This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.
We compared (1) characteristics of adolescents who are and are not entitled to receive free vaccines from the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program and (2) vaccination coverage with meningococcal conjugate (MCV4), quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4), and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines among VFC-eligible and non-VFC-eligible adolescents.
We analyzed data from the 2009 National Immunization Survey-Teen, a nationally representative, random-digit-dialed survey of households with adolescents aged 13–17 years (n=20,066). Differences in sociodemographic characteristics and provider-reported vaccination coverage were evaluated using t-tests.
Overall, 32.1% (±1.2%) of adolescents were VFC-eligible. VFC-eligible adolescents were significantly less likely than non-VFC-eligible adolescents to be white and to live in suburban areas, and more likely to live in poverty and to have younger and less educated mothers. Nationally, coverage among non-VFC-eligible adolescents was 57.1% (±1.5%) for ≥1 dose of Tdap, 55.4% (±1.5%) for ≥1 dose of MCV4, and 43.2% (±2.2%) for ≥1 dose of HPV4. Coverage among VFC-eligible adolescents was 52.5% (±2.4%) for ≥1 dose of Tdap, 50.1% (±2.4%) for ≥1 dose of MCV4, and 46.6% (±3.5%) for ≥1 dose of HPV4. Only 27.5% (±1.8%) of non-VFC-eligible adolescents and 25.0% (±2.9%) of VFC-eligible adolescents received ≥3 doses of HPV4. Vaccination coverage was significantly higher among non-VFC-eligible adolescents for Tdap and MCV4, but not for one-dose or three-dose HPV4.
Coverage with some recommended vaccines is lower among VFC-eligible adolescents compared with non-VFC-eligible adolescents. Continued monitoring of adolescent vaccination rates, particularly among VFC-eligible populations, is needed to ensure that all adolescents receive all routinely recommended vaccines.
The validity of parent-reported adolescent vaccination histories has not been assessed. This study evaluated the validity of parent-reported adolescent vaccination histories by a combination of immunization card and recall, and by recall only, compared with medical provider records.
We analyzed data from the 2008 National Immunization Survey-Teen. Parents of adolescents aged 13–17 years reported their child's vaccination history either by immunization card and recall (n=3,661) or by recall only (n=12,822) for the hepatitis B (Hep B), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella (VAR), tetanus-diphtheria/tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Td/Tdap), meningococcal conjugate (MCV4), and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) (for girls only) vaccines. We validated parental report with medical records.
Among the immunization card/recall group, vaccines with >20% false-positive reports included MMR (32.3%) and Td/Tdap (36.9%); vaccines with >20% false-negative reports included VAR (35.2%), MCV4 (36.0%), and Tdap (41.9%). Net bias ranged from −25.0 to −0.1 percentage points. Kappa values ranged from 0.22 to 0.92. Among the recall-only group, vaccines with >20% false-positive reports included Hep B (33.9%), MMR (61.4%), VAR (26.2%), and Td/Tdap (60.6%); vaccines with >20% false-negative reports included Hep B (58.9%), MMR (33.7%), VAR (51.6%), Td/Tdap (25.5%), Tdap (50.3%) MCV4 (63.0%), and HPV4 (20.5%). Net bias ranged from −46.0 to 0.5 percentage points. Kappa values ranged from 0.03 to 0.76.
Validity of parent-reported vaccination histories varies by type of report and vaccine. For recently recommended vaccines, false-negative rates were substantial and higher than false-positive rates, resulting in net underreporting of vaccination rates by both the immunization card/recall and recall-only groups. Provider validation of parent-reported vaccinations is needed for valid surveillance of adolescent vaccination coverage.
We sought to examine nationally the association between school mandates for adolescent tetanus-containing vaccines (Td and/or Tdap) and adolescent female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination.
Each state was categorized by whether a school mandate for adolescent Td and/or Tdap vaccines were enacted. Mean HPV vaccine series initiation levels among adolescent females were compared between each mandate category.
Mean HPV vaccine series initiation levels were significantly lower in states without Td/Tdap vaccine mandates than in those with mandates (42.9% vs. 47.3%; p=0.004).
