In most bacteria, Clp protease is a conserved, non-essential serine protease that regulates the response to various stresses. Mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Mycobacterium smegmatis, unlike most well studied prokaryotes, encode two ClpP homologs, ClpP1 and ClpP2, in a single operon. Here we demonstrate that the two proteins form a mixed complex (ClpP1P2) in mycobacteria. Using two different approaches, promoter replacement, and a novel system of inducible protein degradation, leading to inducible expression of clpP1 and clpP2, we demonstrate that both genes are essential for growth and that a marked depletion of either one results in rapid bacterial death. ClpP1P2 protease appears important in degrading missense and prematurely terminated peptides, as partial depletion of ClpP2 reduced growth specifically in the presence of antibiotics that increase errors in translation. We further show that the ClpP1P2 protease is required for the degradation of proteins tagged with the SsrA motif, a tag co-translationally added to incomplete protein products. Using active site mutants of ClpP1 and ClpP2, we show that the activity of each subunit is required for proteolysis, for normal growth of Mtb in vitro and during infection of mice. These observations suggest that the Clp protease plays an unusual and essential role in Mtb and may serve as an ideal target for antimycobacterial therapy.
Due to the significant and rapid rise in multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), there is an urgent need to validate novel drug targets for the treatment of tuberculosis. Here, we show that Clp protease is an ideal potential target. Mtb encodes two ClpP genes, ClpP1 and ClpP2, which associate together to form a single proteolytic complex, referred to as ClpP1P2. Both proteins are required for growth in vitro and in a mouse model of infection. Depletion of either protein results in rapid death of the bacteria. Interestingly, this is rare among bacteria, most of which have only one ClpP gene that is dispensable for normal growth. We also show that Clp protease plays an important quality control role by clearing abnormally produced proteins. As known antimycobacterial therapeutics increase errors in protein synthesis, inhibitors of ClpP1P2 protease in Mtb may prove synergistic with already existing agents.
ATP-dependent proteases degrade denatured or misfolded proteins and are recruited for the controlled removal of proteins that block activation of regulatory pathways. Among the ATP-dependent proteases, those of the Clp family are particularly important for the growth and development of Bacillus subtilis. Proteolytic subunit ClpP, together with regulatory ATPase subunit ClpC or ClpX, is required for the normal response to stress, for development of genetic competence, and for sporulation. The spx (formally yjbD) gene was previously identified as a site of mutations that suppress defects in competence conferred by clpP and clpX. The level of Spx in wild-type cells grown in competence medium is low, and that in clpP mutants is high. This suggests that the Spx protein is a substrate for ClpP-containing proteases and that accumulation of Spx might be partly responsible for the observed pleiotropic phenotype resulting from the clpP mutation. In this study we examined, both in vivo and in vitro, which ClpP protease is responsible for degradation of Spx. Western blot analysis showed that Spx accumulated in clpX mutant to the same level as that observed in the clpP mutant. In contrast, a very low concentration of Spx was detected in a clpC mutant. An in vitro proteolysis experiment using purified proteins demonstrated that Spx was degraded by ClpCP but only in the presence of one of the ClpC adapter proteins, MecA or YpbH. However, ClpXP, either in the presence or in the absence of MecA and YpbH, was unable to degrade Spx. Transcription of spx, as measured by expression of spx-lacZ, was slightly increased by the clpX mutation. To exclude a possible effect of clpX and clpP on spx transcription, the spx gene was placed under the control of the IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside)-inducible Pspac promoter. In this strain, Spx accumulated when ClpX or ClpP was absent, suggesting that ClpX and ClpP are required for degradation of Spx. Taken together, these results suggest that Spx is degraded by both ClpCP and ClpXP. The putative proteolysis by ClpXP might require another adapter protein. Spx probably is degraded by ClpCP under as yet unidentified conditions. This study suggests that the level of Spx is tightly controlled by two different ClpP proteases.
