Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels.
Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.
Setting & Participants
34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic.
Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet.
Outcomes & Measurements
Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury.
Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria.
Post hoc analysis.
Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with proteinuria by using losartan, sodium restriction, their combination, losartan plus HCT, and the latter plus sodium restriction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of amelioration of proteinuria-induced tubular damage. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate whether targeting treatment on KIM-1 can improve outcomes in patients with CKD with proteinuria.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; losartan; angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade; proteinuria; interstitial renal damage; kidney injury molecule 1; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase; tubular damage marker; biomarker
Acute kidney injury predisposes patients to the development of both chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure, but the molecular details underlying this important clinical association remain obscure. We report that kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an epithelial phosphatidylserine receptor expressed transiently after acute injury and chronically in fibrotic renal disease, promotes kidney fibrosis. Conditional expression of KIM-1 in renal epithelial cells (Kim1RECtg) in the absence of an injury stimulus resulted in focal epithelial vacuolization at birth, but otherwise normal tubule histology and kidney function. By 4 weeks of age, Kim1RECtg mice developed spontaneous and progressive interstitial kidney inflammation with fibrosis, leading to renal failure with anemia, proteinuria, hyperphosphatemia, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and death, analogous to progressive kidney disease in humans. Kim1RECtg kidneys had elevated expression of proinflammatory monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) at early time points. Heterologous expression of KIM-1 in an immortalized proximal tubule cell line triggered MCP-1 secretion and increased MCP-1–dependent macrophage chemotaxis. In mice expressing a mutant, truncated KIM-1 polypeptide, experimental kidney fibrosis was ameliorated with reduced levels of MCP-1, consistent with a profibrotic role for native KIM-1. Thus, sustained KIM-1 expression promotes kidney fibrosis and provides a link between acute and recurrent injury with progressive chronic kidney disease.
Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells) in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.
Sensitive biomarkers are needed to detect kidney injury at the earliest stages. The objective of this study was to determine whether the appearance of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) protein ectodomain in urine and kidney injury molecule-1/hepatitis A viral cellular receptor-1 (Kim-1/Havcr1) gene expression in kidney tissue may be more predictive of renal injury after exposure to nephrotoxicants when compared to traditionally used biomarkers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a range of doses of gentamicin, mercury (Hg; HgCl2), or chromium (Cr; K2Cr2O7). The results showed that increases in urinary Kim-1 and kidney Kim-1/Havcr1 gene expression paralleled the degree of severity of renal histopathology and were detected at lower doses of nephrotoxicants when compared to blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In a time course study, urinary Kim-1 was elevated within 24 h after exposure to gentamicin (100 mg/kg), Hg (0.25 mg/kg), or Cr (5 mg/kg) and remained elevated through 72 h. NAG responses were nephrotoxicant dependent with elevations occurring early (gentamicin), late (Cr), or no change (Hg). At 72 h, after treatment with any of the three nephrotoxicants, there was increased Kim-1 immunoreactivity and necrosis involving ∼50% of the proximal tubules; however, only urinary Kim-1 was significantly increased, while BUN, serum creatinine, and NAG were not different from controls. In rats treated with the hepatotoxicant galactosamine (1.1 mg/kg), serum alanine aminotransferase was increased, but no increase in urinary Kim-1 was observed. Urinary Kim-1 and kidney Kim-1/Havcr1 expression appear to be sensitive and tissue-specific biomarkers that will improve detection of early acute kidney injury following exposure to nephrotoxic chemicals and drugs.
acute kidney injury; nephrotoxicity biomarkers; kidney injury molecule-1; mercury; chromium; gentamicin
Background. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is associated with epithelial injury and movement of inflammatory cells into the interstitium. We have proposed that oxalate (Ox)- and CaOx crystal-induced injury is most likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activation of membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase.
Methods. Present study was undertaken to determine the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and renal CaOx crystal deposition in rats with hyperoxaluria. We also investigated the urinary excretion of KIM-1, osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and renal expression of OPN and ED-1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HLP) and 4 mmol apocynin to drink for 28 days. Urine was collected on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. After that, rats were sacrificed and their kidneys processed for various microscopic and molecular investigations.
