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1.  Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics of Atherosclerosis 
The latest genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have re-energized our effort to understand the genetic basis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although the knowledge generated by GWAS has confirmed that mediators of inflammation and perturbed lipid metabolism are major players in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, much of individual disease heritability remains unexplained by the variants identified through GWAS. Moreover, results from interventions that aim at the pharmaceutical modification of lipid parameters fall short of expectation. These elusive treatment goals based on heritability studies highlight a key supportive, and perhaps even primary, role of nutritional therapy to achieve better health outcomes. Nonetheless, effective and specific interventions for CVD prevention using principles of “personalized” nutrition require a better knowledge of gene-diet interactions, an area that remains poorly explored. Dietary fatty acids such as omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are an excellent example of a widely studied “environment” that interacts with the genetic makeup in relation to CVD. A thorough exploration of the nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of omega–3 PUFAs is key to understanding the etiology, and developing effective preventive measures. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of genetic interactions with omega–3 PUFAs in modulating lipid metabolism and inflammation, and defining health outcomes. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are still in their infancy with respect to CVD prediction and therapy. Integration of the progress in the omics, including metabolomics, lipidomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, coupled with advances in nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic research will move us towards personalized medicine as the ultimate paradigm of responsible clinical practice.
doi:10.1007/s11883-013-0328-6
PMCID: PMC4003879  PMID: 23605288
Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Docosahexaenoic acid; Lipoxygenase; Inflammation; Lipid metabolism
2.  Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition 
Nutrients  2013;5(1):32-57.
Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease.
doi:10.3390/nu5010032
PMCID: PMC3571637  PMID: 23306188
nutrigenetics; metabolic health; dietary fat; obesity; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; metabotype; gene-nutrient interaction
3.  Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics 
The nutrients are able to interact with molecular mechanisms and modulate the physiological functions in the body. The Nutritional Genomics focuses on the interaction between bioactive food components and the genome, which includes Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics. The influence of nutrients on f genes expression is called Nutrigenomics, while the heterogeneous response of gene variants to nutrients, dietary components and developing nutraceticals is called Nutrigenetics. Genetic variation is known to affect food tolerances among human subpopulations and may also influence dietary requirements and raising the possibility of individualizing nutritional intake for optimal health and disease prevention on the basis of an individual’s genome. Nutrigenomics provides a genetic understanding for how common dietary components affect the balance between health and disease by altering the expression and/or structure of an individual’s genetic makeup. Nutrigenetics describes that the genetic profile have impact on the response of body to bioactive food components by influencing their absorption, metabolism, and site of action.
In this way, considering different aspects of gene–nutrient interaction and designing appropriate diet for every specific genotype that optimize individual health, diagnosis and nutritional treatment of genome instability, we could prevent and control conversion of healthy phenotype to diseases.
PMCID: PMC3481686  PMID: 23113033
Nutritional genomics; Nutrigenomics; Nutrigenetics; Genetic variation
4.  Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline2 
Science is beginning to understand how genetic variation and epigenetic events alter requirements for, and responses to, nutrients (nutrigenomics). At the same time, methods for profiling almost all of the products of metabolism in a single sample of blood or urine are being developed (metabolomics). Relations between diet and nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiles and between those profiles and health have become important components of research that could change clinical practice in nutrition. Most nutrition studies assume that all persons have average dietary requirements, and the studies often do not plan for a large subset of subjects who differ in requirements for a nutrient. Large variances in responses that occur when such a population exists can result in statistical analyses that argue for a null effect. If nutrition studies could better identify responders and differentiate them from nonresponders on the basis of nutrigenomic or metabolomic profiles, the sensitivity to detect differences between groups could be greatly increased, and the resulting dietary recommendations could be appropriately targeted. It is not certain that nutrition will be the clinical specialty primarily responsible for nutrigenomics or metabolomics, because other disciplines currently dominate the development of portions of these fields. However, nutrition scientists' depth of understanding of human metabolism can be used to establish a role in the research and clinical programs that will arise from nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling. Investments made today in training programs and in research methods could ensure a new foundation for clinical nutrition in the future.
