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1.  Neonatal overnutrition causes early alterations in the central response to peripheral ghrelin 
Molecular Metabolism  2014;4(1):15-24.
Excess nutrient supply and rapid weight gain during early life are risk factors for the development of obesity during adulthood. This metabolic malprogramming may be mediated by endocrine disturbances during critical periods of development. Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone secreted from the stomach that acts centrally to promote feeding behavior by binding to growth hormone secretagogue receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Here, we examined whether neonatal overnutrition causes changes in the ghrelin system.
We used a well-described mouse model of divergent litter sizes to study the effects of postnatal overfeeding on the central and peripheral ghrelin systems during postnatal development.
Mice raised in small litters became overweight during lactation and remained overweight with increased adiposity as adults. Neonatally overnourished mice showed attenuated levels of total and acyl ghrelin in serum and decreased levels of Ghrelin mRNA expression in the stomach during the third week of postnatal life. Normalization of hypoghrelinemia in overnourished pups was relatively ineffective at ameliorating metabolic outcomes, suggesting that small litter pups may present ghrelin resistance. Consistent with this idea, neonatally overnourished pups displayed an impaired central response to peripheral ghrelin. The mechanisms underlying this ghrelin resistance appear to include diminished ghrelin transport into the hypothalamus.
Early postnatal overnutrition results in central resistance to peripheral ghrelin during important periods of hypothalamic development. Because ghrelin signaling has recently been implicated in the neonatal programming of metabolism, these alterations in the ghrelin system may contribute to the metabolic defects observed in postnatally overnourished mice.
Graphical abstract
PMCID: PMC4314535
Ghrelin; Hypothalamus; Nutrition; Programming; Hormone; Tanycytes; AgRP, agouti-related peptide; ARH, arcuate nucleus; DMH, dorsomedial nucleus; GOAT, ghrelin O-acyltransferase; GHSR, growth hormone secretagogue receptor; HFHS, high-fat/high-sucrose diet; LHA, lateral hypothalamic area; MBH, mediobasal hypothalamus; ME, median eminence; NL, normal litters; NPY, neuropeptide Y; P, postnatal day; POMC, pro-opiomelanocortin; PVH, paraventricular nucleus; SL, small litter
2.  Developmental programming in skeletal muscle in response to overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life in rats☆,☆☆,★ 
Overnourishment during the suckling period (small litter, SL) results in the development of adult-onset obesity. To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the development of insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle of young and adult female SL rats, the litter size was reduced to 3 female pups/dam (SL) while the control litter (CL) had 12 pups/dam from the postnatal day 3 until day 21. Protein content, mRNA expression and methylation status of the promoter region of key components in the insulin signaling pathway were determined in the skeletal muscle of SL rats. Overnutrition during the suckling period resulted in increased body weight gains, hyperphagia and adult-onset obesity as well as increased levels of serum insulin, glucose, and leptin in SL rats. No differences in the expression of total protein as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor β and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were observed in skeletal muscle between two groups at both ages. A significant decrease of total insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1) and an increase in serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 were observed in skeletal muscle from adult SL rats. Hypermethylation of specific CpG dinucleotides in the proximal promoter region was observed for the Irs1 and Glut4 genes which correlated with the reduction in Irs1 and Glut4 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle of adult SL rats. Our results suggest that epigenetic modifications of the key genes involved in the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle could result in the development of insulin resistance in SL female rats.
PMCID: PMC3805821  PMID: 23968580
Early overnutrition; Hyperinsulinemia; Epigenetics; DNA methylation; Insulin receptor substrate 1
3.  Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Circuitry is Programmed by Maternal Obesity: Interaction with Postnatal Nutritional Environment 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(7):e6259.
Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY) and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption are unclear.
Research Design and Methods
Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid) metabolic markers were measured.
Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain.
Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanims. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
PMCID: PMC2707610  PMID: 19606226
4.  Early Hypothalamic FTO Overexpression in Response to Maternal Obesity – Potential Contribution to Postweaning Hyperphagia 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e25261.
Intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition program hyperphagia, adiposity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked to increased risk of obesity. FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions critical for energy balance and hyperphagic phenotypes were linked with FTO SNPs. As nutrition during fetal development can influence the expression of genes involved in metabolic function, we investigated the impact of maternal obesity on FTO.
Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1 (PND1), some litters were adjusted to 3 pups (vs. 12 control) to induce postnatal overnutrition. At PND20, rats were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. FTO mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and liver, as well as hepatic markers of lipid metabolism were measured.
At weaning, hypothalamic FTO mRNA expression was increased significantly in offspring of obese mothers and FTO was correlated with both visceral and epididymal fat mass (P<0.05); body weight approached significance (P = 0.07). Hepatic FTO and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA expression were decreased by maternal obesity. At 18 weeks, FTO mRNA expression did not differ between groups; however body weight was significantly correlated with hypothalamic FTO. Postnatal HFD feeding significantly reduced hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1a but did not affect the expression of other hepatic markers investigated. FTO was not affected by chronic HFD feeding.