Clp is a barrel-shaped hetero-oligomeric ATP-dependent protease comprising a hexameric ATPase (ClpX or ClpA) that unfolds protein substrates and translocates them into the central chamber of the tetradecameric proteolytic component (ClpP) where they are degraded processively to short peptides. Chamber access is controlled by the N-terminal 20 residues (for Escherichia coli) in ClpP that prevent entry of large polypeptides in the absence of the ATPase subunits and ATP hydrolysis. Remarkably, removal of 10–17 residues from the mature N-terminus allows processive degradation of a large model unfolded substrate to short peptides without the ATPase subunit or ATP hydrolysis; removal of 14 residues is maximal for activation. Furthermore, since the product size distribution of Δ14-ClpP is identical to ClpAP and ClpXP, the ATPases do not play an essential role in determining this distribution. Comparison of the structures of Δ14-ClpP and Δ17-ClpP with other published structures shows R15 and S16 are labile and that residue 17 can adopt a range of rotomers to ensure protection of a hydrophobic pocket formed by I19, R24 and F49 and maintain a hydrophilic character of the pore.
ATP-independent degradation; Clp; ClpP; Substrate entry
The clp genes encoding the Clp proteolytic complex are widespread among living organisms. Five clpP genes are present in Streptomyces. Among them, the clpP1 clpP2 operon has been shown to be involved in the Streptomyces growth cycle, as a mutation blocked differentiation at the substrate mycelium step. Four Clp ATPases have been identified in Streptomyces coelicolor (ClpX and three ClpC proteins) which are potential partners of ClpP1 ClpP2. The clpC1 gene appears to be essential, since no mutant has yet been obtained. clpP1 clpP2 and clpC1 are important for Streptomyces growth, and a study of their regulation is reported here. The clpP3 clpP4 operon, which has been studied in Streptomyces lividans, is induced in a clpP1 mutant strain, and regulation of its expression is mediated via PopR, a transcriptional regulator. We report here studies of clgR, a paralogue of popR, in S. lividans. Gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting indicate that ClgR binds not only to the clpP1 and clpC1 promoters, but also to the promoter of the Lon ATP-dependent protease gene and the clgR promoter itself. ClgR recognizes the motif GTTCGC-5N-GCG. In vivo, ClgR acts as an activator of clpC1 gene and clpP1 operon expression. Similarly to PopR, ClgR degradation might be ClpP dependent and could be mediated via recognition of the two carboxy-terminal alanine residues.
ClpP is a self-compartmentalized protease, which has very limited degradation activity unless it associates with ClpX or ClpA to form the AAA+ ClpXP or ClpAP proteases. Here, we show that ClpX binding stimulates ClpP cleavage of peptides larger than a few amino acids and enhances ClpP active-site modification. Stimulation requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis by ClpX. The magnitude of this enhancement correlates with increasing molecular weight of the molecule entering ClpP. Amino-acid substitutions in the channel loop or helix A of ClpP enhance entry of larger substrates into the free enzyme, eliminate ClpX binding in some cases, and are not further stimulated by ClpX binding in other instances. These results support a model in which the channel residues of free ClpP exclude efficient entry of all but the smallest peptides into the degradation chamber, with ClpX binding serving to relieve these inhibitory interactions. Specific ClpP channel variants also prevent ClpXP translocation of certain amino-acid sequences, suggesting that the wild-type channel plays an important role in facilitating broad translocation specificity. In combination with previous studies, our results indicate that collaboration between ClpP and its partner ATPases opens a gate that functions to exclude larger substrates from isolated ClpP.
The region of the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome harboring the genes for the ClpXP protease was isolated and characterized. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the C. crescentus ClpP and ClpX proteins with those of their homologues from several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria revealed stronger conservation for the ATPase regulatory subunit (ClpX) than for the peptidase subunit (ClpP). The C. crescentus clpX gene was shown by complementation analysis to be functional in Escherichia coli. However, clpX from E. coli was not able to substitute for the essential nature of the clpX gene in C. crescentus. The clpP and clpX genes are separated on the C. crescentus chromosome by an open reading frame pointing in the opposite direction from the clp genes, and transcription of clpP and clpX was found to be uncoupled. clpP is transcribed as a monocistronic unit with a promoter (PP1) located immediately upstream of the 5′ end of the gene and a terminator structure following its 3′ end. PP1 is under heat shock control and is induced upon entry of the cells into the stationary phase. At least three promoters for clpX (PX1, PX2, and PX3) were mapped in the clpP-clpX intergenic region. In contrast to PP1, the clpX promoters were found to be downregulated after heat shock but were also subject to growth phase control. In addition, the clpP and clpX promoters showed different activity patterns during the cell cycle. Together, these results demonstrate that the genes coding for the peptidase and the regulatory subunits of the ClpXP protease are under independent transcriptional control in C. crescentus. Determination of the numbers of ClpP and ClpX molecules per cell suggested that ClpX is the limiting component compared with ClpP.
