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1.  On the Constitutive Model of Nitrogen-Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel 316LN at Elevated Temperature 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e102687.
The nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN has been chosen as the material for nuclear main-pipe, which is one of the key parts in 3rd generation nuclear power plants. In this research, a constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel is developed. The true stress-true strain curves obtained from isothermal hot compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (900–1250°C) and strain rates (10−3–10 s−1), were employed to study the dynamic deformational behavior of and recrystallization in 316LN steels. The constitutive model is developed through multiple linear regressions performed on the experimental data and based on an Arrhenius-type equation and Zener-Hollomon theory. The influence of strain was incorporated in the developed constitutive equation by considering the effect of strain on the various material constants. The reliability and accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of predicted flow stress curves and experimental curves. Possible reasons for deviation are also discussed based on the characteristics of modeling process.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102687
PMCID: PMC4222771  PMID: 25375345
2.  Direct observation of Lomer-Cottrell Locks during strain hardening in nanocrystalline nickel by in situ TEM 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1061.
Strain hardening capability is critical for metallic materials to achieve high ductility during plastic deformation. A majority of nanocrystalline metals, however, have inherently low work hardening capability with few exceptions. Interpretations on work hardening mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals are still controversial due to the lack of in situ experimental evidence. Here we report, by using an in situ transmission electron microscope nanoindentation tool, the direct observation of dynamic work hardening event in nanocrystalline nickel. During strain hardening stage, abundant Lomer-Cottrell (L-C) locks formed both within nanograins and against twin boundaries. Two major mechanisms were identified during interactions between L-C locks and twin boundaries. Quantitative nanoindentation experiments recorded show an increase of yield strength from 1.64 to 2.29 GPa during multiple loading-unloading cycles. This study provides both the evidence to explain the roots of work hardening at small length scales and the insight for future design of ductile nanocrystalline metals.
doi:10.1038/srep01061
PMCID: PMC3544074  PMID: 23320142
3.  Evaluation of Varying Ductile Fracture Criteria for 42CrMo Steel by Compressions at Different Temperatures and Strain Rates 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:579328.
Fracturing by ductile damage occurs quite naturally in metal forming processes, and ductile fracture of strain-softening alloy, here 42CrMo steel, cannot be evaluated through simple procedures such as tension testing. Under these circumstances, it is very significant and economical to find a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC) and identify the relationships between damage evolution and deformation conditions. Under the guidance of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criteria, an innovative approach involving hot compression tests, numerical simulations, and mathematic computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions, which has not been expounded by Cockcroft and Latham. The results show that the maximum damage value appears in the region of upsetting drum, while the minimal value appears in the middle region. Furthermore, DFC of 42CrMo steel at temperature range of 1123~1348 K and strain rate of 0.01~10 s−1 are not constant but change in a range of 0.160~0.226; thus, they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC) and characterized by a function of temperature and strain rate. In bulk forming operations, VDFC help technicians to choose suitable process parameters and avoid the occurrence of fracture.
doi:10.1155/2014/579328
PMCID: PMC3925567  PMID: 24592175
4.  Thermally Driven Stability of Octadecylphosphonic Acid Thin Films Grown on SS316L 
Scanning  2010;32(5):304-311.
Stainless steel 316L is widely used as a biomedical implant material; however, there is concern about the corrosion of metallic implants in the physiological environment. The corrosion process can cause mechanical failure due to resulting cracks and cavities in the implant. Alkyl phosphonic acid forms a thin film by self-assembly on the stainless steel surface and this report conclusively shows that thermal treatment of the octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) film greatly enhances the stability of the ODPA molecules on the substrate surface. AFM images taken from the modified substrates revealed that thermally treated films remain intact after methanol, THF and water flushes while untreated films suffer substantial loss. Water contact angles also show that the hydrophobicity of thermally treated films does not diminish after being incubated in a dynamic flow of water for a three hour period while the untreated film becomes increasingly hydrophilic due to loss of ODPA. IR spectra taken of both treated and untreated films after water and THF flushes show that the remaining film retains its initial crystallinity. A model is suggested to explain the stability of ODPA film enhanced by thermal treatment. An ODPA molecule is physisorbed to the surface weakly by hydrogen bonding. Heating drives away water molecules leading to the formation of strong monodentate or mixed mono/bi-dentate bonds of ODPA molecule to the surface.
doi:10.1002/sca.20192
PMCID: PMC2962881  PMID: 20648546
Octadecylphosphonic acid; Stainless steel (SS316L); biomaterials; self-assembly; stability; contact angles; atomic force microscopy (AFM); IR spectroscopy
5.  Fabrication and thermo-mechanical behavior of ultra-fine porous copper 
Journal of Materials Science  2014;50:634-643.