School mandates for adolescent Td/Tdap vaccination may have a carry-over effect on HPV vaccination.
human papillomavirus; HPV; tetanus; diphtheria; pertussis; Tdap; Td; school; mandate
Objective. To describe obstetricians' perspectives related to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of mothers and other adults in close contact with infants. Methods. Mail survey of national random sample of 400 obstetricians . Results. Response rate was 54%. Most respondents would likely recommend Tdap for women during the postpartum hospital stay (78%) or during pregnancy (69%) if a national recommendation was issued. Expected barriers were knowing the date of patients' most recent Td booster (74%) and patient resistance (46%). Most felt that obstetricians have a role in promoting and administering Tdap vaccine to adults other than mothers likely to come in close contact with infants. Conclusion. Obstetricians are likely to agree with the recent provisional US recommendation to administer Tdap to postpartum mothers and other adults expected to come in close contact with infants. Obstetricians would also be likely to support a potential recommendation to administer Tdap during pregnancy. Barriers to adoption of new Tdap vaccine recommendations should be monitored.
An anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was analytically validated for the diagnosis of pertussis at a cutoff of 94 ELISA units (EU)/ml. Little was known about the performance of this ELISA in the diagnosis of adults recently vaccinated with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, which contains PT. The goal of this study was to determine when the assay can be used following Tdap vaccination. A cohort of 102 asymptomatic health care personnel (HCP) vaccinated with Tdap (Adacel; Sanofi Pasteur) were aged 19 to 79 years (median, 47 years) at vaccination. For each HCP, specimens were available for evaluation at 2 to 10 time points (prevaccination to 24 months postvaccination), and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for the cohort were calculated at each time point. Among 97 HCP who responded to vaccination, a mixed-model analysis with prediction and tolerance intervals was performed to estimate the time at which serodiagnosis can be used following vaccination. The GMCs were 8, 21, and 9 EU/ml at prevaccination and 4 and 12 months postvaccination, respectively. Eight (8%) of the 102 HCP reached antibody titers of ≥94 EU/ml during their peak response, but none had these titers by 6 months postvaccination. The calculated prediction and tolerance intervals were <94 EU/ml by 45 and 75 days postvaccination, respectively. Tdap vaccination 6 months prior to testing did not confound result interpretation. This seroassay remains a valuable diagnostic tool for adult pertussis.
Meningococcal infection is serious, often resulting in fulminant sepsis or meningitis. There are two main types of meningococcal conjugate vaccine currently available in Canada: serotype C meningococcal conjugate, and quadrivalent conjugate for serotypes A, C, Y, and W-135. The immunological characteristics that inform ongoing immunization policies, as well as some of the limits of current knowledge, are presented. All Canadian children should receive a conjugate meningococcal C vaccine (MCV-C) at 12 months of age, and either a booster dose of MCV-C or of quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV-4) in adolescence. Children at high risk of invasive meningococcal disease should start MCV-C at two months of age, and be given MCV-4 at two years of age.
Adolescents; Canada; Children; MCV-4; Meningococcal infection; Meningococcal vaccine
Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) immunization among adults ≥65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose) to include adults ≥65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination.
We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25–200 cases per 100,000), due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient 's lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010) for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results.
At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario analyses.
Tdap immunization of adults aged 65 years according to current ACIP recommendations is a cost-effective health-care intervention at plausible incidence assumptions.
We studied the interactions of hepatitis B vaccine with other vaccines used in the World Health Organization expanded programs of immunization. Three groups of Senegalese children were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (HB) alone, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-polio vaccine alone, or a combination of hepatitis B vaccine and DTP-polio vaccines simultaneously. The immune responses to HBsAg, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, and pertussis were measured after one and two vaccinations at 6-month intervals. The immune responses to the combination of HB vaccine and DTP-polio vaccines were similar to the immune responses observed after administration of each vaccine alone. In addition, no adverse reactions were noted. These experimental trials also demonstrated that with a DTP-polio vaccine containing 30Lf of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, two doses given at 6-month intervals are sufficient to provide a satisfactory immune response. In the case of pertussis and HB vaccines; however, a third dose is necessary.
Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur—MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children.
Methods: Healthy children aged 5–6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1–3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed.
Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1–3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98–100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported.
Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children.
pre-school; MMRV; diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine; Italy; 2 + 1 schedule
Acellular vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (acellular pertussis) (DTaP) are being progressively introduced into vaccination programs worldwide, with the aim of reducing T-helper 1 (Th1)-associated reactogenicity associated with the cellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (whole-cell pertussis) (DTwP) vaccine. The DTaP vaccine has an improved safety profile in infants, but little information is available concerning the nature of the ensuing immunological memory in older children and how this may affect the reactogenicity of DTaP booster doses. We have addressed this question in the present study by assessing polyclonal and vaccine antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses to boosting with DTaP in 4- to 6-year-old children primed during infancy with DTaP (n = 30) or DTwP (n = 16) and by correlating these parameters, in particular cytokine responses, with expression of local side effects at the injection site. Large local reactions (≥50-mm diameter) 24 to 72 h after receiving the DTaP booster occurred in 43% of exclusively DTaP-primed children, in contrast to 6% of children primed with DTwP. These reactions were associated with vigorous T helper 2 (Th2)-polarized memory responses to vaccine antigen exemplified by interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-6, and IL-13 production and log-scale boosting of tetanus-specific immunoglobulin E and occurred most frequently among children who are intrinsically “high Th2 responders” as detected by in vitro responsiveness to polyclonal mitogen. Our findings suggest that priming during infancy with DTaP promotes stable, boostable Th2-polarized immunity against vaccine antigens, which in a significant subset of children is subsequently associated with local reactions at the booster site. The time course of these reactions suggests that the underlying mechanism involves reactivation of Th2-polarized cellular immune memory.
In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5−10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: –1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00928785. Research sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur MSD.
REPEVAX®; Tdap-IPV vaccine; immunogenicity; injuries; safety; tetanus toxoid
Quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (MCV4) is routinely recommended for healthy youth in the United States, but there are no data about its use in HIV-infected people.
P1065 is a Phase I/II trial of MCV4 safety and immunogenicity in HIV-infected children and youth performed at 27 US sites of the IMPAACT network. All youth (11–24 years old) received 1 dose of open-label MCV4 at entry. Standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate safety. Baseline protective immunity was defined as rabbit serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titer ≥1:128. Immunogenic response was defined as a ≥4-fold rise in rSBA against each meningococcal serogroup. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of demographic and clinical characteristics on immunogenic response to serogroup C.
Among 319 subjects who received MCV4, 10 (3.1%) reported immediate adverse events which were local and mild, and 7 (2.2%) experienced Grade ≥3 adverse events, unrelated to vaccine. The 305 subjects with serologic data had a median age of 17 years and were 59% male, 50% Black, and 38% Latino. Subjects were stratified by entry CD4%: 12%, CD4 <15%; 40%, 15% to 24%; and 48%, ≥25%. Baseline protective immunity varied by serogroup: A, 41%; C, 11%; W-135, 15%; Y, 35% The immunogenic response rates to serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were 68%, 52%, 73%, and 63%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression models, lower entry CD4%, higher entry viral load, and CDC Class B/C diagnosis were associated with significantly lower odds of response to serogroup C.
Many HIV-infected youth naturally acquire meningococcal immunity. MCV4 is safe and immunogenic in HIV-infected youth, but response rates are lower than in healthy youth, particularly for those with more advanced HIV clinical, immunologic, and virologic status.
adolescent; HIV; meningococcal vaccine; immunization
To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an additional birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP).
Fifty infants between 2 to 14 days of age were randomly assigned to receive either DTaP and hepatitis B vaccines (experimental) or hepatitis B alone (control) at birth. At 2, 4, 6, and 17 months of age, DTaP and routine vaccines were administered to both groups. Safety data were collected after each dose, and sera were obtained at birth, 6, 7, 17, and 18 months. Immune responses to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; responses to other vaccines were assessed.
No differences were seen between the 2 groups in either local or systemic reactions; all vaccines were well tolerated. Compared with the control group, infants in the experimental group demonstrated significantly lower geometric mean antibody concentrations for pertussis toxin and pertactin 6, 7, and 18 months, for fimbrae at 6, 7, 17, and 18 months, and for FHA at 18 months, and lower geometric mean antibody concentrations for diphtheria at 7 months. Immune responses to all other vaccine antigens were comparable.
Administration of an additional dose of DTaP at birth was safe but was associated with a significantly lower response to diphtheria and 3 of 4 pertussis antigens compared with controls.