The ClpP peptidase is a major constituent of the proteolytic machinery of bacteria and organelles. The chloroplast ClpP complex is unusual, in that it associates a large number of subunits, one of which (ClpP1) is encoded in the chloroplast, the others in the nucleus. The complexity of these large hetero-oligomeric complexes has been a major difficulty in their overproduction and biochemical characterization. In this paper, we describe the purification of native chloroplast ClpP complex from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a strain that carries the Strep-tag II at the C-terminus of the ClpP1 subunit. Similar to land plants, the algal complex comprises active and inactive subunits (3 ClpP and 5 ClpR, respectively). Evidence is presented that a sub-complex can be produced by dissociation, comprising ClpP1 and ClpR1, 2, 3 and 4, similar to the ClpR-ring described in land plants. Our Chlamydomonas ClpP preparation also contains two ClpT subunits, ClpT3 and ClpT4, which like the land plant ClpT1 and ClpT2 show 2 Clp-N domains. ClpTs are believed to function in substrate binding and/or assembly of the two heptameric rings. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ClpT subunits have appeared independently in Chlorophycean algae, in land plants and in dispersed cyanobacterial genomes. Negative staining electron microscopy shows that the Chlamydomonas complex retains the barrel-like shape of homo-oligomeric ClpPs, with 4 additional peripheral masses that we speculate represent either the additional IS1 domain of ClpP1 (a feature unique to algae) or ClpTs or extensions of ClpR subunits
proteolysis; chloroplast; oligomeric protein; negative staining electron microscopy
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that contains single copies of genes encoding the ClpP and FtsH ATP-dependent proteases but lacks the Lon and HslV proteases. We constructed and characterized the phenotypes of clpP, clpC, and clpX deletion replacement mutants, which lack the ClpP protease subunit or the putative ClpC or ClpX ATPase specificity factor. A ΔclpP mutant, but not a ΔclpC or ΔclpX mutant, of the virulent D39 type 2 strain of S. pneumoniae grew poorly at 30°C and failed to grow at 40°C. Despite this temperature sensitivity, transcription of the heat shock regulon determined by microarray analysis was induced in a ΔclpP mutant, which was also more sensitive to oxidative stress by H2O2 and to puromycin than its clpP+ parent strain. A ΔclpP mutant, but not a ΔclpC mutant, was strongly attenuated for virulence in the murine lung and sepsis infection models. All of these phenotypes were complemented in a ΔclpP/clpP+ merodiploid strain. Consistent with these complementation patterns, clpP was found to be in a monocistronic operon, whose transcription was induced about fivefold by heat shock in S. pneumoniae as determined by Northern and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses. Besides clpP, transcription of clpC, clpE, and clpL, but not clpX or ftsH, was induced by heat shock or entry into late exponential growth phase. Microarray analysis of ΔclpP mutants showed a limited change in transcription pattern (≈80 genes) consistent with these phenotypes, including repression of genes involved in oxidative stress, metal ion transport, and virulence. In addition, transcription of the early and late competence regulon was induced in the ΔclpP mutant, and competence gene expression and DNA uptake seemed to be constitutively induced throughout growth. Together, these results indicate that ClpP-mediated proteolysis plays a complex and central role in numerous pneumococcal stress responses, development of competence, and virulence.
The general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis is controlled by the activity state of σB, a transcription factor that is switched on following exposure to either physical or nutritional stress. ClpP is the proteolytic component of an ATP-dependent protease that is essential for the proper regulation of multiple adaptive responses in B. subtilis. Among the proteins whose abundance increases in ClpP− B. subtilis are several known to depend on σB for their expression. In the current work we examine the relationship of ClpP to the activity of σB. The data reveal that the loss of ClpP in otherwise wild-type B. subtilis results in a small increase in σB activity during growth and a marked enhancement of σB activity following its induction by either physical or nutritional stress. It appears to be the persistence of σB's activity rather than its induction that is principally affected by the loss of ClpP. σB-dependent reporter gene activity rose in parallel in ClpP+ and ClpP− B. subtilis strains but failed to display its normal transience in the ClpP− strain. The putative ClpP targets are likely to be stress generated and novel. Enhanced σB activity in ClpP− B. subtilis was triggered by physical stress but not by the induced synthesis of the physical stress pathway's positive regulator (RsbT). In addition, Western blot analyses failed to detect differences in the levels of the principal known σB regulators in ClpP+ and ClpP− B. subtilis strains. The data suggest a model in which ClpP facilitates the turnover of stress-generated factors, which persist in ClpP's absence to stimulate ongoing σB activity.