Porous materials with ligament sizes in the submicrometer to nanometer regime have a high potential for future applications such as catalysts, actuators, or radiation tolerant materials, which require properties like high strength-to-weight ratio, high surface-to-volume ratio, or large interface density as for radiation tolerance. The objective of this work was to manufacture ultra-fine porous copper, to determine the thermo-mechanical properties, and to elucidate the deformation behavior at room as well as elevated temperatures via nanoindentation. The experimental approach for manufacturing the foam structures used high pressure torsion, subsequent heat treatments, and selective dissolution. Nanoindentation at different temperatures was successfully conducted on the ultra-fine porous copper, showing a room temperature hardness of 220 MPa. During high temperature experiments, oxidation of the copper occurred due to the high surface area. A model, taking into account the mechanical properties of the copper oxides formed during the test, to describe the measured mechanical properties in dependence on the proceeding oxidation was developed. The strain rate sensitivity of the copper foam at room temperature was ∼0.03 and strongly correlated with the strain rate sensitivity of ultra-fine grained bulk copper. Although oxidation occurred near the surface, the rate-controlling process was still the deformation of the underlying copper. An increase in the strain rate sensitivity was observed, comparably to that of ultra-fine-grained copper, which can be linked to thermally activated processes at grain boundaries. Important insights into the effects of oxidation on the deformation behavior were obtained by assessing the activation volume. Oxidation of the ultra-fine porous copper foam, thereby hindering dislocations to exit to the surface, resulted in a pronounced reduction of the apparent activation volume from ~800 to ~50 b3, as also typical for ultra-fine grained materials.
doi:10.1007/s10853-014-8622-4
PMCID: PMC4270432  PMID: 25540464
6.  In Vivo Evaluation of Immediately Loaded Stainless Steel and Titanium Orthodontic Screws in a Growing Bone 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76223.
The present work intends to evaluate the use of immediate loaded orthodontic screws in a growing model, and to study the specific bone response. Thirty-two screws (half of stainless steel and half of titanium) were inserted in the alveolar bone of 8 growing pigs. The devices were immediately loaded with a 100 g orthodontic force. Two loading periods were assessed: 4 and 12 weeks. Both systems of screws were clinically assessed. Histological observations and histomorphometric analysis evaluated the percent of “bone-to-implant contact” and static and dynamic bone parameters in the vicinity of the devices (test zone) and in a bone area located 1.5 cm posterior to the devices (control zone). Both systems exhibit similar responses for the survival rate; 87.5% and 81.3% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p = 0.64; 4-week period), and 62.5% and 50.0% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p = 0.09; 12-week period). No significant differences between the devices were found regarding the percent of “bone-to-implant contact” (p = 0.1) or the static and dynamic bone parameters. However, the 5% threshold of “bone-to-implant contact” was obtained after 4 weeks with the stainless steel devices, leading to increased survival rate values. Bone in the vicinity of the miniscrew implants showed evidence of a significant increase in bone trabecular thickness when compared to bone in the control zone (p = 0.05). In our study, it is likely that increased trabecular thickness is a way for low density bone to respond to the stress induced by loading.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076223
PMCID: PMC3790705  PMID: 24124540
7.  Biocompatibility and characterization of a Kolsterised® medical grade cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy 
Biomatter  2014;4:e27713.
High failure rates of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) metal-on-metal hip prosthesis were reported by various authors, probably due to the alloy's limited hardness and tribological properties. This thus caused the popularity of the alloy in metal-on-metal hip replacements to decrease due to its poor wear properties when compared with other systems such as ceramic-on-ceramic. S-phase surface engineering has become an industry standard when citing surface hardening of austenitic stainless steels. This hardening process allows the austenitic stainless steel to retain its corrosion resistance, while at the same time also improving its hardness and wear resistance. By coupling S-phase surface engineering, using the proprietary Kolsterising® treatment from Bodycote Hardiff GmbH, that is currently being used mainly on stainless steel, with Co-Cr-Mo alloys, an improvement in hardness and tribological characteristics is predicted. The objective of this paper is to analyze the biocompatibility of a Kolsterised® Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and to characterize the material surface in order to show the advantages gained by using the Kolsterised® material relative to the original untreated alloy, and other materials. This work has been performed on 3 fronts including; Material characterization, “In-vitro” corrosion testing, and Biological testing conforming to BS EN ISO 10993–18:2009 - Biological evaluation of medical devices. Using these techniques, the Kolsterised® cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys were found to have good biocompatibility and an augmented corrosion resistance when compared with the untreated alloy. The Kolsterised® samples also showed a 150% increase in surface hardness over the untreated material thus predicting better wear properties.