Results. HLP consumption produced heavy deposits of CaOx crystals. Renal expression of KIM-1 and OPN and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, H2O2 and MCP-1 was significantly increased. ED-1-positive cells migrated into renal interstitium. Apocynin treatment caused significant reduction of crystal deposits, injured and dilated tubules; renal expression of KIM-1, OPN and ED-1 and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, MCP-1 and H2O2. Apocynin had no effect on the urinary excretion of Ox.
Conclusions. This is the first study of urinary excretion and renal expression of KIM-1 in association with renal CaOx crystal deposition, experimental or clinical. The results indicate that NADPH oxidase inhibition leads to reduction in KIM-1 expression and urinary excretion as well as renal CaOx crystal deposition. KIM-1 is an important marker of renal epithelial injury. The results provide further support to our proposal that renal epithelial injury is critical for crystal retention and that injury is in part caused by the production of ROS with the involvement of NADPH oxidase.
apocynin; calcium oxalate; kidney injury molecule-1; kidney stones; NADPH oxidase; oxalate; oxidative stress
Editor’s Highlight: Sensitive and early noninvasive biomarkers of renal toxicity are needed to augment or replace current biomarkers. This report describes the development and validation of two bioassays for mouse urinary KIM-1 that may be of clinical value. Using a microbead-based assay and a quantitative dipstick assay, these assays demonstrated sensitivity and stability for detection of KIM-1 in models of renal toxicity when other biomarkers remained unchanged.
Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been qualified by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as a urinary biomarker to monitor preclinical nephrotoxicity in rats and on a case-by-case basis for the translation of potentially nephrotoxic drugs into first-in human studies. Although mouse models are widely employed in preclinical studies, few urinary biomarker studies have been performed in mice due to limited urine availability and lack of sensitive assays. Here, we report the development and validation of two different assays for quantitative assessment of mouse urinary KIM-1 (uKIM-1) and compare the sensitivity of KIM-1 relative to other standard markers in ischemia reperfusion and aristolochic acid (AA)–induced kidney injury in mice. A sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative microbead-based KIM-1 ELISA was established, which requires only 10 μl urine for triplicate determination with an assay range of 12.21 pg/ml to 50ng/ml. The second assay is a laminar flow dipstick assay, which has an assay range of 195 pg/ml to 50ng/ml and provides quantitative assessment of KIM-1 in 15min. uKIM-1 levels increased with increasing time of ischemia or time after AA administration. After only 10-min ischemia followed by 24-h reperfusion, uKIM-1 was significantly elevated by 13-fold, whereas serum creatinine (sCr), blood urea nitrogen, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG), and proteinuria levels did not change. After AA administration, uKIM-1 levels were significantly upregulated by greater than threefold within 12h, whereas sCr and NAG levels were unchanged. Mouse KIM-1 was stable for multiple freeze-thaw cycles, for up to 5 days at room temperature and up to at least an year when stored at −80°C.
kidney injury molecule-1; mouse KIM-1 assay; ischemia/reperfusion injury; aristolochic acid; nephrotoxicity biomarkers; acute kidney injury.
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in the serum, urine and renal tissues of children with acute kidney injury (AKI) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (A-on-C). A prospective single-center evaluation of the serum, urine and renal NGAL and KIM-1 levels was performed in a cohort of children. Blood and 5-ml urine samples were collected from each patient for the analysis of NGAL and KIM-1 levels using an ELISA. In addition, the expression of NGAL and KIM-1 in the kidney was examined using immunohistochemistry in patients with A-on-C and HSPN. The expression of serum cystatin C, β2-macroglobulin and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as urinary β2-MG and SCr, in the patients with A-on-C was significantly higher than that of HSPN patients, and the expression of NGAL and KIM-1 in the serum and urine in the A-on-C patients was also significantly higher than that of HSPN patients. However, there were no significant differences in the urine protein levels between the two groups. NGAL and KIM-1 were expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells, and the expression of NGAL and KIM-1 in the A-on-C patients was significantly higher than that in HSPN patients. In addition, the urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels were negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate, but there was no significant correlation between the urine NGAL/KIM-1 and urine protein levels. The changes in serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels may be applied to the diagnosis of A-on-C.
renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; injury molecule-1; acute kidney injury; Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis; children
Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in injury to the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein not normally detected in the mature kidney, but is upregulated and shed into the urine following nephrotoxic injury. In this study, we determine if Kim-1 might be a useful early biomarker of Cd nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily injections of Cd for up to 12 weeks. Weekly urine samples were analyzed for Kim-1, protein, creatinine, metallothionein, and Clara cell protein CC-16. Significant levels of Kim-1 were detected in the urine by 6 weeks and continued to increase throughout the treatment period. This appearance of Kim-1 occurred 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria, and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of metallothionein and CC-16. Higher doses of Cd gave rise to higher Kim-1 excretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analysis showed that Kim-1 transcript levels were increased after 6 weeks at the low dose of Cd. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Kim-1 was present in proximal tubule cells of the Cd-treated rats. Our results suggest that Kim-1 may be a useful biomarker of early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury.
biomarkers; cadmium; Kim-1; nephrotoxicity; Clara cell protein (CC-16); metallothionein
Chronic exposure to low cadmium (Cd) levels produces urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins, which is considered the critical effect of Cd exposure. However, the mechanisms involved in Cd-induced proteinuria are not entirely clear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of megalin and cubilin (important endocytic receptors in proximal tubule cells) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on Cd-induced microalbuminuria.
Four groups of female Wistar rats were studied. Control (CT) group, vehicle-treated rats; LOS group, rats treated with losartan (an AT1 antagonist) from weeks 5 to 8 (10 mg/kg/day by gavage); Cd group, rats subchronically exposed to Cd (3 mg/kg/day by gavage) during 8 weeks, and Cd + LOS group, rats treated with Cd for 8 weeks and LOS from weeks 5–8. Kidney Cd content, glomerular function (evaluated by creatinine clearance and plasma creatinine), kidney injury and tubular function (evaluated by Kim-1 expression, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and glucose, and microalbuminuria), oxidative stress (measured by lipid peroxidation and NAD(P)H oxidase activity), mRNA levels of megalin, expressions of megalin and cubilin (by confocal microscopy) and AT1 receptor (by Western blot), were measured in the different experimental groups. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test using GraphPad Prism 5 software (Version 5.00). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Administration of Cd (Cd and Cd + LOS groups) increased renal Cd content. LOS-treatment decreased Cd-induced microalbuminuria without changes in: plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinary NAG and glucose, oxidative stress, mRNA levels of megalin and cubilin, neither protein expression of megalin nor AT1 receptor, in the different experimental groups studied. However, Cd exposure did induce the expression of the tubular injury marker Kim-1 and decreased cubilin protein levels in proximal tubule cells whereas LOS-treatment restored cubilin levels and suppressed Kim-1 expression.
LOS treatment decreased microalbuminuria induced by Cd apparently through a cubilin receptor-dependent mechanism but independent of megalin.
Cadmium; Subchronic exposure; Endocytosis; Megalin; Cubilin; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor; Losartan
Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a specific histological biomarker for diagnosing early tubular injury on renal biopsies. In this study, KIM-1 expression was quantitated in renal transplant biopsies by immunohistochemistry and correlated with renal function. None of the 25 protocol biopsies showed detectable tubular injury on histologic examination, yet 28% had focal positive KIM-1 expression. Proximal tubule KIM-1 expression was present in all biopsies from patients with histological changes showing acute tubular damage and deterioration of kidney function. In this group, higher KIM-1 staining predicted a better outcome with improved blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over an ensuing 18 months. KIM-1 was expressed focally in affected tubules in 92% of kidney biopsies from patients with acute cellular rejection. By contrast, there was little positive staining for Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, in any of the groups. KIM-1 expression significantly correlated with serum creatinine and BUN, and inversely with the eGFR on the biopsy day. Our study shows that KIM-1 staining sensitively and specifically identified proximal tubular injury and correlated with the degree of renal dysfunction. KIM-1 expression is more sensitive than histology for detecting early tubular injury, and its level of expression in transplant biopsies may indicate the potential for recovery of kidney function.