A novel class of antibiotic acyldepsipeptides (designated ADEPs) exerts its unique antibacterial activity by targeting the peptidase caseinolytic protease P (ClpP). ClpP forms proteolytic complexes with heat shock proteins (Hsp100) that select and process substrate proteins for ClpP-mediated degradation. Here, we analyse the molecular mechanism of ADEP action and demonstrate that ADEPs abrogate ClpP interaction with cooperating Hsp100 adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases). Consequently, ADEP treated bacteria are affected in ClpP-dependent general and regulatory proteolysis. At the same time, ADEPs also activate ClpP by converting it from a tightly regulated peptidase, which can only degrade short peptides, into a proteolytic machinery that recognizes and degrades unfolded polypeptides. In vivo nascent polypeptide chains represent the putative primary target of ADEP-activated ClpP, providing a rationale for the antibacterial activity of the ADEPs. Thus, ADEPs cause a complete functional reprogramming of the Clp–protease complex.
ADEP; antibiotic; ClpP; Hsp100; Clp proteins; proteolysis
Five clp genes (clpC, clpB, clpP1, clpP2, and clpX), representing chaperone- and protease-encoding genes, were previously identified in Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003. In the present study, we characterize the B. breve UCC 2003 clpP locus, which consists of two paralogous genes, designated clpP1 and clpP2, whose deduced protein products display significant similarity to characterized ClpP peptidases. Transcriptional analyses showed that the clpP1 and clpP2 genes are transcribed in response to moderate heat shock as a bicistronic unit with a single promoter. The role of a clgR homologue, known to control the regulation of clpP gene expression in Streptomyces lividans and Corynebacterium glutamicum, was investigated by gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprint experiments. We show that ClgR, which in its purified form appears to exist as a dimer, requires a proteinaceous cofactor to assist in specific binding to a 30-bp region of the clpP promoter region. In pull-down experiments, a 56-kDa protein copurified with ClgR, providing evidence that the two proteins also interact in vivo and that the copurified protein represents the cofactor required for ClgR activity. The prediction of the ClgR three-dimensional structure provides further insights into the binding mode of this protein to the clpP1 promoter region and highlights the key amino acid residues believed to be involved in the protein-DNA interaction.
Caseinolytic (Clp) proteases are widespread energy-dependent proteases; the functional ATP-dependent protease is comprised of multimers of proteolytic and regulatory subunits. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has two ClpP proteolytic subunits (ClpP1 and ClpP2), with both being essential for growth in vitro. ClpP1 and clpP2 are arranged in an apparent operon; we demonstrated that the two genes are co-expressed under normal growth conditions. We identified a single promoter region for the clpP1P2 operon; no promoter was detected upstream of clpP2 demonstrating that independent expression of clpP1 and clpP2 was highly unlikely. Promoter activity was not induced by heat shock or oxidative stress. We identified a regulatory region upstream of the promoter with a consensus sequence matching the ClgR regulator motif; we determined the limits of the region by mutagenesis and confirmed that positive regulation of the promoter occurs in M. tuberculosis. We developed a reporter system to monitor ClpP1 and ClpP2 enzymatic activities based on LacZ incorporating ssrAtag sequences. We showed that whilst both ClpP1 and ClpP2 degrade SsrA-tagged LacZ, ClpP2 (but not ClpP1) degrades untagged proteins. Our data suggest that the two proteolytic subunits display different substrate specificities and therefore have different, but overlapping roles in M. tuberculosis.
