OBJECTIVE—Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) serves as the metabolic switch between glucose and fatty acid utilization. PDC activity is inhibited by PDC kinase (PDK). PDC shares the same substrate, i.e., pyruvate, as glyceroneogenesis, a pathway controlling fatty acid release from white adipose tissue (WAT). Thiazolidinediones activate glyceroneogenesis. We studied the regulation by rosiglitazone of PDK2 and PDK4 isoforms and tested the hypothesis that glyceroneogenesis could be controlled by PDK.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Rosiglitazone was administered to Zucker fa/fa rats, and then PDK4 and PDK2 mRNAs were examined in subcutaneous, periepididymal, and retroperitoneal WAT, liver, and muscle by real-time RT-PCR. Cultured WAT explants from humans and rats and 3T3-F442A adipocytes were rosiglitazone-treated before analyses of PDK2 and PDK4 mRNA and protein. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected by electroporation. Glyceroneogenesis was determined using [1-14C]pyruvate incorporation into lipids.
RESULTS—Rosiglitazone increased PDK4 mRNA in all WAT depots but not in liver and muscle. PDK2 transcript was not affected. This isoform selectivity was also found in ex vivo–treated explants. In 3T3-F442A adipocytes, Pdk4 expression was strongly and selectively induced by rosiglitazone in a direct and transcriptional manner, with a concentration required for half-maximal effect at 1 nmol/l. The use of dichloroacetic acid or leelamine, two PDK inhibitors, or a specific PDK4 siRNA demonstrated that PDK4 participated in glyceroneogenesis, therefore altering nonesterified fatty acid release in both basal and rosiglitazone-activated conditions.
CONCLUSIONS—These data show that PDK4 upregulation in adipocytes participates in the hypolipidemic effect of thiazolidinediones through modulation of glyceroneogenesis.
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.
Insulin resistance; Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; Receptors, cytoplasmic and nuclear; Transcriptional regulation
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibits its activity. The expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene is increased in fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. Transcription of the PDK4 gene is elevated by glucocorticoids and inhibited by insulin. In this study, we have investigated the factors involved in the regulation of the PDK4 gene by these hormones. Glucocorticoids stimulate PDK4 through two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites located more than 6,000 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site. Insulin inhibits the glucocorticoid induction in part by causing dissociation of the GR from the promoter. Previously, we found that the estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRα) stimulates the expression of PDK4. Here, we determined that one of the ERRα binding sites contributes to the insulin inhibition of PDK4. A binding site for the forkhead transcription factor (FoxO1) is adjacent to the ERRα binding sites. FoxO1 participates in the glucocorticoid induction of PDK4 and the regulation of this gene by insulin. Our data demonstrate that glucocorticoids and insulin each modulate PDK4 gene expression through complex hormone response units that contain multiple factors.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4); glucocorticoids; insulin
The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α is a key regulator of energy metabolism, yet little is known about its role in control of substrate selection. We found that physiological stimuli known to induce PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle coordinately upregulate the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), a negative regulator of glucose oxidation. Forced expression of PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes induced PDK4 mRNA and protein expression. PGC-1α-mediated activation of PDK4 expression was shown to occur at the transcriptional level and was mapped to a putative nuclear receptor binding site. Gel shift assays demonstrated that the PGC-1α-responsive element bound the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), a recently identified component of the PGC-1α signaling pathway. In addition, PGC-1α was shown to activate ERRα expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that PGC-1α and ERRα occupied the mPDK4 promoter in C2C12 myotubes. Additionally, transfection studies using ERRα-null primary fibroblasts demonstrated that ERRα is required for PGC-1α-mediated activation of the mPDK4 promoter. As predicted by the effects of PGC-1α on PDK4 gene transcription, overexpression of PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes decreased glucose oxidation rates. These results identify the PDK4 gene as a new PGC-1α/ERRα target and suggest a mechanism whereby PGC-1α exerts reciprocal inhibitory influences on glucose catabolism while increasing alternate mitochondrial oxidative pathways in skeletal muscle.