doi:10.4161/biom.27713
PMCID: PMC3958430  PMID: 24451266
Co-Cr-Mo alloys; Cytocompatibility; Expanded Austenite; Kolsterising®; S-phase; XTT; biocompatibility; corrosion; nano-indentation
8.  Lamellar Thickness and Stretching Temperature Dependency of Cavitation in Semicrystalline Polymers 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97234.
Polybutene-1 (PB-1), a typical semicrystalline polymer, in its stable form I shows a peculiar temperature dependent strain-whitening behavior when being stretched at temperatures in between room temperature and melting temperature of the crystallites where the extent of strain-whitening weakens with the increasing of stretching temperature reaching a minima value followed by an increase at higher stretching temperatures. Correspondingly, a stronger strain-hardening phenomenon was observed at higher temperatures. The strain-whitening phenomenon in semicrystalline polymers has its origin of cavitation process during stretching. In this work, the effect of crystalline lamellar thickness and stretching temperature on the cavitation process in PB-1 has been investigated by means of combined synchrotron ultrasmall-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Three modes of cavitation during the stretching process can be identified, namely “no cavitation” for the quenched sample with the thinnest lamellae where only shear yielding occurred, “cavitation with reorientation” for the samples stretched at lower temperatures and samples with thicker lamellae, and “cavitation without reorientation” for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher temperatures. The mode “cavitation with reorientation” occurs before yield point where the plate-like cavities start to be generated within the lamellar stacks with normal perpendicular to the stretching direction due to the blocky substructure of the crystalline lamellae and reorient gradually to the stretching direction after strain-hardening. The mode of “cavitation without reorientation” appears after yield point where ellipsoidal shaped cavities are generated in those lamellae stacks with normal parallel to the stretching direction followed by an improvement of their orientation at larger strains. X-ray diffraction results reveal a much improved crystalline orientation for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher temperatures. The observed behavior of microscopic structural evolution in PB-1 stretched at different temperatures explains above mentioned changes in macroscopic strain-whitening phenomenon with increasing in stretching temperature and stress-strain curves.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097234
PMCID: PMC4018252  PMID: 24820772
9.  Effect of Cell Moisture on the Thermal Inactivation Rate of Bacterial Spores 
Applied Microbiology  1968;16(8):1240-1244.
Thermal inactivation rates were determined for two strains of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores after equilibration to various relative humidity (RH) levels. In these tests, small thin stainless-steel squares were each inoculated with a drop of spore suspension and equilibrated to 11, 33, or 85% RH. Following equilibration, the squares were placed on a hot plate preheated to 108, 125, 136, 164, or 192 C for various exposure times and then assayed for surviving organisms. The results revealed that spores of the A strain of B. subtilis were least resistant if preequilibrated to 11% RH and most resistant if preequilibrated to 85% RH. The same trend was obtained at all temperatures except 192 C, at which, no difference was noted, probably because the rapid kill time approaches the heat-up time of the stainless-steel square. The B strain of B. subtilis spores showed an opposite RH effect; that is, the cells preequilibrated to 11% RH were the most resistant. Because the two strains of spores were grown on different media, further studies were conducted at 136 C after subculturing the cells on different media. When the B strain was subcultured on the A strain medium, the pattern was reversed; the cells preequilibrated to low RH were then least resistant. Although it was not possible to reverse these cells to the original pattern by subculturing on the original B strain medium again, the pattern was altered to the point that there was no significant difference in heat resistance of these cells regardless of the preequilibration RH. The same result was obtained when the A strain was grown on the B strain medium; that is, the thermal resistance could not be reversed, but it was altered from the point where the low RH equilibrated cells were least resistant initially to the point where there was no significant difference in any of the cells regardless of what RH was used for preequilibration. The thermal resistance of spores seemed to be dependent on (i) the medium on which the spores are grown, (ii) the RH on which they are exposed before heating, and (iii) some genetic characteristic of the cell.