Maternal obesity significantly impacted FTO expression in both hypothalamus and liver at weaning. Early overexpression of hypothalamic FTO correlated with increased adiposity and later food intake of siblings exposed to HFD suggesting upregulation of FTO may contribute to subsequent hyperphagia, in line with some human data. No effect of maternal obesity was observed on FTO in adulthood.
PMCID: PMC3182187  PMID: 21980407
5.  Strategies for Feeding the Preterm Infant 
Neonatology  2008;94(4):245-254.
According to many experts in neonatal nutrition, the goal for nutrition of the preterm infant should be to achieve a postnatal growth rate approximating that of the normal fetus of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants, especially those born very preterm with extremely low birth weight, are not fed sufficient amounts of nutrients to produce normal fetal rates of growth and, as a result, end up growth-restricted during their hospital period after birth. Growth restriction is a significant problem, as numerous studies have shown definitively that under nutrition, especially of protein, at critical stages of development produces long-term short stature, organ growth failure, and both neuronal deficits of number and dendritic connections as well as later behavioral and cognitive outcomes. Furthermore, clinical follow-up studies have shown that among infants fed formulas, the nutrient content of the formula is directly and positively related to mental and motor outcomes later in life. Nutritional requirements do not stop at birth. Thus, delaying nutrition after birth ‘until the infant is stable’ ignores the fundamental point that without nutrition starting immediately after birth, the infant enters a catabolic condition, and catabolism does not contribute to normal development and growth. Oxygen is necessary for all metabolic processes. Recent trends to limit oxygen supply to prevent oxygen toxicity have the potential, particularly when the blood hemoglobin concentration falls to less than 8 g/dl, to develop growth failure. Glucose should be provided at 6–8 mg/min/kg as soon after birth as possible and adjusted according to frequent measurements of plasma glucose to achieve and maintain concentrations > 45 mg/dl but < 120 mg/dl to avoid the frequent problems of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Similarly, lipid is required to provide at least 0.5 g/kg/day to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. However, the high rate of carbohydrate and lipid supply that preterm infants often get, based on the incomplete assumption that this is necessary to promote protein growth, tends to produce increased fat in organs like the liver and heart as well as adipose tissue. More and better essential fatty acid nutrition is valuable, but more organ and adipose fat has no known benefit and many problems. Amino acids and protein are essential not only for body growth but for metabolic signaling, protein synthesis, and protein accretion. 3.5–4.0 g/kg/day are necessary to produce normal protein balance and growth in very preterm infants. Attempts to promote protein growth with insulin has many problems – it is ineffective while contributing to even further organ and adipose tissue fat deposition. Enteral feeding always is indicated and to date nearly all studies have shown that minimal enteral feeding approaches (e.g., ‘trophic feeds’) promote the capacity to feed enterally. Milk has distinct advantages over formulas in avoiding necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and while feeding is associated with NEC, minimal enteral feeding regimens produce less NEC than those geared towards more aggressive introduction of enteral feeding. Finally, overfeeding has the definite potential to produce adipose tissue, or obesity, which then leads to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. This scenario occurs more commonly as infants are fed more and gain weight more rapidly after birth, regardless of their birth weight. Infants with IUGR and postnatal growth failure may be uniquely ‘set up’ for this outcome, while infants with in utero obesity, such as infants of diabetic mothers, already are well along this adverse outcome pathway
PMCID: PMC2912291  PMID: 18836284
Nutrition; Feeding; Preterm infant; Oxygen; Glucose; Amino acids; Lipids; Insulin; Minimal enteral nutrition; Intravenous feeding; Intrauterine growth restriction
6.  Pre- and Postnatal Nutritional Histories Influence Reproductive Maturation and Ovarian Function in the Rat 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(8):e6744.
While prepubertal nutritional influences appear to play a role in sexual maturation, there is a need to clarify the potential contributions of maternal and childhood influences in setting the tempo of reproductive maturation. In the present study we employed an established model of nutritional programming to evaluate the relative influences of prenatal and postnatal nutrition on growth and ovarian function in female offspring.
Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a calorie-restricted diet, a high fat diet, or a control diet during pregnancy and/or lactation. Offspring then were fed either a control or a high fat diet from the time of weaning to adulthood. Pubertal age was monitored and blood samples collected in adulthood for endocrine analyses.
We report that in the female rat, pubertal timing and subsequent ovarian function is influenced by the animal's nutritional status in utero, with both maternal caloric restriction and maternal high fat nutrition resulting in early pubertal onset. Depending on the offspring's nutritional history during the prenatal and lactational periods, subsequent nutrition and body weight gain did not further influence offspring reproductive tempo, which was dominated by the effect of prenatal nutrition. Whereas maternal calorie restriction leads to early pubertal onset, it also leads to a reduction in adult progesterone levels later in life. In contrast, we found that maternal high fat feeding which also induces early maturation in offspring was associated with elevated progesterone concentrations.