PMCID: PMC2430757  PMID: 17823415
Nutrigenomics; epigenetics; metabolomics; single-nucleotide polymorphism; clinical nutrition
5.  Choline: Clinical Nutrigenetic/Nutrigenomic Approaches for Identification of Functions and Dietary Requirements 
Nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics (the study of the bidirectional interactions between genes and diet) is a rapidly developing field that is changing research and practice in human nutrition. Though eventually nutrition clinicians may be able to provide personalized nutrition recommendations, in the immediate future they are most likely to use this knowledge to improve dietary recommendations for populations. Currently, estimated average requirements are used to set dietary reference intakes because scientists cannot adequately identify subsets of the population that differ in requirement for a nutrient. Recommended intake levels must exceed the actual required intake for most of the population in order to assure that individuals with the highest requirement ingest adequate amounts of the nutrient. As a result, dietary reference intake levels often are set so high that diet guidelines suggest almost unattainable intakes of some foods. Once it is possible to identify common subgroups that differ in nutrient requirements using nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, targeted interventions and recommendations can be refined. In addition, when a large variance exists in response to a nutrient, statistical analyses often argue for a null effect. If responders could be differentiated from nonre-sponders based on nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, this statistical noise could be eliminated and the sensitivity of nutrition research greatly increased.
doi:10.1159/000314512
PMCID: PMC3601485  PMID: 20436254
6.  GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS: MODULATION BY DIET AND OBESITY 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2008;16(Suppl 3):S40-S46.
Changes in diet are likely to reduce chronic disorders, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? Is a low fat, as traditionally recommended by multiple medical societies? Or a high monounsaturated fat as predicated by the Mediterranean diet? Perhaps a high polyunsaturated fat based on the cholesterol lowering effects? The right answer may be all of the above but not for everybody. A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in interindividual response to any type of dietary intervention. There are many other factors influencing response, and they include, among many others, age, sex, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking as well as genetic factors that will help to identify vulnerable populations/individuals that will be benefit from a variety of more personalized and mechanistic based dietary recommendations. This potential could and needs to be developed within the context of nutritional genomics that in conjunction with systems biology may provide the tools to achieve the holy grail of dietary prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This approach will break with the traditional public health approach of “one size fits all.” The current evidence based on nutrigenetics has begun to identify subgroups of individuals who benefit more from a low fat diet, whereas others appear to benefit more from a high monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets. The continuous progress in Nutrigenomics will allow some time in the future to provide targeted gene-based dietary advice.
doi:10.1038/oby.2008.515
PMCID: PMC2771769  PMID: 19037211
7.  Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium 
Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis.
doi:10.3389/fgene.2011.00015
PMCID: PMC3268570  PMID: 22303312
selenium; selenoprotein; nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics
8.  Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Insights into Diabetes Etiopathogenesis 
Nutrients  2014;6(11):5338-5369.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a global pandemic, and the incidence of DM continues to grow worldwide. Nutrients and dietary patterns are central issues in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. The pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, but nutrient-gene interactions at different levels, genetic predisposition and dietary factors appear to be involved. Nutritional genomics studies generally focus on dietary patterns according to genetic variations, the role of gene-nutrient interactions, gene-diet-phenotype interactions and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients; these studies will facilitate an understanding of the early molecular events that occur in DM and will contribute to the identification of better biomarkers and diagnostics tools. In particular, this approach will help to develop tailored diets that maximize the use of nutrients and other functional ingredients present in food, which will aid in the prevention and delay of DM and its complications. This review discusses the current state of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenomics research on DM. Here, we provide an overview of the role of gene variants and nutrient interactions, the importance of nutrients and dietary patterns on gene expression, how epigenetic changes and micro RNAs (miRNAs) can alter cellular signaling in response to nutrients and the dietary interventions that may help to prevent the onset of DM.