kidney injury molecule-1; renal tubular injury; biomarker; renal transplantation
Human kidney injury molecule-1 (hKIM-1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is not detectable in normal kidney tissue but is expressed at high levels in human and rodent kidneys with dedifferentiated proximal tubule epithelial cells after ischemic or toxic injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that renal tumors express hKIM-1 and release this protein into the urine. Forty renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 484 nonrenal tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of hKIM-1 (group 1). Urine samples before nephrectomy and nephrectomy tissue samples were collected from an additional 42 patients with renal tumors, from 30 normal control subjects, and also from 10 patients with prostate carcinoma (group 2). In five additional patients with RCC, urine was collected before and after nephrectomy (group 3). Tissue was examined for expression of hKIM-1, and cell-free urine supernatants were analyzed for hKIM-1 by ELISA. Urinary hKIM-1 was normalized to the urinary creatinine concentration (UCr). Expression of hKIM-1 was present in 32 tissue sections (91%) of 35 clear cell RCC (group 1). In group 2, the normalized urinary hKIM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with clear cell RCC (0.39 ± 0.08 ng/mg UCr; n = 21), compared with levels in patients with prostate carcinoma (0.12 ± 0.03 ng/mg UCr; P < 0.02; n = 10), or normal control subjects (0.05 ± 0.01 ng/mg UCr; P < 0.005; n = 30). Tissue sections from 28 (82%) of 34 primary RCC stained positively for the expression of hKIM-1. In all patients with a detectable prenephrectomy urinary hKIM-1 level, there was either complete disappearance or marked reduction after nephrectomy (group 3). In conclusion, the cleaved ectodomain of hKIM-1 can be detected in the urine of patients with RCC and may serve as a new biomarker for early detection of RCC.
Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) has been qualified by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as a highly sensitive and specific urinary biomarker to monitor drug-induced kidney injury in preclinical studies and on a case-by-case basis in clinical trials. Here we report the development and evaluation of a rapid direct immunochromatographic lateral flow 15-min assay for detection of urinary Kim-1 (rat) or KIM-1 (human). The urinary Kim-1 band intensity using the rat Kim-1 dipstick significantly correlated with levels of Kim-1 as measured by a microbead-based assay, histopathological damage, and immunohistochemical assessment of renal Kim-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Kim-1 was detected following kidney injury induced in rats by cadmium, gentamicin, or bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion. In humans, the urinary KIM-1 band intensity was significantly greater in urine from patients with acute kidney injury than in urine from healthy volunteers. The KIM-1 dipstick also enabled temporal evaluation of kidney injury and recovery in two patients who developed postoperative acute kidney injury following cytoreductive surgery for malignant mesothelioma with intraoperative local cisplatin administration. We hope that future, more extensive studies will confirm the utility of these results, which show that the Kim-1/KIM-1 dipsticks can provide a sensitive and accurate detection of Kim-1/KIM-1, thereby providing a rapid diagnostic assay for kidney damage and facilitating the rapid and early detection of kidney injury in preclinical and clinical studies.
biomarkers; cadmium; dipstick; ischemia/reperfusion injury; kidney toxicity; Kim-1
Chronic transplant dysfunction is characterized by renal function decline and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, a transmembrane tubular protein with unknown function, is undetectable in normal kidneys, but markedly induced after injury. Urinary KIM-1 excretion has been quantified as biomarker of renal damage. We prospectively studied whether urinary KIM-1 predicts graft loss, independent of renal function and proteinuria.
Renal transplant recipients (n=145) visiting our outpatient clinic between August 2001 and July 2003 collected 24-hour urine samples for assessment of baseline urinary KIM-1 excretion (microsphere-based Luminex technology), and were followed for graft loss.
Recipients participated at a median (interquartile range) of 6.0 (2.5–12.0) years posttransplant in baseline measurements. Follow-up beyond baseline was 4.0 (3.2–4.5) years. Urinary KIM-1 excretion was 0.72 (0.42–1.37) ng per 24 hours. Occurrence of graft loss increased over tertiles of KIM-1 excretion: 3 (6.3%), 11 (22.4%), and 17 cases (35.4%; P=0.001), respectively. High KIM-1 excretion was associated with proteinuria, low creatinine clearance, and high donor age (all P<0.01). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, prediction of graft loss by KIM-1 appeared independent of creatinine clearance, proteinuria, and donorage. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the second and third tertile of KIM-1 excretion were 3.6 (0.9–13.5) and 5.1 (1.5–17.8) in the final model.
