Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayurvedic formulations. The World Health Organisation therefore persuaded the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to implement a pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensuring the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. After a year of due diligence, the pharmacovigilance program was launched nationally on 29 September 2008. Since that time, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicines have been monitored according to the provisions of a protocol prepared by the National Pharmacovigilance Resource Centre, IPGTRA, Jamnagar, and approved by Department of AYUSH. The program was reviewed, first, on 21st January 2009 by the National Pharmaco-vigilance Consultative Committee for ASU drugs (NPCC-ASU), and again, on 15 Feburary, 2010, when an evaluation meeting effectively rubber stamped the program. Among the outcomes of these meetings were several suggestions of measures to improve the program’s efficiency. Recent developments include the constitution of pharmacovigilance centers at all Ayurveda Teaching institutes and research centers.
Adverse drug reaction; Awareness; Ayurvedic medicine; Pharmacovigilance; Safety
As it is well served with the same Aryan and Dravidian primarily in India has developed two cultures to protect human health and resources to suit your needs individually developed treatment methods. Who stated in Ayurveda and Siddha. Ayurveda is expanding, but Siddha could not get into the main stream. Received medical science has Siddha valuable sources resulting from human community is deprived vast majority of today. Received medical science has Siddha purpose of this study contain the main stream in is.
History of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, History of Indian Sciences, Rigvedas, Atharvavedas, Sangamsahitya, Charaksaamhita, Shaiva Shakta Tantra etc and public mythics present study were used as the sources.
The study found that the difficulty of language of obtaining siddha was not included in the main stream of Indian medication., Then the formulas of Siddha therapeutics, the global medical science not only the rich are able to.
The study also the conclusion of this study is that Indian society during the long evolutionary journey Aryan and Dravidian cultures as Siddha and Ayurveda are also mixed in their experiences and medical sources interchange wealthy have been themselves but its originality is maintained. Which consists in the fact that the botanical worlds where Ayurveda Himalayas while the original basis Siddha medicinal seaside minerals suit their environment, chemicals, and herbs the original base. Siddha medicine even today in the poisons, minerals, and ease of purification methods are available, whose use in the current upgrade medical science and is helpful in advancement and enrichment revealed that development and use of drugs in the locality, culture and the environment is essential to keep in mind.
AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the 5-year planning documents have been reviewed, from the 1stplan to 12thplan, to enable reflection and throw some light into the future directions of AYUSH system.
Ancient medical manuscripts; Indian systems of medicine; Indian systems of medicine informatics; mainstreaming of Ayurveda; Yoga and Naturopathy; Unani; Sidha and Homeopathy; medical tourism
Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years.
Ayurveda; Indian medicinal plants; reverse pharmacology; observational therapeutics; antioxidant
Decades back AYUSH systems of medicine were limited to their own field with few exceptions in some states as health in India is a state issue. This took a reverse turn after the initiation of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005 which brought the concept of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and Revitalization of Local Health Traditions” utilizing the untapped AYUSH workforces, therapeutics and principles for the management of community health problems. As on 31/03/2012 AYUSH facilities were co-located in 468 District Hospitals, 2483 Community Health Centers and 8520 Primary Health Centers in the country. Several therapeutics are currently in use and few drugs have been included in the ASHA drug kit to treat common ailments in the community. At the same time Government of India has recognized few principles and therapeutics of Ayurveda as modalities of intervention to some of the community health problems. These include Ksharasutra (medicine coated thread) therapy for ano-rectal surgeries and Rasayana Chikitsa (rejuvenative therapy) for senile degenerative disorders etc. Similarly respective principles and therapeutics can also be utilized from other systems of AYUSH such as Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy. Akin to Ayurveda these principles and therapeutics can also help in managing community health problems if appropriately implemented. This paper is a review on the role of AYUSH, as a system, in the delivery of health care in India with special reference to National Rural Health Mission.
AYUSH; National Rural Health Mission; principles; therapeutics; workforce
The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.
Healthcare; integrative medicine; public health
The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the “integration” of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states – Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic ‘framework’ approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents.
We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the potential to undermine the therapeutic practices and motivation of AYUSH providers, as well as the overall efficiency and performance of integrated health services.