Images
PMCID: PMC547626  PMID: 4970894
10.  Structural analysis and corrosion studies on an ISO 5832-9 biomedical alloy with TiO2 sol–gel layers 
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the structural and corrosion properties of an ISO 5832-9 biomedical alloy modified with titanium dioxide (TiO2) layers. These layers were obtained via the sol–gel method by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in isopropanol solution. To obtain TiO2 layers with different structural properties, the coated samples were annealed at temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 450, 500, 600 and 800 °C for 2 h. For all the prepared samples, accelerated corrosion measurements were performed in Tyrode’s physiological solution using electrochemical methods. The most important corrosion parameters were determined: corrosion potential, polarization resistance, corrosion rate, breakdown and repassivation potentials. Corrosion damage was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Structural analysis was carried out for selected TiO2 coatings annealed at 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In addition, the morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity, thickness and density of the deposited TiO2 layers were determined using suitable electron and X-ray measurement methods. It was shown that the structure and character of interactions between substrate and deposited TiO2 layers depended on annealing temperature. All the obtained TiO2 coatings exhibit anticorrosion properties, but these properties are related to the crystalline structure and character of substrate–layer interaction. From the point of view of corrosion, the best TiO2 sol–gel coatings for stainless steel intended for biomedical applications seem to be those obtained at 400 °C.
doi:10.1007/s10856-013-5099-7
PMCID: PMC3942627  PMID: 24271113
11.  Analysis of the variation in the determination of the shear modulus of the erythrocyte membrane: Effects of the constitutive law and membrane modeling 
Despite research spanning several decades, the exact value of the shear modulus Gs of the erythrocyte membrane is still ambiguous, and a wealth of studies, using measurements based on micropipette aspirations, ektacytometry systems and other flow chambers, and optical tweezers as well as application of several models have found different average values in the range 2–10 µN/m. Our study shows that different methodologies have predicted the correct shear modulus for the specific membrane modeling employed, i.e. the variation in the shear modulus determination results from the specific membrane modeling. Available experimental findings from ektacytometry systems and optical tweezers suggest that the dynamics of the erythrocyte membrane is strain-hardening at both moderate and large deformations. Thus the erythrocyte shear modulus cannot be determined accurately using strain-softening models (such as the neo-Hookean and Evans laws) or strain-softening/strain-hardening models (such as the Yeoh law) which overestimate the erythrocyte shear modulus. According to our analysis, the only available strain-hardening constitutive law, the Skalak et al. law, is able to match well both deformation-shear rate data from ektacytometry and force-extension data from optical tweezers at moderate and large strains, using an average value of the shear modulus of Gs = 2.4–2.75 µN/m, i.e. very close to that found in the linear regime of deformations via force-extension data from optical tweezers, Gs = 2.5±0.4 µN/m. In addition, our analysis suggests that a standard deviation in Gs of 0.4–0.5 µN/m (owing to the inherent differences between erythrocytes within a large population) describes well the findings from optical tweezers at small and large strains as well as from micro-pipette aspirations.
PMCID: PMC3605755  PMID: 22680508
12.  Surface Characteristics and Bioactivity of a Novel Natural HA/Zircon Nanocomposite Coated on Dental Implants 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:410627.
The surface characteristics of implant which influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include surface chemistry, crystal structure and crystallinity, roughness, strain hardening, and presence of impurities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and roughness of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite, coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 20 minutes. The composite mixture was coated on 316L SS using plasma spray method. The results are estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation to evaluate surface morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze phase composition, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique to evaluate the shape and size of prepared NHA. Surfaces roughness tester was performed to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The maximum average Ra (14.54 μm) was found in the NHA 10 wt.% of zircon coating. In addition, crystallinity (Xc) was measured by XRD data, which indicated the minimum value (Xc = 41.1%) for the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon. Maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon, which was due to two reasons: first, the maximum roughness and, second, the minimum crystallinity of nanobiocomposite coating.
doi:10.1155/2014/410627
PMCID: PMC4009196  PMID: 24822204
13.  THE INTERPLAY OF LIGHT AND HEAT IN BLEACHING RHODOPSIN 
The Journal of General Physiology  1952;35(3):495-517.