Protein turnover is a key process for bacterial survival mediated by intracellular proteases. Proteolytic degradation reduces the levels of unfolded and misfolded peptides that accumulate in the cell during stress conditions. Three intracellular proteases, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH, have been identified in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with their crucial role in protein turnover, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH affect a number of cellular processes, including metabolism, stress responses, and virulence. The ClpP protease is believed to be the principal degradation machinery in S. aureus. This study sought to identify the effect of the Clp protease on the iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system, which extracts heme-iron from host hemoglobin during infection and is critical to S. aureus pathogenesis. Inactivation of components of the Clp protease alters abundance of several Isd proteins, including the hemoglobin receptor IsdB. Furthermore, the observed changes in IsdB abundance are the result of transcriptional regulation, since transcription of isdB is decreased by clpP or clpX inactivation. In contrast, inactivation of clpC enhances isdB transcription and protein abundance. Loss of clpP or clpX impairs host hemoglobin binding and utilization and results in severe virulence defects in a systemic mouse model of infection. These findings suggest that the Clp proteolytic system is important for regulating nutrient iron acquisition in S. aureus. The Clp protease and Isd complex are widely conserved in bacteria; therefore, these data reveal a novel Clp-dependent regulation pathway that may be present in other bacterial pathogens.
In ClpXP and ClpAP complexes, ClpA and ClpX use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to unfold proteins and translocate them into the self-compartmentalized ClpP protease. ClpP requires the ATPases to degrade folded or unfolded substrates, but binding of acyldepsipeptide antibiotics (ADEPs) to ClpP bypasses this requirement with unfolded proteins. We present the crystal structure of Escherichia coli ClpP bound to ADEP1 and report the structural changes underlying ClpP activation. ADEP1 binds in the hydrophobic groove that serves as the primary docking site for ClpP ATPases. Binding of ADEP1 locks the N-terminal loops of ClpP in a β-hairpin conformation, generating a stable pore through which extended polypeptides can be threaded. This structure serves as a model for ClpP in the holo-enzyme ClpAP and ClpXP complexes and provides critical information to further develop this class of antibiotics.
ClpP; ADEP; ClpAP; ClpXP; Axial channel; ATP-independent proteolysis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen of major global importance. Validated drug targets are required in order to develop novel therapeutics for drug-resistant strains and to shorten therapy. The Clp protease complexes provide a means for quality control of cellular proteins; the proteolytic activity of ClpP in concert with the ATPase activity of the ClpX/ClpC subunits results in degradation of misfolded or damaged proteins. Thus, the Clp system plays a major role in basic metabolism, as well as in stress responses and pathogenic mechanisms. M. tuberculosis has two ClpP proteolytic subunits. Here we demonstrate that ClpP1 is essential for viability in this organism in culture, since the gene could only be deleted from the chromosome when a second functional copy was provided. Overexpression of clpP1 had no effect on growth in aerobic culture or viability under anaerobic conditions or during nutrient starvation. In contrast, clpP2 overexpression was toxic, suggesting different roles for the two homologs. We synthesized known activators of ClpP protease activity; these acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) were active against M. tuberculosis. ADEP activity was enhanced by the addition of efflux pump inhibitors, demonstrating that ADEPs gain access to the cell but that export occurs. Taken together, the genetic and chemical validation of ClpP as a drug target leads to new avenues for drug discovery.
ATP-dependent Clp protease (ClpP) is a core unit of a major bacterial protease complex employing as a new attractive drug target for that
isolates, which are resistant to antibiotics. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a gram-positive bacterium, is one of the major causes of hospital acquired
infections. ClpP in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is usually tightly regulated and strictly requires a member of the family of Clp-ATPase and often
further accessory proteins for proteolytic activation. Inhibition of ClpP eliminates these safeguards and start proteolytic degradation. Such
uncontrolled proteolysis leads to inhibition of bacterial cell division and eventually cell death. In order to inhibit Clp protease, at first three
dimensional structure model of ClpP in Mycobacterium tuberculosis was determined by comparative homology modeling program MODELLER
based on crystal structure of the proteolytic component of the caseinolytic Clp protease (ClpP) from E. coli as a template protein and has 55%sequence
identity with ClpP protein. The computed model's energy was minimized and validated using PROCHECK to obtain a stable model
structure and is submitted in Protein Model Database (PMDB-ID: PM0075741). Stable model was further used for virtual screening against
marine derived bioactive compound database through molecular docking studies using AutoDock 3.05. The docked complexes were validated
and enumerated based on the AutoDock Scoring function to pick out the best marine inhibitors based on docked Energy. Thus from the entire 186
Marine compounds which were Docked, we got best 5 of them with optimal docked Energy (Ara-A: -14.31 kcal/mol, Dysinosin C: -
14.90kcal/mol, Nagelamide A: -20.49 kcal/mol, Strobilin: -8.02 kcal/mol, Manoalide: -8.81 kcal/mol). Further the five best-docked complexes
were analyzed through Python Molecular Viewer software for their interaction studies. Thus from the Complex scoring and binding ability its
deciphered that these Marine compounds could be promising inhibitors for ClpP as Drug target yet pharmacological studies have to confirm it.