Reduced immune responses to repeated polysaccharide vaccination have been previously reported, but there are limited immunogenicity data on the use of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PSV) followed by meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Saudi Arabian adolescents (aged 16 to 19 years) who had previously been vaccinated with ≥1 dose of bivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 1 dose of quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide (MPSV4) were enrolled in a controlled, randomized, and modified observer-blind study (collectively termed the PSV-exposed group). The PSV-exposed group was randomized to receive either quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) (n = 145 PSV-exposed/MCV4 group) or MPSV4 (n = 142 PSV-exposed/MPSV4 group), and a PSV-naïve group received MCV4 (n = 163). Serum samples collected prevaccination and 28 days postvaccination were measured by baby rabbit serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) assay, and vaccine tolerability and safety were also evaluated. For each serogroup, the postvaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher in the PSV-naïve group than in either group comprised of the PSV-exposed participants. The postvaccination serogroup C rSBA GMT was significantly higher in the PSV-MCV4 group than in the PSV-MPSV4 group after adjusting for prevaccination GMTs. Although not statistically significant, similar differences were observed for serogroups A, Y, and W-135. No worrisome safety signals were detected. This study demonstrated MCV4 to be safe and immunogenic in those who had previously received polysaccharide vaccination, and it suggests that conjugate vaccine can partially compensate for the hyporesponsiveness seen with repeated doses of polysaccharide vaccine.
Guidelines now recommend that adolescents routinely receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Because little is known about uptake among boys, we assessed HPV vaccine initiation in a population-based sample of adolescent boys and girls.
We analyzed weighted data from 751 parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old son or daughter for the 2010 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program survey. Stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses identified correlates of HPV vaccine initiation separately for boys and girls.
Only 14% of sons had received one or more doses of HPV vaccine compared to 44% of daughters (p<0.01). For both sons and daughters, vaccine initiation correlated with age and having received meningococcal vaccine. Among sons, initiation of HPV vaccine was lower for those living in high income households (odds ratio [OR]=0.22, 95% CI, 0.09–0.53) and higher for those whose race was neither white nor black (OR=3.26, 95% CI, 1.06–10.04). When asked to give the main reason for not vaccinating their child against HPV, parents of unvaccinated sons were more likely than those of daughters to report not getting a provider’s recommendation or not being aware the vaccine was available for their child, but less likely to report concern about safety (p<0.01). At least 86% of unvaccinated children had missed an opportunity to receive HPV vaccine.
HPV vaccine correlates and concerns varied for parents of boys and girls. To improve very low levels of uptake among boys, providers should recommend HPV vaccine concomitant with other adolescent vaccines.
adolescent health; human papillomavirus infections/prevention & control; vaccination/statistics & numerical data; North Carolina
The immunogenicities of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines have been demonstrated when they are administered at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. There is a paucity of data on the immunogenicity of this vaccine when it is administered concurrently with other vaccines in the primary immunization schedule of the United Kingdom. We immunized 55 term infants at 2, 3, and 4 months of age with the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccine, and the diphtheria, tetanus, five-component acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP5/IPV/Hib-TT) vaccine. The immune responses to the H. influenzae type b (Hib), MCC, and tetanus vaccines were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months of age; and the immune responses to PCV7 were measured at 2 and 5 months and then either at 12 months or following a 4th dose of PCV7. There were increases in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of all antigens postimmunization. Greater than or equal to 90% of the infants achieved putatively protective levels postimmunization for all vaccine antigens except pneumococcal serotype 6B and Hib. The GMCs of the PCV7 serotypes increased following a 4th dose, although one infant had not reached putative levels of protection against serotype 6B. In conclusion, when infants were vaccinated according to the schedule described above, they had lower postprimary immunization responses to Hib, meningococcus group C capsular polysaccharide, and pneumococcal serotype 6B than the responses demonstrated by use of the other schedules. Despite this finding, there was a good response following a 4th dose of PCV7.
Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi), stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) vaccines.
In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+) every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-). After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines.
For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05). The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05) and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05). In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05). While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+) and 67% (CH-) response (P < 0.05), analyses using logistic regression to control for sex, age, chemoprophylaxis, weight-for-height Z-score, and pre-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT), demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis was not associated with a significantly different conversion rate following DTP and measles vaccines. Seven months of chemoprophylaxis decreased significantly the malaria IFA and ELISA GMTs in the CH+ group.
Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.
The safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of a fully liquid, five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine, comprised of diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib [Pediacel, sanofi pasteur, Canada]) were assessed and compared with that of Hib vaccine reconstituted with the five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV//Hib, Pentacel [sanofi pasteur, Canada]).
