus to cause an increase in sympathetic nervous system and/or stress axis activity. We also hypothesized that these changes may be sustained in obese rats predisposing them to higher cardiovascular risk. To test this, adult male Brown Norway (BN) rats were subjected to one day or three days of inhalation exposures to filtered air (FA) of concentrated air particulate (CAP) derived from ambient PM2.5. Corpulent JCR-LA rats were exposed to FA or CAP for four days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last inhalation exposure. Their brains were removed, frozen and sectioned. The PVN and median eminence (ME) were microdissected. PVN was analyzed for norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5–HIAA) levels using HPLC-EC. ME was analyzed for corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) levels by ELISA. One day exposure to CAP increased NE levels in the PVN and CRH levels in the ME of BN rats. Repeated exposures to CAP did not affect NE levels in the PVN of BN rats, but increased NE levels in JCR/LA rats. A similar pattern was observed with 5-HIAA levels. DA levels on the other hand, were unaffected in both BN and JCR/LA strains. These data suggest that repeated exposures to PM2.5 continue to stimulate the PVN in obese animals but not lean rats.
PMCID: PMC3402685  PMID: 22426024
Particulate matter; repeated exposure; sympathetic nervous system; stress axis; cardiovascular risk
14.  Effects of Elaidic Acid on Lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells, Investigated by an Integrated Approach of Lipidomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74283.
Trans fatty acid consumption in the human diet can cause adverse health effects, such as cardiovascular disease, which is associated with higher total cholesterol, a higher low density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. The aim of the study was to elucidate the hepatic response to the most abundant trans fatty acid in the human diet, elaidic acid, to help explain clinical findings on the relationship between trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. The human HepG2 cell line was used as a model to investigate the hepatic response to elaidic acid in a combined proteomic, transcriptomic and lipidomic approach. We found many of the proteins responsible for cholesterol synthesis up-regulated together with several proteins involved in the esterification and hepatic import/export of cholesterol. Furthermore, a profound remodeling of the cellular membrane occurred at the phospholipid level. Our findings contribute to the explanation on how trans fatty acids from the diet can cause modifications in plasma cholesterol levels by inducing abundance changes in several hepatic proteins and the hepatic membrane composition.
PMCID: PMC3772929  PMID: 24058537
15.  Glucagon and a glucagon-GLP-1 dual-agonist increases cardiac performance with different metabolic effects in insulin-resistant hearts 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2012;165(8):2736-2748.
The prevalence of heart disease continues to rise, particularly in subjects with insulin resistance (IR), and improved therapies for these patients is an important challenge. In this study we evaluated cardiac function and energy metabolism in IR JCR:LA-cp rat hearts before and after treatment with an inotropic compound (glucagon), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (ZP131) or a glucagon-GLP-1 dual-agonist (ZP2495).
Hearts from IR and lean JCR:LA rats were isolated and perfused in the working heart mode for measurement of cardiac function and metabolism before and after addition of vehicle, glucagon, ZP131 or ZP2495. Subsequently, cardiac levels of nucleotides and short-chain CoA esters were measured by HPLC.
Hearts from IR rats showed decreased rates of glycolysis and glucose oxidation, plus increased palmitate oxidation rates, although cardiac function and energy state (measured by ATP/AMP ratios) was normal compared with control rats. Glucagon increased glucose oxidation and glycolytic rates in control and IR hearts, but the increase was not enough to avoid AMP and ADP accumulation in IR hearts. ZP131 had no significant metabolic or functional effects in either IR or control hearts. In contrast, ZP2495 increased glucose oxidation and glycolytic rates in IR hearts to a similar extent to that of glucagon but with no concomitant accumulation of AMP or ADP.
Whereas glucagon compromised the energetic state of IR hearts, glucagon-GLP-1 dual-agonist ZP2495 appeared to preserve it. Therefore, a glucagon-GLP-1 dual-agonist may be beneficial compared with glucagon alone in the treatment of severe heart failure or cardiogenic shock in subjects with IR.
