Lumbar plexopathy is characterized by an abrupt onset of sensory disturbances, weakness, and loss of deep tendon reflexes of lower extremities. The various causes of lumbar plexopathy include trauma, infections, space-occupying lesion, vascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and the use of drugs such as heroin. Postoperative rhabdomyolysis occurs secondary to prolonged muscle compression due to surgical positioning. Herein, we report a case of lumbar plexopathy, complicating an injury to the paraspinal muscle and iliopsoas muscle that occurred in the flexed lateral decubitus position following radical nephrectomy.
Lateral decubitus position; Lumbar plexopathy; Nephrectomy; Rhabdomyolysis
Iliopsoas haematoma is an uncommon complication that may arise during anticoagulant therapy, especially with heparin and warfarin. Besides determining patient distress secondary to femoral nerve compression, this event may progress to life-threatening complications and require expensive treatments. We describe the case of a 70-year-old healthy man complaining of severe bilateral groin, lumbar and thigh pain, and paralytic ileus after therapy with heparin. The angio-computed tomography scan observed bilateral iliopsoas haematomas. In view of the clinical and radiological scenarios, we ordered a diagnostic and therapeutic angiography of the bleeding vessels by trans-catheter arterial embolization of the fourth right lumbar artery trunk. The treatment proved to be beneficial from a clinical, radiological and laboratory point of view. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral iliopsoas haematoma occurring in a male treated with therapeutic levels of heparin alone.
Compressive femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathies from an iliacus hematoma are unusual presentation. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who developed right femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathies as a complication of traumatic ipsilateral iliacus hematoma formation. The patient complained of numbness in the right thigh and calf as well as right leg weakness, and pain in the right inguinal area. Nerve conduction study and needle electromyography identified the neuropathies. After the electrodiagnostic studies, the pelvic bone MRI revealed a large, 9×5×4.5 cm right iliacus hematoma. As a result, diagnosis of a right iliacus hematoma compressing the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves was made, and the patient underwent an operation to remove the hematoma. Symptoms and neurological signs showed notable improvement after surgical decompression. Subsequent follow-up electrodiagnostic studies after 11 weeks demonstrated regeneration evidence.
Femoral neuropathy; Meralgia paresthetica; Iliacus hematoma
Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is typically associated with metastasis to the abdomen, pelvis, and lung. We found three case reports of ESS metastasis to the bone (two to the thoracic spine, and one to the parietal bone). Our objective is to review the literature on ESS spinal and intracranial metastases and, report the first case of ESS metastatic to the lumbar paraspinal region and sphenoid bone. A 53-year-old female with ESS status-post radiation, chemotherapy, and pelvic exenteration surgery presented with right hip weakness, back pain, and radicular leg pain that were explained by chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy, and femoral nerve and obturator nerve injury during pelvic exenteration surgery. During routine positron emission tomography, we found metastasis to the L3 lumbar spinal region. L3 laminectomy and subtotal resection of the mass was performed with tumor residual in the neuroforamina and pedicles. One month later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for persistent headaches revealed a large lesion in the sphenoid bone that was biopsied transsphenoidally with the same diagnosis, but no further surgery was performed. She is intolerant of chemotherapy and currently undergoing whole brain radiation. Delay in the diagnosis and management of lumbar paraspinal and sphenoid bone metastasis of ESS likely occurred because of the uniqueness of the location and aggressiveness of ESS metastasis. Health care providers should be aware of potentially aggressive metastasis of ESS to bone, in particular the unusual locations of the lumbar paraspinal region and sphenoid bone.
endometrial stromal sarcoma; uterine sarcoma; lumbar spine; sphenoid bone; bone metastasis.
Iliopsoas hemorrhage is a serious complication of bleeding disorders that occurs most commonly in patients with hemophilia and less commonly in patients with von Willebrand disease. It causes severe pain, muscle dysfunction and occasionally femoral nerve palsy. We describe the case of a patient with von Willebrand disease type 3 with a large iliopsoas hematoma who was treated with a von Willebrand factor concentrate (Humate-P).
A 20-year-old Iranian man was referred to our emergency ward because of the gradual onset of right flank pain. He was known to have been diagnosed with von Willebrand disease type 3 at age two years old. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass in the right iliopsoas muscle. The diagnosis of iliopsoas hemorrhage and partial femoral nerve palsy was established, and he responded to medical treatment.
