The Pt(II) complex, PtCl2(DIP) (DIP = chelating dinitrogen ligand: 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN) and 1H NMR and UV-vis techniques. The binding of this complex to calf thymus DNA was investigated using various physicochemical methods such as spectrophotometric, circular dichroism, spectrofluorometric, melting temperature, and viscosimetric techniques. Upon addition of the complex, important changes were observed in the characteristic UV-Vis bands (hyperchromism) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA): increase in melting temperature, sharp increase in specific viscosity of DNA, and induced CD spectral changes. Also the fluorescence spectral characteristics and interaction of Pt complex with DNA have been studied. Pt bound to DNA showed a marked decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The results show that both the complex and the NR molecules can intercalate competitively into the DNA double-helix structure. The experimental results show that the mode of binding of the this complex to DNA is classical intercalation.
A new mononuclear Pt(II) complex, [Pt(DMP)(DIP)]Cl2.H2O, in which DMP is 4,4-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine and DIP is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenantroline, has been synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry, circular dichroism, viscosimetry and cyclic voltametry (CV). UV-VIS spectrum showed 4 nm bathochromic shift of the absorption band at 280 nm along with significant hypochromicity for the absorption band of the complex. The intrnisic binding constant (Kb = 2 × 104 M−1) is more in keeping with intercalators and suggests this binding mode. The viscosity measurements showed that the complex-DNA interaction can be hydrophobic and confirm intercalation. Moreover, the complex induced detectable changes in the CD spectrum of CT-DNA. The fluorescence studies revealed that the probable quenching mechanism of fluorescence of the complex by CT-DNA is static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH > 0 and ΔS > 0) showed that main interaction with hydrogenic forces occurred that is intercalation mode. Also, CV results confirm this mode because, with increasing the CT-DNA concentration, shift to higher potential was observed.
A mononuclear complex of Zn(II), [Zn(DIP)2 (DMP)] (NO3)2·2H2O in which DIP is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and DMP is 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine has been prepared and characterized by 1HNMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis techniques. DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied using UV-vis spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and viscosity measurements. The results indicate that this zinc(II) complex can intercalate into the stacked base pairs of DNA and compete with the strong intercalator ethidium bromide for the intercalative binding sites.
Differential scanning calorimetry and UV thermal denaturation have been used to determine a complete thermodynamic profile for the bis-intercalative interaction of the peptide antibiotic echinomycin with DNA. The new calorimetric data are consistent with all previously published binding data, and afford the most rigorous and direct determination of the binding enthalpy possible. For the association of echinomycin with DNA, we found ΔG° = –7.6 kcal mol–1, ΔH = +3.8 kcal mol–1 and ΔS = +38.9 cal mol–1 K–1 at 20°C. The binding reaction is clearly entropically driven, a hallmark of a process that is predominantly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, though a deeper analysis of the free energy contributions suggests that direct molecular recognition between echinomycin and DNA, mediated by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts, also plays an important role in stabilizing the complex.
The physiological role(s) played by G-quadruplexes renders these ‘non-canonical’ DNA secondary structures interesting new targets for therapeutic intervention. In particular, the search for ligands for selective recognition and stabilization of G-quadruplex arrangements has led to a number of novel targeted agents. An interesting approach is represented by the use of metal-complexes, their binding to DNA being modulated by ligand and metal ion nature, and by complex stoichiometry. In this work we characterized thermodynamically and stereochemically the interactions of a Ni(II) bis-phenanthroline derivative with telomeric G-quadruplex sequences using calorimetric, chiroptical and NMR techniques. We employed three strictly related sequences based on the human telomeric repeat, namely Tel22, Tel26 and wtTel26, which assume distinct conformations in potassium containing solutions. We were able to monitor specific enthalpy/entropy changes according to the structural features of the target telomeric sequence and to dissect the binding process into distinct events. Interestingly, temperature effects turned out to be prominent both in terms of binding stoichiometry and ΔH/ΔS contributions, while the final G-quadruplex-metal complex architecture tended to merge for the examined sequences. These results underline the critical choice of experimental conditions and DNA sequence for practical use of thermodynamic data in the rational development of effective G-quadruplex binders.