Urinary excretion of KIM-1 is an independent predictor of long-term graft loss and therefore a promising new biomarker in early prediction of graft loss.
Chronic transplant dysfunction; Renal transplantation; Kidney injury molecule-1; Biomarker
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) may progress to renal failure for some patients without any clinical risk factors and it is not unusual to find severe pathologic damage in clinically mild IgAN. We therefore investigated whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was related to pathologic involvement in clinically mild IgAN.
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine of 51 IgAN patients with normotension, normal renal function and proteinuria < 1.0 g/24 h were tested. Relationships between urinary KIM-1 and pathologic features were analyzed.
Eighteen of the 51 patients had elevated urinary KIM-1. The tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis was more severe in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (T0/T1/T2, 13/5/0 vs. 33/0/0, P = 0.004). Proportion of glomeruli containing cresecents was higher in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (50% vs. 18%, P = 0.026). Urinary KIM-1 correlated with the proportion of total crescents (R = 0.303, p = 0.031) and fibrous crescents (R = 0.456, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with the proportion of cellular crescents or fibrocellular crescents. Although the proportion of vascular lesions was higher in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 (44.4%) than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (18.1%), the difference was not significant (p = 0.057). There was no difference of the response to treatment between patients with and without elevated urinary KIM-1 during a short-term follow-up.
Urinary KIM-1 is a reflection of tubularinstitial injury. For patients with clinically mild IgAN, high urinary KIM-1 is related to relatively severe pathologic involvement on renal biopsy.
KIM-1; IgA nephropathy; Oxford classification
Immunohistochemical studies for kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), renal papillary antigen-1 (RPA-1), and renal papillary antigen-2 (RPA-2) were conducted to explore their relationship to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day Gen, sc, for 3 days), mercury (0.25 mg Hg/kg, iv, single dose), or chromium (5 mg Cr/kg, sc, single dose) and kidney tissue was examined 24 hours or 72 hours after the last dose of the nephrotoxicant. Another group of kidneys was evaluated 24 hours after rats were administered 3 daily doses (50, 100, 150, 200, or 300 mg/kg/day) of Gen. Gen- and Cr-treated rats exhibited increased immunoreactivity of Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 largely in the S1/S2 segments and to a lesser extent in the S3 segments of the proximal tubule of the kidney, whereas Hg-treated rats showed increased immunoreactivity of Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 in the S3 segments. Up-regulation of Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 expression correlated with injured tubular epithelial cells and also correlated with immunoreactivity of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. It is possible that iNOS activation with nitrotyrosine production in injured nephron segments may be involved in the induction of Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 following exposure to nephrotoxicants.
chromium; gentamicin; Kim-1 (kidney injury molecule-1); mercury; nitrotyrosine; RPA-1 (renal papillary antigen-1); RPA-2 (renal papillary antigen-2).
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 μmoles) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, α-GST and LDH were not increased until 8–12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.
cadmium; Kim-1; necrosis; apoptosis; proximal tubule
Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a biomarker useful for detecting early tubular damage and has been recently reported as a useful marker for evaluating kidney injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We therefore investigated whether treatment decreases urinary KIM-1 excretion in IgAN.
We prospectively enrolled 37 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN. Urinary KIM-1 was assessed before and after treatment, which included low salt diet, blood pressure control, pharmacotherapy with angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and immunosuppressive agents as necessary. The median treatment duration was 24 months.
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine (Cr) was significantly decreased in patients with IgAN after treatment compared to baseline (P < 0.0001, 1.16 [0.51-1.83] vs 0.26 [0.12-0.65] ng/mg). There was a decrease in the amount of proteinuria after treatment, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.052, 748.1 [405-1569.7] vs 569.2 [252.2-1114] g/d). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not change with treatment (P = 0.599, 79.28 ± 30.56 vs 80.98 ± 32.37 ml/min/1.73 m2). Urinary KIM-1 was not correlated with proteinuria baseline or follow up (pre-: R = - 0.100, P = 0.577, post-: R = 0.001, P = 0.993). In patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1, both urinary KIM-1 level and proteinuria were significantly decreased following treatment.