•The roles of AYUSH (TCAM) providers in public facilities in India are perceived discrepantly.•Work sharing is dissimilarly interpreted by different health system actors.•Interactions among practitioners of different systems of medicine are fraught.•Logistical, infrastructural, technical, and administrative provision for TCAM is low.•Policy and budgetary support for TCAM are inadequate for field development.
India; Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine; AYUSH; Mainstreaming; Pluralistic health system; Role perceptions; Role ambivalence; Integration
National policy on medical pluralism in India encourages the mainstreaming of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) systems and the revitalization of local health traditions (LHT). In Meghalaya state in the northeast, the main LHT is its indigenous tribal traditional medicine. This paper presents the perceptions of tribal medicine and of AYUSH systems among various policy actors and locates the tribal medicine of Meghalaya within the policy on medical pluralism currently being implemented in the state, a region that is ethnically and culturally different and predominantly inhabited by indigenous peoples.
A stakeholder mapping exercise identified appropriate policy actors and 46 in-depth interviews were conducted with policy makers, doctors, academics, members of healer associations and elders of the community. A further 44 interviews were conducted with 24 Khasi and 20 Garo traditional healers. Interview data were supplemented with document analysis and observations. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis that incorporated elements of grounded theory.
In Meghalaya there is high awareness and utilization of tribal medicine, but no visible efforts by the public sector to support or engage with healers. The AYUSH systems in contrast had little local acceptance but promotion of these systems has led to a substantial increase in AYUSH doctors, particularly homeopaths, in rural areas. Policy actors outside the health department saw an important role for tribal medicine due to its popularity, local belief in its efficacy and its cultural resonance. The need to engage with healers to enhance referral, training, documentation and research of tribal medicine was made.
The wide acceptance of tribal medicine suggests that tribal medicine needs to be supported. The results of the study question the process of the implementation of the ‘mainstreaming AYUSH’ policy for Meghalaya and highlight the importance of contextualizing health policy within the local culture. A potential role for Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) at sub-national levels is also highlighted.
Health policy; Health systems; Indigenous medicine; Medical pluralism; Traditional medicine
Sharing of public health knowledge and skills by professionals in allopathic system of medicine with Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) professionals in India has always been considered as part of integrating the health system in India. But till date, a curriculum has not been framed for follow-up.
Materials and Methods:
A training course was developed for AYUSH professionals in India on the public health principles for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Three course chairs interacted with international and national public health and AYUSH experts, and the curriculum for a 3-month course was developed.
The curriculum comprised interactive lectures, problem-based exercise, field visits, and research protocol development. A total of four participants, nominated by the World Health Organization, India, were trained during the course, with significant (P = 0.00) improvement in knowledge from 53.2 to 80.0 points.
A novel and feasible public health course for complementary and alternative medicine professionals on the public health principles for NCDs’ prevention and control is needed to bridge the demand gap for public health professionals in India.
AYUSH course; non-communicable disease; public health
By 2020, it is predicted that non-communicable diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Indian traditional medicine system with the concept of personalized therapy in Ayurveda has the potential to offer remedies to these challenging health issues. Integration of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, the three Indian systems of medicine (ISM), along with homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine to ensure health for all citizens across the country is the new Mantra of the Union health ministry. To tap the potentials of our indigenous medicine systems and other popular systems of medicine it is important to assess the awareness among people and make efforts to popularize them. The present study was therefore carried out to assess the awareness among 200 respondents with the help of a multiple choice questionnaire by the interview method. Convenience sampling technique was employed. The awareness about lifestyle, diet, oil consumption needs more vigorous attention as observed in this study. The most popular choice was found to be groundnut oil. Around 4% of the participants used more than one medium of cooking. Forty-two percent of the participants observed fast regularly. Twenty-three percent of the participants did not include any form of exercise in their daily routine while walking was the most popular form of exercise performed by 43%. By using multiple comparisons it was observed that the difference between i) Allopathy- Homeopathy, ii) Allopathy – Ayurvedic and iii) Ayurvedic- Homeopathy as 15.5263, 7.1053 and 8.4211, respectively, are significant at α = 0.05. A larger sample size encompassing various economic strata could be a better index of popularity of various alternative medicine systems existing in different sections of our society.