The interaction of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) with a novel synthesized pyrazolo[1,5-a]indole compound 1-methyl-7H-indeno[1,2-b]quinolinium-7-(4-dimethylamino) benzylidene triflate (MIDBT) was extensively studied by various spectroscopic techniques, viscosity measurements, and gel electrophoresis. The UV-visible observation implied that the compound interacted with ct-DNA by two binding modes, intercalating into the DNA base pairs and attaching to the helix exterior of DNA. The results of the fluorescent quenching and viscosity measurements showed that MIDBT could intercalate into DNA base pairs deeply in a classical intercalative mode. Circular dichroism results showed that the binding of MIDBT shifted ct-DNA conformation from B to A at low concentrations. In the gel electrophoresis, the compound was found to promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR 322 DNA effectively. Furthermore, cytotoxic studies of this compound against eleven selected tumor cell lines have been done. The values of 50% cytotoxic concentration (IC50) were in the range of 1.09–18.84 μM, exhibiting the potent cytotoxic properties.
A novel microwave-assisted synthetic method has been used to synthesise a series of mixed ligand ruthenium(ii) compounds containing diimine as well as bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands. The compounds contain the diimine 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) and the thiosemicarbazone is derived from 9-anthraldehyde. Based on elemental analyses and spectroscopic data, the compounds are best formulated as [(phen)2Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF6)2 and [(phen)2Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF6)2 where thiosemicarbazone = 9-anthraldehydethiosemicarbazone, 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone, and 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone. Fluorescence competition studies with ethidium bromide, along with viscometric measurements suggests that the complexes bind calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) relatively strongly via an intercalative mode possibly involving the aromatic rings of the diimine ligands. The complexes show good cytotoxic profiles against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) as well as HCT 116 and HT-29 (colorectal carcinoma) cell lines.
In this paper, three complexes of type [Co(en)2PIP]3+(PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10,] phenanthroline)(1), [Co(en)2IP]3+ (IP = imidazo[4,5-f][1,10,] phenanthroline)(2), and [Co(en)2phen-dione]3+(1,10 phenanthroline 5,6,dione)(3) have been synthesized and characterized by UV/VIS, IR, 1H NMR spectral methods. Absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, and DNA melting techniques have been used for investigating the binding of these two complexes with calf thymus DNA, and photocleavage studies were used for investigating these binding of these complexes with plasmid DNA. The spectroscopic studies together with viscosity measurements and DNA melting studies support that complexes 1 and 2 bind to CT DNA (= calf thymus DNA) by intercalation mode via IP or PIP into the base pairs of DNA, and complex 3 is binding as groove mode. Complex 1 binds more avidly to CT DNA than 2 and 3 which is consistent with the extended planar ring π system of PIP. Noticeably, the two complexes have been found to be efficient photosensitisers for strand scissions in plasmid DNA.
The large meso-substituted porphine, meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine has been identified as a DNA-interactive ligand with a capacity for intercalation (1,2). Subsequently, the 2-N-methyl, 3-N-methyl and N-trimethylanilinium analogues of this porphyrin intercalator have been obtained for physico-chemical analyses (absorption spectroscopy, viscometry, circular dichroism, unwinding of supercoiled DNA). In this paper we discuss the factors affecting the character of porphyrin binding (intercalative, as is the case for the 4-N-methyl and 3-N-methyl porphines, versus non-intercalative, as is the case for the 2-N-methyl and N-trimethylanilinium porphines) and the impact that porphyrins' binding has upon the structure of DNA. The molecular conformation of the porphyrin ligand varies slightly within this series so that the ability of a given porphyrin to intercalate may be correlated with the arrangement of charged groups, the planarity of the porphine ring and the effective width of the individual molecules. The results from these studies indicate that sequence selective binding occurs within a small aperture of solution conditions.