Infants were recruited at vaccine study centres in Montreal, Quebec; Simon Fraser Health Region, British Columbia, and southern Alberta after the protocol had been approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of all subjects. At two months of age, the infants were randomly assigned to receive one of three consecutive production lots of DTaP-IPV-Hib by intramuscular injection. Reactions to vaccinations were assessed by parental observation and through telephone interviews conducted by study nurses. Blood samples were obtained at two, six, seven, 18 and 19 months of age for measurement of antibodies to vaccine antigens.
Most injection site and systemic reactions were mild or moderate, and of brief duration. All infants were protected against tetanus, diphtheria and all three polio serotypes after both primary and booster vaccinations. Antibody responses to pertussis antigens were similar to those observed in Swedish infants, in whom the five-component vaccine was shown to be 85% effective. Proportions of infants with antipolyribosylribitol phosphate antibody of 0.15 μg/mL or greater and 1.0 μg/mL or greater, were 97.9% and 88.9%, respectively, following primary immunization, and 100% and 99% following booster vaccination. Safety and immunogenicity results with both reconstituted and fully liquid combination vaccines were comparable.
The fully liquid combination vaccine was comparable in terms of safety and immunogenicity with the reconstituted combination vaccine.
Acellular pertussis vaccine; Combination vaccine; Diphtheria toxoid; Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine; Inactivated polio vaccine; Tetanus toxoid
A 5-month-old male patient developed recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy possibly due to first dose of diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) vaccine used for routine immunization. Postreaction computed tomography (CT) scan of brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and electroencephalogram were normal. Pertussis fraction of DPT vaccine is responsible for this reaction. It is suggested that acellular pertussis vaccine should be used instead of whole cell vaccine because it is associated with lower frequency of neurological complications, such as seizures, encephalopathy, and hypotensive episodes. However, acellular pertussis-containing vaccines are currently not affordable in most developing countries.
Acute encephalopathy; recurrent seizures; whole cell DPT vaccine
Administration of pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids adsorbed (DT vaccine) or with acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed and diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (APDT) elicits dose- and time-dependent alterations in hepatic drug metabolism in mice. Cytochrome P-450 (P-450) levels were inhibited more than 50% at 7 days following a single injection of PT mixed with either vaccine. When combined with DT vaccine, 125 ng of PT was required to produce this effect, while as little as 16 ng of PT combined with APDT vaccine inhibited P-450 levels. The inhibition of P-450 levels is similar to that observed after a single injection of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine adsorbed (DTP). Alterations of P-450 levels were accompanied by increased activities of quinone reductase but not with changes in plasma interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor levels. Other Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, such as filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae and pertactin, were also tested but had no significant effect on hepatic drug metabolism. Endotoxin or preparations containing endotoxin caused alterations in hepatic drug metabolism within 24 h, concomitant with increased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor levels, but these effects had resolved by 1 week. DTP vaccine and preparations containing PT caused a marked induction of gamma interferon coincident with the maximal inhibition of P-450 levels. This effect was not present with DT or APDT vaccine alone, nor with endotoxin or any combination of factors that did not contain PT. These results demonstrate that PT is a necessary component for the sustained effects of DTP vaccine on hepatic drug metabolism and suggest a role for gamma interferon in this process.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of whole-cell pertussis vaccine to severe local reactions after the preschool (fifth) dose of adsorbed diphtheria toxoid-pertussis vaccine-tetanus toxoid (DPT) vaccine. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Urban community. PARTICIPANTS: Volunteer sample of 200 healthy children 4 to 6 years old who were eligible for the fifth dose of DPT vaccine. INTERVENTIONS: Children received, in both arms, either diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid (DT) and monovalent pertussis vaccines (group A, 99 children) or DPT and meningococcal vaccines (group B, 101 children). All were licensed products from single lots. The children were assessed 24 hours later by a trained observer. Serum samples obtained before vaccination were tested for antibodies to tetanus and diphtheria toxins and five pertussis antigens by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of severe local reactions (an area of redness or swelling or both of 50 mm or greater) 24 hours after vaccination. Relation between serum antibody levels before vaccination and rates of severe local reactions to corresponding vaccines. RESULTS: All of the subjects were followed up 24 hours after vaccination. Severe redness was present in 38% given DPT vaccine, 29% given intramuscular pertussis vaccine and 9% given DT vaccine (p < or = 0.002, three-way comparison). Severe swelling was common after vaccination with all three products. After intramuscular pertussis vaccination a relation was evident between the prevaccination levels of antibody to whole-cell pertussis bacteria and the rates of redness (p < 0.02) but not between the prevaccination subcellular antibody levels and the rates of redness. CONCLUSION: That pertussis vaccine resembled the DPT vaccine in causing severe redness suggests that it is the principal cause of such reactions after DPT vaccination. The DT vaccine was also reactogenic; thus, cumulative sensitization to one or more of its constituents may be a factor.