These observations are suggestive of two distinct developmental pathways leading to the acceleration of pubertal timing but with different consequences for ovarian function. We suggest different adaptive explanations for these pathways and for their relationship to altered metabolic homeostasis.
PMCID: PMC2727050  PMID: 19707592
7.  Maternal Environmental Contribution to Adult Sensitivity and Resistance to Obesity in Long Evans Rats 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e13825.
The OLETF rat is an animal model of early onset hyperphagia induced obesity, presenting multiple pre-obese characteristics during the suckling period. In the present study, we used a cross-fostering strategy to assess whether interactions with obese dams in the postnatal environment contributed to the development of obesity.
On postnatal Day (PND)-1 OLETF and control LETO pups were cross-fostered to same or opposite strain dams. An independent ingestion test was performed on PND11 and a nursing test on PND18. Rats were sacrificed at weaning or on PND90, and plasma leptin, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assayed. Fat pads were collected and weighed and adipocyte size and number were estimated. Body weight and intake, as well as the estrous cycle of the female offspring were monitored.
Principal Findings
During the suckling period, the pups' phenotype was almost completely determined by the strain of the mother. However, pups independently ingested food according to their genotype, regardless of their actual phenotype. At adulthood, cross fostered males of both strains and LETO females were affected in regard of their adiposity levels in the direction of the foster dam. On the other hand, OLETF females showed almost no alterations in adiposity but were affected by the strain of the dams in parameters related to the metabolic syndrome. Thus, OLETF females showed reduced liver adiposity and circulating levels of ALT, while LETO females presented a disrupted estrous cycle and increased cholesterol and triglycerides in the long term.
The present study provides further support for the early postnatal environment playing a sex-divergent role in programming later life phenotype. In addition, it plays a more central role in determining the functioning of mechanisms involved in energy balance that may provide protection from or sensitivity to later life obesity and pathologies related to the metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2972212  PMID: 21072207
8.  Thrifty metabolic programming in rats is induced by both maternal undernutrition and postnatal leptin treatment, but masked in the presence of both: implications for models of developmental programming 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:49.
Maternal undernutrition leads to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in offspring including obesity and insulin resistance, thought to be due to a programmed thrifty phenotype which is inappropriate for a subsequent richer nutritional environment. In a rat model, both male and female offspring of undernourished mothers are programmed to become obese, however postnatal leptin treatment gives discordant results between males and females. Leptin treatment is able to rescue the adverse programming effects in the female offspring of undernourished mothers, but not in their male offspring. Additionally, in these rats, postnatal leptin treatment of offspring from normally-nourished mothers programmes their male offspring to develop obesity in later life, while there is no comparable effect in their female offspring.
We show by microarray analysis of the female liver transcriptome that both maternal undernutrition and postnatal leptin treatment independently induce a similar thrifty transcriptional programme affecting carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress genes. Paradoxically, however, the combination of both stimuli restores a more normal transcriptional environment. This demonstrates that “leptin reversal” is a global phenomenon affecting all genes involved in fetal programming by maternal undernourishment and leptin treatment. The thrifty transcriptional programme was associated with pro-inflammatory markers and downregulation of adaptive immune mediators, particularly MHC class I genes, suggesting a deficit in antigen presentation in these offspring.
We propose a revised model of developmental programming reconciling the male and female observations, in which there are two competing programmes which collectively drive liver transcription. The first element is a thrifty metabolic phenotype induced by early life growth restriction independently of leptin levels. The second is a homeostatic set point calibrated in response to postnatal leptin surge, which is able to over-ride the metabolic programme. This “calibration model” for the postnatal leptin surge, if applicable in humans, may have implications for understanding responses to catch-up growth in infants. Additionally, the identification of an antigen presentation deficit associated with metabolic thriftiness may relate to a previously observed correlation between birth season (a proxy for gestational undernutrition) and infectious disease mortality in rural African communities.
PMCID: PMC3899603  PMID: 24447410
Leptin; Fetal programming; Development; Obesity; Thrifty phenotype; Antigen presentation; Inflammation
9.  Mechanisms behind early life nutrition and adult disease outcome 
World Journal of Diabetes  2011;2(8):127-132.
Obesity is increasing around the globe. While adult lifestyle factors undoubtedly contribute to the incidence of obesity and its attendant disorders, mounting evidence suggests that programming of obesity may occur following under- and over-nutrition during development. As hypothalamic control of appetite and energy expenditure is set early in life and can be perturbed by certain exposures such as undernutrition and altered metabolic and hormonal signals, in utero exposure to altered maternal nutrition and inadequate nutrition during early postnatal life may contribute to programming of obesity in offspring. Data from animal studies indicate both intrauterine and postnatal environments are critical determinants of the development of pathways regulating energy homeostasis. This review summarizes recent evidence of the impact of maternal nutrition as well as postnatal nutrition of the offspring on subsequent obesity and disease risk of the offspring. While much of the experimental work reviewed here was conducted in the rodent, these observations provide useful insights into avenues for future research into developing preventive measures to curb the obesity epidemic.