doi:10.3390/nu6115338
PMCID: PMC4245593  PMID: 25421534
diabetes; insulin resistance; pancreatic β cell; gene-nutrient interaction; nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics; epigenetics; miRNAs; nutrients; dietary patterns
9.  Risk Assessment and Communication Tools for Genotype Associations with Multifactorial Phenotypes: The Concept of “Edge Effect” and Cultivating an Ethical Bridge between Omics Innovations and Society 
Applications of omics technologies in the postgenomics era swiftly expanded from rare monogenic disorders to multifactorial common complex diseases, pharmacogenomics, and personalized medicine. Already, there are signposts indicative of further omics technology investment in nutritional sciences (nutrigenomics), environmental health/ecology (ecogenomics), and agriculture (agrigenomics). Genotype–phenotype association studies are a centerpiece of translational research in omics science. Yet scientific and ethical standards and ways to assess and communicate risk information obtained from association studies have been neglected to date. This is a significant gap because association studies decisively influence which genetic loci become genetic tests in the clinic or products in the genetic test marketplace. A growing challenge concerns the interpretation of large overlap typically observed in distribution of quantitative traits in a genetic association study with a polygenic/multifactorial phenotype. To remedy the shortage of risk assessment and communication tools for association studies, this paper presents the concept of edge effect. That is, the shift in population edges of a multi-factorial quantitative phenotype is a more sensitive measure (than population averages) to gauge the population level impact and by extension, policy significance of an omics marker. Empirical application of the edge effect concept is illustrated using an original analysis of warfarin pharmacogenomics and the VKORC1 genetic variation in a Brazilian population sample. These edge effect analyses are examined in relation to regulatory guidance development for association studies. We explain that omics science transcends the conventional laboratory bench space and includes a highly heterogeneous cast of stakeholders in society who have a plurality of interests that are often in conflict. Hence, communication of risk information in diagnostic medicine also demands attention to processes involved in production of knowledge and human values embedded in scientific practice, for example, why, how, by whom, and to what ends association studies are conducted, and standards are developed (or not). To ensure sustainability of omics innovations and forecast their trajectory, we need interventions to bridge the gap between omics laboratory and society. Appreciation of scholarship in history of omics science is one remedy to responsibly learn from the past to ensure a sustainable future in omics fields, both emerging (nutrigenomics, ecogenomics), and those that are more established (pharmacogenomics). Another measure to build public trust and sustainability of omics fields could be legislative initiatives to create a multidisciplinary oversight body, at arm's length from conflict of interests, to carry out independent, impartial, and transparent innovation analyses and prospective technology assessment.
doi:10.1089/omi.2009.0011
PMCID: PMC2727354  PMID: 19290811
10.  Risk Assessment and Communication Tools for Genotype Associations with Multifactorial Phenotypes: The Concept of “Edge Effect” and Cultivating an Ethical Bridge between Omics Innovations and Society 
Abstract
Applications of omics technologies in the postgenomics era swiftly expanded from rare monogenic disorders to multifactorial common complex diseases, pharmacogenomics, and personalized medicine. Already, there are signposts indicative of further omics technology investment in nutritional sciences (nutrigenomics), environmental health/ecology (ecogenomics), and agriculture (agrigenomics). Genotype–phenotype association studies are a centerpiece of translational research in omics science. Yet scientific and ethical standards and ways to assess and communicate risk information obtained from association studies have been neglected to date. This is a significant gap because association studies decisively influence which genetic loci become genetic tests in the clinic or products in the genetic test marketplace. A growing challenge concerns the interpretation of large overlap typically observed in distribution of quantitative traits in a genetic association study with a polygenic/multifactorial phenotype. To remedy the shortage of risk assessment and communication tools for association studies, this paper presents the concept of edge effect. That is, the shift in population edges of a multifactorial quantitative phenotype is a more sensitive measure (than population averages) to gauge the population level impact and by extension, policy significance of an omics marker. Empirical application of the edge effect concept is illustrated using an original analysis of warfarin pharmacogenomics and the VKORC1 genetic variation in a Brazilian population sample. These edge effect analyses are examined in relation to regulatory guidance development for association studies. We explain that omics science transcends the conventional laboratory bench space and includes a highly heterogeneous cast of stakeholders in society who have a plurality of interests that are often in conflict. Hence, communication of risk information in diagnostic medicine also demands attention to processes involved in production of knowledge and human values embedded in scientific practice, for example, why, how, by whom, and to what ends association studies are conducted, and standards are developed (or not). To ensure sustainability of omics innovations and forecast their trajectory, we need interventions to bridge the gap between omics laboratory and society. Appreciation of scholarship in history of omics science is one remedy to responsibly learn from the past to ensure a sustainable future in omics fields, both emerging (nutrigenomics, ecogenomics), and those that are more established (pharmacogenomics). Another measure to build public trust and sustainability of omics fields could be legislative initiatives to create a multidisciplinary oversight body, at arm's length from conflict of interests, to carry out independent, impartial, and transparent innovation analyses and prospective technology assessment.