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the side effects and immune responses after three serial doses of PRP-T vaccine (a Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine) given concurrently or mixed with adsorbed DPT vaccine (diphtheria toxoid-pertussis vaccine-tetanus toxoid). DESIGN: Multicentre randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Four public health units in western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy infants 8 to 15 weeks old at entry who were able to receive routine primary vaccinations. Of 444 infants enrolled, 433 (98%) completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: All infants received PRP-T and DPT vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age: half received them mixed in one injection and the others as separate, bilateral injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Side-effects 24 and 48 hours after each dose and serologic responses to each vaccine component. RESULTS: Follow-up was obtained after all 1312 vaccinations. Fever was infrequent in the two treatment groups. Local adverse effects of the PRP-T vaccine were infrequent and mild (e.g., redness was noted in 5.9% of cases and the area of redness was more than 2.5 cm in diameter in 0.8%). The incidence rate of local effects of the DPT-containing vaccines was the same in the two groups except for tenderness, which was more frequent in the group given the mixed vaccine (26.6% v. 17.9%, p < 0.001). Serologic data were available for 97% of the subjects. After the three doses 98.1% of the subjects had a PRP antibody level of 0.15 micrograms/mL or more, and 87.9% had a level of 1.0 micrograms/mL or more, both levels compatible with protection against Hib. Responses to PRP-T were comparable between the treatment groups as were responses to the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Pertussis agglutinin titres were reduced after administration of one of two PRP-T lots mixed with DPT vaccine, but responses to four other pertussis antigens were not impaired. CONCLUSION: PRP-T vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic. Combined PRP-T and DPT vaccines performed satisfactorily and may be the preferred method of administration.
Pertussis is an acute respiratory infection characterized by paroxysmal cough and inspiratory whoop for over 2 weeks. The incidence of pertussis has decreased markedly after the introduction of DTwP/DTaP vaccine, but the incidence of pertussis has increased steadily among young infant and among adolescents and adults in many countries. Td vaccine was used in this age group but the increase in pertussis has lead to the development of a Tdap vaccine. The Tdap vaccine is a Td vaccine with a pertussis vaccine added and is thought to decrease the incidence and transmission of pertussis in the respective age group. In Korea, two products are approved by the KOREA FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION, which are ADACEL™ (Sanofi-Pasteur, Totonto, Ontario, Canada) and BOOSTRIX® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) for those aged between 11-64. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society.
Pertussis; Tdap vaccine
In two clinical trials, low-grade fever was observed more frequently after coadministration than after separate administration of two recommended routine pediatric vaccines. Since fever is an important issue with vaccine tolerability, we performed this open-label study on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of paracetamol (acetaminophen, Benuron®) in children administered routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) coadministered with hexavalent vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine [DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib]) in Germany.
Healthy infants (N = 301) who received a 3-dose infant series of PCV-7 and DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib plus a toddler dose were randomly assigned 1:1 to prophylactic paracetamol (125 mg or 250 mg suppositories, based on body weight) at vaccination, and at 6–8 hour intervals thereafter, or a control group that received no paracetamol. Rectal temperature and local and other systemic reactions were measured for 4 days post vaccination; adverse events were collected throughout the study.
In the intent-to-treat population, paracetamol reduced the incidence of fever ≥38°C, but this reduction was only significant for the infant series, with computed efficacy of 43.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.4, 61.2), and not significant after the toddler dose (efficacy 15.9%; 95% CI: −19.9, 41.3); results were similar in the per protocol (PP) population. Fever >39°C was rare during the infant series, such that there were too few cases for assessment. After the toddler dose, paracetamol effectively reduced fever >39°C, reaching statistical significance in the PP population only (efficacy 79%; 95% CI: 3.9, 97.7). Paracetamol also reduced reactogenicity, but there were few significant differences between groups after any dose. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported.
Paracetamol effectively prevented fever and other reactions, mainly during the infant series. However, as events were generally mild and of no concern in either group our data support current recommendations to administer paracetamol to treat symptoms only and not for routine prophylaxis.
Fever; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Hexavalent vaccine; Paracetamol; Prophylaxis