Two new crescent-shaped unsymmetrical cyanine dyes have been synthesised and their interactions with DNA have been investigated by different spectroscopic methods. These dyes are analogues to a minor groove binding unsymmetrical cyanine dye, BEBO, recently reported by us. In this dye, the structure of the known intercalating cyanine dye BO was extended with a benzothiazole substituent. To investigate how the identity of the extending heterocycle affects the binding to DNA, the new dyes BETO and BOXTO have a benzothiazole group and a benzoxazole moiety, respectively. Whereas BEBO showed a heterogeneous binding to calf thymus DNA, linear and circular dichroism studies of BOXTO indicate a high preference for minor groove binding. BETO also binds in the minor groove to mixed sequence DNA but has a contribution of non-ordered and non-emissive species present. A non-intercalative binding mode of the new dyes, as well as for BEBO, is further supported by electrophoresis unwinding assays. These dyes, having comparable spectral properties as the intercalating cyanine dyes, but bind in the minor groove instead, might be useful complements for staining of DNA. In particular, the benzoxazole substituted dye BOXTO has attractive fluorescence properties with a quantum yield of 0.52 when bound to mixed sequence DNA and a 300-fold increase in fluorescence intensity upon binding.
We have developed a technique of partially-restrained molecular mechanics enthalpy minimisation which enables the sequence-dependence of the DNA binding of a non-intercalating ligand to be studied for arbitrary sequences of considerable length (greater than = 60 base-pairs). The technique has been applied to analyse the binding of berenil to the minor groove of a 60 base-pair sequence derived from the tyrT promoter; the results are compared with those obtained by DNAse I and hydroxyl radical footprinting on the same sequence. The calculated and experimentally observed patterns of binding are in good agreement. Analysis of the modelling data highlights the importance of DNA flexibility in ligand binding. Further, the electrostatic component of the interaction tends to favour binding to AT-rich regions, whilst the van der Waals interaction energy term favours GC-rich ones. The results also suggest that an important contribution to the observed preference for binding in AT-rich regions arises from lower DNA perturbation energies and is not accompanied by reduced DNA structural perturbations in such sequences. It is therefore concluded that those modes of DNA distortion favourable to binding are probably more flexible in AT-rich regions. The structure of the modelled DNA sequence has also been analysed in terms of helical parameters. For the DNA energy-minimised in the absence of berenil, certain helical parameters show marked sequence-dependence. For example, purine-pyrimidine (R-Y) base pairs show a consistent positive buckle whereas this feature is consistently negative for Y-R pairs. Further, CG steps show lower than average values of slide while GC steps show lower than average values of rise. Similar analysis of the modelling data from the calculations including berenil highlights the importance of DNA flexibility in ligand binding. We observe that the binding of berenil induces characteristic responses in different helical parameters for the base-pairs around the binding site. For example, buckle and tilt tend to become more negative to the 5'-side of the binding site and more positive to the 3'-side, while the base steps at either side of the centre of the site show increased twist and decreased roll.
Shape complementarity and non-covalent interactions are believed to drive protein-ligand interaction. To date protein-protein, protein-DNA, and protein-RNA interactions were systematically investigated, which is in contrast to interactions with small ligands. We investigate the role of covalent and non-covalent bonds in protein-small ligand interactions using a comprehensive dataset of 2,320 complexes.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We show that protein-ligand interactions are governed by different forces for different ligand types, i.e., protein-organic compound interactions are governed by hydrogen bonds, van der Waals contacts, and covalent bonds; protein-metal ion interactions are dominated by electrostatic force and coordination bonds; protein-anion interactions are established with electrostatic force, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals contacts; and protein-inorganic cluster interactions are driven by coordination bonds. We extracted several frequently occurring atomic-level patterns concerning these interactions. For instance, 73% of investigated covalent bonds were summarized with just three patterns in which bonds are formed between thiol of Cys and carbon or sulfur atoms of ligands, and nitrogen of Lys and carbon of ligands. Similar patterns were found for the coordination bonds. Hydrogen bonds occur in 67% of protein-organic compound complexes and 66% of them are formed between NH- group of protein residues and oxygen atom of ligands. We quantify relative abundance of specific interaction types and discuss their characteristic features. The extracted protein-organic compound patterns are shown to complement and improve a geometric approach for prediction of binding sites.
Conclusions and Significance
We show that for a given type (group) of ligands and type of the interaction force, majority of protein-ligand interactions are repetitive and could be summarized with several simple atomic-level patterns. We summarize and analyze 10 frequently occurring interaction patterns that cover 56% of all considered complexes and we show a practical application for the patterns that concerns interactions with organic compounds.