doi:10.1089/omi.2009.0011
PMCID: PMC2727354  PMID: 19290811
11.  Vitamin D: a critical and essential micronutrient for human health 
Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g., in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to a multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well-known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers, and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Based on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7% of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3% are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to reach sufficient vitamin D micronutrient levels. The latter situation is known as hidden hunger. The inadequate vitamin D status impacts on health care costs, which in turn could result in significant savings, if corrected. Since little is known about the effects on the molecular level that accompany the pandemic like epigenetic imprinting, the insufficiency-triggered gene regulations or the genetic background influence on the body to maintain metabolic resilience, future research will be needed. The nutrition community is highly interested in the molecular mechanism that underlies the vitamin D insufficiency caused effect. In recent years, novel large scale technologies have become available that allow the simultaneous acquisition of transcriptome, epigenome, proteome, or metabolome data in cells of organs. These important methods are now used for nutritional approaches summarized in emerging scientific fields of nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics, or nutriepigenetics. It is believed that with the help of these novel concepts further understanding can be generated to develop future sustainable nutrition solutions to safeguard nutrition security.
doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00248
PMCID: PMC4092358  PMID: 25071593
vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; nutrition; micronutrients; hidden hunger; nutrition security; nutritional pathways; nutrigenomics
12.  The challenges for molecular nutrition research 3: comparative nutrigenomics research as a basis for entering the systems level 
Genes & Nutrition  2008;3(3-4):101-106.
Human nutrition and metabolism may serve as the paradigm for the complex interplay of the genome with its environment. The concept of nutrigenomics now enables science with new tools and comprehensive analytical techniques to investigate this interaction at all levels of the complexity of the organism. Moreover, nutrigenomics seeks to better define the homeostatic control mechanisms, identify the de-regulation in the early phases of diet-related diseases, and attempts to assess to what extent an individual‘s sensitizing genotype contributes to the overall health or disease state. In a comparative approach nutrigenomics uses biological systems of increasing complexity from yeast to mammalian models to define the general rules of metabolic and genetic mechanisms in adaptations to the nutritional environment. Powerful information technology, bioinformatics and knowledge management tools as well as new mathematical and computational approaches now make it possible to study these molecular mechanisms at the cellular, organ and whole organism level and take it on to modeling the processes in a “systems biology” approach. This review summarizes some of the concepts of a comparative approach to nutrigenomics research, identifies current lacks and proposes a concerted scientific effort to create the basis for nutritional systems biology.
doi:10.1007/s12263-008-0089-y
PMCID: PMC2593016  PMID: 18830658
Functional genomics; Comparative genetics; Systems approaches
13.  Nephrolithiasis: nutrition as cause or therapeutic tool 
Nephrolithiasis is a very common disease with an increasing prevalence among industrialized populations. Kidney stone formation is a complex phenomenon, involving genetic and metabolic patterns, and nutrition can play an important role in this match both as a promoter or as a protective factor. To promote a deeper knowledge of such a challenging disease, clinicians and researchers have met in Rome, Italy, last March 2013, at the International Congress “Nephrolithiasis: a systemic disorder” to discuss patho-physiology and possible treatment of kidney stones. During the meeting, a whole session was dedicated to nutrition, seen both as a cause or a therapeutic tool for nephrolithiasis. Due to its etiopathogenesis, nephrolithiasis is also an ideal model for a nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approach. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetic respectively study the effects of a dietary treatment on gene expression and, on the other hand, the impact of an inherited trait on the response to a specific dietary treatment.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-178
PMCID: PMC3729413  PMID: 23890054
14.  Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency 
The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.