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is inactivated in many tissues during starvation and diabetes to conserve three-carbon compounds for gluconeogenesis. This is achieved by an increase in the extent of PDC phosphorylation caused in part by increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity due to increased PDK expression. This study examined whether altered pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDP) expression also contributes to changes in the phosphorylation state of PDC during starvation and diabetes. Of the two PDP isoforms expressed in mammalian tissues, the Ca2+-sensitive isoform (PDP1) is highly expressed in rat heart, brain, and testis and is detectable but less abundant in rat muscle, lung, kidney, liver, and spleen. The Ca2+-insensitive isoform (PDP2) is abundant in rat kidney, liver, heart, and brain and is detectable in spleen and lung. Starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes cause decreases in PDP2 mRNA abundance, PDP2 protein amount, and PDP activity in rat heart and kidney. Refeeding and insulin treatment effectively reversed these effects of starvation and diabetes, respectively. These findings indicate that opposite changes in expression of specific PDK and PDP isoenzymes contribute to hyperphosphorylation and therefore inactivation of the PDC in heart and kidney during starvation and diabetes.
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a polygenic non-obese model of type 2 diabetes, is a useful surrogate for study of diabetes-related changes independent of obesity. GK rats and appropriate controls were killed at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-weaning and differential muscle gene expression along with body and muscle weights, plasma hormones and lipids, and blood cell measurements were carried out. Gene expression analysis identified 204 genes showing 2-fold or greater differences between GK and controls in at least 3 ages. Array results suggested increased oxidative capacity in GK muscles, as well as differential gene expression related to insulin resistance, which was also indicated by HOMA-IR measurements. In addition, potential new biomarkers in muscle gene expression were identified that could be either a cause or consequence of T2DM. Furthermore, we demonstrate here the presence of chronic inflammation evident both systemically and in the musculature, despite the absence of obesity.
type 2 diabetes; skeletal muscle; inflammation; microarrays; gene expression
We aimed to further investigate mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse and the consequent metabolic disorders. Male rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU) for three weeks. Interestingly, HU increased insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and decreased blood level of triglyceride and insulin. In skeletal muscle, HU decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and its protein level in mitochondria. HU decreased mtDNA content and mitochondrial biogenesis biomarkers. Dynamin-related protein (Drp1) in mitochondria and Mfn2 mRNA level were decreased significantly by HU. Our findings provide more extensive insight into mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse, involving the shift of fuel utilization towards glucose, the decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and the distorted mitochondrial dynamics.
mitochondrial; insulin sensitivity; pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; hindlimb unloading; skeletal muscle
In the well-fed state a relatively high activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) reduces blood glucose levels by directing the carbon of pyruvate into the citric acid cycle. In the fasted state a relatively low activity of the PDC helps maintain blood glucose levels by conserving pyruvate and other three carbon compounds for gluconeogenesis. The relative activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) and the opposing pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases determine the activity of PDC in the fed and fasted states. Up regulation of PDK4 is largely responsible for inactivation of PDC in the fasted state. PDK4 knockout mice have lower fasting blood glucose levels than wild type mice, proving that up regulation of PDK4 is important for normal glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes, up regulation of PDK4 also inactivates PDC, which promotes gluconeogenesis and thereby contributes to the hyperglycemia characteristic of this disease. When fed a high fat diet, wild type mice develop fasting hyperglycemia but PDK4 knockout mice remain euglycemic, proving that up regulation of PDK4 contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. These finding suggest PDK4 inhibitors might prove useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes; Fasting; Glucose; Ketone bodies; Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; Steatosis
To test the hypothesis that free fatty acid (FFA) and muscle glycogen modify exercise-induced regulation of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) in human skeletal muscle through regulation of PDK4 expression.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
On two occasions, healthy male subjects lowered (by exercise) muscle glycogen in one leg (LOW) relative to the contra-lateral leg (CON) the day before the experimental day. On the experimental days, plasma FFA was ensured normal or remained elevated by consuming breakfast rich (low FFA) or poor (high FFA) in carbohydrate, 2 h before performing 20 min of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise.