Rhodopsin, the pigment of the retinal rods, can be bleached either by light or by high temperature. Earlier work had shown that when white light is used the bleaching rate does not depend on temperature, and so must be independent of the internal energy of the molecule. On the other hand thermal bleaching in the dark has a high temperature dependence from which one can calculate that the reaction has an apparent activation energy of 44 kg. cal. per mole. It has now been shown that the bleaching rate of rhodopsin becomes temperature-dependent in red light, indicating that light and heat cooperate in activating the molecule. Apparently thermal energy is needed for bleaching at long wave lengths where the quanta are not sufficiently energy-rich to bring about bleaching by themselves. The temperature dependence appears at 590 mµ. This is the longest wave length at which bleaching by light proceeds without thermal activation, and corresponds to a quantum energy of 48.5 kg. cal. per mole. This value of the minimum energy to bleach rhodopsin by light alone is in agreement with the activation energy of thermal bleaching in the dark. At wave lengths between 590 and 750 mµ, the longest wave length at which the bleaching rate was fast enough to study, the sum of the quantum energy and of the activation energy calculated from the temperature coefficients remains between 44 and 48.5 kg. cal. This result shows that in red light the energy deficit of the quanta can be made up by a contribution of thermal energy from the internal degrees of freedom of the rhodopsin molecule. The absorption spectrum of rhodopsin, which is not markedly temperature-dependent at shorter wave lengths, also becomes temperature-dependent in red light of wave lengths longer than about 570 to 590 mµ. The temperature dependence of the bleaching rate is at least partly accounted for by the temperature coefficient of absorption. There is some evidence that the temperature coefficient of bleaching is somewhat greater than the temperature coefficient of absorption at wave lengths longer than 590 mmicro;. This means that the thermal energy of the molecule is a more critical factor in bleaching than in absorption. It shows that some of the molecules which absorb energy-deficient quanta of red light are unable to supply the thermal component of the activation energy needed for bleaching, so bringing about a fall in the quantum efficiency. The experiments show that there is a gradual transition between the activation of rhodopsin by light and the activation by internal energy. It is suggested that energy can move freely between the prosthetic group and the protein moiety of the molecule. In this way a part of the large amount of energy in the internal degrees of freedom of rhodopsin could become available to assist in thermal activation. Assuming that the minimum energy required for bleaching is 48.5 kg. cal., an equation familiar in the study of unimolecular reaction has been used to estimate the number of internal degrees of freedom, n, involved in supplying the thermal component of the activation energy when rhodopsin is bleached in red light. It was found that n increases from 2 at 590 mµ to a minimum value of 15 at 750 mµ. One wonders what value n has at 1050 mµ, where vision still persists, and where rhodopsin molecules may supply some 16 kg. cal. of thermal energy per mole in order to make up for the energy deficit of the quanta.
PMCID: PMC2147339  PMID: 14898032
14.  Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:876.
Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. Here we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significant ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. At high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.
doi:10.1038/srep00876
PMCID: PMC3500768  PMID: 23166859
15.  The Otto Aufranc Award: Enhanced Biocompatibility of Stainless Steel Implants by Titanium Coating and Microarc Oxidation 
Background
Stainless steel is one of the most widely used biomaterials for internal fixation devices, but is not used in cementless arthroplasty implants because a stable oxide layer essential for biocompatibility cannot be formed on the surface. We applied a Ti electron beam coating, to form oxide layer on the stainless steel surface. To form a thicker oxide layer, we used a microarc oxidation process on the surface of Ti coated stainless steel. Modification of the surface using Ti electron beam coating and microarc oxidation could improve the ability of stainless steel implants to osseointegrate.
Questions/purposes
The ability of cells to adhere to grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated stainless steel in vitro was compared with that of two different types of surface modifications, machined and titanium-coated, and microarc-oxidated.
Methods
We performed energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations to assess the chemical composition and structure of the stainless steel surfaces and cell morphology. The biologic responses of an osteoblastlike cell line (SaOS-2) were examined by measuring proliferation (cell proliferation assay), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), and attraction ability (cell migration assay).
Results
Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, migration, and adhesion were increased in the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated group compared to the two other groups. Osteoblastlike cells on the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated surface were strongly adhered, and proliferated well compared to those on the other surfaces.
Conclusions
The surface modifications we used (grit blasting, titanium coating, microarc oxidation) enhanced the biocompatibility (proliferation and migration of osteoblastlike cells) of stainless steel.
Clinical Relevance
This process is not unique to stainless steel; it can be applied to many metals to improve their biocompatibility, thus allowing a broad range of materials to be used for cementless implants.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1613-0
PMCID: PMC3018231  PMID: 20936386
16.  Pushed to the limit: consequences of climate change for the Araucariaceae: a relictual rain forest family 
Annals of Botany  2011;108(2):347-357.