Treatment decreases urinary KIM-1/Cr in patients with IgAN. It also reduces proteinuria in patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1. These results suggest a potential role for urinary KIM-1 as a biomarker for predicting treatment response in IgAN, however, further study is needed to verify this.
Biomarker; IgA nephropathy; KIM-1; Treatment in IgA nephropathy reduced the urinary KIM-1 excretion
The prognostic impact of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic heart failure (CHF) is increasingly recognised, but little is known about tubular damage in these patients.
To investigate the prevalence of tubular damage, and its association with GFR, and prognosis in patients with CHF.
Methods and results
In 90 patients with CHF, GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured ([125I] iothalamate and [131I]hippuran clearances). The tubular markers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as well as urinary albumin excretion were determined in 24 h urine collections. Mean GFR was 78±26 ml/min/1.73 m2. Urinary NGAL (175 (70—346) mg/g creatinine (gCr)), NAG (12 (6—17) U/gCr) and KIM-1 (277 (188—537) ng/gCr) levels were increased compared with 20 healthy controls (all p<0.001). Urinary NAG, but not NGAL or KIM-1 correlated with GFR (r=−0.34, p=0.001) and ERPF (r=−0.29, p=0.006). Both NAG (r=0.21, p=0.048) and KIM-1 (r=0.23, p=0.033) correlated with plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels. Both urinary KIM-1 (HR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.30) per 100 ng/gCr increase, p=0.025) and NAG (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) per 5 U/gCr increase, p=0.039), were associated with an increased risk of death or heart failure hospitalisations, independent of GFR.
Tubular damage, as indicated by increased urinary concentrations of NGAL, NAG and KIM-1 is common in patients with CHF and mildly reduced GFR. Both urinary KIM-1 and NAG showed prognostic information additional to GFR. These findings suggest an important role for tubular damage and tubular markers in cardiorenal interaction in heart failure.
The present study compared the immunolocalization of Kim-1, renal papillary antigen (RPA)-1, and RPA-2 with that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine in kidneys of gentamicin sulfate (Gen)- and cisplatin (Cis)-treated rats. The specificity of acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers, iNOS, and nitrotyrosine was evaluated by dosing rats with valproic acid (VPA). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected subcutaneously (sc) with 100 mg/kg/day of Gen for six or fourteen days; a single intraperitoneal (ip) dose of 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg of Cis; or 650 mg/kg/day of VPA (ip) for four days. In Gen-treated rats, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells, mainly in the S1/S2 segments but less so in the S3 segment, and RPA-1 was increased in the epithelial cells of collecting ducts (CD) in the cortex. Spatial expression of iNOS or nitrotyrosine with Kim-1 or RPA-1 was detected. In Cis-treated rats, Kim-1 was expressed only in the S3 segment cells, and RPA-1 and RPA-2 were increased in the epithelial cells of medullary CD or medullary loop of Henle (LH), respectively. Spatial expression of iNOS or nitrotyrosine with RPA-1 or RPA-2 was also identified. These findings suggest that peroxynitrite formation may be involved in the pathogenesis of Gen and Cis nephrotoxicity and that Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 have the potential to serve as site-specific biomarkers for Gen or Cis AKI.
cisplatin; gentamicin; Kim-1; nitrotyrosine; RPA-1; RPA-2
We investigated in a cross-sectional study the levels of serum and urinary damage markers in diabetic patients (n = 94) and nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) to study the association of glomerular (IgG), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule [KIM]-1, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin [NGAL], and cystatin C), and distal tubular (heart fatty acid–binding protein [H-FABP]) damage markers with kidney disease severity, as assessed by albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Damage markers were measured in triplicate in fresh morning urine samples and in plasma.
Of the diabetic patients, 41 were normoalbuminuric, 41 were microalbuminuric, and 12 were macroalbuminuric. Urinary NAG (ninefold), NGAL (1.5-fold), and H-FABP (3.5-fold) were significantly elevated in normoalbuminuric diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic control subjects. Urinary concentrations of all markers increased per albuminuria stratum, except KIM-1. All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with albuminuria, independent of age, sex, and plasma concentrations of the corresponding biomarker (standard βs between 0.35 and 0.87; all P ≤ 0.001). All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with the eGFR in univariate models (standard βs between −0.38 and −0.21; all P < 0.04). After adjusting for age, sex, plasma concentration of the corresponding damage marker, and albuminuria, only the association of H-FABP with eGFR remained significant (standard β −0.26; P = 0.037).