PDK4 protein content was ∼2.2- and ∼1.5-fold higher in LOW than CON leg in high FFA and low FFA, respectively, and the PDK4 protein content in the CON leg was approximately twofold higher in high FFA than in low FFA. In all conditions, exercise increased PDHa (PDH in the active form) activity, resulting in similar levels in LOW leg in both trials and CON leg in high FFA, but higher level in CON leg in low FFA. PDHa activity was closely associated with the PDH-E1α phosphorylation level.
Muscle glycogen and plasma FFA attenuate exercise-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle in a nonadditive manner. This might be through regulation of PDK4 expression. The activation of PDH by exercise independent of changes in muscle glycogen or plasma FFA suggests that exercise overrules FFA-mediated inhibition of PDH (i.e., carbohydrate oxidation), and this may thus be one mechanism behind the health-promoting effects of exercise.
The study investigated the effects and mechanism of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on the expression of liver GLUT2 and glucokinase (GCK) in diabetic rats.
Animal models of Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats were established for the investigation of DJB and SG. Results of weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin were compared. Liver tissues were harvested 8 weeks postoperatively. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot were used to detect liver GLUT2 and GCK mRNA and protein expression after operation.
Fasting plasma glucose levels of DJB group and SG group in GK rats were markedly declined at 3 days and l, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively (P <0.01), whereas the levels of the sham-operated group only dropped at 3 days and 1 week postoperatively, and there were no significant differences 2 weeks postoperatively (P >0.05). In the liver of GK rats, GLUT2 mRNA level and protein expression after DJB were higher than those in sham-operated group and control group. GLUT2 mRNA level and protein expression after SG were significantly lower than those in control group (P <0.01). GCK mRNA and protein experienced similar expression change.
Both DJB and SG can decrease the plasma glucose levels of GK rats, whereas they have different effects on the expression of liver GLUT2 and GCK.
Duodenal-jejunal Bypass; Sleeve Gastrectomy; GLUT2; Glucokinase
The association of vascular reactivity between diabetes and periodontal disease has not been clarified. Gingival blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry for 31 weeks in Wistar rats, Wistar rats orally challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis), Goto-Kakizaki rats, and Goto-Kakizaki rats orally challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis). Effects of alveolar bone resorption on periodontal tissue was enhanced in Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Goto-Kakizaki rats, with this effect being significantly enhanced by Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis. Using the L-band electron spin resonance technique, we succeeded in measuring oxidative stress as decay rate constant (K1 and K2) of 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-yloxy in the oral and maxillofacial region of the animal models. The decay rate constant (K1) of 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-yloxy was significantly greater in the oral and maxillofacial region of Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to Wistar rats, Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis and Goto-Kakizaki rats groups. Gingival reactive hyperemia was attenuated by periodontal disease, and this effect was also remarkable in the diabetes mellitus model. Taken together, we found that vascular endothelial function was decreased in diabetes mellitus and/or periodontal disease animal models due to increasing oxidative stress in the gingival circulation.