We report a case of von Willebrand disease type 3 with spontaneous iliopsoas hematoma associated with femoral nerve palsy that was well managed with Humate-P treatment.
A 77-year-old man had aorto-iliac bypass for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This was complicated by occlusion that needed extension of the graft to the right femoral artery. He was unable to move his right leg with numbness after surgery. This was caused by extensive lumbosacral plexopathy on the right side. Lumbosacral plexopathy is uncommon because the plexus has a rich blood supply. The incidence of ischaemic lumbosacral plexopathy is higher with re-operative and emergency AAA reconstruction. This may predispose the lumbosacral plexus to ischaemic injury. Consideration should be given to maintaining retrograde perfusion of the internal iliac artery.
AAA repair; Lumbosacral plexus
There are many documented neurological complications of anterior iliac crest bone harvest. Until now, these have included injuries to the iliohypogastric, subcostal and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. Femoral nerve palsy as a direct surgical complication of anterior iliac crest bone harvest has never been cited in any surgical literature, although it has been reported in deep pelvic and abdominal surgeries in which improper retraction and/or prolonged hyperextension of the hip may have caused a nerve compression syndrome. In addition, surgical patients on antithrombolytic therapy have experienced hemorrhage within the iliacus and iliopsoas muscles, resulting in hematoma and secondary femoral nerve compression. The classic motor and sensory deficits reported in femoral nerve palsies are reduced or absent patellar reflex, weak hip flexion, quadriceps muscle weakness, and anesthesia of the anterior thigh and medial aspect of the leg. Two cases of femoral nerve palsy with different etiologies are presented.
Bone graft; Complications; Femoral nerve palsy; Iliac crest
A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning a solitary epidural lipoma combined with ipsilateral facet arthorsis causing lumbar radiculopathy. Solitary epidural lipoma with ipsilateral facet arthritis causing lumbar radiculopathy was removed after the failure of conservative treatment. After decompression, the neurologic deficit was relieved. At a 2 year follow-up, motor weakness had completely recovered and the patient was satisfied with the result. We recommend that a solitary epidural lipoma causing neurologic deficit should be excised at the time of diagnosis.
Solitary epidural lipoma; Posterior facet; Ipsilateral arthritis; Lumbar radiculopathy
We present a case of an acute psoas muscle hematoma following percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy. A 60-year-old female who presented with far lateral lumbar disc herniation underwent endoscopic discectomy on the right side at the L4-5 level. On the second postoperative day, the patient complained of severe right flank and leg pain and her blood pressure decreased. A computed tomography scan showed a large acute psoas muscle hematoma at right L4-5 level. The patient was transfused with packed red blood cells and placed at absolute bed rest. After observing the patient in intensive care, the severe flank and leg pain subsided, but the mild back pain persisted. Although percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is an effective minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, this case highlights the inherent risks of acute lumbar segmental vessel injury.
Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy; Psoas muscle hematoma; Lumbar segmental vessel injury
The case of a 46-year-old Arabian male complaining of low back pain due to congenital lumbar spinal canal stenosis with additional disc herniation is presented. Following CT scan and MRI, bilateral enlarged partial hemilaminectomy was performed in L5/S1 with removal of herniated disc material. Intraoperatively, no complication was encountered. In the postoperative course, the patient had persistent low back pain and developed deep venous thrombosis in the left leg. Phlebography revealed thrombosis in the deep veins of the left leg extending into the pelvic region. The source of this high obstruction of the venous outflow was a retroperitoneal haematoma, visible on CT scan, compressing the vena cava at the level of L5/S1, the most probable cause of which was accidental perforation of the anterior spinal ligament. This case demonstrates that injury to the retroperitoneal vessels during lumbar disc surgery can also present as deep venous thrombosis due to obstruction of venous outflow.
Venous thrombosis; Lumbar disc surgery; Complication; Injury to retroperitoneal vessels
The authors present an unusual case of atypical iliopsoas bursitis in an 81 years-old female patient. The patient asked for medical advice due to a chronic left hip and lower abdominal pain with no specific characteristics. Physical examination revealed a palpable left-sided pelvic mass. Ultrasound examination demonstrated a purely cystic mass that was presumed to be an ovarian cystic malignancy. The patient was referred for an MRI examination, which showed a cystic lesion extending from the left iliac crest to the anterior aspect of the ipsilateral hip joint (maximum diameter 18 cm), coursing below the iliopsoas tendon indicative of an extremely distended iliopsoas bursa.