PMCID: PMC3423242  PMID: 22014161
glucagon; GLP-1; glucagon-GLP-1 dual-agonist; insulin-resistance; cardiac metabolism; cardiac function; cardiac energetics; inotropic compounds; working hearts; diabetic cardiomyopathy
16.  Irbesartan-mediated reduction of renal and cardiac damage in insulin resistant JCR : LA-cp rats 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2009;158(6):1588-1596.
Background and purpose:
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), originally developed for antihypertensive properties, have pleiotropic effects including direct vascular actions. We tested the hypothesis that the ARB irbesartan would be effective against micro- and macrovascular complications of the prediabetic metabolic syndrome using the obese, insulin-resistant JCR : LA-cp rat that exhibits micro- and macrovascular disease with ischaemic myocardial lesions and renal disease.
Experimental approach:
Obese male rats were treated with irbesartan (30 mg·kg−1·day−1, incorporated into chow) from 12 to 25 weeks of age.
Key results:
Irbesartan treatment caused no change in food intake or body weight. Fasting glycaemic control of the JCR : LA-cp rats was marginally improved, at the expense of increased plasma insulin levels (∼50%). Fasting plasma triglycerides were marginally reduced (∼25%), while cholesterol concentrations were unchanged. Elevated concentrations of adiponectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were reduced along with severity of glomerular sclerosis. Macrovascular dysfunction (aortic hypercontractile response to noradrenergic stimulus and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation) was improved and frequency of ischaemic myocardial lesions reduced (62%).
Conclusions and implications:
Irbesartan reduces markers of inflammation and prothombotic status, improves macrovascular function and reduces glomerular sclerosis and myocardial lesions in a model of the metabolic syndrome. Unlike pharmaceutical agents targeted on metabolic dysfunction, irbesartan reduced end-stage disease without major reduction of plasma lipids or insulin. The protective effects appear to be secondary to unknown intracellular mechanisms, probably involving signal transduction pathways. Understanding these would offer novel pharmaceutical approaches to protection against cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC2795225  PMID: 19814728
metabolic syndrome; vascular function; glomerular sclerosis; PAI-1; MCP-1; adiponectin
17.  Acute-Phase Serum Amyloid A: An Inflammatory Adipokine and Potential Link between Obesity and Its Metabolic Complications 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(6):e287.
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, and serum markers of inflammation are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link obesity to chronic inflammation and CVD are poorly understood.
Methods and Findings
Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) mRNA levels, and A-SAA adipose secretion and serum levels were measured in obese and nonobese individuals, obese participants who underwent weight-loss, and persons treated with the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. Inflammation-eliciting activity of A-SAA was investigated in human adipose stromal vascular cells, coronary vascular endothelial cells and a murine monocyte cell line. We demonstrate that A-SAA was highly and selectively expressed in human adipocytes. Moreover, A-SAA mRNA levels and A-SAA secretion from adipose tissue were significantly correlated with body mass index ( r = 0.47; p = 0.028 and r = 0.80; p = 0.0002, respectively). Serum A-SAA levels decreased significantly after weight loss in obese participants ( p = 0.006), as well as in those treated with rosiglitazone ( p = 0.033). The magnitude of the improvement in insulin sensitivity after weight loss was significantly correlated with decreases in serum A-SAA ( r = −0.74; p = 0.034). SAA treatment of vascular endothelial cells and monocytes markedly increased the production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, SAA increased basal lipolysis in adipose tissue culture by 47%.
A-SAA is a proinflammatory and lipolytic adipokine in humans. The increased expression of A-SAA by adipocytes in obesity suggests that it may play a critical role in local and systemic inflammation and free fatty acid production and could be a direct link between obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Accordingly, improvements in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance with weight loss and rosiglitazone therapy may in part be mediated by decreases in adipocyte A-SAA production.
Editors' Summary
Obesity often alters an individual's overall metabolism, which in turn leads to complications like diabetes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (disease of the heart and blood vessels, such as stroke or heart attacks). Having established a strong link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, scientists now think that obesity might cause persistent low-level inflammation, and that this is the reason for the cardiovascular problems seen in many obese people. By better understanding the links between obesity, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, the hope is that scientists may be able to find medications that can be given to obese people to reduce their risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Why Was This Study Done?