gingival circulation; oxidative stress; L-band ESR; diabetes mellitus; periodontitis
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) inhibition by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is related to a shift towards increased glycolysis during cardiac pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The transcription factors estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) regulate PDK4 expression through the potent transcriptional coactivator PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). NF-κB activation in AC16 cardiac cells inhibit ERRα and PPARβ/δ transcriptional activity, resulting in reduced PGC-1α and PDK4 expression, and an enhanced glucose oxidation rate. However, addition of the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide to these cells prevents the downregulation of PDK4 expression but not ERRα and PPARβ/δ DNA binding activity, thus suggesting that additional transcription factors are regulating PDK4. Interestingly, a recent study has demonstrated that the transcription factor E2F1, which is crucial for cell cycle control, may regulate PDK4 expression. Given that NF-κB may antagonize the transcriptional activity of E2F1 in cardiac myocytes, we sought to study whether inflammatory processes driven by NF-κB can downregulate PDK4 expression in human cardiac AC16 cells through E2F1 inhibition. Protein coimmunoprecipitation indicated that PDK4 downregulation entailed enhanced physical interaction between the p65 subunit of NF-κB and E2F1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that p65 translocation into the nucleus prevented the recruitment of E2F1 to the PDK4 promoter and its subsequent E2F1-dependent gene transcription. Interestingly, the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide prevented the inhibition of E2F1, while E2F1 overexpression reduced interleukin expression in stimulated cardiac cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NF-κB acts as a molecular switch that regulates E2F1-dependent PDK4 gene transcription.
Effects of high fat diet (HFD) on obesity and, subsequently, on diabetes are highly variable and modulated by genetics in both humans and rodents. In this report, we characterized the response of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous polygenic model for lean diabetes and healthy Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls, to high fat feeding from weaning to 20 weeks of age. Animals fed either normal diet or HFD were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and a wide array of physiological measurements were made along with gene expression profiling using Affymetrix gene array chips. Mining of the microarray data identified differentially regulated genes (involved in inflammation, metabolism, transcription regulation, and signaling) in diabetic animals, as well as the response of both strains to HFD. Functional annotation suggested that HFD increased inflammatory differences between the two strains. Chronic inflammation driven by heightened innate immune response was identified to be present in GK animals regardless of diet. In addition, compensatory mechanisms by which WKY animals on HFD resisted the development of diabetes were identified, thus illustrating the complexity of diabetes disease progression.
diabetes; high fat diet; gene expression; microarray
Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) represents an important signaling component in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which plays an essential role in controlling a coordinated innate immune response. Here, we show that mice with conditional disruption of PDK-1 specifically in myeloid lineage cells (PDK-1Δmyel mice) show enhanced susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock accompanied by exaggerated liver failure. Furthermore, primary macrophages derived from PDK-1Δmyel mice lack LPS- and Pam3CSK4-stimulated AKT activity but exhibit increased mRNA expression and release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Moreover, LPS- and Pam3CSK4-stimulated primary macrophages exhibit enhanced phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. While immediate upstream Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-induced signaling, including IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated protein kinase (IRAK) phosphorylation, is unaltered in the absence of PDK-1, macrophages from PDK-1Δmyel mice exhibit prolonged ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6) in response to LPS stimulation. These experiments reveal a novel PDK-1-dependent negative feedback inhibition of TLR-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages in vivo.
Here we describe the expression and function of a HIF-1-regulated protein pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) in head and neck squamous cancer (HNSCC). Using RNAi to downregulate hypoxia-inducible PDK-1, we found that lactate and pyruvate excretion after 16–48 h of hypoxia was suppressed to normoxic levels. This indicates that PDK-1 plays an important role in maintaining glycolysis. Knockdown had no effect on proliferation or survival under hypoxia. The immunohistochemical expression of PDK-1 was assessed in 140 cases of HNSCC. PDK-1 expression was not expressed in normal tissues but was upregulated in HNSCC and found to be predominantly cytoplasmic with occasional strong focal nuclear expression. It was strongly related to poor outcome (P=0.005 split by median). These results indicate that HIF regulation of PDK-1 has a key role in maintaining lactate production in human cancer and that the investigation of PDK-1 inhibitors should be investigated for antitumour effects.
pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK-1); hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1); pyruvate; lactate
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. This study aimed to investigate the fiber type distributions and the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the capillary network in the skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Muscle fiber type transformation, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, capillary density, and 3D architecture of the capillary network in the soleus muscle were determined in 36-week-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats as an animal model of nonobese type 2 diabetes and age-matched Wistar (Cont) rats. Although the soleus muscle of Cont rats comprised both type I and type IIA fibers, the soleus muscle of GK rats had only type I fibers. In addition, total SDH activity in the soleus muscle of GK rats was significantly lower than that in Cont rats because GK rats had no high-SDH activity type IIA fiber in the soleus muscle. Furthermore, the capillary diameter, capillary tortuosity, and microvessel volume in GK rats were significantly lower than those in Cont rats. These results indicate that non-obese diabetic GK rats have muscle fiber type transformation, low SDH activity, and reduced skeletal muscle capillary content, which may be related to the impaired glucose metabolism characteristic of type 2 diabetes.