PMCID: PMC3180529  PMID: 21954416
Maternal obesity; Programming; Postnatal overnutrition; Postnatal undernutrition; Leptin; Neuropeptide Y
10.  Offspring of Mothers Fed a High Fat Diet Display Hepatic Cell Cycle Inhibition and Associated Changes in Gene Expression and DNA Methylation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e21662.
The association between an adverse early life environment and increased susceptibility to later-life metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is described by the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. Employing a rat model of maternal high fat (MHF) nutrition, we recently reported that offspring born to MHF mothers are small at birth and develop a postnatal phenotype that closely resembles that of the human metabolic syndrome. Livers of offspring born to MHF mothers also display a fatty phenotype reflecting hepatic steatosis and characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the present study we hypothesised that a MHF diet leads to altered regulation of liver development in offspring; a derangement that may be detectable during early postnatal life. Livers were collected at postnatal days 2 (P2) and 27 (P27) from male offspring of control and MHF mothers (n = 8 per group). Cell cycle dynamics, measured by flow cytometry, revealed significant G0/G1 arrest in the livers of P2 offspring born to MHF mothers, associated with an increased expression of the hepatic cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a. In P2 livers, Cdkn1a was hypomethylated at specific CpG dinucleotides and first exon in offspring of MHF mothers and was shown to correlate with a demonstrable increase in mRNA expression levels. These modifications at P2 preceded observable reductions in liver weight and liver∶brain weight ratio at P27, but there were no persistent changes in cell cycle dynamics or DNA methylation in MHF offspring at this time. Since Cdkn1a up-regulation has been associated with hepatocyte growth in pathologic states, our data may be suggestive of early hepatic dysfunction in neonates born to high fat fed mothers. It is likely that these offspring are predisposed to long-term hepatic dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3133558  PMID: 21779332
11.  Ingestion of Carbohydrate-Rich Supplements during Gestation Programs Insulin and Leptin Resistance but not Body Weight Gain in Adult Rat Offspring 
Prenatal nutritional conditions can predispose to development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Gestation with its important modifications in hormonal status is a period of changes in normal feeding habits with pulses of consumption or avoidance of certain categories of food. We tried to mimic in an animal model some changes in food consumption patterns observed in pregnant women. For this purpose, Long–Evans female rats were fed during the dark period, their usual pre-gestational food quantity, and were allowed to complete their daily intake with either a restricted control (Cr), high-fat (HF), or high-carbohydrate (HC) diet available ad libitum during the light period. Dams fed a control diet ad libitum (Ca) served as controls. Body weight and composition, food intake, and metabolic hormones (insulin, leptin) were recorded in male offspring until 20 weeks after birth. Cr and HC females ate less than Ca females (−16%; p < 0.001) and their offspring presented a weight deficit from birth until 6 (HC group) and 10 (Cr group) weeks of age (p < 0.05 or less). Plasma leptin corresponded to low body weight in Cr offspring, but was increased in HC offspring that in addition, had increased plasma insulin, blood glucose, and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass. HF dams ate more than Ca dams (+13%; p < 0.001), but plasma leptin and insulin were similar in their offspring. Hypothalamic Ob-Rb expression was increased in Cr, HC, and HF offspring (+33–100% vs Ca; p < 0.05 or less). HC supplement ingestion during gestation therefore leads to insulin and leptin resistance in adult offspring independently of lower birth weight. These hormonal changes characterize obesity-prone animals. We therefore suggest that attention should be paid to the carbohydrate snacking and overall carbohydrate content in the diet during the last weeks (or months) preceding delivery to limit development of later metabolic disorders in offspring.
PMCID: PMC3382418  PMID: 22737135
fetal programming; high-fat; dietary preference; adipose tissue distribution; hypothalamic Ob-Rb expression; ghrelin
12.  Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease 
Nutrients  2014;6(6):2165-2178.
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis.
PMCID: PMC4073141  PMID: 24892374
developmental programming; maternal nutrition; epigenetics; DNA methylation; transgenerational
13.  Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity 
Diabetes  2009;59(1):98-104.
We demonstrated previously that chronic maternal micronutrient restriction altered the body composition in rat offspring and may predispose offspring to adult-onset diseases. Chromium (Cr) regulates glucose and fat metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the long-term effects of maternal Cr restriction on adipose tissue development and function in a rat model.
Female weanling WNIN rats received, ad libitum, a control diet or the same with 65% restriction of Cr (CrR) for 3 months and mated with control males. Some pregnant CrR mothers were rehabilitated from conception or parturition and their pups weaned to control diet. Whereas some CrR offspring were weaned to control diet, others continued on CrR diet. Various parameters were monitored in the offspring at three monthly intervals up to 15–18 months of age.