Previous research had suggested that a substance in the blood called A-SAA, which is raised by inflammation, might be a “missing link” between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, since an individual's baseline level of A-SAA is associated with the risk for cardiovascular disease (in other words, the higher the A-SAA, the higher the risk of cardiovascular disease). In the new study, researchers wanted to know whether the reason that obese people have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease is because they have higher blood levels of A-SAA.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
They found that obese people had higher levels of A-SAA in their blood. A-SAA appears to be produced in fat cells (or adipocytes) and then released into the blood. Obese people have higher numbers of fat cells, which could by itself account for the higher blood levels of A-SAA, but the researchers also found that the average fat cell from an obese individual produces and secretes higher levels of A-SAA than fat cells from lean individuals. When the researchers studied people who underwent weight loss, they found that A-SAA levels fell in response to weight loss, and this was associated with improvements in their metabolism. They then studied obese individuals who received the diabetes drug rosiglitazone (which is known to reduce inflammation). They found that even though these individuals did not lose weight, their A-SAA levels dropped as their metabolism improved. Trying to get at the mechanisms by which A-SAA might cause inflammation and diabetes, the researchers found that exposure to A-SAA can stimulate the activation of proinflammation molecules in a number of different cells, including blood vessel cells. It can also stimulate cells to break down fat stores and release fats, which could lead to metabolic complications and ultimately contribute to diabetes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Together with similar results from other studies, the findings here suggest that A-SAA could promote inflammation, and that elevated levels of A-SAA in obese individuals could contribute to the chronic low-level inflammatory state that puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular complications. The authors speculate that drugs that reduce the blood levels of A-SAA might be useful as treatments for obese patients (to lower their risk of heart attacks and strokes). However, as they acknowledge, additional studies are needed to establish that A-SAA is indeed a causal link between obesity and inflammation and whether it plays a major role before it could be considered a promising drug target.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
• MedlinePlus pages on obesity and cardiovascular disease
• US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention pages on obesity and cardiovascular disease
• Wikipedia pages on obesity and cardiovascular disease (note: Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
Higher levels of Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA), a proinflammatory adipokine, in obese individuals may contribute to the chronic low-level inflammatory state that puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular complications.
PMCID: PMC1472697  PMID: 16737350
18.  Effects of solvents and alcohols on the polar lipid composition of Clostridium butyricum under conditions of controlled lipid chain composition. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1991;57(12):3517-3521.
Clostridium butyricum has been grown in media devoid of biotin, to which long-chain fatty acids have been added to promote growth. We have shown previously that, under these conditions, exogenous fatty acids are extensively incorporated into the cellular phospholipids. Cells grown with elaidic acid, trans-9-18:1, have normal ratios of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine (GAPlaE) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plus plasmenylethanolamine (PlaE) compared with cells grown with biotin. When ethanol, cyclohexane, or n-octanol was added to elaidate-containing media, the ratio of GAPlaE to PE plus PlaE was significantly increased. Addition of dodecane and n-butanol did not affect this ratio. When cells were grown with oleic acid in the absence of biotin, the GAPlaE to PE plus PlaE ratio was increased 5.4-fold compared with elaidate-grown cells. In oleate-supplemented media, the addition of solvents or n-alcohols produced no further increase in this ratio. We conclude that these changes in lipid composition represent cellular responses to perturbation of the equilibria between the lamellar and nonlamellar liquid crystalline phases in the cell membrane.
PMCID: PMC184005  PMID: 1785927
19.  Turnover of Phospholipids in an Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotroph of Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  1972;112(3):1396-1407.
The membrane phospholipids of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of Escherichia coli were found to undergo turnover. These phospholipids were excreted into the culture medium, and were replaced in the cell with newly synthesized phospholipids. Phospholipids of growing cells supplemented with elaidic acid underwent rapid turnover, while those of cells supplemented with oleate, or cis-vaccenate plus palmitoleate, underwent slow turnover. Starvation for required amino acids stimulated this turnover in the latter two cases. Protein was also lost from growing cells. However, after amino acid starvation this loss ceased while phospholipid turnover continued. Electron micrographs of growing cells indicated that large pieces of membrane-like material were separating from the cell surface.