Phosphorylation by the phospho-inositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is essential for many growth factor-activated kinases and thus plays a critical role in various processes such as cell proliferation and metabolism. However, the mechanisms that control PDK1 have not been fully explored and this is of great importance as interfering with PDK1 signaling may be useful to treat diseases, including cancer and diabetes.
In human cells, few mono-ubiquitinated proteins have been described but in all cases this post-translational modification has a key regulatory function. Unexpectedly, we find that PDK1 is mono-ubiquitinated in a variety of human cell lines, indicating that PDK1 ubiquitination is a common and regulated process. Ubiquitination occurs in the kinase domain of PDK1 yet is independent of its kinase activity. By screening a library of ubiquitin proteases, we further identify the Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 4 (USP4) as an enzyme that removes ubiquitin from PDK1 in vivo and in vitro and co-localizes with PDK1 at the plasma membrane when the two proteins are overexpressed, indicating direct deubiquitination.
The regulated mono-ubiquitination of PDK1 provides an unanticipated layer of complexity in this central signaling network and offers potential novel avenues for drug discovery.
Recent evidence indicates that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle may be related to reduce mitochondrial number and oxidation capacity. However, it is not known whether increasing mitochondrial number and function improves insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a combination of nutrients on insulin resistance and mitochondrial biogenesis/function in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic Goto–Kakizaki rats.
We demonstrated that defect of glucose and lipid metabolism is associated with low mitochondrial content and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activity in skeletal muscle of the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. The treatment of combination of R-α-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, nicotinamide, and biotin effectively improved glucose tolerance, decreased the basal insulin secretion and the level of circulating free fatty acid (FFA), and prevented the reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The nutrients treatment also significantly increased mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α (Pparα), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-δ (Pparδ), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (Mcpt-1) and activity of mitochondrial complex I and II in skeletal muscle. All of these effects of mitochondrial nutrients are comparable to that of the antidiabetic drug, pioglitazone. In addition, the treatment with nutrients, unlike pioglitazone, did not cause body weight gain.
These data suggest that a combination of mitochondrial targeting nutrients may improve skeletal mitochondrial dysfunction and exert hypoglycemic effects, without causing weight gain.
Long chain fatty acids and pharmacologic ligands for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activate expression of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose oxidation including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT-1A) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). CPT-1A catalyzes the transfer of long chain fatty acids from acyl-CoA to carnitine for translocation across the mitochondrial membranes and is an initiating step in the mitochondrial oxidation of long chain fatty acids. PDK4 phosphorylates and inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) which catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in the glucose oxidation pathway. The activity of CPT-1A is modulated both by transcriptional changes as well as by malonyl-CoA inhibition. In the liver, CPT-1A and PDK4 gene expression are induced by starvation, high fat diets and PPARα ligands. Here, we characterized a binding site for PPARα in the second intron of the rat CPT-1A gene. Our studies indicated that WY14643 and long chain fatty acids induce CPT-1A gene expression through this element. In addition, we found that mutation of the PPARα binding site reduced the expression of CPT-1A-luciferase vectors in the liver of fasted rats. We had demonstrated previously that CPT-1A was stimulated by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α) via sequences in the first intron of the rat CPT-1A gene. Surprisingly, PGC-1α did not enhance CPT-1A transcription through the PPARα binding site in the second intron. Following knockdown of PGC-1α with short hairpin RNA, the CPT-1A and PDK4 genes remained responsive to WY14643. Overall, our studies indicated that PPARα and PGC-1α stimulate transcription of the CPT-1A gene through different regions of the CPT-1A gene.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT-1A); pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK); PPARα; PGC-1α
Cancer cells utilise the glycolytic pathway even when adequate oxygen is present, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. We examined whether this system is operative in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and whether glycolysis inhibition is a potential therapeutic modality.