Binding affinity optimization is critical during drug development. Here we evaluate the thermodynamic consequences of filling a binding cavity with functionalities of increasing van der Waals radii (-H, -F, -Cl and CH3) that improve the geometric fit without participating in hydrogen bonding or other specific interactions. We observe a binding affinity increase of two orders of magnitude. There appears to be three phases in the process. The first phase is associated with the formation of stable van der Waals interactions. This phase is characterized by a gain in binding enthalpy and a loss in binding entropy, attributed to a loss of conformational degrees of freedom. For the specific case presented in this paper, the enthalpy gain amounts to −1.5 kcal/mol while the entropic losses amount to +0.9 kcal/mol resulting in a net 3.5-fold affinity gain. The second phase is characterized by simultaneous enthalpic and entropic gains. This phase improves the binding affinity 25-fold. The third phase represents the collapse of the trend and is triggered by the introduction of chemical functionalities larger than the binding cavity itself (CH(CH3)2). It is characterized by large enthalpy and affinity losses. The thermodynamic signatures associated with each phase provide guidelines for lead optimization.
Binding Affinity; Halogens; Enthalpy; Entropy; Thermodynamic Optimization; Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
We have developed a method for estimating protein-ligand binding free energy (ΔG) based on the direct protein-ligand interaction obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation. Using this method, we estimated the ΔG value statistically by the average values of the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between each amino acid of the target protein and the ligand molecule. In addition, we introduced fluctuations in the accessible surface area (ASA) and dihedral angles of the protein-ligand complex system as the entropy terms of the ΔG estimation. The present method included the fluctuation term of structural change of the protein and the effective dielectric constant. We applied this method to 34 protein-ligand complex structures. As a result, the correlation coefficient between the experimental and calculated ΔG values was 0.81, and the average error of ΔG was 1.2 kcal/mol with the use of the fixed parameters. These results were obtained from a 2 nsec molecular dynamics simulation.
protein-ligand docking; molecular dynamics simulation; protein-ligand binding free energy
Copper–phenanthroline complexes oxidatively damage and cleave nucleic acids. Copper bis-phenanthroline and copper complexes of mono- and bis-phenanthroline conjugates are used as research tools for studying nucleic acid structure and binding interactions. The mechanism of DNA oxidation and cleavage by these complexes was examined using two copper–phenanthroline conjugates of the sequence-specific binding molecule, distamycin. The complexes contained either one or two phenanthroline units that were bonded to the DNA-binding domain through a linker via the 3-position of the copper ligand. A duplex containing independently generated 2-deoxyribonolactone facilitated kinetic analysis of DNA cleavage. Oxidation rate constants were highly dependent upon the ligand environment but rate constants describing elimination of the alkali-labile 2-deoxyribonolactone intermediate were not. Rate constants describing DNA cleavage induced by each molecule were 11–54 times larger than the respective oxidation rate constants. The experiments indicate that DNA cleavage resulting from β-elimination of 2-deoxyribonolactone by copper–phenanthroline complexes is a general mechanism utilized by this family of molecules. In addition, the experiments confirm that DNA damage mediated by mono- and bis-phenanthroline copper complexes proceeds through distinct species, albeit with similar outcomes.
Computational chemists and structural biologists are often interested in characterizing ligand-receptor complexes for hydrogen-bond, hydrophobic, salt-bridge, van der Waals, and other interactions in order to assess ligand binding. When done by hand, this characterization can become tedious, especially when many complexes need be analyzed.
In order to facilitate the characterization of ligand binding, we here present a novel Python-implemented computer algorithm called BINANA (BINding ANAlyzer), which is freely available for download at http://www.nbcr.net/binana/. To demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm, we use BINANA to confirm that the number of hydrophobic contacts between a ligand and its protein receptor is positively correlated with ligand potency. Additionally, we show how BINANA can be used to search through a large ligand-receptor database to identify those complexes that are remarkable for selected binding features, and to identify lead candidates from a virtual screen with specific, desirable binding characteristics.
We are hopeful that BINANA will be useful to computational chemists and structural biologists who wish to automatically characterize many ligand-receptor complexes for key binding characteristics.