Maternal Cr restriction significantly increased body weight and fat percentage, especially the central adiposity in both male and female offspring. Further, the expression of leptin and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 genes were significantly increased in CrR offspring of both the sexes. Adipocytokine levels were altered in plasma and adipose tissue; circulating triglyceride and FFA levels were increased, albeit in female offspring only. Rehabilitation regimes did not correct body adiposity but restored the circulating levels of lipids and adipocytokines.
Chronic maternal Cr restriction increased body adiposity probably due to increased stress and altered lipid metabolism in WNIN rat offspring, which may predispose them to obesity and associated diseases in later life.
PMCID: PMC2797950  PMID: 19846803
14.  Does Early Mismatched Nutrition Predispose to Hypertension and Atherosclerosis, in Male Mice? 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(9):e12656.
A link between early mismatched nutritional environment and development of components of the metabolic syndrome later in life has been shown in epidemiological and animal data. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an early mismatched nutrition produced by catch-up growth after fetal protein restriction could induce the appearance of hypertension and/or atherosclerosis in adult male mice.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Wild-type C57BL6/J or LDLr−/− dams were fed a low protein (LP) or a control (C) diet during gestation. Catch-up growth was induced in LP offspring by feeding dams with a control diet and by culling the litter to 4 pups against 8 in controls. At weaning, male mice were fed either standard chow or an obesogenic diet (OB), leading to 4 experimental groups. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in conscious unrestrained wild-type mice by telemetry. Atherosclerosis plaque area was measured in aortic root sections of LDLr−/− mice. We found that: (1) postnatal OB diet increased significantly BP (P<0.0001) and HR (P<0.008) in 3-month old OB-C and OB-LP offspring, respectively; (2) that maternal LP diet induced a significant higher BP (P<0.009) and HR (P<0.004) and (3) an altered circadian rhythm in addition to higher plasma corticosterone concentration in 9 months-old LP offspring; (4) that, although LP offspring showed higher plasma total cholesterol than control offspring, atherosclerosis assessed in aortic roots of 6-mo old mice featured increased plaque area due to OB feeding but not due to early mismatched nutrition.
These results indicate a long-term effect of early mismatched nutrition on the appearance of hypertension independently of obesity, while no effect on atherosclerosis was noticed at this age.
PMCID: PMC2936567  PMID: 20844591
15.  Excess Omega-3 Fatty Acid Consumption by Mothers during Pregnancy and Lactation Caused Shorter Life Span and Abnormal ABRs in Old Adult Offspring 
Neurotoxicology and teratology  2009;32(2):171-181.
Consuming omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is beneficial to fetal and infant development and might reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging pregnancy. Consequently, supplementing maternal diets with large amounts of ω-3 FA is gaining acceptance. However, both over- and under-supplementation with ω-3 FA can harm offspring development. Adverse fetal and neonatal conditions in general can enhance age-related neural degeneration, shorten life span and cause other adult-onset disorders. We hypothesized that maternal over- and under-nutrition with ω-3 FA would shorten the offspring’s life span and enhance neural degeneration in old adulthood. To test these hypotheses, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the three diet conditions starting from day 1 of pregnancy through the entire period of pregnancy and lactation. The three diets were Control ω-3 FA (ω-3/ω-6 ratio ~ 0.14), Excess ω-3 FA (ω-3/ω-6 ratio ~ 14.5) and Deficient ω-3 FA (ω-3/ω-6 ratio ~ 0% ratio). When possible, one male and female offspring from each litter were assessed for life span and sensory/neural degeneration (n=15 litters/group). The Excess offspring had shorter life spans compared to their Control and Deficient cohorts (mean±SEM=506±24, 601±14 and 585±21 days, p≤0.004) when the study terminated on postnatal day 640. The Excess offspring had a higher incidence of presbycusis than the Control and Deficient groups (33.3, 4.3 and 4.5%, p=0.011) and a persistence of other sensory/neurological abnormalities and lower body weights in old adulthood. In conclusion, ω-3 FA over-nutrition or imbalance during pregnancy and lactation had adverse effects on life span and sensory/neurological function in old adulthood. The adverse outcomes in the Excess offspring were likely due to a “nutritional toxicity” during fetal and/or neonatal development that programmed them for life-long health disorders. The health implication is that consuming or administering large amounts of ω-3 FA during pregnancy and lactation seems inadvisable because of adverse effects on the offspring.
PMCID: PMC2839050  PMID: 19818397
Auditory brainstem response; Fish oil; Hearing loss; Lactation; Life span; Omega-3 fatty acids; Omega-6 fatty acids; Postnatal; Pregnancy; Prenatal
16.  Transcriptional Profiling of Rats Subjected to Gestational Undernourishment: Implications for the Developmental Variations in Metabolic Traits 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(9):e7271.