The MM cells were purified from 59 patients using CD138-immunomagnetic beads. The expression levels of genes associated with glycolysis, c-MYC, GLUT1, LDHA, HIF1A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK1) were determined by real-time PCR. Glucose consumption and lactate production by MM cell lines were analysed. Oxamate, an LDH inhibitor, and dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDK1 inhibitor, were employed. Inhibition of PDK1 expression was achieved using a siRNA.
High LDHA expression was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis. It was also positively correlated with the expression of PDK1, c-MYC and GLUT1. Greater glucose consumption and lactate production in MM cells was associated with higher LDHA expression. All the glycolysis inhibitors (oxamate, DCA and PDK1 siRNA) induced apoptosis in MM cells. DCA combined with bortezomib showed additive cytotoxic effects.
The present data suggest that the Warburg effect is operative in MM cells. As PDK1 is not overexpressed in normal tissues, PDK1 inhibition could serve as a novel therapeutic approach.
multiple myeloma; glycolysis; PDK1; apoptosis
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms are molecular switches that downregulate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by reversible phosphorylation in mitochondria. We have determined structures of human PDK1 or PDK3 bound to the inhibitors AZD7545, dichloroacetate (DCA), and radicicol. We show that the trifluoromethylpropanamide end of AZD7545 projects into the lipoyl-binding pocket of PDK1. This interaction results in inhibition of PDK1 and PDK3 activities by aborting kinase binding to the PDC scaffold. Paradoxically, AZD7545 at saturating concentrations robustly increases scaffold-free PDK3 activity, similar to the inner lipoyl domain. Good DCA density is present in the helix bundle in the N-terminal domain of PDK1. Bound DCA promotes local conformational changes that are communicated to both nucleotide-binding and lipoyl-binding pockets of PDK1, leading to the inactivation of kinase activity. Finally, radicicol inhibits kinase activity by binding directly to the ATP-binding pocket of PDK3, similar to Hsp90 and Topo VI from the same ATPase/kinase superfamily.
Diabetes is associated with changes in myocardial stress-response pathways and is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Using spontaneously diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats as a model of type 2 DM we investigated whether post-translational modifications in the Akt - FOXO3a pathway, Sirt1 - p53 pathway and the mitogen activated protein kinase p38 regulator are involved in post-infarct cardiac remodeling
Experimental myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and non-diabetic Wistar controls. Cardiac function was studied by echocardiography. Myocardial hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis were determined histologically 12 weeks post MI or Sham operation. Western blotting was used to study Caspase-3, Bax, Sirt1, acetylation of p53 and phosphorylation of p38, Akt and FOXO3a. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to assess FOXO3a activity and its nuclear localization.
Post-infarct heart failure in diabetic GK rats was associated with pronounced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and sustained cardiomyocyte apoptosis as compared with their non-diabetic Wistar controls. In the GK rat myocardium, Akt- and FOXO3a-phosphorylation was decreased and nuclear localization of FOXO3a was increased concomitantly with increased PTEN protein expression. Furthermore, increased Sirt1 protein expression was associated with decreased p53 acetylation, and phosphorylation of p38 was increased in diabetic rats with MI.
Post-infarct heart failure in diabetic GK rats was associated with more pronounced cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and sustained cardiomyocyte apoptosis as compared to their non-diabetic controls. The present study suggests important roles for Akt-FOXO3a, Sirt1 - p53 and p38 MAPK in the regulation of post-infarct cardiac remodeling in type 2 diabetes.