BINANA; computer algorithm; ligand-binding analysis; computer-aided drug design; structural biology; virtual screening
The two water-soluble designed platinum(II) complex, [Pt(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3 (Oct-dtc = Octyldithiocarbamate and bpy = 2,2′
-bipyridine) and palladium(II) complex, [Pd(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements, IR, 1H NMR, and electronic spectra studies. Studies of antitumor activity of these complexes against human cell tumor lines (K562) have been carried out. They show Ic50 values lower than that of cisplatin. The complexes have been investigated for their interaction with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by utilizing the electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, and ethidium bromide displacement and gel filtration techniques. Both of these water-soluble complexes bound cooperatively and intercalatively to the CT-DNA at very low concentrations. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described.
The interactions of three platinum(II)-based anticancer complexes [(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(1S,2S-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II)]2+, [(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II)]2+, and [(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(1,2-diaminoethane)platinum(II)]2+ (56MEEN) with BSA have been examined by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and 1H pulsed gradient spin–echo (PGSE) diffusion NMR spectroscopy. The number of association constants and sites differed depending upon the spectroscopic method. This may be because each technique monitors different types of interaction/s and/or as a consequence of the different concentration ranges required for each technique. The titration of BSA with the achiral 56MEEN as monitored by CD indicates a reduction in the α-helical nature of the albumin, with the association constant calculated to be ~5 × 106 M−1 for one site. Due to the chiral nature of the other two complexes, their association with albumin was not monitored using CD but was examined using fluorescence and PGSE diffusion NMR. Titration of BSA with any of the three metal complexes resulted in quenching of fluorescence, with the number of association sites calculated to be ~1.1, with an association constant of ~2 × 105 M−1. PGSE diffusion NMR provided insights into interactions occurring with the BSA in its entirety, rather than with individual regions. Metal complex binding sites were estimated (~10 equivalent) from the diffusion data, with the average association constant for all sites ~102–103M−1. These experiments highlight the information that can be elucidated from complementary spectroscopic techniques and demonstrate the usefulness of PGSE diffusion NMR in monitoring multiple weak binding sites, which is of great importance in studying drug-biomolecule interactions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12154-012-0074-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Platinum; PGSE NMR; Intercalator; Albumin; Binding; Diffusion; Spectroscopy
A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms.
Empirical scoring function; Artificial Neural Network
Thermodynamic parameters were determined for complex formation between the Grb2 SH2 domain and Ac–pTyr–Xaa–Asn derived tripeptides in which the Xaa residue is an α,α-cycloaliphatic amino acid that varies in ring size from 3- to 7-membered. Although the 6- and 7-membered ring analogs are approximately equipotent, binding affinities of those having 3- to 6-membered rings increase incrementally with ring size because increasingly more favorable binding enthalpies dominate increasingly unfavorable binding entropies, a finding consistent with an enthalpy-driven hydrophobic effect. Crystallographic analysis reveals that the only significant differences in structures of the complexes are in the number of van der Waals contacts between the domain and the methylene groups in the Xaa residues. There is a positive correlation between buried nonpolar surface area and binding free energy and enthalpy, but not with ΔCp. Displacing a water molecule from a protein-ligand interface is not necessarily reflected in a favorable change in binding entropy. These findings highlight some of the fallibilities associated with commonly held views of relationships of structure and energetics in protein-ligand interactions and have significant implications for ligand design.
Five coordinated novel complexes of
have been synthesized from benzil and 1,3-
complex and characterized by elemental analysis, i.r., n.m.r., e.p.r, molar
conductance and u.v-vis, spectroscopy. The complexes are ionic in nature and exhibit pentaeoordinated
geometry around the metal ion. The reaction kinetics of
with calf thymus DNA was studied
by u.v-vis, spectroscopy in aqueous medium. The complex after interaction with calf thymus DNA shows
shift in the absorption spectrum and hypochromicity indicating an intercalative binding mode. The
have been calculated under pseudo-first order conditions. The redox behaviour of complex
in the presence and in the absence of calf thymus DNA in the aqueous solution has been investigated by
cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voitammogram exhibits one quasi-reversible redox wave corresponding to
redox couple with
values of -0.377 and -0.237 V respectively at a scan rate of 0.1V
interaction with calf thymus DNA, the complex
exhibits shifts in both
as well as in
values, indicating strong binding of the complex to the calf thymus DNA.