Alternative and complementary medicine; health awareness; Indian system of medicine; popularity of Ayurveda
This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients).
Ayurveda; Bureaucratization; Mainstreaming; Medical pluralism; Public health
India is among the important megabiodiversity centers of the world with nearly 45,000 known plant species. This diversity coupled with a rich heritage of traditional knowledge has made India a home to several important time-honored systems of health care such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Herbal medicines, however, are associated with a number of shortcomings including uniform efficacy and lack of appropriate quality control measures at various stages of product development. The review intends to outline the importance of fostering quality parameters towards standardization and manufacturing of botanicals for India to emerge as a leader in global market of herbal products. Literature survey was carried out on important parameters for processing and manufacturing of botanicals. The review highlights that there have been constant efforts for developing state of the art technologies in the field of herbal research. It also reflects that Government authorities have also taken a number of initiatives to formulate appropriate guidelines from standardization of raw materials to obtaining botanical products. However, in the Indian context, there exist certain lacunae in the current regulatory mechanisms which need to be strengthened and stringently implemented to ensure safety, purity and efficacy of herbal medicines. Towards this the approaches being developed globally can be adopted. Based on the literature reviewed, in our opinion, four areas viz., benefit sharing, investment by industry, standardization and national/international networking structure need immediate attention for strengthening Traditional Systems of Medicine in India.
India; quality control; regulations; standardization; traditional medicine
To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.
A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37−8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12−4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03−2.93, P < 0.05).
Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.
Attitude; Ayurveda; Yoga and Naturopathy; Unani; Siddha; and Homeopathy; beliefs; India; pharmacy students
Shankha Vati, a classical Ayurvedic formulation that is widely used by the practitioners of Ayurveda, contains a heavy metal i.e. Parada (mercury) and a poisonous herbal drug i.e. Vatsanabha (Aconitum chasmantum Staff.ex.Holmes) along with other ingredients. There are certain apprehensions on this formulation, mainly due to the presence of its ingredient Vatsanabha. Shankha Vati (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 10/186 – 187, also in Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part1), is one of the formulations in which Vatsanabha is used without its usual coingredient and antidote Tankana (borax). With an hypothesis that classical combination of Shankha Vati is not completely safe and there could be some adverse effects due to the presence of poisonous ingredient Vatsanabha in it, and any possible adverse effects of Shankha Vati due to the presence of Vatsanabha will be nullified by the addition of Tankana to the formulation, another modified formulation with the addition of purified Tankana equal to the quantity of Vatsanabha in the classical Shankha Vati, was also taken up for the study.
Acute toxicity study as per OECD Guideline 425, and Chronic toxicity study (90 days with the recovery period of 30 days) as per AYUSH170 guideline (Guidelines for preclinical safety evaluation for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs and other traditional medicines in India) were carried out. Biochemical and haematological investigations were carried out on 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days. Histopathological study of acute chronic toxicity study were carried out.
Histopathological study of both acute and chronic toxicity study were also carried out. There were no toxicity related changes found in the animals treated classical Shankha Vati as well as modified Shankha Vati in both acute and chronic toxicity study. Similarly biochemical and haematological investigations also did not toxicity related changes.
Classical formulation of Shankha Vati is completely safe and there is no need to modify the composition to make it safer.
Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine.
Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals; cosmaceuticals; IPR; nutraceuticals; product patent; TKDL
Indian system of medicine has its origin in India. The system is currently renamed as AYUSH, an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy. These are the six Indian systems of medicine prevalent and practiced in India and in few neighboring Asian countries.
The primary objective of this review was to gain insight in to the prior and existing initiatives which would enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.
Materials and Methods
A review was carried out based on the five year plan documents, obtained from the planning commission web portal of Govt. of India, on medical education, research and development of AYUSH systems of medicine.
Post independence, the process of five year planning took its birth with the initiation of long term planning in India. The planning process embraced all the social and technology sectors in it. Since the beginning of five year planning, health and family welfare planning became imperative as a social sector planning. Planning regarding Indian Systems of Medicine became a part of health and family welfare planning since then. During the entire planning process a progressive path of development could be observed as per this evaluation. A relatively sluggish process of development was observed up to seventh plan however post eighth plan the growth took its pace. Eighth plan onwards several innovative development processes could be noticed. Despite the relative developments and growth of Indian systems of medicine these systems have to face lot of criticism and appraisal owing to their various characteristic features. In the beginning the system thrived with great degree of uncertainty, as described in 1st five year plan, however progressed ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th five year plan.