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is an inbred model of type 2 diabetes (T2D); GK rats are lean but have hyperglycemia and increased gluconeogenesis. However, fasting hyperglycemia in other commonly used rodent models of T2D is associated with increased corticosterone, and thus the underlying mechanism for hyperglycemia differs significantly from T2D in humans. Information regarding corticosterone in the GK rat is not readily available. We studied 14- to 16-week-old GK rats in comparison with age-matched control Wistar-Kyoto (WK) rats. GK rats had lower body weights (WK: 343±10 g vs GK: 286±9 g, P<0.01), but higher plasma glucose concentrations (WK: 132±1.5 mg/dl vs GK: 210±11.7 mg/dl, P<0.01). This was associated with an ∼twofold increase in PEPCK1 expression (P<0.05). However, these findings were also associated with elevations in plasma corticosterone and urinary corticosterone excretion. Ketoconazole (KTZ) treatment in GK rats reduced plasma corticosterone, fasting glucose (GK: 218±15 mg/dl vs GK-KTZ: 135±19 mg/dl, P<0.01) and rates of glucose production [GK: 16.5±0.6 mg/(kg-minute) vs GK-KTZ: 12.2±0.9 mg/(kg-minute), P<0.01]. This was associated with an ∼40% reduction in hepatic PEPCK1 expression as well as a 20% reduction in alanine turnover. Thus, hypercorticosteronemia might contribute to the diabetic phenotype of GK rats and should be considered as a potential confounder in rodent models of T2D.
Lesions of ERBB2, PTEN, and PIK3CA activate the PI3K pathway during cancer development by increasing levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3). 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is the first node of the PI3K signal output and is required for activation of AKT. PIP3 recruits PDK1 and AKT to the cell membrane through interactions with their PH domains, allowing PDK1 to activate AKT by phosphorylating it at residue threonine 308. We show that total PDK1 protein and mRNA was over-expressed in a majority of human breast cancers and that 21% of tumors had five or more copies of the gene encoding PDK1, PDPK1. We found that increased PDPK1 copy number was associated with upstream pathway lesions (ERBB2 amplification, PTEN loss, or PIK3CA mutation), as well as patient survival. Examination of an independent set of breast cancers and tumor cell lines derived from multiple forms of human cancers also found increased PDK1 protein levels associated with such upstream pathway lesions. In human mammary cells, PDK1 enhanced the ability of upstream lesions to signal to AKT, stimulate cell growth and migration, and rendered cells more resistant to PDK1 and PI3K inhibition. After orthotopic transplantation, PDK1 overexpression was not oncogenic but dramatically enhanced the ability of ERBB2 to form tumors. Our studies argue that PDK1 overexpression and increased PDPK1 copy number are common occurrences in cancer that potentiate the oncogenic effect of upstream lesions on the PI3K pathway. Therefore, we conclude that alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic PI3K signaling in breast cancer.
PDK1; PI3K; ERBB2; PTEN; breast
Based on findings obtained using two-dimensional capillary analyses on tissue cross-sections, diabetes has been shown to be associated with a high risk for microangiopathy and capillary regression in skeletal muscles. We visualized the three-dimensional architecture of the capillary networks in the soleus muscle of non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and compared them with those of control Wistar rats to provide novel information, e.g., capillary volume, on the capillary networks. In addition, we examined pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression levels in the soleus muscle of GK rats using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR. As expected, plasma glucose levels were higher and insulin levels lower in GK than control rats. The three-dimensional architecture of the capillary networks was regressed and capillary volume was smaller in the soleus muscle of GK compared to control rats. The mRNA expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factors HIF-1α, KDR, Flt-1, ANG-1, and Tie-2 were lower, whereas the level of the anti-angiogenic factor TSP-1 was higher in GK than control rats. These data suggest that a decrease in pro-angiogenic and increase in anti-angiogenic factors may play an important role in type 2 diabetes-induced muscle circulatory complications.
angiogenic factors; capillary network; skeletal muscle; three-dimensional imaging; type 2 diabetes