Homology Modeling; Docking; ClpP; M.tuberculosis; AutoDock; Modeller; Procheck; Tuberculosis; AutoDockTools; Clp protease
Among other functions, ATP-dependent proteases degrade misfolded proteins and remove several key regulatory proteins necessary to activate stress responses. In Bacillus subtilis, ClpX, ClpE, and ClpC form homohexameric ATPases that couple to the ClpP peptidase. To understand where these peptidases and ATPases localize in living cells, each protein was fused to a fluorescent moiety. We found that ClpX-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and ClpP-GFP localized as focal assemblies in areas that were not occupied by the nucleoid. We found that the percentage of cells with ClpP-GFP foci increased following heat shock independently of protein synthesis. We determined that ClpE-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) and ClpC-YFP formed foci coincident with nucleoid edges, usually near cell poles. Furthermore, we found that ClpQ-YFP (HslV) localized as small foci, usually positioned near the cell membrane. We found that ClpQ-YFP foci were dependent on the presence of the cognate hexameric ATPase ClpY (HslU). Moreover, we found that LonA-GFP is coincident with the nucleoid during normal growth and that LonA-GFP also localized to the forespore during development. We also investigated LonB-GFP and found that this protein localized to the forespore membrane early in development, followed by localization throughout the forespore later in development. Our comprehensive study has shown that in B. subtilis several ATP-fueled proteases occupy distinct subcellular locations. With these data, we suggest that substrate specificity could be determined, in part, by the spatial and temporal organization of proteases in vivo.
Cyclic lipopeptides produced by Pseudomonas species exhibit potent surfactant and broad-spectrum antibiotic properties. Their biosynthesis is governed by large multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases, but little is known about the genetic regulatory network. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that the serine protease ClpP regulates the biosynthesis of massetolides, cyclic lipopeptides involved in swarming motility, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101. The results show that ClpP affects the expression of luxR(mA), the transcriptional regulator of the massetolide biosynthesis genes massABC, thereby regulating biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. fluorescens SS101. Transcription of luxR(mA) was significantly repressed in the clpP mutant, and introduction of luxR(mA) restored, in part, massetolide biosynthesis and swarming motility of the clpP mutant. Site-directed mutagenesis and expression analyses indicated that the chaperone subunit ClpX and the Lon protease are not involved in regulation of massetolide biosynthesis and are transcribed independently of clpP. Addition of Casamino Acids enhanced the transcription of luxR(mA) and massABC in the clpP mutant, leading to a partial rescue of massetolide production and swarming motility. The results further suggested that, at the transcriptional level, ClpP-mediated regulation of massetolide biosynthesis operates independently of regulation by the GacA/GacS two-component system. The role of amino acid metabolism and the putative mechanisms underlying ClpP-mediated regulation of cyclic lipopeptide biosynthesis, swarming motility, and growth in P. fluorescens are discussed.
Energy-dependent protein degradation machines, such as the E. coli protease ClpAP, require regulated interactions between the ATPase component (ClpA) and the protease component (ClpP) for function. Recent studies indicate that the ClpP N-terminus is essential in these interactions, yet the dynamics of this region remain unclear. Here, we use synchrotron hydroxyl radical footprinting and kinetic studies to characterize functionally important conformational changes of the ClpP N-terminus. Footprinting experiments show that the ClpP N-terminus becomes more solvent-exposed upon interaction with ClpA. In the absence of ClpA, deletion of the ClpP N-terminus increases the initial degradation rate of large peptide substrates 5–15 fold. Unlike ClpAP, ClpPΔN exhibits a distinct slow phase of product formation that is eliminated by the addition of hydroxylamine, suggesting that truncation of the N-terminus leads to stabilization of the acyl-enzyme intermediate. These results indicate that 1) the ClpP N-terminus acts as a “gate” controlling substrate access to the active sites, 2) binding of ClpA opens this “gate”, allowing substrate entry and formation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate, and 3) closing of the N-terminal “gate” stimulates acyl-enzyme hydrolysis.