A very strong optimistic approach in spreading India’s own medical heritage is the need of the hour. The efforts are neither completely insufficient nor sufficient enough; hence a continuous endeavor for the revival and dissemination of India’s own medical inheritance for the welfare of the society at large is highly desirable.
Accreditation of AYUSH institutions; Clinical training; ISM medical education; National level entrance examination
Clinical trials are mandatory for evidence-based practice. Hardly, any data are available regarding the number of clinical trials and their methodological quality that are conducted in allied fields of medicine.
The present study was envisaged to assess methodological quality of trials in allied medical fields.
Materials and Methods
Registered clinical trials in World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/AdvSearch.aspx) in the following fields were extracted: Acupuncture; Ayurveda; biofeedback; complementary and alternate medicine; herbal; homeopathy; massage; naturopathy; Reiki; Siddha; Unani; and yoga. The eligible studies were assessed for the following key details: Type of sponsors; health condition in which the trial has been conducted; recruitment status; study design; if randomization was present, method of randomization and allocation concealment; single or multi-centric; retrospective or prospective registration; and publication status in case of completed studies.
A total of 276 clinical trials were registered majority of which have been proposed to be conducted in the field of oncology and psychiatry. Most of the clinical trials were done in single centers (87.75%), and almost all the clinical trials were investigator-initiated with pharmaceutical company sponsored studies contributing to a maximum extent of 24.5%. A large majority of the study designs were interventional where almost 85% of the studies were randomized controlled trials. However, an appropriate method of randomization was mentioned only in 27.4%, and the rate of allocation concealment was found to be just 5.5%. Only 1–2% of the completed studies were published, and the average rate of retrospective registration was found to be 23.6% in various fields.
The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these trials and more support from various organizations.
Complementary and alternate medicine; Evidence-based medicine; Research
Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market.
Ayurveda; Ayurvedic medicine; development of Ayurveda; history of Ayurveda
Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy (TIMH), which is used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas. India has an estimated 2.5 million HIV infected persons. However, little is known about TIMH use, safety or efficacy in HIV/AIDS management in India, which has one of the largest indigenous medical systems in the world. The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of peer-reviewed, published literature on TIMH for HIV/AIDS care and treatment.
Of 206 original articles reviewed, 21 laboratory studies, 17 clinical studies, and 6 previous reviews of the literature were identified that covered at least one system of TIMH, which includes Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine, homeopathy, yoga and naturopathy. Most studies examined either Ayurvedic or homeopathic treatments. Only 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials, and only 10 were published in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Overall, the studies reported positive effects and even "cure" and reversal of HIV infection, but frequent methodological flaws call into question their internal and external validity. Common reasons for poor quality included small sample sizes, high drop-out rates, design flaws such as selection of inappropriate or weak outcome measures, flaws in statistical analysis, and reporting flaws such as lack of details on products and their standardization, poor or no description of randomization, and incomplete reporting of study results.
This review exposes a broad gap between the widespread use of TIMH therapies for HIV/AIDS, and the dearth of high-quality data supporting their effectiveness and safety. In light of the suboptimal effectiveness of vaccines, barrier methods and behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV infection and the cost and side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for its treatment, it is both important and urgent to develop and implement a rigorous research agenda to investigate the potential risks and benefits of TIMH and to identify its role in the management of HIV/AIDS and associated illnesses in India.
India has a population of 1.21 billion people and there is a high degree of socio-cultural, linguistic, and demographic heterogeneity. There is a limited number of health care professionals, especially doctors, per head of population. The National Rural Health Mission has decided to mainstream the Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) system of indigenous medicine to help meet the challenge of this shortage of health care professionals and to strengthen the delivery system of the health care service. Multiple interventions have been implemented to ensure a systematic merger; however, the anticipated results have not been achieved as a result of multiple challenges and barriers. To ensure the accessibility and availability of health care services to all, policy-makers need to implement strategies to facilitate the mainstreaming of the AYUSH system and to support this system with stringent monitoring mechanisms.