Background and Aims
Under predicted climate change scenarios, increased temperatures are likely to predispose trees to leaf and other tissue damage, resulting in plant death and contraction of already narrow distribution ranges in many relictual species. The effects of predicted upward temperatures may be further exacerbated by changes in rainfall patterns and damage caused by frosts on trees that have been insufficiently cold-hardened. The Araucariaceae is a relictual family and the seven species found in Australia have limited natural distributions characterized by low frost intensity and frequency, and warm summer temperatures. The temperature limits for these species were determined in order to help understand how such species will fare in a changing climate.
Methods
Experiments were conducted using samples from representative trees of the Araucariaceae species occurring in Australia, Agathis (A. atropurpurea, A. microstachya and A. robusta), Arauacaria (A. bidwilli, A. cunninghamii and A. heterophylla) and Wollemia nobilis. Samples were collected from plants grown in a common garden environment. Lower and higher temperature limits were determined by subjecting detached winter-hardened leaves to temperatures from 0 to –17 °C and summer-exposed leaves to 25 to 63 °C, then measuring the efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and visually rating leaf damage. The exotherm, a sharp rise in temperature indicating the point of ice nucleation within the cells of the leaf, was measured on detached leaves of winter-hardened and summer temperature-exposed leaves.
Key Results
Lower temperature limits (indicated by FT50, the temperature at which PSII efficiency is 50 %, and LT50 the temperature at which 50 % visual leaf damage occurred) were approx. –5·5 to –7·5 °C for A. atropurpurea, A. microstachya and A. heterophylla, approx. –7 to –9 °C for A. robusta, A. bidwillii and A. cunninghamii, and –10·5 to –11 °C for W. nobilis. High temperature damage began at 47·5 °C for W. nobilis, and occurred in the range 48·5–52 °C for A. bidwillii and A. cunninghamii, and in the range 50·5–53·5 °C for A. robusta, A. microstachya and A. heterophylla. Winter-hardened leaves had ice nucleation temperatures of –5·5 °C or lower, with W. nobilis the lowest at –6·8 °C. All species had significantly higher ice nucleation temperatures in summer, with A. atropurpurea and A. heterophylla forming ice in the leaf at temperatures >3 °C higher in summer than in winter. Wollemia nobilis had lower FT50 and LT50 values than its ice nucleation temperature, indicating that the species has a degree of ice tolerance.
Conclusions
While lower temperature limits in the Australian Araucariaceae are generally unlikely to affect their survival in wild populations during normal winters, unseasonal frosts may have devastating effects on tree survival. Extreme high temperatures are not common in the areas of natural occurrence, but upward temperature shifts, in combination with localized radiant heating, may increase the heat experienced within a canopy by at least 10 °C and impact on tree survival, and may contribute to range contraction. Heat stress may explain why many landscape plantings of W. nobilis have failed in hotter areas of Australia.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcr135
PMCID: PMC3143045  PMID: 21727080
Hardiness; frost; high temperature; climate change; Araucariaceae; rain forest
17.  HighP–TNano-Mechanics of Polycrystalline Nickel 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2007;2(10):476-491.
We have conducted highP–Tsynchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments as well as indentation measurements to study equation of state, constitutive properties, and hardness of nanocrystalline and bulk nickel. Our lattice volume–pressure data present a clear evidence of elastic softening in nanocrystalline Ni as compared with the bulk nickel. We show that the enhanced overall compressibility of nanocrystalline Ni is a consequence of the higher compressibility of the surface shell of Ni nanocrystals, which supports the results of molecular dynamics simulation and a generalized model of a nanocrystal with expanded surface layer. The analytical methods we developed based on the peak-profile of diffraction data allow us to identify “micro/local” yield due to high stress concentration at the grain-to-grain contacts and “macro/bulk” yield due to deviatoric stress over the entire sample. The graphic approach of our strain/stress analyses can also reveal the corresponding yield strength, grain crushing/growth, work hardening/softening, and thermal relaxation under highP–Tconditions, as well as the intrinsic residual/surface strains in the polycrystalline bulks. From micro-indentation measurements, we found that a low-temperature annealing (T < 0.4 Tm) hardens nanocrystalline Ni, leading to an inverse Hall–Petch relationship. We explain this abnormal Hall–Petch effect in terms of impurity segregation to the grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline Ni.
doi:10.1007/s11671-007-9095-z
PMCID: PMC3246607  PMID: 21794186
Nano-mechanics; Polycrystalline nickel; High pressure and high temperature
18.  The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:209752.
The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.
doi:10.1155/2014/209752
PMCID: PMC3914578  PMID: 24526883
19.  Comparison of thermal coagulation profiles for bipolar forceps with different cooling mechanisms in a porcine model of spinal surgery 
Background:
Coagulation accomplished using bipolar forceps is common in neurosurgery. Control of thermal spread from the forceps tips into surrounding neural tissues is a persistent concern, as neural tissues are especially vulnerable to heat injury. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the efficacy of cooling mechanisms for four different bipolar forceps and to understand thermal spread when coagulating vessels on the spinal cord.