A link has been established between prenatal nutrition and the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life, a process referred to as developmental programming. It has been suggested that the trajectory of development is shifted by alterations in the maternal nutritional state leading to changes in developmental plasticity, in part underpinned by epigenetic changes in gene regulation. However, to date, only candidate gene approaches have been used to assess expression and molecular changes in the offspring of maternally undernourished animals. Furthermore, most work has focused on animals at an age where the programmed phenotype is already manifest and little is known about changes in gene expression in the offspring prior to development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Gene expression profiles of liver, retroperitoneal white adipose fat, and biceps femoris skeletal muscle tissue from young adult male rats (55 days old) in which nutritional status had been manipulated in utero by maternal undernutrition (UN) were compared to the profiles of offspring of ad libitum fed mothers serving as the control group (AD) (8 offspring/group). The expression profiles were determined using the Illumina RatRef-12 BeadChip. No significant changes in expression were identified for skeletal muscle or white adipose tissue. However, studies of liver tissue showed 249 differentially expressed genes (143 up regulated, 106 down regulated). Although the animals at day 55 have yet to develop obesity they already show biochemical abnormalities and by day 110 express a phenotype characterized by increased adiposity and altered insulin sensitivity. An analysis of pathways affected suggests that intrauterine programming of UN animals to favor fat as an energy source results in mitochondrial dysfunction which initially affects the postnatal hepatic function and subsequently, via the resultant metabolic changes in other organs leads to the evolution of a phenotype similar to that of the metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2749934  PMID: 19787071
17.  Impact of Maternal Diabetes on Epigenetic Modifications Leading to Diseases in the Offspring 
Experimental Diabetes Research  2012;2012:538474.
Gestational diabetes, occurring during the hyperglycemic period of pregnancy in maternal life, is a pathologic state that increases the incidence of complications in both mother and fetus. Offspring thus exposed to an adverse fetal and early postnatal environment may manifest increased susceptibility to a number of chronic diseases later in life. Compelling evidence for the role of epigenetic transmission in these complications has come from comparison of siblings born before and after the development of maternal diabetes, exposure to this intrauterine diabetic environment being shown to cause alterations in fetal growth patterns which predispose these infants to developing overweight and obesity later in life. Diabetes of the offspring is also mainly the consequence of exposure to the diabetic intrauterine environment, in addition to genetic susceptibility. Since obesity and diabetes are known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular sequelae in the offspring of diabetic mothers are virtually inevitable. Research data also suggest that exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment during pregnancy is associated with an increase in dyslipidemia, subclinical vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction processes in the offspring, all of which are linked with development of cardiovascular disease later in life. The main underlying mechanisms involve persistent hyperglycemia hyperinsulinemia and leptin resistance.
PMCID: PMC3512252  PMID: 23227034
18.  Pregnancy Weight Gain and Childhood Body Weight: A Within-Family Comparison 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(10):e1001521.
David Ludwig and colleagues examine the within-family relationship between pregnancy weight gain and the offspring's childhood weight gain, thereby reducing the influence of genes and environment.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Excessive pregnancy weight gain is associated with obesity in the offspring, but this relationship may be confounded by genetic and other shared influences. We aimed to examine the association of pregnancy weight gain with body mass index (BMI) in the offspring, using a within-family design to minimize confounding.
Methods and Findings
In this population-based cohort study, we matched records of all live births in Arkansas with state-mandated data on childhood BMI collected in public schools (from August 18, 2003 to June 2, 2011). The cohort included 42,133 women who had more than one singleton pregnancy and their 91,045 offspring. We examined how differences in weight gain that occurred during two or more pregnancies for each woman predicted her children's BMI and odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese (BMI≥85th percentile) at a mean age of 11.9 years, using a within-family design. For every additional kg of pregnancy weight gain, childhood BMI increased by 0.0220 (95% CI 0.0134–0.0306, p<0.0001) and the OR of overweight/obesity increased by 1.007 (CI 1.003–1.012, p = 0.0008). Variations in pregnancy weight gain accounted for a 0.43 kg/m2 difference in childhood BMI. After adjustment for birth weight, the association of pregnancy weight gain with childhood BMI was attenuated but remained statistically significant (0.0143 kg/m2 per kg of pregnancy weight gain, CI 0.0057–0.0229, p = 0.0007).
High pregnancy weight gain is associated with increased body weight of the offspring in childhood, and this effect is only partially mediated through higher birth weight. Translation of these findings to public health obesity prevention requires additional study.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. For example, in the United States, the number of obese children has more than doubled in the past 30 years. 7% of American children aged 6–11 years were obese in 1980, compared to nearly 18% in 2010. Because of the rising levels of obesity, the current generation of children may have a shorter life span than their parents for the first time in 200 years.
Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on health. The initial problems are usually psychological. Obese children often experience discrimination, leading to low self-esteem and depression. Their physical health also suffers. They are more likely to be at risk of cardiovascular disease from high cholesterol and high blood pressure. They may also develop pre-diabetes or diabetes type II. In the long-term, obese children tend to become obese adults, putting them at risk of premature death from stroke, heart disease, or cancer.