Ayurvedic medicine; homeopathy; indigenous medicine; India; public health
Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.
Ayurvedic research and methodology; personalized medicine; Rasayana; traditional medicine
Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area.
Ayurveda; diarrhea; medicinal plant; traditional medicine
Ayurveda is eternal science of life because of its evolution is prior to human being itself. Ayurveda is part of our day to day life as a food & day routine. The study was performed as a survey in Delhi NCR (India) among the common men who use ayurveda or want ayurveda to be their system of medicine. The Aim of this study was to know their opinion that what are the ground realities and how ayurveda can be made more affordable and acceptable to them.
Sixty individuals were selected randomly comprising equally males and females. Age group was 18 to 70 yrs. All of them have undergone Ayurvedic treatment or have taken ayurvedic medicines as a part of their treatment. They were asked 31 questions about ayurveda under four categories as general questions, questions related to ayurvedic physicians, questions related to ayurvedic retailers and questions related to ayurvedic manufacturers. Their answers were taken on a printed questionnaire as a tick Yes, No and can’t say. Some questions were subjective to get suggestions of patients.
Result of the survey indicated some valuable points like 90% under study doesn’t know that BAMS are Ayurvedic Physicians. Pure Ayurvedic Retailers are rare; condition of ayurvedic medicines were not good at mixed ones. There was absolute majority for the expiry date on ayurvedic medicines & more research work on Ayurvedic preparations to make them tastier, easily differentiable & patient friendly.
The results of the study should be addressed by the Ayurvedic Physicians, Ayurvedic manufacturers and retailers community on priority basis. The study also revealed the need of a broad based survey to get further insight of the present ayurvedic scenario in India & abroad and suggestions to make ayurveda more patients friendly and acceptable to all.
Currently, India recognizes five different healthcare systems, collectively known as AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy), along with the conventional biomedicine. These systems have their own institutionalized structure for monitoring medical education and practice. However, because of the ‘parallel’ kind of policy model that is followed in India, there is no formal provision for any cross-talk between the professionals belonging to these different streams. This situation has not only given rise to mutual misgivings among these professionals regarding the strengths and weaknesses of each other, but also has led to a poor appreciation of the historical and socio-cultural connections these streams share with the community at large. To tackle these issues and to promote adequate participation of biomedicine experts in AYUSH-related research projects, ‘introduction of an AYUSH module in the current curriculum of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) program’ has been proposed in this communication along with a possible roadmap for its implementation. It is also suggested that the experts in biomedicine be engaged for training AYUSH graduates in their respective specialties so that quality AYUSH education may be ensured.
AYUSH; biomedicine; cross-talk; medical education
Most of India population resides in rural and are not that economically sufficient to attend to rich healthcare bills of costly medicine, therapies and laboratory tests. The government is surely upto create more health centres and aid in future, as such this is a time taking project. On the other hand, an easy and effective way is following Ayurvedic life style and measures, moreover rural India is more closer to nature and the science of life, and it is more favourable to implement the ways mentioned in Ayurveda at core level. A study to verify the ways that can be advocated, from the basics of Ayurveda was projected.
Simple methods like following of dinacharya, ritucharya, sad vyavahar, plantation of home remedial medicinal plants along with the prime occupation of agriculture farming, using or organic fertilizer, following the medicinal ethics in rituals, protecting off from modern disorder causatives like sedentary lifestyle, junk canned foods, synthetic fertilizers, pollutants, etc. living in close with the nature, precisely Ayurvedic living seen to be very efficient.
The cost of healthcare expenses and maintainence was nullified, except the genetic and traumatic disorders most of them were very well handled or controlled before attaining full-blown condition. The concept of swasthavritta, nidaan parivarjan and samprapti vighatan could control most of the diseases. Health and happiness is a gift of life, was truly experienced. Implementing simple ways, which are in chorus with the lifestyle of rural, is not a complex issue. The results are highly benefitting and puts up a golden example for other to follow. It is in tune with enriching of public health through Ayurveda.
Rural population is the core of our country. Health to them in an economical and easy way Ayurveda will result a comprehensive progress to the whole country, and set an example for the world to follow.