Glomerular and tubular markers are associated with albuminuria, independently of eGFR, suggesting that albuminuria reflects both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage. Only urinary H-FABP is associated with eGFR independently of albuminuria and, therefore, may be a promising urinary damage marker to assess diabetic kidney disease.
Proteinuria is a primary clinical symptom of a large number of glomerular diseases that progress to end-stage renal failure. Podocyte dysfunctions play a fundamental role in defective glomerular filtration in many common forms of proteinuric kidney disorders. Since binding of these cells to the basement membrane is mediated by integrins, we determined the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in podocyte dysfunction and proteinuria. ILK expression was induced in mouse podocytes by various injurious stimuli known to cause proteinuria including TGF-β1, adriamycin, puromycin, and high ambient glucose. Podocyte ILK was also found to be upregulated in human proteinuric glomerular diseases. Ectopic expression of ILK in podocytes decreased levels of the epithelial markers nephrin and ZO-1, induced mesenchymal markers such as desmin, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), promoted cell migration, and increased the paracellular albumin flux across podocyte monolayers. ILK also induced Snail, a key transcription factor mediating epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Blockade of ILK activity with a highly selective small molecule inhibitor reduced Snail induction and preserved podocyte phenotypes following TGF-β1 or adriamycin stimulation. In vivo, this ILK inhibitor ameliorated albuminuria, repressed glomerular induction of MMP-9 and α-SMA, and preserved nephrin expression in murine adriamycin nephropathy. Our results show that upregulation of ILK is a convergent pathway leading to podocyte EMT, migration, and dysfunction. ILK may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention of proteinuric kidney diseases.
adriamycin; integrin-linked kinase; podocyte; proteinuria
Background: Selective proteinuria is frequently observed in glomerular diseases characterized by podocyte injury. Although, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] has potential therapeutic effects on chronic kidney diseases through decreasing podocyte loss, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on podocytes remains still unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that 1,25(OH)2D3 directly reduced podocyte apoptosis and loss.
Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Adriamycin (ADR) group (n=15), ADR+1,25-(OH)2D3 group (n=16), and control group (n=16). Rats in ADR+1,25-(OH)2D3 group were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 8 weeks. The number of podocytes and foot process width (FPW) were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The number of apoptotic podocytes per glomerulus and that of apoptotic nuclei and caspase-3 activity in cultured podocytes were determined by TUNEL staining. The average number of podocytes per glomerulus was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of p-Smad2/3, p-Smad1/5/8, Fas, Fas-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD), Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins were examined by Western blot assay.
Results: Compared with control group, proteinuria, FPW, apoptotic podocytes, caspase-3 activity, the protein expressions of p-Smad2/3, Fas, FADD, and Bax were significantly increased, podocyte density, p-Smad1/5/8 and Bcl-2 expression were decreased in ADR group. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced proteinuria, FPW, caspase-3 activity, expressions of p-Smad2/3, Fas, FADD, and Bax and apoptosis of podocytes, but increased serum albumin, number of viable podocytes , p-Smad1/5/8 and Bcl-2 expression in ADR treated rats.
Conclusion: ADR-induced podocyte apoptosis was associated with the imbalance of p-Smad2/3, p-Smad1/5/8 the activity of caspase-3 and aberrant expressions of, Fas, FADD, Bax and Bcl-2. The beneficial effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on podocytes may be attributable to inhibit podocyte apoptosis and the amelioration of podocytopenia.