doi:10.1673/031.012.0301
PMCID: PMC3465930  PMID: 22938037
approximate digestibility; breed; consumption index; leaf-cocoon ratio; leaf-shell ratio; metabolic rate; silkworm
15.  Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency 
The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.
doi:10.1673/031.012.1501
PMCID: PMC3467092  PMID: 22934597
approximate digestibility; breed; consumption index; leaf-cocoon ratio; leaf-shell ratio; metabolic rate; silkworm
16.  Negotiating the boundary between medicine and consumer culture: Online marketing of nutrigenetic tests☆ 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)  2010;70(5):744-753.
Genomics researchers and policy makers have accused nutrigenetic testing companies—which provide DNA-based nutritional advice online—of misleading the public. The UK and USA regulation of the tests has hinged on whether they are classed as “medical” devices, and alternative regulatory categories for “lifestyle” and less-serious genetic tests have been proposed. This article presents the findings of a qualitative thematic analysis of the webpages of nine nutrigenetic testing companies. We argue that the companies, mirroring and negotiating the regulatory debates, were creating a new social space for products between medicine and consumer culture. This space was articulated through three themes: (i) how “genes” and tests were framed, (ii) how the individual was imagined vis a vis health information, and (iii) the advice and treatments offered. The themes mapped onto four frames or models for genetic testing: (i) clinical genetics, (ii) medicine, (iii) intermediate, and (iv) lifestyle. We suggest that the genomics researchers and policy makers appeared to perform what Gieryn (Gieryn, T.F. (1983). Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. American Sociological Review, 48, 781–795.) has termed “boundary work”, i.e., to delegitimize the tests as outside proper medicine and science. Yet, they legitimated them, though in a different way, by defining them as lifestyle, and we contend that the transformation of the boundaries of science into a creation of such hybrid or compromise categories is symptomatic of current historical times. Social scientists studying medicine have referred to the emergence of “lifestyle” products. This article contributes to this literature by examining the historical, regulatory and marketing processes through which certain goods and services become defined this way.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.10.066
PMCID: PMC2824846  PMID: 20022680
Genetics; Science and technology studies; Boundary work; UK; USA; Nutrigenetics; Direct-to-consumer genetic testing
17.  The Extended Nutrigenomics – Understanding the Interplay between the Genomes of Food, Gut Microbes, and Human Host 
Comprehensive investigation of nutritional health effects at the molecular level requires the understanding of the interplay between three genomes, the food, the gut microbial, and the human host genome. Food genomes are researched for discovery and exploitation of macro- and micronutrients as well as specific bioactives, with those genes coding for bioactive proteins and peptides being of central interest. The human gut microbiota encompasses a complex ecosystem in the intestine with profound impact on host metabolism. It is being studied at genomic and, more recently, also at proteomic and metabonomic level. Humans are being characterized at the level of genetic pre-disposition and inter-individual variability in terms of (i) response to nutritional interventions and direction of health trajectories; (ii) epigenetic, metabolic programming at certain life stages with health consequences later in life and even for subsequent generations; and (iii) acute genomic expression as a holistic response to diet, monitored at gene transcript, protein and metabolite level. Modern nutrition science explores health-related aspects of bioactive food components, thereby promoting health, preventing, or delaying the onset of disease, optimizing performance and assessing benefits and risks in individuals and subpopulations. Personalized nutrition means adapting food to individual needs, depending on the human host’s life stage, -style, and -situation. Traditionally, nutrigenomics and nutri(epi)genetics are seen as the key sciences to understand human variability in preferences and requirements for diet as well as responses to nutrition. This article puts the three nutrition and health-relevant genomes into perspective, namely the food, the gut microbial and the human host’s genome, and calls for an “extended nutrigenomics” approach in order to build the future tools for personalized nutrition, health maintenance, and disease prevention. We discuss examples of these genomes, proteomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes under the definition of genomics as the overarching term covering essentially all Omics rather than the sole study of DNA and RNA.
doi:10.3389/fgene.2011.00021
PMCID: PMC3268576  PMID: 22303317
nutrigenomics; nutrigenetics; epigenetics; personalized nutrition; biomarker; bioactive; gut microbiota
18.  Connecting the Human Variome Project to nutrigenomics 
Genes & Nutrition  2010;5(4):275-283.