Methods:
Immediately following euthanasia, the dura mater of an ex vivo porcine model was opened to expose vessels on the spinal cord for coagulation. Temperature profiles were measured at generator power of 25 W and at fixed 5-second activation times. The bipolar forceps used in this study included regular stainless steel, titanium, heat-pipe embedded, and SILVERGlide forceps. Temperature was measured by micro-thermistor at the midpoint between the bipolar tips, and 1 and 2 mm away from the midpoint along the centerline. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate temperature differences.
Results:
Temperature profiles indicated that heat-pipe embedded forceps create the least amount of temperature increase and the highest normalized temperature decreasing slope after activation. The decreasing slope of SILVERGlide forceps is slightly higher than that of regular stainless steel forceps.
Conclusions:
Bipolar forceps incorporating either heat-pipe embedded technology or SILVERGlide coating can effectively limit excessive thermal spread, thus decreasing potential injury to adjacent tissues when compared with standard stainless steel and titanium bipolar forceps. Of the two, heat-pipe embedded technology appeared safest, having better cooling efficiency at higher temperature.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.117709
PMCID: PMC3779387  PMID: 24083049
Bipolar; spinal cord; spine surgery; thermal injury
20.  The Effect of Temperature Gradients on Stress Development During Cryopreservation via Vitrification 
Cell preservation technology  2007;5(2):104-115.
This study addresses the problem of thermal stress development in bulky specimens during cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous means glassy in Latin). While this study is a part of an ongoing effort to associate the developing mechanical stress with the relevant physical properties of the cryopreserved media and to its the thermal history, the current paper focuses exclusively on the role of temperature gradients. Temperature gradients arise due to the high cooling rates necessary to facilitate vitrification; the resulting non-uniform temperature distribution leads to differential thermal strain, possibly resulting in cracking. The cooling rate is assumed constant on the outer surface in this study, and the material properties are assumed constant. It is demonstrated that under these assumptions, mechanical stress develops only when the temperature distribution in the specimen approaches thermal equilibrium at a cryogenic storage temperature. It is shown that the maximum possible stresses for a given cooling rate can be computed with a simple thermo-elastic analysis; these stresses are associated with cooling to sufficiently low temperatures and are independent of the variation of viscosity with temperature. Analytic estimates for these stresses are obtained for several idealized shapes, while finite element analysis is used to determine stresses for geometries used in cryopreservation practice. Stresses that develop under a wider range of storage temperatures are also studied with finite element analysis, and the results are summarized with suitable normalizations. It is found that no stresses arise if cooling ceases above the set-temperature, which defines the transition from viscous-dominated to elastic-dominated behavior; the set-temperature is determined principally by the dependency of viscosity upon temperature. Strategies for rapidly reaching low temperatures and avoiding high stresses are inferred from the results.
doi:10.1089/cpt.2007.9994
PMCID: PMC2180391  PMID: 18185851
Vitrification; Solidification; Solid Mechanics; Thermal Stress; Set-Temperature
21.  Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6845.
Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.
doi:10.1038/srep06845
PMCID: PMC4219166  PMID: 25366885
22.  The Tribological Difference between Biomedical Steels and CoCrMo-Alloys 
In orthopedic surgery different self-mating metal couples are used for sliding wear applications. Despite the fact that in mechanical engineering self-mating austenitic alloys often lead to adhesion and seizure in biomedical engineering the different grades of Co-base alloys show good clinical results e.g. as hip joints. The reason stems from the fact that they generate a so-called tribomaterial during articulation, which consists of a mixture of nanometer small metallic grains and organic substances from the interfacial medium, which act as boundary lubricant. Even though stainless steels also generate such a tribomaterial they were ruled out from the beginning already in the 1950 as “inappropriate”. On the basis of materials with a clinical track record this contribution shows that the cyclic creep characteristics within the shear zone underneath the tribomaterial are another important criterion for a sufficient wear behavior. By means of sliding wear and torsional fatigue tests followed by electron microscopy it is shown, that austenitic materials generate wear particles of either nano- or of microsize. The latter are produced by crack initiation and propagation within the shear fatigue zone which is related to the formation of subsurface dislocation cells and, therefore, by the fact that a Ni-containing CrNiMo solid solution allows for wavy-slip. In contrast to this a Ni-free CrMnMo solid solution with further additions of C and N only shows planar slip. This leads to the formation of nanosize wear particles and distinctly improves the wear behavior. Still the latter does not fully achieve that of CoCrMo, which also shows solely planar-slip behavior. This explains why for metallurgical reasons the Ni-containing 316L-type of steels had to fail in such boundary lubricated sliding wear tribosystems.
doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.01.007
PMCID: PMC3326385  PMID: 22498283
23.  Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment 
Biological materials possess unique and desirable energy-absorbing mechanisms and structural characteristics worthy of consideration by engineers. For example, high levels of energy dissipation at low strain rates via triggering of crack delocalization combined with interfacial hardening by platelet interlocking are observed in brittle materials such as nacre, the iridescent material in seashells. Such behaviours find no analogy in current engineering materials. The potential to mimic such toughening mechanisms on different length scales now exists, but the question concerning their suitability under dynamic loading conditions and whether these mechanisms retain their energy-absorbing potential is unclear. This paper investigates the kinematic behaviour of an ‘engineered’ nacre-like structure within a high strain-rate environment. A finite-element (FE) model was developed which incorporates the pertinent biological design features. A parametric study was carried out focusing on (i) the use of an overlapping discontinuous tile arrangement for crack delocalization and (ii) application of tile waviness (interfacial hardening) for improved post-damage behaviour. With respect to the material properties, the model allows the permutation and combination of a variety of different material datasets. The advantage of such a discontinuous material shows notable improvements in sustaining high strain-rate deformation relative to an equivalent continuous morphology. In the case of the continuous material, the shockwaves propagating through the material lead to localized failure while complex shockwave patterns are observed in the discontinuous flat tile arrangement, arising from platelet interlocking. The influence of the matrix properties on impact performance is investigated by varying the dominant material parameters. The results indicate a deceleration of the impactor velocity, thus delaying back face nodal displacement. A final series of FE models considered the identification of an optimized configuration as a function of tile waviness and matrix properties. In the combined model, the optimized configuration was capable of stopping the ballistic threat, thus indicating the potential for bioinspired toughened synthetic systems to defeat high strain-rate threats.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0442
PMCID: PMC3284136  PMID: 21880614
nacre; dynamic impact; material discontinuity; interlocking; finite-element modelling
24.  Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel 
In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e. small, moderate and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to, and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross-section in the upstream portion of large capsules is non-axisymmetric (i.e. square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a−2 for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux−u~h~a−2 approach to the undisturbed average duct velocity and an additional pressure drop ΔP+ ~ a3/h ~ a5. By combining basic physical principles and geometric properties, we develop a theoretical analysis that explains the power laws we found for large capsules.
PMCID: PMC3624770  PMID: 21867212
25.  In vitro study on the feasibility of magnetic stent hyperthermia for the treatment of cardiovascular restenosis 
Thermal treatment or hyperthermia has received considerable attention in recent years due to its high efficiency, safety and relatively few side-effects. In this study, we investigated whether it was possible to utilize targeted thermal or instent thermal treatments for the treatment of restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) through magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH). A 316L stainless steel stent and rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in the present study, in which the inductive heating characteristics of the stent under alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure, as well as the effect of MSH on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression of the rabbit VSMCs, were evaluated. The results demonstrated that 316L stainless steel coronary stents possess ideal inductive heating characteristics under 300 kHz AMF exposure. The heating properties were shown to be affected by the field intensity of the AMF, as well as the orientation the stent axis. MSH had a significant effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs, and the effect was temperature-dependent. While a mild temperature of 43°C demonstrated negligible effects on the growth of VSMCs, MSH treatment above 47°C effectively inhibited the VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a 47°C treatment exhibited a significant and long-term inhibitory effect on VSMC migration. The results strongly suggested that MSH may be potentially applied in the clinic as an alternative approach for the prevention and treatment of restenosis.
doi:10.3892/etm.2013.1177
PMCID: PMC3786833  PMID: 24137187
magnetic stent hyperthermia; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; restenosis; vascular smooth muscle cells; alternative magnetic field

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