1; 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; podocyte; proteinuria
Aging is associated with an increased incidence and severity of acute renal failure. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility to injury remains undefined. These experiments were designed to investigate the influence of age on the response of the kidney to ischemic injury and to identify candidate genes that may mediate this response. Renal slices prepared from young (5 mo), aged ad libitum (aged-AL; 24 mo), and aged caloric-restricted (aged-CR; 24 mo) male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to ischemic stress (100% N2) for 0–60 min. As assessed by biochemical and histological evaluation, slices from aged-AL rats were more susceptible to injury than young counterparts. Importantly, caloric restriction attenuated the increased susceptibility to injury. In an attempt to identify the molecular pathway(s) underlying this response, microarray analysis was performed on tissue harvested from the same animals used for the viability experiments. RNA was isolated and the corresponding cDNA was hybridized to CodeLink Rat Whole Genome Bioarray slides. Subsequent gene expression analysis was performed using GeneSpring software. Using two-sample t-tests and a twofold cut-off, the expression of 92 genes was changed during aging and attenuated by caloric restriction, including claudin-7, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). Claudin-7 gene expression peaked at 18 mo; however, increased protein expression in certain tubular epithelial cells was seen at 24 mo. Kim-1 gene expression was not elevated at 8 or 12 mo but was at 18 and 24 mo. However, changes in Kim-1 protein expression were only seen at 24 mo and corresponded to increased urinary levels. Importantly, these changes were attenuated by caloric restriction. MMP-7 gene expression was decreased at 8 mo, but an age-dependent increase was seen at 24 mo. Increased MMP-7 protein expression in tubular epithelial cells at 24 mo was correlated with the gene expression pattern. In summary, we identified genes changed by aging and changes attenuated by caloric restriction. This will facilitate investigation into the molecular mechanism mediating the age-related increase in susceptibility to injury.
ischemia; microarray analysis
Because of the difficulty in detecting segment-specific response in the kidney, we investigated the molecular events underlying acute kidney injury in the proximal tubules of rats with cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II)-induced nephrotoxicity. Microarray analysis revealed that mRNA levels of several cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin-1beta, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 2, CCL20, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 1, and CXCL10 were significantly increased after cisplatin treatment in both isolated proximal tubules and whole kidney. Interestingly, tubular CCL2 mRNA levels increased soon after cisplatin administration, whereas CCL2 mRNA levels in whole kidney first decreased and then increased. Levels of both CCL2 and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in the whole kidney increased after cisplatin administration. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed CCL2 changes in the proximal tubular cells initially and then in the medullary interstitium. Urinary CCL2 excretion significantly increased approximately 3-fold compared with controls the day after cisplatin administration (5 mg/kg), when no changes were observed plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Urinary levels of KIM-1 also increased 3-fold after cisplatin administration. In addition, urinary CCL2 rather than KIM-1 increased in chronic renal failure rats after administration of low-dose cisplatin (2 mg/kg), suggesting that urinary CCL2 was selective for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in renal impairment. These results indicated that the increase in cytokine and chemokine expression in renal epithelial cells might be responsible for kidney deterioration in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and that urinary CCL2 is associated with tubular injury and serves as a sensitive and noninvasive marker for the early detection of cisplatin-induced tubular injury.
acute kidney injury; microarray analysis; renal proximal tubule cells; monocyte chemotactic protein-1; MCP-1; kidney injury molecule-1; KIM-1
Paecilomyces sinclairiis (PS) is known as a functional food or human health supplement. However concerns have been raised about its kidney toxicity. This study was performed to investigate the kidney toxicity of PS by 13 week-oral administration to rats. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and kidney damage biomarkers including beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GST-α), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), calbindin, clusterin, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and osteopontin were measured during or after the treatment of PS. BUN, creatinine and kidney damage biomarkers in serum were not changed by PS. However, kidney cell karyomegaly and tubular hypertrophy were observed dose-dependently with higher severity in males. KIM-1, TIMP-1 and osteopontin in kidney and urine were increased dose dependently in male or at the highest dose in female rats. Increased urinary osteopontin by PS was not recovered at 2 weeks of post-exposure in both genders. Cystatin C in kidney was decreased at all treatment groups but inversely increased in urine. The changes in kidney damage biomarkers were more remarkable in male than female rats. These data indicate that the PS may provoke renal cell damage and glomerular filtration dysfunction in rats with histopathological lesions and change of kidney damage biomarkers in kidney or urine. Kidney and urinary KIM-1 and cystatin C were the most marked indicators, while kidney weight, BUN and creatinine and kidney damage biomarkers in serum were not influenced.
Kidney toxicity; Kidney damage biomarkers; Paecilomyces sinclairiis; Kidney injury molecule 1; Cystatin C