There are many factors that lead to childhood obesity and they often act in combination. A major risk factor, especially for younger children, is having at least one obese parent. The challenge lies in unravelling the complex links between the genetic and environmental factors that are likely to be involved.
Why Was This Study Done?
Several studies have shown that a child's weight is influenced by his/her mother's weight before pregnancy and her weight gain during pregnancy. An obese mother, or a mother who puts on more pregnancy weight than average, is more likely to have an obese child.
One explanation for the effects of pregnancy weight gain is that the mother's overeating directly affects the baby's development. It may change the baby's brain and metabolism in such a way as to increase the child's long-term risk of obesity. Animal studies have confirmed that the offspring of overfed rats show these kinds of physiological changes. However, another possible explanation is that mother and baby share a similar genetic make-up and environment so that a child becomes obese from inheriting genetic risk factors, and growing up in a household where being overweight is the norm.
The studies in humans that have been carried out to date have not been able to distinguish between these explanations. Some have given conflicting results. The aim of this study was therefore to look for evidence of links between pregnancy weight gain and children's weight, using an approach that would separate the impact of genetic and environmental factors from a direct effect on the developing baby.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers examined data from the population of the US state of Arkansas recorded between 2003 and 2011. They looked at the health records of over 42,000 women who had given birth to more than one child during this period. This gave them information about how much weight the women had gained during each of their pregnancies. The researchers also looked at the school records of the children, over 91,000 in total, which included the children's body mass index (BMI, which factors in both height and weight). They analyzed the data to see if there was a link between the mothers' pregnancy weight gain and the child's BMI at around 12 years of age. Most importantly, they looked at these links within families, comparing children born to the same mother. The rationale for this approach was that these children would share a similar genetic make-up and would have grown up in similar environments. By taking genetics and environment into account in this manner, any remaining evidence of an impact of pregnancy weight gain on the children's BMI would have to be explained by other factors.
The results showed that the amount of weight each mother gained in pregnancy predicted her children's BMI and the likelihood of her children being overweight or obese. For every additional kg the mother gained during pregnancy, the children's BMI increased by 0.022. The children of mothers who put on the most weight had a BMI that was on average 0.43 higher than the children whose mothers had put on the least weight.
The study leaves some questions unanswered, including whether the mother's weight before pregnancy makes a difference to their children's BMI. The researchers were not able to obtain these measurements, nor the weight of the fathers. There may have also been other factors that weren't measured that might explain the links that were found.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This study shows that mothers who gain excessive weight during pregnancy increase the risk of their child becoming obese. This appears to be partly due to a direct effect on the developing baby.
These results represent a significant public health concern, even though the impact on an individual basis is relatively small. They could contribute to several hundred thousand cases of childhood obesity worldwide. Importantly, they also suggest that some cases could be prevented by measures to limit excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Such an approach could prove effective, as most mothers will not want to damage their child's health, and might therefore be highly motivated to change their behavior. However, because inadequate weight gain during pregnancy can also adversely affect the developing fetus, it will be essential for women to receive clear information about what constitutes optimal weight gain during pregnancy.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provide Childhood Obesity Facts
The UK National Health Service article “How much weight will I put on during my pregnancy?” provides information on pregnancy and weight gain and links to related resources
PMCID: PMC3794857  PMID: 24130460
19.  Interaction of perinatal and pre-pubertal factors with genetic predisposition in the development of neural pathways involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis 
Brain research  2010;1350:10-17.
A majority of human obesity is inherited as a polygenic trait. Once obesity develops, over 90% of individuals repeatedly regain lost weight after dieting. Only surgical interventions offer long lasting weigh loss. Thus, clinical data suggest that some individuals have a predisposition to develop and maintain an elevated body weight set-point once they are provided with sufficient calories to gain weight. This set-point is mediated by an integrated neural network that controls energy homeostasis. Unfortunately, currently available tools for identifying obesity-prone individuals and examining the functioning of these neural systems have insufficient resolution to identify specific neural factors that cause humans to develop and maintain the obese state. However, rodent models of polygenically inherited obesity allow us to investigate the factors that both predispose them to become obese and that prevent or enhance the development of such obesity. Maternal obesity during gestation and lactation in obesity-prone rodents enhances offspring obesity and alters their neural pathways involved in energy homeostasis regulation. Early postnatal exposure of obesity-resistant offspring to the milk of genetically obese dams alters their hypothalamic pathways involved in energy homeostasis causing them to become obese when fed a high fat diet as adults. Finally, short-term exercise begun in the early post-weaning period increases the sensitivity to the anorectic effects of leptin and protects obesity-prone offspring from becoming obese for months exercise cessation. Such studies suggest that early identification of obesity-prone humans and of the factors that can prevent them from becoming obese could provide an effective strategy for preventing the world wide epidemic of obesity.