The presence of the heat stress response-related ATPases ClpC and ClpX or the peptidase ClpP in the cell is crucial for tolerance of many forms of stress in Bacillus subtilis. Assays for detection of defects in protein degradation suggest that ClpC, ClpP, and ClpX participate directly in overall proteolysis of misfolded proteins. Turnover rates for abnormal puromycyl peptides are significantly decreased in clpC, clpP, and clpX mutant cells. Electron-dense aggregates, most likely due to the accumulation of misfolded proteins, were noticed in studies of ultrathin cryosections in clpC and clpP mutant cells even under nonstress conditions. In contrast, in the wild type or clpX mutants such aggregates could only be observed after heat shock. This phenomenon supports the assumption that clpC and clpP mutants are deficient in the ability to solubilize or degrade damaged and aggregated proteins, the accumulation of which is toxic for the cell. By using immunogold labeling with antibodies raised against ClpC, ClpP, and ClpX, the Clp proteins were localized in these aggregates, showing that the Clp proteins act at this level in vivo.
Spatial control of proteolysis is emerging as a common feature of regulatory networks in bacteria. In the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the peptidase ClpP can associate with any of three ATPases: ClpC, ClpE, and ClpX. Here, we report that ClpCP, ClpEP, and ClpXP localize in foci often near the poles of growing cells and that ClpP and the ATPase are each capable of polar localization independently of the other component. A region of ClpC containing an AAA domain was necessary and sufficient for polar localization. We also report that ClpCP and ClpXP proteases differentially localize to the forespore and mother cell compartments of the sporangium during spore formation. Moreover, model substrates for each protease created by appending recognition sequences for ClpCP or ClpXP to the green fluorescent protein were preferentially eliminated from the forespore or the mother cell, respectively. Biased accumulation of ClpCP in the forespore may contribute to the cell-specific activation of the transcription factor σF by preferential ClpCP-dependent degradation of the anti-σF factor SpoIIAB.
There are five known ATP-dependent proteases in Escherichia coli (Lon, ClpAP, ClpXP, HslUV, and the membrane-associated FtsH) that catalyze the removal of both misfolded and properly folded proteins in cellular protein quality control pathways. Hexameric ClpA rings associate with one or both faces of the cylindrically shaped tetradecameric ClpP protease. ClpA catalyzes unfolding and translocation of polypeptide substrates into the proteolytic core of ClpP for degradation through repeated cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis at two nucleotide binding domains on each ClpA monomer. We previously reported a molecular mechanism for ClpA catalyzed polypeptide translocation in the absence of ClpP, including elementary rate constants, overall rate, and the kinetic step size. However, the potential allosteric effect of ClpP on the mechanism of ClpA catalyzed translocation remains unclear. Using single-turnover fluorescence stopped-flow methods, here we report that ClpA, when associated with ClpP, translocates polypeptide with an overall rate of ~35 aa s–1 and, on average, traverses ~5 aa between two rate-limiting steps with reduced cooperativity between ATP binding sites in the hexameric ring. This is in direct contrast to our previously reported observation that, in the absence of ClpP, ClpA translocates polypeptide substrates with a maximum translocation rate of ~20 aa s–1 with cooperativity between ATPase sites. Our results demonstrate that ClpP allosterically impacts the polypeptide translocation activity of ClpA by reducing the cooperativity between ATP binding sites.