Iliopsoas bursa; iliopsoas bursitis; hip joint
Femoral mononeuropathy (FMN) as an extraarticular finding of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a phenomenon which has not been reported previously. We report a 53-year-old female patient with RA, presenting FMN findings during the course of the disease. On examination, right quadriceps and iliopsoas muscles showed grade 3 weakness on the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Sensory examination revealed sensory loss in the right medial leg and thigh. Patellar tendon reflex was absent in the right side. A diagnosis of a partial right femoral neuropathy was confirmed using nerve conduction study and electromyography. The probable mechanism of FMN was thought to be vasculitis.
Femoral mononeuropathy; rheumatoid arthritis
Despite typical signs of Leriche syndrome, this patient was misdiagnosed with disk prolapse. Vascular insufficiency, such as aortic occlusion, may underlie a motor-sensory deficit in the lower extremities.
A 67-year-old woman was admitted for cramping pain in the lumbar spine, hips, and legs; diffuse weakness and sensory disturbances of both legs for weeks; and a cold feeling and livid colorization of the legs. Her complaints were attributed to a disk prolapse L5/S1, for which she underwent immediate laminectomy. Postoperatively, symptoms and signs were aggravated, abdominal pain developed, and C-reactive protein and creatinine were elevated. On the fourth postoperative day, femoral pulses were no longer palpable, anuria developed, and computed tomographry angiography showed occlusion of the abdominal aorta distal to the superior mesenteric artery and absent kidney perfusion. The patient died one day later. Postmortem review showed a visible intra-aortic mass on the previous lumbar magnetic resonance image.
The differential diagnosis of painful lumbar transverse syndrome should include vascular disease. Misinterpretation of a Leriche syndrome as a disk prolapse has not been reported.
Peripheral artery disease; Atherosclerosis; Paraparesis; Polyglobulia; Paraplegia; Renal failure; Lumbar pain; Leriche syndrome; Abdominal pain; Vertebral disk prolapse
Pyomyositis is an acute bacterial infection of the skeletal muscles that arises from hematogenous spread and is caused predominantly by Gram-positive cocci.
We report a case of iliopsoas pyomyositis in a 25-year-old Greek Caucasian woman with a history of intravenous drug use. Her condition was complicated by bilateral dilation of the ureters and renal calyces as a result of mechanical pressure from inflammation and edema of the involved muscle. The patient did not present aggravation of renal function and was treated successfully solely with intravenous antibiotics, without surgical intervention. This is the first case report describing iliopsoas pyomyositis with reversible bilateral dilation of the urinary tract that was treated successfully with intravenous antibiotics, without surgical intervention.
We present the first described case of iliopsoas pyomyositis with reversible bilateral hydroureteronephrosis that was treated successfully with intravenous antibiotics, without the necessity of surgical intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature regarding an unexpected event in the course of treating a patient with iliopsoas pyomyositis, and it should be of particular interest to different clinical medical specialties such as internal medicine, infectious disease and urology.
We report a case of type 1 complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I) of the left leg following the implantation of an artificial disc type in the L4/5 segment of the lumbar spine using a midline left-sided retroperitoneal approach. This approach included the mobilisation of the sympathetic trunk with incision and resection of the intervertebral disc. The perioperative and immediate postoperative periods were uneventful, but on the second postoperative day the patient complained of a progressive allodynia of the whole left leg in combination with weakness of the limb. Neurological examination did not reveal any radicular deficit or paresis. A sympathetic reaction following the mobilisation of the sympathetic trunk during the ventral preparation of the spine was suspected and investigated further. A diagnosis of CRPS I was proposed, and the patient was treated with analgesia, co-analgesics for pain alienation, and systemic corticosteroid therapy. A computed tomography-guided sympathetic block and lymphatic drainage were performed. Following conservative orthopaedic rehabilitation therapy, the degree of pain, allodynia, weakness, and swelling were reduced and the condition of the patient was ameliorated. The cost–benefit ratio of spinal arthroplasty is still controversial. The utility of this paper is to debate a possible cause of a painful complication, which can invalidate the results of a successful operation.
CRPS I; Artificial intervertebral disc surgery
True neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is an uncommon disease and is difficult to diagnose at the early stage and then completely cure. We experienced a case of true neurogenic TOS with typical clinical symptoms and electrophysiologic findings as a result of repetitive habitual sleep posture. A 31-year-old woman who had complained of progressive tingling sensation on the 4th and 5th fingers with shoulder pain was diagnosed of brachial plexopathy at the lower trunk level by electrodiagnostic studies. There was no other cause of brachial plexopathy except her habit of hyperabduction of shoulder during sleep. This case demonstrated that the habitual abnormal posture can be the only major cause of neurogenic TOS. It is of importance to consider TOS with the habitual cause because simple correction of the posture could stabilize or even reverse disease progress.