PMCID: PMC2891227  PMID: 20059985
obesity; hypothalamus; leptin; exercise
20.  Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:418975.
The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.
PMCID: PMC4055365  PMID: 24967364
21.  Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior 
Physiology & behavior  2011;104(3):474-479.
Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet.
PMCID: PMC3142767  PMID: 21605577
prenatal stress; high-fat diet; obesity; maternal behavior; independent ingestion
22.  Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:590.
Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study.
The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.
An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.
PMCID: PMC2965719  PMID: 20925937
23.  Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Hepatic Markers of Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism in Mothers and Offspring in the Setting of Maternal Obesity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76961.
Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may ameliorate the adverse effects observed in offspring following a maternal obesogenic diet but these effects are dependent upon prior maternal nutritional background.
PMCID: PMC3798342  PMID: 24146946
24.  Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring rats fed high-fat diet via alteration of HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2013;34(12):1526-1534.
Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming in intrauterine growth retardation offspring rats. In this study we aimed to clarify the susceptibility to metabolic diseases of PNE offspring rats fed a high-fat diet.
Maternal Wistar rats were injected with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, sc) twice per day from gestational day 11 until full-term delivery, and all pups were fed a high-fat diet after weaning and exposed to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) during postnatal weeks 18–20. Blood samples were collected before and after chronic stress, and serum ACTH, corticosterone, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acids levels were measured. The hypothalamus, pituitary gland and liver were dissected for histological studies.
UCS significantly increased the serum ACTH, corticosterone and insulin levels as well as the insulin resistant index without changing the serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acids levels in adult offspring rats without PNE. The body weight of PNE offspring rats presented a typical “catch-up” growth pattern. PNE not only aggravated the UCS-induced changes in the HPA axis programmed alteration (caused further increases in the serum ACTH and corticosterone levels), but also significantly changed the glucose and lipid metabolism after UCS (caused further increases in the serum glucose level and insulin resistant index, and decrease in the serum free fatty acids). The effects of PNE on the above indexes after UCS showed gender differences. Pathological studies revealed that PNE led to plenty of lipid droplets in multiple organs.
PNE enhances not only the HPA axis, but also the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult offspring rats fed a high-fat diet after UCS in a gender-specific manner and enhances the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult offspring rats fed a high-fat diet.
PMCID: PMC4002571  PMID: 24270239
nicotine; intrauterine growth retardation; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; neuroendocrine metabolic programming; high-fat diet; stress; metabolic syndrome; insulin; glucose; lipid; gender difference
25.  Developmental Programming Mediated by Complementary Roles of Imprinted Grb10 in Mother and Pup 
PLoS Biology  2014;12(2):e1001799.
A mouse genetic study reveals that a single gene acting in both mother and offspring has a central role in the uniquely mammalian phenomenon of nutrient provisioning through the placenta and the mammary gland.
Developmental programming links growth in early life with health status in adulthood. Although environmental factors such as maternal diet can influence the growth and adult health status of offspring, the genetic influences on this process are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we identify the imprinted gene Grb10 as a mediator of nutrient supply and demand in the postnatal period. The combined actions of Grb10 expressed in the mother, controlling supply, and Grb10 expressed in the offspring, controlling demand, jointly regulate offspring growth. Furthermore, Grb10 determines the proportions of lean and fat tissue during development, thereby influencing energy homeostasis in the adult. Most strikingly, we show that the development of normal lean/fat proportions depends on the combined effects of Grb10 expressed in the mother, which has the greater effect on offspring adiposity, and Grb10 expressed in the offspring, which influences lean mass. These distinct functions of Grb10 in mother and pup act complementarily, which is consistent with a coadaptation model of imprinting evolution, a model predicted but for which there is limited experimental evidence. In addition, our findings identify Grb10 as a key genetic component of developmental programming, and highlight the need for a better understanding of mother-offspring interactions at the genetic level in predicting adult disease risk.
Author Summary
Experiences during early life can impact on health status in adulthood; low birth weight, for example, is linked to an increased risk of diabetes and obesity in later life. Such developmental programming can be influenced by environmental factors such as diet, but the importance of genetics in this process is not well understood. Using the mouse as a model, we investigate the gene Grb10, which is imprinted, meaning that it is expressed from only one of its two copies. We show that Grb10 is a key mediator of developmental programming, controlling supply and demand of nutrients in the postnatal period and influencing growth and body composition. Specifically, we find that Grb10 determines the proportions of lean and fat tissue during development, and that this is dependent on the combined actions of Grb10 in the mother and offspring. Our findings have two main implications. First, they suggest that the functions of Grb10 in mother and offspring are coadapted, providing support for a coadaptation model for the evolution of imprinted genes. Second, they highlight the need for a better grasp of how maternal and offspring genetics interact during development if we are to understand more fully the causes of complex adult disorders such as obesity.
PMCID: PMC3934836  PMID: 24586114

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