ATP-dependent proteases; AAA+ motor proteins; pre-steady-state kinetics; protein unfoldases
ClpP and ClpC are subunits of the Clp ATP-dependent protease, which is ubiquitous among prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The role of these proteins in stress tolerance, stationary-phase adaptive responses, and virulence in many bacterial species has been demonstrated. Based on the amino acid sequences of the Bacillus subtilis clpC and clpP genes, we identified one clpC gene and two clpP genes (designated clpP1 and clpP2) in Bacillus thuringiensis. Predicted proteins ClpP1 and ClpP2 have approximately 88 and 67% amino acid sequence identity with ClpP of B. subtilis, respectively. Inactivation of clpC in B. thuringiensis impaired sporulation efficiency. The clpP1 and clpP2 mutants were both slightly susceptible to salt stress, whereas disruption of clpP2 negatively affected sporulation and abolished motility. Virulence of the clp mutants was assessed by injecting bacteria into the hemocoel of Bombyx mori larvae. The clpP1 mutant displayed attenuated virulence, which appeared to be related to its inability to grow at low temperature (25°C), suggesting an essential role for ClpP1 in tolerance of low temperature. Microscopic examination of clpP1 mutant cells grown at 25°C showed altered bacterial division, with cells remaining attached after septum formation. Analysis of lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that clpP1 was expressed at 25 and 37°C during the entire growth cycle. In contrast, clpP2 was expressed at 37°C but not at 25°C, suggesting that ClpP2 cannot compensate for the absence of ClpP1 in the clpP1 mutant cells at low temperature. Our study demonstrates that ClpP1 and ClpP2 control distinct cellular regulatory pathways in B. thuringiensis.
Tolerance of environmental stress, especially low pH, by Streptococcus mutans is central to the virulence of this organism. The Clp ATPases are implicated in the tolerance of, and regulation of the response to, stresses by virtue of their protein reactivation and remodeling activities and their capacity to target misfolded proteins for degradation by the ClpP peptidase. The purpose of this study was to dissect the role of selected clp genes in the stress responses of S. mutans, with a particular focus on acid tolerance and adaptation. Homologues of the clpB, clpC, clpE, clpL, clpX, and clpP genes were identified in the S. mutans genome. The expression of clpC and clpP, which were chosen as the focus of this study, was induced at low pH and at growth above 40°C. Inactivation of ctsR, the first of two genes in the clpC operon, demonstrated that CtsR acts as a repressor of clp and groES-EL gene expression. Strains lacking ClpP, but not strains lacking ClpC, were impaired in their ability to grow under stress-inducing conditions, formed long chains, aggregated in culture, had reduced genetic transformation efficiencies, and had a reduced capacity to form biofilms. Comparison of two-dimensional protein gels from wild-type cells and the ctsR and clpP mutants revealed many changes in the protein expression patterns. In particular, in the clpP mutant, there was an increased production of GroESL and DnaK, suggesting that cells were stressed, probably due to the accumulation of denatured proteins.
SigX (σX), the alternative sigma factor of Streptococcus mutans, is the key regulator for transcriptional activation of late competence genes essential for taking up exogenous DNA. Recent studies reveal that adaptor protein MecA and the protease ClpC act as negative regulators of competence by a mechanism that involves MecA-mediated proteolysis of SigX by the ClpC in S. mutans. However, the molecular detail how MecA and ClpC negatively regulate competence in this species remains to be determined. Here, we provide evidence that adaptor protein MecA targets SigX for degradation by the protease complex ClpC/ClpP when S. mutans is grown in a complex medium.
By analyzing the cellular levels of SigX, we demonstrate that the synthesis of SigX is transiently induced by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), but the SigX is rapidly degraded during the escape from competence. A deletion of MecA, ClpC or ClpP results in the cellular accumulation of SigX and a prolonged competence state, while an overexpression of MecA enhances proteolysis of SigX and accelerates the escape from competence. In vitro protein-protein interaction assays confirm that MecA interacts with SigX via its N-terminal domain (NTD1–82) and with ClpC via its C-terminal domain (CTD123–240). Such an interaction mediates the formation of a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex, triggering the ATP-dependent degradation of SigX in the presence of ClpP. A deletion of the N-terminal or C-terminal domain of MecA abolishes its binding to SigX or ClpC. We have also found that MecA-regulated proteolysis of SigX appears to be ineffective when S. mutans is grown in a chemically defined medium (CDM), suggesting the possibility that an unknown mechanism may be involved in negative regulation of MecA-mediated proteolysis of SigX under this condition.
Adaptor protein MecA in S. mutans plays a crucial role in recognizing and targeting SigX for degradation by the protease ClpC/ClpP. Thus, MecA actually acts as an anti-sigma factor to regulate the stability of SigX during competence development.
Regulated proteolysis; Adaptor protein; Competence; Streptococcus mutans