Thoracic outlet syndrome; Neurogenic; Hyperabduction sleep
A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1 month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL) complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL) and intravascular lymphoma (IVL) was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis.
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.
Neurolymphomatosis (NL); Peripheral nerve; Intravascular lymphoma (IVL); Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL)
We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with acute-onset right groin pain irradiating to the thigh anteriorly after having suffered for a few weeks from slight knee pain. As a CT scan showed multiple herniated intervertebral discs and spinal stenosis at the L3–L4 level, she was referred to a neurosurgical unit with the tentative diagnosis of L2-L3 radicular pain. Investigations (MR, myelography with CT scan) showed severe acquired lumbar canal stenosis. Decompression surgery was finally postponed because of the patient's serious cardiac medical history and she was referred to us for conservative treatment. She was found to have iliopsoas bursitis with chondrocalcinosis of the knee. Local steroid injections of the two sites abolished her symptoms. We draw attention to the possible pitfalls that the radiographic appearance and one of the multiple clinical presentations of this unrare pathology may represent. Whenever a patient comes walking with crutches, avoids puting weight on his or her leg, and radicular pain is suspected, we advise consideration of other extra-spinal causes for the pain.
Iliopectineal bursitis; Chondrocalcinosis; Pseudogout; Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate; Spinal stenosis
Gas pseudocysts are a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy and most symptomatic gas pseudocysts are found within the confines of the spinal canal. A gas pseudocyst in the foramen causing lumbar radiculopathy is very rare. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman suffering from severe pain in the right leg. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a gas pseudocyst compressing the L2 root at the right L2-3 foramen. The patient underwent cyst excision using the lateral transmuscular approach and her leg pain was improved after the operation.
Gas pseudocyst; Radiculopathy; Lumbar vertebra
Suprascapular nerve neuropathy constitutes an unusual cause of shoulder weakness, with the most common etiology being nerve compression from a ganglion cyst at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch. We present a puzzling case of a man with suprascapular nerve neuropathy that may have been associated with an appendectomy. The case was attributed to nerve injury as the most likely cause that may have occurred during improper post-operative patient mobilization.
A 23-year-old Caucasian man presented to an orthopedic surgeon with a history of left shoulder weakness of several weeks' duration. The patient complained of pain and inability to lift minimal weight, such as a glass of water, following an appendectomy. His orthopedic clinical examination revealed obvious atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 2 of 5 muscle strength scores on flexion resistance and external rotation resistance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse high signal intensity within the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and early signs of minimal fatty infiltration consistent with denervation changes. No compression of the suprascapular nerve in the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch was noted. Electromyographic studies showed active denervation effects in the supraspinatus muscle and more prominent in the left infraspinatus muscle. The findings were compatible with damage to the suprascapular nerve, especially the part supplying the infraspinatus muscle. On the basis of the patient's history, clinical examination, and imaging studies, the diagnosis was suspected to be associated with a possible traction injury of the suprascapular nerve that could have occurred during the patient's transfer from the operating table following an appendectomy.
Our case report may provide important insight into patient transfer techniques used by hospital personnel, may elucidate the clinical significance of careful movement of patients following general anesthesia, and may have important implications for patient safety techniques, including those outlined in the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist program.
Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of the soft tissue, with myxoid liposarcoma being the second most common subtype, tending to occur in the limbs, particularly in the thighs. Myxoid liposarcomas have an intermediate prognosis between well-differentiated and pleomorphic tumors. Spinal metastasis is usual but intradural involvement is extremely rare. We present an unusual case of a multicentric myxoid liposarcoma with intradural involvement. A 41-year-old woman complained of tingling sensation on her left arm. Radiological evaluation revealed multiple masses in her cervical spine, abdominal wall, liver, heart and right thigh, all of which were resected. She was histologically diagnosed with small round cell myxoid sarcoma and underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. However, magnetic resonance imaging analysis after 1 year revealed a large metastatic mass with bony invasion at the C6-T1 level. This mass consisted of extradural and intradural components causing severe compression of the spinal cord. She underwent resection via a posterior facetectomy of C6-7 and an anterior C7 corpectomy. However, the patient died of multiple metastases 18 months after the first diagnosis.