PMCID: PMC251577  PMID: 4629658
20.  Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep 
Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01) weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05) in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11) acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05) in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05) (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1) than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1) at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01) in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05) in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6), and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK) mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05) GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.
PMCID: PMC4243576  PMID: 25429233
adipocytes; longissimus muscle; lipogenesis; insulin level; serum; fatty acid
21.  Leptin- and Leptin Receptor-Deficient Rodent Models: Relevance for Human Type 2 Diabetes 
Current Diabetes Reviews  2014;10(2):131-145.
Among the most widely used animal models in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research are the congenital leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models. These include the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, SHR/N-cp rats, and JCR:LA-cp rats. After decades of mechanistic and therapeutic research schemes with these animal models, many species differences have been uncovered, but researchers continue to overlook these differences, leading to untranslatable research. The purpose of this review is to analyze and comprehensively recapitulate the most common leptin/leptin receptor-based animal models with respect to their relevance and translatability to human T2DM. Our analysis revealed that, although these rodents develop obesity due to hyperphagia caused by abnormal leptin/leptin receptor signaling with the subsequent appearance of T2DM-like manifestations, these are in fact secondary to genetic mutations that do not reflect disease etiology in humans, for whom leptin or leptin receptor deficiency is not an important contributor to T2DM. A detailed comparison of the roles of genetic susceptibility, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications as well as leptin expression, signaling, and other factors that confound translation are presented here. There are substantial differences between these animal models and human T2DM that limit reliable, reproducible, and translatable insight into human T2DM. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers recognize and acknowledge the limitations of the leptin/leptin receptor-based rodent models and invest in research methods that would be directly and reliably applicable to humans in order to advance T2DM management.
PMCID: PMC4082168  PMID: 24809394
Diabetes; leptin/leptin receptor mutations; obesity; rodent models; translational barrier.
22.  Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet 
Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP) or resistant (OR) on a high-fat diet (HFD).
Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD) or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats) access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6), delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18), de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6) and FA elongation (18:0/16:0). Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma.
After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols) or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids) lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher SCD-16 and SCD-18 indices in SAT triacylglycerols in OP compared with HFD-paired rats.
The higher SCD-16 may reflect higher SCD-1 activity in SAT, which in combination with lower LA proportions may reflect higher insulin resistance and changes in SAT independent of other lipid fractions. Whether a lower SCD-16 index protects against diet-induced obesity is an interesting possibility that warrants further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3558438  PMID: 23298201
Desaturase; Diet-induced obesity; Fatty acid composition; High-fat diet; Linoleic acid; Obesity prone; Obesity resistant; Subcutaneous adipose tissue; SCD-1; Stearoyl-CoA desaturase
23.  Loss of function mutation in toll-like receptor-4 does not offer protection against obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diet high in trans fat in mice 
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) triggers inflammatory signaling in response to microbial lipoploysaccharide. It has been reported that loss of TLR4 protected against saturated fat-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. It is not known whether loss of TLR4 function offers protection against trans fat (TF) induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether mice with loss of function mutation in TLR4 were resistant to TF-induced pathologies such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia.
C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 mice were cross bred to generate TLR4 mutant and wild type (WT). TLR4 mutant (n = 12) and WT (n = 12) mice were fed either low fat (LF) (13.5% fat energy) or high TF diets (60% fat energy) for 12 weeks. In vitro experiments were conducted on mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 and J774A.1) to investigate whether elaidic (trans 18:1) or oleic acid (cis 18:1) would upregulate inflammatory markers.
TLR4 mutant mice were ~26.4% heavier than WT mice. In both genotypes, mice that received TF diet were significantly heavier than those mice that received LF diet (P < 0.01). TLR4 mutant mice compared to WT mice had significantly higher fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance, serum leptin, and serum cholesterol when they received TF diet (P < 0.05). No upregulation of iNOS or COX2 in response to either elaidic or oleic acid in macrophage cells was observed.