Analysis of protein/small molecule interactions is crucial in the discovery of new drug candidates and lead structure optimization. Small biomolecules (ligands) are highly flexible and may adopt numerous conformations upon binding to the protein. Using computer simulations instead of sophisticated laboratory procedures may significantly reduce cost of some stages of drug development. Inspired by probabilistic path planning in robotics, stochastic roadmap methodology can be regarded as a very interesting approach to effective sampling of ligand conformational space around a protein molecule. Protein-ligand interactions are divided into two parts: electrostatics, modeled by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and van der Waals interactions, represented by the Lennard-Jones potential. The results are promising; it can be shown that locations of binding sites predicted by the simulation are in agreement with those revealed by experimental x-ray crystallography of protein-ligand complexes. We wanted to extend our knowledge beyond the current molecular modeling tools to arrive at a better understanding of the ligand-binding process. To this end, we investigated a two-level model of protein-ligand interaction and sampling of ligand conformational space covering the entire surface of protein target. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb.
binding site discovery; Poisson-Boltzmann equation; protein-ligand interaction; Stochastic Roadmap Simulation
The interaction of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), a cationic surfactant, with calf thymus DNA has been studied by various methods, including potentiometric technique using DTAB-selective plastic membrane electrode at 27 and 37 degreesC, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and UV spectrophotometry at 27 degreesC using 0.05 M Tris buffer and 0.01 M NaCl at pH 7.4. The free energy is calculated from binding isotherms on the basis of Wyman binding potential theory and the enthalpy of binding according to van't Hoff relation. The enthalpy of unfolding has been determined by subtraction of the enthalpy of binding from the microcalorimetric enthalpy. The results show that, after the interaction of first DTAB molecule to DNA (base molarity) through the electrostatic interaction, the second DTAB molecule also binds to DNA through electrostatic interaction. At this stage, the predom-inant DNA conformational change occurs. Afterwards up to 20 DTAB molecules, below the critical micelle concentration of DTAB, bind through hydrophobic interactions.
Molecular structure does not easily identify the intricate non-covalent interactions that govern many areas of biology and chemistry, including design of new materials and drugs. We develop an approach to detect non-covalent interactions in real space, based on the electron density and its derivatives. Our approach reveals underlying chemistry that compliments the covalent structure. It provides a rich representation of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and steric repulsion in small molecules, molecular complexes, and solids. Most importantly, the method, requiring only knowledge of the atomic coordinates, is efficient and applicable to large systems, such as proteins or DNA. Across these applications, a view of non-bonded interactions emerges as continuous surfaces rather than close contacts between atom pairs, offering rich insight into the design of new and improved ligands.
Integration of HIV DNA into host chromosome requires a 3′-processing (3′-P) and a strand transfer (ST) reactions catalyzed by virus integrase (IN). Raltegravir (RAL), commonly used in AIDS therapy, belongs to the family of IN ST inhibitors (INSTIs) acting on IN-viral DNA complexes (intasomes). However, studies show that RAL fails to bind IN alone, but nothing has been reported on the behaviour of RAL toward free viral DNA. Here, we assessed whether free viral DNA could be a primary target for RAL, assuming that the DNA molecule is a receptor for a huge number of pharmacological agents. Optical spectroscopy, molecular dynamics and free energy calculations, showed that RAL is a tight binder of both processed and unprocessed LTR (long terminal repeat) ends. Complex formation involved mainly van der Waals forces and was enthalpy driven. Dissociation constants (Kds) revealed that RAL affinity for unbound LTRs was stronger than for bound LTRs. Moreover, Kd value for binding of RAL to LTRs and IC50 value (half concentration for inhibition) were in same range, suggesting that RAL binding to DNA and ST inhibition are correlated events. Accommodation of RAL into terminal base-pairs of unprocessed LTR is facilitated by an extensive end fraying that lowers the RAL binding energy barrier. The RAL binding entails a weak damping of fraying and correlatively of 3′-P inhibition. Noteworthy, present calculated RAL structures bound to free viral DNA resemble those found in RAL-intasome crystals, especially concerning the contacts between the fluorobenzyl group and the conserved 5′C4pA33′ step. We propose that RAL inhibits IN, in binding first unprocessed DNA. Similarly to anticancer drug poisons acting on topoisomerases, its interaction with DNA does not alter the cut, but blocks the subsequent joining reaction. We also speculate that INSTIs having viral DNA rather IN as main target could induce less resistance.