Cervical spine; lntradural; Multicentric; Myxoid liposarcoma; Metastasis
Iatrogenic peripheral nerve injuries are a common source of postprocedural morbidity. The authors present a case report of a patient who developed brachial plexopathy from positioning during radiofrequency ablation of a renal mass. Though incidence data on the majority of iatrogenic peripheral nerve injury is scarce, there is more concrete data on iatrogenic brachial plexopathy. The incidence of brachial plexopathies is ~0.2% of all patients who receive general anesthesia, with between 7 and 10% of brachial plexopathies being iatrogenic in nature. The mechanism of injury in the majority of cases is due to stretching or compression of the nerve tissue. Treatment is largely supportive. Prevention is key in minimizing this form of patient morbidity. It is the operator's responsibility to mitigate this risk by employing proper positioning techniques and communicating closely with the anesthesia staff when applicable.
Brachial plexus; plexopathy; peripheral nerve injury; iatrogenic
It is not known whether or not muscle spasm of the back muscles presented in patients with sciatic scoliosis caused by lumbar disc herniation produces muscle pain and/or tenderness. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the lower back and low-back pain were examined in 52 patients (13 of 52 presenting sciatic scoliosis) with lumbar disc herniation who complained of radicular pain and in 15 normal subjects. PPTs were measured at five points bilaterally using an electronic pressure algometer. Low-back pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings. All patients complained of radicular leg pain and were divided into the following three groups according to the presence of and the region of low-back pain: no low-back pain group, low-back pain with no laterality group, and low-back pain dominantly on the herniation side group; the VAS rating on the side ipsilateral to the herniation side was higher than that on the contralateral side. In the normal subjects, there were no statistically significant differences between sides in mean PPTs at all sites examined. PPTs were not lower in the spasmodic side (concave side) than the convex side in patients with sciatic scoliosis. PPTs on the herniation side were significantly lower than those on the contralateral side in patients with low-back pain dominantly on the herniation side. Furthermore, the areas of low PPTs were beyond the innervation area of dorsal ramus of L5 and S1 nerve root. It was considered that not only the peripheral mechanisms but also the hyper excitability of the central nervous system might contribute in lowering PPTs of the lower back on the herniation side.
Pressure pain threshold; Muscle spasm; Low-back pain; Lumbar disc herniation; Sciatic scoliosis
We describe a case of a 54-yr-old AL amyloidosis patient who developed femoral compressive neuropathy due to iliopsoas pseudohypertrophy. The patient, who presented with end stage renal disease, was referred to our clinic because of lower extremity weakness and polyarthritis. Finally, he was diagnosed as having kappa-AL amyloidosis, complicated by femoral compressive neuropathy, hypertrophic amyloid myopathy, amyloid arthropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, and end stage renal disease. Femoral compressive neuropathy has never been reported in association with amyloid induced iliopsoas hypertrophic myopathy. This report expands the clinical spectrum of AL amyloidosis.
Amyloidosis; Muscle Weakness; Femoral Neuropathy
Primary liposarcoma of the lung is extremely rare with only 11 cases reported worldwide. However, metastatic pulmonary liposarcoma was reported around 15% out of all metastatic pulmonary soft tissue sarcoma.
A case of 53 year-old man who presented with mass at left scapular region was referred to our unit in June 2006. He had history of thigh liposarcoma 14 years back which was operated and received a course of radiotherapy. However, he denied of having chest pain, shortness of breath or any other respiratory symptom. Biopsy of the mass came back as liposarcoma (round cell type). CT scan showed presence of left pleural base mass. He underwent left posterolateral thoracotomy and excision of infrascapular as well as intrathoracic mass 3 months later. Post operatively was complicated by hypovolemic shock and anemia. He was put under intensive care monitoring and discharged well at day 52 post-operatively. He was supposed to come for oncology appointment in December 2006 for radiotherapy.
Discussion & Conclusions:
Pulmonary liposarcoma can be devided into 4 main subtypes; myxoid, round cell, well differentiated and pleomorphic, which have different post operative survival rate. Five years survival rate of metastatic liposarcoma varies from as high as 77% in myxoid type as low as 18 % in round cell type. Even though metastatic pulmonary liposarcoma has the worst prognosis compared to other soft tissue sarcomas, some studies and centres believe that complete resection will give better prognostic value in term of survival rate and recurrences.