Loss of function mutation in TLR4 not only did not protect mice from TF-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia but also exacerbated the above pathologies suggesting that functional TLR4 is necessary in attenuating TF-induced deleterious effects. It is likely that TF induces pathologies through pathways independent of TLR4.
PMCID: PMC3048481  PMID: 21314942
24.  Distinct regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression by cis and trans C18:1 fatty acids in human aortic smooth muscle cells 
Genes & Nutrition  2011;7(2):209-216.
Consumption of trans fatty acids is positively correlated with cardiovascular diseases and with atherogenic risk factors. Trans fatty acids might play their atherogenic effects through lipid metabolism alteration of vascular cells. Accumulation of lipids in vascular smooth muscle cells is a feature of atherosclerosis and a consequence of lipid metabolism alteration. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (scd1) catalyses the production of monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. oleic acid) and its expression is associated with lipogenesis induction and with atherosclerosis development. We were interested in analysing the regulation of delta-9 desaturation rate and scd1 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) exposed to cis and trans C18:1 fatty acid isomers (cis-9 oleic acid, trans-11 vaccenic acid or trans-9 elaidic acid) for 48 h at 100 μM. Treatment of HASMC with these C18:1 fatty acid isomers led to differential effects on delta-9 desaturation; oleic acid repressed the desaturation rate more potently than trans-11 vaccenic acid, whereas trans-9 elaidic acid increased the delta-9 desaturation rate. We then correlated the delta-9 desaturation rate with the expression of scd1 protein and mRNA. We showed that C18:1 fatty acids controlled the expression of scd1 at the transcriptional level in HASMC, leading to an increase in scd1 mRNA content by trans-9 elaidic acid treatment, whereas a decrease in scd1 mRNA content was observed with cis-9 oleic acid and trans-11 vaccenic acid treatments. Altogether, this work highlights a differential capability of C18:1 fatty acid isomers to control scd1 gene expression, which presumes of different consequent effects on cell functions.
PMCID: PMC3316751  PMID: 22057664
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase; trans fatty acids; Oleic acid; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Atherosclerosis
25.  Effects of Chronic Antagonism of Endocannabinoid-1 Receptors on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Action in Skeletal Muscles of Lean and Obese Zucker Rats 
Cardiorenal Medicine  2011;1(1):31-44.
Antagonism of the endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) directly improves whole-body metabolic parameters of insulin resistance. The present investigation determined the effects of chronic CB1R antagonism on whole-body and skeletal-muscle insulin action in insulin-sensitive lean and insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats.
Animals were either fed ad libitum or in pairs, or treated with SR141716 (10 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days).
Food intake was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) after initial SR141716 treatment and remained decreased in both lean and obese animals until day 13. Fasting plasma glucose decreased (24%) and insulin increased (43%) in lean SR141716-treated (24%) rats compared to lean ad libitum-fed controls, but not in the corresponding obese groups. Fasting plasma free fatty acids were reduced by CB1R antagonism in lean (21%) and obese (42%) animals. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was increased (36%) in obese SR141716-treated rats compared to obese ad libitum-fed controls, which was associated with reduced insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in the soleus was greatest in the respective SR141716-treated lean and obese groups compared to the corresponding ad libitum- and pair-fed controls. Chronic SR141716 treatment did not induce alterations in signaling factors associated with the regulation of glucose transport [protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β, 5′-AMP-dependent protein kinase, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase] in the soleus.
These results indicate that, while the chronic treatment with CB1R antagonism markedly diminished food intake in lean and obese Zucker rats, there are also significant metabolic improvements in whole-body and skeletal-muscle insulin action mediated by CB1R antagonism through mechanisms independent of reduced caloric intake.
PMCID: PMC3101519  PMID: 22258464
CB1 receptor; Insulin resistance; Soleus muscle; SR141716; Zucker rat

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