Nutrigenomics is the science of analyzing and understanding gene–nutrient interactions, which because of the genetic heterogeneity, varying degrees of interaction among gene products, and the environmental diversity is a complex science. Although much knowledge of human diversity has been accumulated, estimates suggest that ~90% of genetic variation has not yet been characterized. Identification of the DNA sequence variants that contribute to nutrition-related disease risk is essential for developing a better understanding of the complex causes of disease in humans, including nutrition-related disease. The Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org/) is an international effort to systematically identify genes, their mutations, and their variants associated with phenotypic variability and indications of human disease or phenotype. Since nutrigenomic research uses genetic information in the design and analysis of experiments, the HVP is an essential collaborator for ongoing studies of gene–nutrient interactions. With the advent of next generation sequencing methodologies and the understanding of the undiscovered variation in human genomes, the nutrigenomic community will be generating novel sequence data and results. The guidelines and practices of the HVP can guide and harmonize these efforts.
doi:10.1007/s12263-010-0186-6
PMCID: PMC2989367
Nutrigenomics; Human Variome Project; Harmonization
19.  Harnessing Nutrigenomics: Development of web-based communication, databases, resources, and tools 
Genes & Nutrition  2006;1(1):5-11.
Nutrient — gene interactions are responsible for maintaining health and preventing or delaying disease. Unbalanced diets for a given genotype lead to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular, and are likely to contribute to increased severity and/or early-onset of many age-related diseases. Many nutrition and many genetic studies still fail to properly include both variables in the design, execution, and analyses of human, laboratory animal, or cell culture experiments. The complexity ofnutrient-gene interactions has led to the realization that strategic international alliances are needed to improve the completeness of nutrigenomic studies — a task beyond the capabilities of a single laboratory team. Eighty-eight researchers from 22 countries recently outlined the issues and challenges for harnessing the nutritional genomics for public and personal health. The next step in the process of forming productive international alliances is the development of a virtual center for organizing collaborations and communications that foster resources sharing, best practices improvements, and creation of databases. We describe here plans and initial efforts of creating the Nutrigenomics Information Portal, a web-based resource for the international nutrigenomics society. This portal aims at becoming the prime source ofinformation and interaction for nutrigenomics scientists through a collaborative effort.
doi:10.1007/BF02829931
PMCID: PMC3454813  PMID: 18850216
Best practices; Information portal; International alliances; Nutrigenomics
20.  Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies 
Genes & Nutrition  2010;5(3):189-203.
The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure.
doi:10.1007/s12263-010-0167-9
PMCID: PMC2935528  PMID: 21052526
Nutritional phenotype; Nutrigenomics; Database
21.  Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies 
Genes & Nutrition  2010;5(3):189-203.
The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure.
doi:10.1007/s12263-010-0167-9
PMCID: PMC2935528  PMID: 21052526
Nutritional phenotype; Nutrigenomics; Database
22.  Celiac Disease, Inflammation and Oxidative Damage: A Nutrigenetic Approach 
Nutrients  2012;4(4):243-257.
Celiac disease (CD), a common heritable chronic inflammatory condition of the small intestine caused by permanent intolerance to gluten/gliadin (prolamin), is characterized by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of the biochemical and immunological aspects of the disease and the mechanisms involved in toxicity of prolamins. It has been demonstrated that some gliadin peptides resistant to complete proteolytic digestion may directly affect intestinal cell structure and functions by modulating gene expression and oxidative stress. In recent years, the creation of the two research fields Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics, has enabled the elucidation of some interactions between diet, nutrients and genes. Various dietary components including long chain ω-3 fatty acids, plant flavonoids, and carotenoids have been demonstrated to modulate oxidative stress, gene expression and production of inflammatory mediators. Therefore their adoption could preserve intestinal barrier integrity, play a protective role against toxicity of gliadin peptides and have a role in nutritional therapy of celiac disease.
doi:10.3390/nu4040243
PMCID: PMC3347005  PMID: 22606367
celiac disease; gliadin peptides; nutrigenetic; nutrigenomic; proteomic; fitonutrients; oxidative stress; inflammation
23.  Risks of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics? What the scientists say 
Genes & Nutrition  2013;9(1):370.
Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (hereafter NGx) have stimulated expectations for beneficial applications in public health and individuals. Yet, the potential achievability of such promise is not without socioethical considerations that challenge NGx implementation. This paper focuses on the opinions of NGx researchers about potential risks raised by NGx. The results of an online survey show that these researchers (n = 126) are fairly confident about the potential benefits of NGx, and that most downplay its potential risks. Researchers in this field do not believe that NGx will reconfigure foods as medication or transform the conception of eating into a health hazard. The majority think that NGx will produce no added burden on individuals to get tested or to remain compliant with NGx recommendations, nor that NGx will threaten individual autonomy in daily food choice. The majority of researchers do not think that NGx will lead to discrimination against and/or stigmatization of people who do not comply with NGx dietary recommendations. Despite this optimism among NGx researchers, we suggest that key risk factors raised by the socioethical context in which NGx applications will be implemented need to be considered.
doi:10.1007/s12263-013-0370-6
PMCID: PMC3896617  PMID: 24293399
Nutrigenomics; Ethics; Risks; Benefits; Researchers; Survey
24.  Evolutionary conservation of metabolism explains howDrosophila nutrigenomics can help us understand human nutrigenomics 
Genes & Nutrition  2006;1(2):75-83.
While large populations in the third world are enduring famine, much of the developed world is undergoing an obesity epidemic. In addition to reflecting an unbalanced distribution of food, the “epidemic of overabundance” is ironically leading to a decrease in the health and longevity of the obese and improperly nourished in the first world. International consortia, such as the European Nutrigenomics Organization (NuGO), are increasing our knowledge of nutrientgene interactions and the effects of diet and obesity on human health. In this review, we summarize both previous and ongoing nutrigenomics studies in Drosophila and we explain how these studies can be used to provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying nutrigenomics in humans. We will discuss how quantitative trait locus (QTL) experiments have identified genes that affect triglyceride levels in Drosophila, and how microarray analyses show that hundreds of genes have altered gene expression under different dietary conditions. Finally, we will discuss ongoing combined microarray-QTL studies, termed “genetical genomics,” that promise to identify “master modulatory loci” that regulate global responses of potentially hundreds of genes under different dietary conditions. When “master modulatory loci” are identified in Drosophila, then experiments in mammalian models can be used to determine the relevance of these genes to human nutrition and health.
doi:10.1007/BF02829949
PMCID: PMC3454681  PMID: 18850201
Drosophila; Genetical Genomics; Metabolism; Nutrigenomics
25.  Complexity of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Data Sets Emerging from Nutrigenomic Research: A Case for Dimensionality Reduction? 
Mutation research  2007;622(1-2):19-32.
Nutrigenomics promises personalized nutrition and an improvement in preventing, delaying, and reducing the symptoms of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Nutritional genomics is the study of how foods affect the expression of genetic information in an individual and how an individual's genetic makeup affects the metabolism and response to nutrients and other bioactive components in food. The path to those promises has significant challenges, from experimental designs that include analysis of genetic heterogeneity to the complexities of food and environmental factors. One of the more significant complications in developing the knowledge base and potential applications is how to analyze high-dimensional datasets of genetic, nutrient, metabolomic (clinical), and other variables influencing health and disease processes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is used as an illustration of the challenges in studying complex phenotypes with nutrigenomics concepts and approaches.
doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2007.02.033
PMCID: PMC1994901  PMID: 17559889

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